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Sample records for improves lipid processing

  1. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  2. Physical Properties for Lipids Based Process and Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ana Perederic, Olivia; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent

    Lipid processing covers several oil and fats technologies such as: edible oil production, biodieselproduction, oleochemicals (e.g.: food additives, detergents) and pharmaceutical product manufacturing. New demands regarding design and development of better products and more sustainable processes...... related to lipids technology, emerge according to consumers demanding improved product manufacturing from sustainable resources and new legislation regarding environmental safety [1]. Physical and thermodynamic property data and models for prediction of pure compound properties and mixtures properties...... involving lipids represent the basic and most important requirements for process product design, simulation and optimization. Experimentally measured values of involved compounds are desirable, but in most of the cases these are not available for all the compounds and properties needed. The lack...

  3. High-Intensity Ultrasound to Improve Physical and Functional Properties of Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Ashwini; Birkin, Peter; Martini, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been used in recent years to change the crystallization behavior of edible lipids. This technique can be used in combination with other processing technologies to tailor lipids' functional properties and broaden their application for various food products. In general, sonication induces crystallization, increases crystallization rate, and generates a harder and more elastic crystalline network characterized by smaller crystals with a sharper melting profile. An important application of HIU is to improve the hardness and elasticity of shortenings that have a low content of saturated fatty acids and are free of trans-fats. This review summarizes recent research that used HIU to change the physical and functional properties of edible lipids and focuses on the importance of controlling processing variables such as sonication power level and duration and crystallization temperature.

  4. A Role of Lipid Metabolism during Cumulus-Oocyte Complex Maturation: Impact of Lipid Modulators to Improve Embryo Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Prates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte intracellular lipids are mainly stored in lipid droplets (LD providing energy for proper growth and development. Lipids are also important signalling molecules involved in the regulatory mechanisms of maturation and hence in oocyte competence acquisition. Recent studies show that LD are highly dynamic organelles. They change their shape, volume, and location within the ooplasm as well as their interaction with other organelles during the maturation process. The droplets high lipid content has been correlated with impaired oocyte developmental competence and low cryosurvival. Yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In particular, the lipid-rich pig oocyte might be an excellent model to understand the role of lipids and fatty acid metabolism during the mammalian oocyte maturation and their implications on subsequent monospermic fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. The possibility of using chemical molecules to modulate the lipid content of oocytes and embryos to improve cryopreservation as well as its biological effects during development is here described. Furthermore, these principles of lipid content modulation may be applied not only to germ cells and embryo cryopreservation in livestock production but also to biomedical fundamental research.

  5. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved characterization of EV preparations based on protein to lipid ratio and lipid properties.

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    Xabier Osteikoetxea

    Full Text Available In recent years the study of extracellular vesicles has gathered much scientific and clinical interest. As the field is expanding, it is becoming clear that better methods for characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles as well as better standards to compare studies are warranted. The goal of the present work was to find improved parameters to characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Here we introduce a simple 96 well plate-based total lipid assay for determination of lipid content and protein to lipid ratios of extracellular vesicle preparations from various myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as blood plasma. These preparations included apoptotic bodies, microvesicles/microparticles, and exosomes isolated by size-based fractionation. We also investigated lipid bilayer order of extracellular vesicle subpopulations using Di-4-ANEPPDHQ lipid probe, and lipid composition using affinity reagents to clustered cholesterol (monoclonal anti-cholesterol antibody and ganglioside GM1 (cholera toxin subunit B. We have consistently found different protein to lipid ratios characteristic for the investigated extracellular vesicle subpopulations which were substantially altered in the case of vesicular damage or protein contamination. Spectral ratiometric imaging and flow cytometric analysis also revealed marked differences between the various vesicle populations in their lipid order and their clustered membrane cholesterol and GM1 content. Our study introduces for the first time a simple and readily available lipid assay to complement the widely used protein assays in order to better characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Besides differentiating extracellular vesicle subpopulations, the novel parameters introduced in this work (protein to lipid ratio, lipid bilayer order, and lipid composition, may prove useful for quality control of extracellular vesicle related basic and clinical studies.

  7. Computer-Aided Modeling of Lipid Processing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz Tovar, Carlos Axel

    2011-01-01

    increase along with growing interest in biofuels, the oleochemical industry faces in the upcoming years major challenges in terms of design and development of better products and more sustainable processes to make them. Computer-aided methods and tools for process synthesis, modeling and simulation...... are widely used for design, analysis, and optimization of processes in the chemical and petrochemical industries. These computer-aided tools have helped the chemical industry to evolve beyond commodities toward specialty chemicals and ‘consumer oriented chemicals based products’. Unfortunately...... to develop systematic computer-aided methods (property models) and tools (database) related to the prediction of the necessary physical properties suitable for design and analysis of processes employing lipid technologies. The methods and tools include: the development of a lipid-database (CAPEC...

  8. Lipid Processing Technology: Building a Multilevel Modeling Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Hukkerikar, Amol

    2011-01-01

    of a computer aided multilevel modeling network consisting a collection of new and adopted models, methods and tools for the systematic design and analysis of processes employing lipid technology. This is achieved by decomposing the problem into four levels of modeling: 1. pure component properties; 2. mixtures...... and phase behavior; 3. unit operations; and 4. process synthesis and design. The methods and tools in each level include: For the first level, a lipid‐database of collected experimental data from the open literature, confidential data from industry and generated data from validated predictive property...... of these unit operations with respect to performance parameters such as minimum total cost, product yield improvement, operability etc., and process intensification for the retrofit of existing biofuel plants. In the fourth level the information and models developed are used as building blocks...

  9. Spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Joanna L; Tyler, Arwen I I; Barriga, Hanna M G; Bramble, Jonathan P; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Ces, Oscar; O'Shea, Paul

    2017-10-03

    An assay to study the spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles is described. A donor/acceptor vesicle system is employed, where neutrally charged acceptor vesicles are fluorescently labelled with the electrostatic membrane probe Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE). Upon addition of charged donor vesicles, transfer of negatively charged lipid occurs, resulting in a fluorescently detectable change in the membrane potential of the acceptor vesicles. Using this approach we have studied the transfer properties of a range of lipids, varying both the headgroup and the chain length. At the low vesicle concentrations chosen, the transfer follows a first-order process where lipid monomers are transferred presumably through the aqueous solution phase from donor to acceptor vesicle. The rate of transfer decreases with increasing chain length which is consistent with energy models previously reported for lipid monomer vesicle interactions. Our assay improves on existing methods allowing the study of a range of unmodified lipids, continuous monitoring of transfer and simplified experimental procedures.

  10. Improvement of lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides through UV mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Kashihara, Tomomi; Ogino, Hiroyasu

    2017-05-01

    Oleaginous yeasts are considered a promising alternative lipid source for biodiesel fuel production. In this study, we attempted to improve the lipid productivity of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides through UV irradiation mutagenesis and selection based on ethanol and H 2 O 2 tolerance or cerulenin, a fatty acid synthetase inhibitor. Glucose consumption, cell growth, and lipid production of mutants were evaluated. The transcription level of genes involved in lipid production was also evaluated in mutants. The ethanol and H 2 O 2 tolerant strain 8766 2-31M and the cerulenin resistant strain 8766 3-11C were generated by UV mutagenesis. The 8766 2-31M mutant showed a higher lipid production rate, and the 8766 3-11C mutant produced a larger amount of lipid and had a higher lipid production rate than the wild type strain. Transcriptional analysis revealed that, similar to the wild type strain, the ACL1 and GND1 genes were expressed at significantly low levels, whereas IDP1 and ME1 were highly expressed. In conclusion, lipid productivity in the oleaginous yeast R. toruloides was successfully improved via UV mutagenesis and selection. The study also identified target genes for improving lipid productivity through gene recombination.

  11. Siofor influence on the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status at patients with metabolic syndrome

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    Elena N. Chernysheva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to research siofor influence (metformin on the activity of the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods — 62 patients with metabolic syndrome at the age from 30 till 60 were examined and treated by siofor (1700 mg per day during a year. The process of lipid peroxidation was studied due to the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum. Antioxidant capacity was based on the antioxidant reaction in the blood serum with definite number of exogenic hydrogen dioxide (mkmole/l with the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results — Intensification of process of lipid peroxidation has been observed at patients with metabolic syndrome — the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum has been 2.9 (1.9, 3.9 mkM (presented as median and interquartile range, antioxidant activity of blood serum has been decreased — 276.4 (239.0, 379.9 mkmole/l. In 12 months of siofor intake hydroperoxide level has been decreased till 1.1 (0.8, 1.9 mkМ, but antioxidant activity has been increased and amounted 320.0 (278.9, 334.3 mkmole/l. Conclusion — Siofor has been proved to be a highly effective medicine for correction of process of lipid peroxidation and for improvement of antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome.

  12. Engineering the lipid layer of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced in vitro cellular uptake and improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Hoerle, Reece; Ehrich, Marion; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), consisting of a polymeric core and a lipid shell, have been intensively examined as delivery systems for cancer drugs, imaging agents, and vaccines. For applications in vaccine particularly, the hybrid NPs need to be able to protect the enclosed antigens during circulation, easily be up-taken by dendritic cells, and possess good stability for prolonged storage. However, the influence of lipid composition on the performance of hybrid NPs has not been well studied. In this study, we demonstrate that higher concentrations of cholesterol in the lipid layer enable slower and more controlled antigen release from lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (lipid-PLGA) NPs in human serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Higher concentrations of cholesterol also promoted in vitro cellular uptake of hybrid NPs, improved the stability of the lipid layer, and protected the integrity of the hybrid structure during long-term storage. However, stabilized hybrid structures of high cholesterol content tended to fuse with each other during storage, resulting in significant size increase and lowered cellular uptake. Additional experiments demonstrated that PEGylation of NPs could effectively minimize fusion-caused size increase after long term storage, leading to improved cellular uptake, although excessive PEGylation will not be beneficial and led to reduced improvement. This paper reports the engineering of the lipid layer that encloses a polymeric nanoparticle, which can be used as a carrier for drug and vaccine molecules for targeted delivery. We demonstrated that the concentration of cholesterol is critical for the stability and uptake of the hybrid nanoparticles by dendritic cells, a targeted cell for the delivery of immune effector molecules. However, we found that hybrid nanoparticles with high cholesterol concentration tend to fuse during storage resulting in larger particles with decreased cellular uptake. This problem is

  13. Production of fungal lipids : kinetic modeling and process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.

    2011-01-01

    Finding alternatives for fossil fuels is currently urgent. One of the new processes in this field is the production of biodiesel from lipids accumulated by microorganisms. Some yeasts and fungi accumulate lipids when a component needed for growth, usually the N-source, is limiting while the

  14. Combined mutagenesis of Rhodosporidium toruloides for improved production of carotenoids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolei; Shen, Hongwei; Zhang, Xibin; Yu, Xue; Wang, Han; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Jihui; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-10-01

    To improve production of lipids and carotenoids by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides by screening mutant strains. Upon physical mutagenesis of the haploid strain R. toruloides np11 with an atmospheric and room temperature plasma method followed by chemical mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, a mutant strain, R. toruloides XR-2, formed dark-red colonies on a screening plate. When cultivated in nitrogen-limited media, XR-2 cells grew slower but accumulated 0.23 g lipids/g cell dry wt and 0.75 mg carotenoids/g CDW. To improve its production capacity, different amino acids and vitamins were supplemented. p-Aminobenzoic acid and tryptophan had beneficial effects on cell growth. When cultivated in nitrogen-limited media in the presence of selected vitamins, XR-2 accumulated 0.41 g lipids/g CDW and 0.69 mg carotenoids/g CDW. A mutant R. toruloides strain with improved production profiles for lipids and carotenoids was obtained, indicating its potential to use combined mutagenesis for a more productive phenotype.

  15. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

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    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  16. Enhancement of Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalga, Scenedesmus Associated with High-Pressure Homogenization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok-Cheol; Choi, Woon-Yong; Oh, Sung-Ho; Lee, Choon-Geun; Seo, Yong-Chang; Kim, Ji-Seon; Song, Chi-Ho; Kim, Ga-Vin; Lee, Shin-Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp., which is known to be suitable for biodiesel production because of its high lipid content, was subjected to the conventional Folch method of lipid extraction combined with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process at 1200 psi and 35°C. Algal lipid yield was about 24.9% through this process, whereas only 19.8% lipid can be obtained by following a conventional lipid extraction procedure using the solvent, chloroform : methanol (2 : 1, v/v). Present approach requires 30 min process time and a moderate working temperature of 35°C as compared to the conventional extraction method which usually requires >5 hrs and 65°C temperature. It was found that this combined extraction process followed second-order reaction kinetics, which means most of the cellular lipids were extracted during initial periods of extraction, mostly within 30 min. In contrast, during the conventional extraction process, the cellular lipids were slowly and continuously extracted for >5 hrs by following first-order kinetics. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed altered texture of algal biomass pretreated with high-pressure homogenization. These results clearly demonstrate that the Folch method coupled with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment can easily destruct the rigid cell walls of microalgae and release the intact lipids, with minimized extraction time and temperature, both of which are essential for maintaining good quality of the lipids for biodiesel production. PMID:22969270

  17. Enhancement of Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalga, Scenedesmus Associated with High-Pressure Homogenization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Cheol Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp., which is known to be suitable for biodiesel production because of its high lipid content, was subjected to the conventional Folch method of lipid extraction combined with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process at 1200 psi and 35°C. Algal lipid yield was about 24.9% through this process, whereas only 19.8% lipid can be obtained by following a conventional lipid extraction procedure using the solvent, chloroform : methanol (2 : 1, v/v. Present approach requires 30 min process time and a moderate working temperature of 35°C as compared to the conventional extraction method which usually requires >5 hrs and 65°C temperature. It was found that this combined extraction process followed second-order reaction kinetics, which means most of the cellular lipids were extracted during initial periods of extraction, mostly within 30 min. In contrast, during the conventional extraction process, the cellular lipids were slowly and continuously extracted for >5 hrs by following first-order kinetics. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed altered texture of algal biomass pretreated with high-pressure homogenization. These results clearly demonstrate that the Folch method coupled with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment can easily destruct the rigid cell walls of microalgae and release the intact lipids, with minimized extraction time and temperature, both of which are essential for maintaining good quality of the lipids for biodiesel production.

  18. Lipid processing in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been touted as “green” alternatives to traditional molecular solvents and have many unique properties which make them extremely desirable substitutes. Among their most attractive properties are their lack of vapour pressure, broad liquid range, strong solvating power and ...... and the ability to tailor properties of individual ILs to meet specific requirements. This article highlights current research as well as the vast potential of ILs for use as media for reactions, separation and processing in the lipid area....

  19. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

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    L. D. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.

  20. Improved lipid and biomass productivities in Chlorella vulgaris by differing the inoculation medium from the production medium

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    Shahrbanoo Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of biomass and lipid productivities is now one of the main concerns in commercialization of microalgae cultivation as a feedstock for algal biofuel production. Conventional photoautotrophic processes using well-studied and rich in oil strain of Chlorella vulgaris are not able to meet such demands. A new strategy of inoculating algae production medium with cells grown in a different medium from the production medium was proposed herein. More specifically, when SH4 was used as production medium and N8 was used as inoculation medium, biomass and lipid productivities increased by 2.33 folds and 1.44 fold, respectively, compared with when the production and inoculation media were the same, such as SH4. The findings of the present investigation showed that this cultivation scheme resulted in 52% increase in cell number and 54% increase in dry weight leading to improved productivities. Although by even considering this improvement, photoautotrophic cultivation of algae can hardly compete with the heterotrophic cultivation, the high cost of hydrocarbon supply required in large-scale heterotrophic processes marks the technique proposed in the present study as a promising approach for commercialization of algal biofuel production.

  1. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  2. Zebrafish Embryonic Lipidomic Analysis Reveals that the Yolk Cell Is Metabolically Active in Processing Lipid

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    Daniel Fraher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of lipids in providing energy and structural cellular components during vertebrate development is poorly understood. To elucidate these roles further, we visualized lipid deposition and examined expression of key lipid-regulating genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. We also conducted a semiquantitative analysis of lipidomic composition using liquid chromatography (LC-mass spectrometry. Finally, we analyzed processing of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY lipid analogs injected into the yolk using thin layer chromatography. Our data reveal that the most abundant lipids in the embryo are cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and triglyceride. Moreover, we demonstrate that lipids are processed within the yolk prior to mobilization to the embryonic body. Our data identify a metabolically active yolk and body resulting in a dynamic lipid composition. This provides a foundation for studying lipid biology during normal or pharmacologically compromised embryogenesis.

  3. Building a multilevel modeling network for lipid processing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Hukkerikar, Amol

    2011-01-01

    ). The applicability of this methodology is highlighted in each level of modeling through the analysis of a lipid process that has significant relevance in the edible oil and biodiesel industries since it determines the quality of the final oil product, the physical refining process of oils and fats....

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Liver Regeneration via Improving Lipid Accumulation and Hippo Signaling

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    Yang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver has the potential to regenerate after injury. It is a challenge to improve liver regeneration (LR after liver resection in clinical practice. Bone morrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown to have a role in various liver diseases. To explore the effects of MSCs on LR, we established a model of 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx. Results revealed that infusion of MSCs could improve LR through enhancing cell proliferation and cell growth during the first 2 days after PHx, and MSCs could also restore liver synthesis function. Infusion of MSCs also improved liver lipid accumulation partly via mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and enhanced lipid β-oxidation support energy for LR. Rapamycin-induced inhibition of mTOR decreased liver lipid accumulation at 24 h after PHx, leading to impaired LR. And after infusion of MSCs, a proinflammatory environment formed in the liver, evidenced by increased expression of IL-6 and IL-1β, and thus the STAT3 and Hippo-YAP pathways were activated to improve cell proliferation. Our results demonstrated the function of MSCs on LR after PHx and provided new evidence for stem cell therapy of liver diseases.

  5. Improved hepatic lipid composition following short-term exercise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Kelly, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    measures included hepatic triglyceride content, and a lipid saturation index and polyunsaturated lipid index (PUI) of the liver, obtained by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (N = 14). Insulin sensitivity was estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and mononuclear cells were isolated...... to assess reactive oxygen species production during the OGTT. Circulating glucose, insulin, and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were determined from plasma. Main Outcome: Short-term aerobic exercise training improved hepatic lipid composition in patients with NAFLD. Results: Exercise training...... resulted in an increase in liver PUI (P Index: P

  6. Production of structured lipids: acyl migration during enzymatic interesterification and downstream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    1997-01-01

    Production of structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed interesterification attracts great interests recently. Structured lipids are defined, in this article, as triacylglycerols which contain both medium or short chain fatty acids and long chain fatty acids, each groups locating specifically in the sn......-2 position or sn-1,3 positions of glycerol backbone. These kinds of lipids are reported to be promising for both enteral and parenteral nutrition. However, acyl migration occurs in the reaction stage and downstream purification process. This side-reaction causes by-products which are harmful...

  7. Can lipid nanoparticles improve intestinal absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, M; Soares, H T; Arnaut, L G; Sousa, J J; Pais, A A C C; Vitorino, C

    2016-12-30

    Lipid nanoparticles and their multiple designs have been considered appealing nanocarrier systems. Bringing the benefits of these nanosystems together with conventional coating technology clearly results in product differentiation. This work aimed at developing an innovative solid dosage form for oral administration based on tableting nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), coated with conventional polymer agents. NLC dispersions co-encapsulating olanzapine and simvastatin (Combo-NLC) were produced by high pressure homogenization, and evaluated in terms of scalability, drying procedure, tableting and performance from in vitro release, cytotoxicity and intestinal permeability stand points. Factorial design indicated that the scaling-up of the NLC production is clearly feasible. Spray-drying was the method selected to obtain dry particles, not only because it consists of a single step procedure, but also because it facilitates the coating process of NLC with different polymers. Modified NLC formulations with the polymers allowed obtaining distinct release mechanisms, comprising immediate, delayed and prolonged release. Sureteric:Combo-NLC provided a low cytotoxicity profile, along with a ca. 12-fold OL/3-fold SV higher intestinal permeability, compared to those obtained with commercial tablets. Such findings can be ascribed to drug protection and control over release promoted by NLC, supporting them as a versatile platform able to be modified according to the intended needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.

  9. Sugar versus fat: elimination of glycogen storage improves lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Govindprasad; Kavšcek, Martin; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thomas, Stéphane; Rechberger, Gerald N; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Natter, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycogen are the two major metabolites for carbon storage in most eukaryotic organisms. We investigated the glycogen metabolism of the oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica and found that this yeast accumulates up to 16% glycogen in its biomass. Assuming that elimination of glycogen synthesis would result in an improvement of lipid accumulation, we characterized and deleted the single gene coding for glycogen synthase, YlGSY1. The mutant was grown under lipogenic conditions with glucose and glycerol as substrates and we obtained up to 60% improvement in TAG accumulation compared to the wild-type strain. Additionally, YlGSY1 was deleted in a background that was already engineered for high lipid accumulation. In this obese background, TAG accumulation was also further increased. The highest lipid content of 52% was found after 3 days of cultivation in nitrogen-limited glycerol medium. Furthermore, we constructed mutants of Y. lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are deleted for both glycogen and TAG synthesis, demonstrating that the ability to store carbon is not essential. Overall, this work showed that glycogen synthesis is a competing pathway for TAG accumulation in oleaginous yeasts and that deletion of the glycogen synthase has beneficial effects on neutral lipid storage. © FEMS 2017.

  10. Overexpression of malic enzyme (ME) of Mucor circinelloides improved lipid accumulation in engineered Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Sun, Hanxiao; Mo, Xuemei; Li, Xiuying; Xu, Bo; Tian, Peng

    2013-06-01

    The oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis has been known to be a potential feedstock for lipid production. In the present study, we investigated the enhancement of expression of malic enzyme (ME; NADP(+) dependent; EC 1.1.1.40) from Mucor circinelloides as a strategy to improve lipid content inside the yeast cells. The 26S rDNA and 5.8S rDNA gene fragments isolated from Rhodotorula glutinis were used for homologous integration of ME gene into R. glutinis chromosome under the control of the constitutively highly expressed gene phosphoglycerate kinase 1 to achieve stable expression. We demonstrated that by increasing the expression of the foreign ME gene in R. glutinis, we successfully improved the lipid content by more than twofold. At the end of lipid accumulation phrase (96 h) in the transformants, activity of ME was increased by twofold and lipid content of the yeast cells was increased from 18.74 % of the biomass to 39.35 %. Simultaneously, there were no significant differences in fatty acid profiles between the wild-type strain and the recombinant strain. Over 94 % of total fatty acids were C16:0, C18:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2. Our results indicated that heterologous expression of NADP(+)-dependent ME involved in fatty acid biosynthesis indeed increased the lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast R. glutinis.

  11. Ultrasonication aided in-situ transesterification of microbial lipids to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, Jose R

    2014-10-01

    In-situ transesterification of microbial lipid to biodiesel has been paid substantial attention due to the fact that the lipid extraction and transesterification can be conducted in one-stage process. To improve the feasibility of in-situ transesterification, ultrasonication was employed to reduce methanol requirement and reaction time. The results showed that the use of ultrasonication could achieve high conversion of lipid to FAMEs (92.1% w lipid conversion/w total lipids) with methanol to lipid molar ratio 60:1 and NaOH addition 1% w/w lipid in 20 min, while methanol to lipid molar ratio 360:1, NaOH addition 1% w/w lipid, and reaction time 12h was required to obtain similar yield in in-situ transesterification without ultrasonication. The compositions of FAMEs obtained in case of ultrasonication aided in-situ transesterification were similar as that of two-stage extraction followed by transesterification processes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Lipids, pots and food processing at Hočevarica, Ljubljansko barje, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ogrinc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lipid analyses of pottery samples from Ho≠evarica (Ljub- ljansko barje, Slovenia. Total lipid extracts were subjected to high temperature gas chromatography (HT-GC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS. The results show that some vessels were used for prepar- ing ruminant meat and vegetable, but also the remains of aquatic food were identified. The processing of non-ruminant meat was detected in a few samples. A high number of pottery samples yielded the presence of beeswax lipids. The charred residual on pottery was AMS 14C dated.

  13. Role of lipids in the extrusion cooking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghofe, E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a versatile and very efficient technology that is widely used in food and feed processing. The cooking extruders have found many applications, which include: breakfast cereals, snack foods, other cereal based products, pet food and aquatic foods, texturized vegetable proteins, confectionery products, chemical and biochemical reactions, and oil extraction. Lipids are components that play an important role in most of the extrusion cooking processes. They can act as plastificizers or emulsifiers, and affect more significantly texture and stickiness of the extrudate. This paper reviews effect of oils and other lipids reactions during extrusion cooking as well as the effects of amylase-lipid complexation on extrudate quality.La extrusión es, en general, una tecnología versátil y muy eficiente, que se aplica ampliamente en la elaboración de alimentos y piensos. Los equipos de cocción-extrusión tienen numerosas aplicaciones, entre las que pueden incluirse: los cereales de desayuno listos para comer, los aperitivos, diferentes productos basados en cereales, los piensos para animales domésticos y peces, proteínas vegetales texturizadas, productos de pastelería, reacciones químicas y bioquímicas, y la extracción de aceites. Los lípidos son componentes que juegan un papel importante en la mayoría de los procesos de cocción-extrusión. Pueden actuar como plastificantes o como emulsionantes, suministrando lubricación. En este artículo se revisan con detalle los efectos de las reacciones de los aceites y otros lípidos durante el proceso de cocción-extrucción así como el efecto de la formación de complejos amilasa-lípidos sobre la calidad de los extrudados.

  14. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–control data. Methods Using a directed acyclic graph framework, we defined six causal scenarios for epidemiologic studies of environmental chemicals measured in urine or serum. The scenarios include variables known to influence creatinine (e.g., age and hydration) or serum lipid levels (e.g., body mass index and recent fat intake). Over a range of true effect sizes, we analyzed each scenario using seven adjustment approaches and estimated the corresponding bias and confidence interval coverage across 1,000 simulated studies. Results For urinary biomarker measurements, our novel method, which incorporates both covariate-adjusted standardization and the inclusion of creatinine as a covariate in the regression model, had low bias and possessed 95% confidence interval coverage of nearly 95% for most simulated scenarios. For serum biomarker measurements, a similar approach involving standardization plus serum lipid level adjustment generally performed well. Conclusions To control measurement error bias caused by variations in serum lipids or by urinary diluteness, we recommend improved methods for standardizing exposure concentrations across individuals. Citation O’Brien KM, Upson K, Cook NR, Weinberg CR. 2016. Environmental chemicals in urine and blood: improving methods for creatinine and lipid adjustment. Environ Health Perspect 124:220–227; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509693 PMID:26219104

  15. Plasma membrane lipids and their role in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable evidence in recent years suggesting that plasma membrane lipids are important regulators of fungal pathogenicity. Various glycolipids have been shown to impart virulent properties in several fungal species, while others have been shown to play a role in host defense. In addition to their role as virulence factors, lipids also contribute to other virulence mechanisms such as drug resistance, biofilm formation, and release of extracellular vesicles. In addition, lipids also affect the mechanical properties of the plasma membrane through the formation of packed microdomains composed mainly of sphingolipids and sterols. Changes in the composition of lipid microdomains have been shown to disrupt the localization of virulence factors and affect fungal pathogenicity. This review gathers evidence on the various roles of plasma membrane lipids in fungal virulence and how lipids might contribute to the different processes that occur during infection and treatment. Insight into the role of lipids in fungal virulence can lead to an improved understanding of the process of fungal pathogenesis and the development of new lipid-mediated therapeutic strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  17. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Enzymes as Biocatalysts for Lipid-based Bioproducts Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Guo, Zheng; Fedosov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Bioproducts are materials, chemicals and energy derived from renewable biological resources such as agriculture, forestry, and biologically-derived wastes. To date, the use of enzymes as biocatalysts for lipid-based bioproducts processing has shown marked increase. This is mainly due to the fact...... that cost benefit derived from enzymatic processing such as enzyme specificity, higher product purity and lesser or none toxic waste disposal has surpassed the cost of biocatalysts itself. This chapter provided insights into distinct enzymes characteristics essential in industrial processing especially...... enzymes kinetics. Understanding of enzyme kinetics is important especially in designing efficient reaction set-ups including type of bioreactors, reaction conditions and reusability of biocatalysts to ensure efficient running cost. A brief review of state-of-the-art in industrial applications of enzymes...

  19. Novel Genetic Tools to Accelerate Our Understanding of Photosynthesis and Lipid Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-20

    understanding of photosynthesis and lipid accumulation Martin C. Jonikas, Ph.D. Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Plant Biology 260...knowledge of algal lipid metabolism and photosynthesis . Advances in our basic understanding of these processes will facilitate genetic engineering of...algae to improve lipid yields. Currently, one of the greatest roadblocks in the study of algal photosynthesis and lipid metabolism is the slow pace of

  20. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham; Wells, Greg; Barna, Barbara P.; Malur, Achut G.; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. ► Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. ► Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and the PPARγ-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPARγ. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPARγ plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPARγ or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lung compliance was diminished in untreated GMCSF KO mice

  1. How can lipid nanocarriers improve transdermal delivery of olanzapine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nimra; Vitorino, Carla; Taylor, Kevin M G

    2017-06-01

    The development of a transdermal nanocarrier drug delivery system with potential for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is described. Lipid nanocarriers (LN), encompassing various solid:liquid lipid compositions were formulated and assessed as potential nanosystems for transdermal delivery of olanzapine. A previously optimized method of hot high pressure homogenization (HPH) was adopted for the production of the LN, which comprised solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE). Precirol  ® was selected as the solid lipid for progression of studies. SLN exhibited the best performance for transdermal delivery of olanzapine, based on in vitro release and permeation studies, coupled with results from physicochemical characterization of several solid:liquid lipid formulations. Stability tests, performed to give an indication of long-term storage behavior of the formulations, were in good agreement with previous studies for the best choice of solid:liquid lipid ratio. Overall, these findings highlight the SLN-based formulation as promising for the further inclusion in and production of transdermal patches, representing an innovative therapeutic approach.

  2. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic...... improvement. DESIGN: We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. RESULTS: After weight loss......: In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight maintenance. The determination of the lipid composition during an LCD enables...

  3. Cardiac lipid content is unresponsive to a physical activity training intervention in type 2 diabetic patients, despite improved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiner Tim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cardiac lipid content has been associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. We recently showed that cardiac lipid content is reduced after 12 weeks of physical activity training in healthy overweight subjects. The beneficial effect of exercise training on cardiovascular risk is well established and the decrease in cardiac lipid content with exercise training in healthy overweight subjects was accompanied by improved ejection fraction. It is yet unclear whether diabetic patients respond similarly to physical activity training and whether a lowered lipid content in the heart is necessary for improvements in cardiac function. Here, we investigated whether exercise training is able to lower cardiac lipid content and improve cardiac function in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Eleven overweight-to-obese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age: 58.4 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 29.9 ± 0.01 kg/m2 followed a 12-week training program (combination endurance/strength training, three sessions/week. Before and after training, maximal whole body oxygen uptake (VO2max and insulin sensitivity (by hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp was determined. Systolic function was determined under resting conditions by CINE-MRI and cardiac lipid content in the septum of the heart by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Results VO2max increased (from 27.1 ± 1.5 to 30.1 ± 1.6 ml/min/kg, p = 0.001 and insulin sensitivity improved upon training (insulin stimulated glucose disposal (delta Rd of glucose improved from 5.8 ± 1.9 to 10.3 ± 2.0 μmol/kg/min, p = 0.02. Left-ventricular ejection fraction improved after training (from 50.5 ± 2.0 to 55.6 ± 1.5%, p = 0.01 as well as cardiac index and cardiac output. Unexpectedly, cardiac lipid content in the septum remained unchanged (from 0.80 ± 0.22% to 0.95 ± 0.21%, p = 0.15. Conclusions Twelve weeks of progressive endurance/strength training was effective in improving VO2max, insulin sensitivity

  4. Improving productivity and quality of biodiesel from Chlorella vulgaris SDEC-3M through customized process designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Feng; Pei, Haiyan; Ma, Guixia; Zhang, Shuo; Mu, Ruimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Responses of growth and lipid in SDEC-3M to N concentrations were described. • The high lipid accumulation and biomass production were coexisted in buffer period. • Shorting N-deficient culture stage could improve lipid productivity. • A scheme of optimal designs was suggested to improve lipid productivity. • Biodiesels were meet standards and their performances varied with N-deficient time. - Abstract: In this study, temporal variations of microalgae growth and lipid accumulation in response to different nitrogen concentrations in media were investigated and discussed in detail, using a mutant Chlorella vulgaris SDEC-3M as a model. The results show that a short-term of dramatic lipid accumulation and nonsignificant descent of biomass productivities can be concomitant in SDEC-3M during early N-deficient stage (buffer period). It was found that the maximum lipid productivities of 63.52 mg L"−"1 d"−"1 occurred after 24 h N-shift. It means that, obtained lipid productivity under two-stage strategy with 24 h N-deficient stage was approximately three times as high as the maximum one obtained under N-rich condition and the final one obtained during longer N-deficient culture. Batch culture mode, higher light intensity and light/dark cycle in cooperation with N-rich/N-deficient cycle were also suggested as feasible scheme to improve lipid productivity in large scale culture. Additionally, the fatty acid profiles analysis indirectly showed that the properties of biodiesel from SDEC-3M majorly satisfied biodiesel standards. The fuel performances varied with N-deficient culture time, meaning that better combustion performance, oxidation stability, and exhaust emissions level related to longer N-deficient stage, while the biodiesel produced form N-deficient would perform well under low temperature. The results mean that SDEC-3M-derived biodiesels with customized process designs have commercial potential in the aspects of productivity and quality.

  5. Engineering lipid structure for recognition of the liquid ordered membrane phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordovsky, Stefan S.; Wong, Christopher S.; Bachand, George D.; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.

    2016-01-01

    The selective partitioning of lipid components in phase-separated membranes is essential for domain formation involved in cellular processes. Identifying and tracking the movement of lipids in cellular systems would be improved if we understood how to achieve selective affinity between fluorophore-labeled lipids and membrane assemblies. Furthermore, we investigated the structure and chemistry of membrane lipids to evaluate lipid designs that partition to the liquid ordered (L_o) phase. A range of fluorophores at the headgroup position and lengths of PEG spacer between the lipid backbone and fluorophore were examined. On a lipid body with saturated palmityl or palmitoyl tails, we found that although the lipid tails can direct selective partitioning to the L_o phase through favorable packing interactions, headgroup hydrophobicity can override the partitioning behavior and direct the lipid to the disordered membrane phase (L_d). The PEG spacer can serve as a buffer to mute headgroup–membrane interactions and thus improve L_o phase partitioning, but its effect is limited with strongly hydrophobic fluorophore headgroups. We present a series of lipid designs leading to the development of novel fluorescently labeled lipids with selective affinity for the L_o phase.

  6. Industrial wastes as a promising renewable source for production of microbial lipid and direct transesterification of the lipid into biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi

    2013-08-01

    Two strategies of converting industrial wastes to microbial lipid and direct transesterification of obtained lipid into biodiesel were attempted. Several oleaginous yeasts were cultivated on industrial wastes. The yeasts grew well on the wastes with low C/N ratio (i.e. serum latex) but accumulated high lipid content only when the wastes had a high C/N ratio (i.e. palm oil mill effluent and crude glycerol). The yeast lipids have similar fatty acid composition to that of plant oil indicating their potential use as biodiesel feedstocks. The combination of these wastes and two-phase cultivation for cell growth and lipid accumulation improved lipid productivity of the selected yeast. The direct transesterification process that eliminates cell drying and lipid extraction steps, gave comparable yield of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester >70% within 1h) to that of conventional method. These two successful strategies may contribute greatly to industrializing oil production from microbes and industrial wastes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wells, Greg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Barna, Barbara P. [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Malur, Achut G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Thomassen, Mary Jane, E-mail: thomassenm@ecu.edu [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by

  8. Dose dependent oxidation kinetics of lipids in fish during irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.; Ersen, M.S.; Bakioglu, A.T.; Bicer, A.; Pamuk, V.

    1997-01-01

    Kinetic aspects of the development of lipid oxidation in complex foods as fish in the course of irradiation were analyzed with respect to the associated formation of malonaldehyde (MA) through the reactions modified so as to be consistent with those in complex foods as fish. Air-packed anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples in polyethylene pouches were irradiated at the doses of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15,20 and 25 kGy at 20 o C in a Cs-137 gamma irradiator of 1.806 kGy/h dose rate. Immediately after each irradiation, MA contents of irradiated and unirradiated samples were determined by thiobarbituric acid test. Based on the MA formation, a kinetic model to simulate the apparent oxidation of lipid in fish as a function of irradiation dose was derived from the rate equations consistent with modified reactions. Kinetic parameters and simulation were related to conditions of lipid oxidation, and associated rancidity state of fish with respect to the doses applied in different irradiation-preservation processes. Numerical values of kinetic parameters based on the MA formation were found as a threshold dose of 0.375 kGy, an apparent yield of 1.871 μmol/kg kGy, and a maximum attainable concentration of 15.853 μmol/kg which may be used for process control and dosimetry. (author)

  9. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-08-01

    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption of ultra-processed food products and its effects on children's lipid profiles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, F; Campagnolo, P D B; Hoffman, D J; Vitolo, M R

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease development is related to known risk factors (such as diet and blood lipids) that begin in childhood. Among dietary factors, the consumption of ultra-processing products has received attention. This study investigated whether children's consumption of processed and ultra-processing products at preschool age predicted an increase in lipid concentrations from preschool to school age. Cohort study conducted with 345 children of low socioeconomic status from São Leopoldo, Brazil, aged 3-4 years and 7-8 years. Blood tests were done to measure lipid profile. Dietary data were collected through 24-h recalls and the children's processed and ultra-processing product intake was assessed. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between processed and ultra-processed product intake at 3-4 years on changes in lipid concentrations from preschool to school age. The percentage of daily energy provided by processed and ultra-processed products was 42.6 ± 8.5 at preschool age and 49.2 ± 9.5 at school age, on average. In terms of energy intake, the main products consumed were breads, savoury snacks, cookies, candy and other sweets in both age groups. Ultra-processed product consumption at preschool age was a predictor of a higher increase in total cholesterol (β = 0.430; P = 0.046) and LDL cholesterol (β = 0.369; P = 0.047) from preschool to school age. Our data suggest that early ultra-processed product consumption played a role in altering lipoprotein profiles in children from a low-income community in Brazil. These results are important to understanding the role of food processing and the early dietary determinants of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A trough for improved SFG spectroscopy of lipid monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Johannes; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Weidner, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Lipid monolayers are indispensable model systems for biological membranes. The main advantage over bilayer model systems is that the surface pressure within the layer can be directly and reliably controlled. The sensitive interplay between surface pressure and temperature determines the molecular order within a model membrane and consequently determines the membrane phase behavior. The lipid phase is of crucial importance for a range of membrane functions such as protein interactions and membrane permeability. A very reliable method to probe the structure of lipid monolayers is sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Not only is SFG extremely surface sensitive but it can also directly access critical parameters such as lipid order and orientation, and it can provide valuable information about protein interactions along with interfacial hydration. However, recent studies have shown that temperature gradients caused by high power laser beams perturb the lipid layers and potentially obscure the spectroscopic results. Here we demonstrate how the local heating problem can be effectively reduced by spatially distributing the laser pulses on the sample surface using a translating Langmuir trough for SFG experiments at lipid monolayers. The efficiency of the trough is illustrated by the detection of enhanced molecular order due to reduced heat load.

  12. Acyl transfer from membrane lipids to peptides is a generic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Robert H; Bechinger, Burkhard; Mosely, Jackie A; Sanderson, John M

    2013-11-15

    The generality of acyl transfer from phospholipids to membrane-active peptides has been probed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of peptide-lipid mixtures. The peptides examined include melittin, magainin II, PGLa, LAK1, LAK3 and penetratin. Peptides were added to liposomes with membrane lipid compositions ranging from pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) to mixtures of PC with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol. Experiments were typically conducted at pH7.4 at modest salt concentrations (90 mM NaCl). In favorable cases, lipidated peptides were further characterized by tandem mass spectrometry methods to determine the sites of acylation. Melittin and magainin II were the most reactive peptides, with significant acyl transfer detected under all conditions and membrane compositions. Both peptides were lipidated at the N-terminus by transfer from PC, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol, as well as at internal sites: lysine for melittin; serine and lysine for magainin II. Acyl transfer could be detected within 3h of melittin addition to negatively charged membranes. The other peptides were less reactive, but for each peptide, acylation was found to occur in at least one of the conditions examined. The data demonstrate that acyl transfer is a generic process for peptides bound to membranes composed of diacylglycerophospholipids. Phospholipid membranes cannot therefore be considered as chemically inert toward peptides and by extension proteins. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling growth, lipid accumulation and lipid turnover in submerged batch cultures of Umbelopsis isabellina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Akbari, P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2012-01-01

    The production of lipids by oleaginous yeast and fungi becomes more important because these lipids can be used for biodiesel production. To understand the process of lipid production better, we developed a model for growth, lipid production and lipid turnover in submerged batch fermentation. This

  14. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jing, E-mail: joemj1005@163.com, E-mail: miaojing@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Zhao, Mengdan [Zhejiang University, Women’s Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Hu, Fuqiang, E-mail: hufq@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-01-15

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC{sub 50}) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL{sup −1}, respectively, while the IC{sub 50} of Taxol{sup TM} was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL{sup −1}. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  15. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Jing; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Mengdan; Hu, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC 50 ) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL −1 , respectively, while the IC 50 of Taxol TM was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL −1 . For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC

  16. Incorporation of liquid lipid in lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jie; Sun Minjie; Ping Qineng; Ying Zhi; Liu Wen

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of liquid lipid incorporation on the physicochemical properties and ocular drug delivery enhancement of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and attempts to elucidate in vitro and in vivo the potential of NLCs for ocular drug delivery. The CyA-loaded or fluorescein-marked nanocarriers composed of Precifac ATO 5 and Miglyol 840 (as liquid lipid) were prepared by melting-emulsion technology, and the physicochemical properties of nanocarriers were determined. The uptake of nanocarriers by human corneal epithelia cell lines (SDHCEC) and rabbit cornea was examined. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging was used to investigate the ocular distribution of nanocarriers. The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo acute tolerance were evaluated. The higher drug loading capacity and improved in vitro sustained drug release behavior of lipid nanoparticles was found with the incorporation of liquid lipid in lipid nanoparticles. The uptake of nanocarriers by the SDHCEC was increased with the increase in liquid lipid loading. The ex vivo fluorescence imaging of the ocular tissues indicated that the liquid lipid incorporation could improve the ocular retention and penetration of ocular therapeutics. No alternation was macroscopically observed in vivo after ocular surface exposure to nanocarriers. These results indicated that NLC was a biocompatible and potential nanocarrier for ocular drug delivery enhancement.

  17. Incorporation of liquid lipid in lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Jie; Sun Minjie; Ping Qineng; Ying Zhi; Liu Wen, E-mail: Pingqn2004@yahoo.com.cn [School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjia Xiang, Nanjing (China)

    2010-01-15

    The present work investigates the effect of liquid lipid incorporation on the physicochemical properties and ocular drug delivery enhancement of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and attempts to elucidate in vitro and in vivo the potential of NLCs for ocular drug delivery. The CyA-loaded or fluorescein-marked nanocarriers composed of Precifac ATO 5 and Miglyol 840 (as liquid lipid) were prepared by melting-emulsion technology, and the physicochemical properties of nanocarriers were determined. The uptake of nanocarriers by human corneal epithelia cell lines (SDHCEC) and rabbit cornea was examined. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging was used to investigate the ocular distribution of nanocarriers. The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo acute tolerance were evaluated. The higher drug loading capacity and improved in vitro sustained drug release behavior of lipid nanoparticles was found with the incorporation of liquid lipid in lipid nanoparticles. The uptake of nanocarriers by the SDHCEC was increased with the increase in liquid lipid loading. The ex vivo fluorescence imaging of the ocular tissues indicated that the liquid lipid incorporation could improve the ocular retention and penetration of ocular therapeutics. No alternation was macroscopically observed in vivo after ocular surface exposure to nanocarriers. These results indicated that NLC was a biocompatible and potential nanocarrier for ocular drug delivery enhancement.

  18. Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Stamatia; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggeli, Dimitra; Sayegh, Fotoon; Aggelis, George

    2014-12-01

    . Therefore, algal production systems need to be improved and harvesting systems need to be more effective in order for their industrial applications to become more competitive and economically viable. Besides, a reduction of the production cost of microalgal lipids can be achieved by combining lipid production with other commercial applications. The combined production of bioactive products and lipids, when possible, can support the commercial viability of both processes. Hydrophobic compounds can be extracted simultaneously with lipids and then purified, while hydrophilic compounds such as proteins and sugars may be extracted from the defatted biomass. The microalgae also have applications in environmental biotechnology since they can be used for bioremediation of wastewater and to monitor environmental toxicants. Algal biomass produced during wastewater treatment may be further valorized in the biofuel manufacture. It is anticipated that the high microalgal lipid potential will force research towards finding effective ways to manipulate biochemical pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis and towards cost effective algal cultivation and harvesting systems, as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of lipid yield from microalgae Spirulina platensis using ultrasound assisted osmotic shock extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetya, NP; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp. has been identified as potential source of natural food supplement and food colorant. The high water content of microalgae (70-90%) causes an obstacle in biomass dehydration which requires large amounts of energy, eventually damaging the lipid in the microalgae. Therefore, the lipid must be extracted by using a suitable method which complies to wet biomass conditions. One of the methods is applying osmotic shock. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of osmotic agent (NaCl) concentration (10-30%) and extraction time (20-50 min) on yield of lipid and also to determine the optimal conditions in the extraction process through response surface methodology. The extraction was conducted at a temperature of 40°C under ultrasound frequency of 40 kHz. The result showed that the optimum yield lipid obtained was 6.39% in 16.98% NaCl concentration for 36 minutes 10 seconds.

  20. Moringa oleifera Lam. improves lipid metabolism during adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, I; Vanella, L; Distefano, A; Nicolosi, D; Maravigna, A; Lazzarino, G; Di Rosa, M; Tibullo, D; Acquaviva, R; Li Volti, G

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including inflammation, cancer and metabolic disorders. We investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism and cellular antioxidant systems. We showed that Moringa oleifera Lam. treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). In addition, Moringa oleifera Lam. induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a well established protective and antioxidant enzyme. Finally Moringa oleifera Lam. significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that Moringa oleifera Lam. may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  1. Lipids, lipid droplets and lipoproteins in their cellular context; an ultrastructural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lipids are essential for cellular life, functioning either organized as bilayer membranes to compartmentalize cellular processes, as signaling molecules or as metabolic energy storage. Our current knowledge on lipid organization and cellular lipid homeostasis is mainly based on biochemical data.

  2. A Postnatal Diet Containing Phospholipids, Processed to Yield Large, Phospholipid-Coated Lipid Droplets, Affects Specific Cognitive Behaviors in Healthy Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Lidewij; van Dijk, Gertjan; Broersen, Laus M; Loos, Maarten; Bartke, Nana; Scheurink, Anton Jw; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Infant cognitive development can be positively influenced by breastfeeding rather than formula feeding. The composition of breast milk, especially lipid quality, and the duration of breastfeeding have been linked to this effect. We investigated whether the physical properties and composition of lipid droplets in milk may contribute to cognitive development. From postnatal day (P) 16 to P44, healthy male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed either a control or a concept rodent diet, in which the dietary lipid droplets were large and coated with milk phospholipids, resembling more closely the physical properties and composition of breast milk lipids. Thereafter, all mice were fed an AIN-93M semisynthetic rodent diet. The mice were subjected to various cognitive tests during adolescence (P35-P44) and adulthood (P70-P101). On P102, mice were killed and brain phospholipids were analyzed. The concept diet improved performance in short-term memory tasks that rely on novelty exploration during adolescence (T-maze; spontaneous alternation 87% in concept-fed mice compared with 74% in mice fed control diet; P diet. Brain phospholipid composition at P102 was not different between diet groups. Exposure to a diet with lipids mimicking more closely the structure and composition of lipids in breast milk improved specific cognitive behaviors in mice. These data suggest that lipid structure should be considered as a relevant target to improve dietary lipid quality in infant milk formulas. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  4. Lipid Cell Biology: A Focus on Lipids in Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Elisabeth M; Özbalci, Cagakan; Eggert, Ulrike S

    2018-06-20

    Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis. We analyze how lipids facilitate changes in cellular morphology during division and how they participate in key signaling events. We identify which cytokinesis proteins are associated with membranes, suggesting lipid interactions. More broadly, we highlight key unaddressed questions in lipid cell biology and techniques, including mass spectrometry, advanced imaging, and chemical biology, which will help us gain insights into the functional roles of lipids.

  5. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa L. Miyares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.

  6. Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    : M1, M2 and M3, with one, two and three washing steps, respectively. The different products were characterised (i.e. lipid content, protein, water, iron, fatty acid profile and tocopherol content) and analysed for protein and lipid oxidation in order to investigate the impact of the washing steps...... was followed by determination of protein solubility, protein thiol groups and protein carbonyl groups using colorimetric methods as well as western blotting for protein carbonyl groups. Lipid and protein oxidation markers indicated that both lipid and protein oxidation took place during processing...

  7. Nanostructured lipid carriers versus microemulsions for delivery of the poorly water-soluble drug luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Yiqing; He, Man; Zhang, Xin; Niu, Mengmeng; Feng, Nianping

    2014-12-10

    Nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions effectively deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. However, few studies have investigated their ability and difference in improving drug bioavailability, especially the factors contributed to the difference. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating their efficiency in bioavailability enhancement based on studying two key processes that occur in NLC and ME during traverse along the intestinal tract: the solubilization process and the intestinal permeability process. The nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions had the same composition except that the former were prepared with solid lipids and the latter with liquid lipids; both were evaluated for particle size and zeta potential. Transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were performed to characterize their properties. Furthermore, in vitro drug release, in situ intestinal absorption, and in vitro lipolysis were studied. The bioavailability of luteolin delivered using nanostructured lipid carriers in rats was compared with that delivered using microemulsions and suspensions. The in vitro analysis revealed different release mechanisms for luteolin in nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions, although the in situ intestinal absorption was similar. The in vitro lipolysis data indicated that digestion speed and extent were higher for microemulsions than for nanostructured lipid carriers, and that more of the former partitioned to the aqueous phase. The in vivo bioavailability analysis in rats indicated that the oral absorption and bioavailability of luteolin delivered using nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions were higher than those of luteolin suspensions. Nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions improved luteolin's oral bioavailability in rats. The rapid lipid digestion and much more drug solubilized available for absorption in microemulsions may contribute to better absorption and

  8. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin infections like dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis but also bloodstream infections. Understanding the lipid metabolism in Malassezia is essential to understand its life style as skin commensal and p...

  9. Improved insulin loading in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, María; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-03-30

    Polymeric nanoparticles are widely investigated as drug delivery systems for oral administration. However, the hydrophobic nature of many polymers hampers effective loading of the particles with hydrophilic macromolecules such as insulin. Thus, the aim of this work was to improve the loading of insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, insulin encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. Upon pre-assembly with lipids, there was an increased distribution of insulin into the organic phase of the emulsion, eventually resulting in significantly enhanced encapsulation efficiencies (90% as compared to 24% in the absence of lipids). Importantly, the insulin loading capacity was increased up to 20% by using the lipid-insulin complexes. The results further showed that a main fraction of the lipid was incorporated into the nanoparticles and remained associated to the polymer during release studies in buffers, whereas insulin was released in a non-complexed form as a burst of approximately 80% of the loaded insulin. In conclusion, the protein load in PLGA nanoparticles can be significantly increased by employing self-assembled protein-lipid complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  11. Improved insulin loading in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Diaz, Maria; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are widely investigated as drug delivery systems for oral administration. However, the hydrophobic nature of many polymers hampers effective loading of the particles with hydrophilic macromolecules such as insulin. Thus, the aim of this work was to improve the loading...... of insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique...... efficiencies (90% as compared to 24% in the absence of lipids). Importantly, the insulin loading capacity was increased up to 20% by using the lipid–insulin complexes. The results further showed that a main fraction of the lipid was incorporated into the nanoparticles and remained associated to the polymer...

  12. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin

  13. Lipid shell-enveloped polymeric nanoparticles with high integrity of lipid shells improve mucus penetration and interaction with cystic fibrosis-related bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Nylander, Tommy; Klodzinska, Sylvia Natalie

    2018-01-01

    , we describe facile methods to prepare Lipid@NPs with high integrity of lipid shells and demonstrate the potential of Lipid@NPs in effective mucus penetration and interaction with cystic fibrosis-related bacterial biofilms. Lipid shell-enveloped polystyrene NPs with high integrity of lipid shells (c...... mediated layer-by layer approach. Our results suggest that the integrity of the lipid envelopes is crucial for enabling the diffusion of Lipid@PSNPs into the mucus layer and promoting the interaction of Lipid@PSNPs with a bacterial biofilm....

  14. Application of magnesium sulfate and its nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production by mixotrophic cultivation of algae using biodiesel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo; 2 Solutions Inc., 2300, rue Jean-Perrin, Québec, Québec G2C 1T9 (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (CO2 Solutions Inc., 2300, rue Jean-Perrin, Québec, Québec G2C 1T9 (Canada))" >Verma, Mausam; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    CG (Crude glycerol) is one of the major wastes of biodiesel production process. It can be used as a substrate for lipid production by algae and the produced lipid can be recycled as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to avoid substrate inhibition, lipid production media are prepared by diluting the CG with distilled water. However, CG contains only a small amount of Mg (57.41 ± 18 ppm) and its concentration is further decreased to around 0.57 ppm during the dilution process. Apart from having a number of roles in algal physiology, Mg is the central atom of chlorophyll. Therefore, MgSO 4 was evaluated as a Mg source to supplement the CG based media used for lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris. By supplementing the process with 1 g/L of MgSO 4 , nearly 185.29 ± 4.53% improvement in lipid production has been achieved. Further, application of MgSO 4 nanoparticles was found to improve the lipid production by 118.23 ± 5.67%. Interestingly, unlike MgSO 4 , its nanoparticles were found to enhance the lipid production at the expense of only a small amount of glycerol. Thus, application of MgSO 4 nanoparticles could be a potential strategy for enhanced lipid yield. - Highlights: • MgSO 4 supplementation can improve the biomass production by 125.58 ± 7.2%. • 185.29 ± 4.53% increase in lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris. • Enhanced lipid production in spite of negligible glycerol consumption. • MgSO 4 nanoparticle induced enhanced photosynthesis by micro algae

  15. Brazil nuts intake improves lipid profile, oxidative stress and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koury Josely C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic disease associated to an inflammatory process resulting in oxidative stress that leads to morpho-functional microvascular damage that could be improved by some dietary interventions. In this study, the intake of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa, composed of bioactive substances like selenium, α- e γ- tocopherol, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been investigated on antioxidant capacity, lipid and metabolic profiles and nutritive skin microcirculation in obese adolescents. Methods Obese female adolescents (n = 17, 15.4 ± 2.0 years and BMI of 35.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, were randomized 1:1 in two groups with the diet supplemented either with Brazil nuts [BNG, n = 08, 15-25 g/day (equivalent to 3 to 5 units/day] or placebo [PG (lactose, n = 09, one capsule/day] and followed for 16 weeks. Anthropometry, metabolic-lipid profiles, oxidative stress and morphological (capillary diameters and functional [functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at baseline and peak (RBCVmax and time (TRBCVmax to reach it during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, after 1 min arterial occlusion] microvascular variables were assessed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy at baseline (T0 and after intervention (T1. Results T0 characteristics were similar between groups. At T1, BNG (intra-group variation had increased selenium levels (p = 0.02, RBCV (p = 0.03 and RBCVmax (p = 0.03 and reduced total (TC (p = 0.02 and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. Compared to PG, Brazil nuts intake reduced TC (p = 0.003, triglycerides (p = 0.05 and LDL-ox (p = 0.02 and increased RBCV (p = 0.03. Conclusion Brazil nuts intake improved the lipid profile and microvascular function in obese adolescents, possibly due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00937599

  16. Solid-state fermentation of Mortierella isabellina for lipid production from soybean hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Soybean hull, generated from soybean processing, is a lignocellulosic material with limited industrial applications and little market value. This research is exploring a new application of soybean hull to be converted to fungal lipids for biodiesel production through solid-state fermentation. Mortierella isabellina was selected as the oil producer because of its high lipid content at low C/N ratio. Several cultivation factors were investigated, including moisture content, inoculums size, fungal spore age, and nutrient supplements, in an attempt to enhance the lipid production of the solid-state fermentation process. The results showed that lipid production with the increase of the moisture content and the spore age, while decreased as the size of inoculums increased. Nutrients addition (KH₂PO₄ 1.2 mg and MgSO₄ 0.6 mg/g soybean hull) improved the lipid production. The total final lipid reached 47.9 mg lipid from 1 g soybean hull after the conversion, 3.3-fold higher than initial lipid reserve in the soybean hull. The fatty acid profile analysis indicated that fatty acid content consisted of 30.0% of total lipid, and 80.4% of total fatty acid was C16 and C18. Therefore, lipid production from soybean hull is a possible option to enable soybean hull as a new resource for biodiesel production and to enhance the overall oil production from soybeans.

  17. Data, analysis and modeling of physical properties for process designof systems involving lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Pure component and mixture properties are necessary for synthesis, design, and analysis of processes forthe production of edible oils, fats, biodiesel, and other lipids. The lack of measured data for these systemsmakes it necessary to develop reliable predictive models based on limited data. We...

  18. PEGylated lipid nanocapsules with improved drug encapsulation and controlled release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, Pablo; Alonso-Sande, Maria; Ledo, Francisco; Lucero, Maria L; Alonso, Maria J; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Drugs with poor lipid and water solubility are some of the most challenging to formulate in nanocarriers, typically resulting in low encapsulation efficiencies and uncontrolled release profiles. PEGylated nanocapsules (PEG-NC) are known for their amenability to diverse modifications that allow the formation of domains with different physicochemical properties, an interesting feature to address a drug encapsulation problem. We explored this problem by encapsulating in PEG-NC the promising anticancer drug candidate F10320GD1, used herein as a model for compounds with such characteristics. The nanocarriers were prepared from Miglyol(®), lecithin and PEG-sterate through a solvent displacement technique. The resulting system was a homogeneous suspension of particles with size around 200 nm. F10320GD1 encapsulation was found to be very poor (<15%) if PEG-NC were prepared using water as continuous phase; but we were able to improve this value to 85% by fixing the pH of the continuous phase to 9. Interestingly, this modification also improved the controlled release properties and the chemical stability of the formulation during storage. These differences in pharmaceutical properties together with physicochemical data suggest that the pH of the continuous phase used for PEG-NC preparation can modify drug allocation, from the external shell towards the inner lipid core of the nanocapsules. Finally, we tested the bioactivity of the drug-loaded PEG-NC in several tumor cell lines, and also in endothelial cells. The results indicated that drug encapsulation led to an improvement on drug cytotoxicity in tumor cells, but not in non-tumor endothelial cells. Altogether, the data confirms that PEG-NC show adequate delivery properties for F10320GD1, and underlines its possible utility as an anticancer therapy.

  19. Low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil improves plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in apo E(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Yong-Bok; Lee, Ki-Teak; Park, Taesun; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explicate the effects of feeding low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil (LF) on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism involved in apo E(-/-) mice. The animals were fed a commercial shortening (CS), commercial low trans fat (CL) and LF diet based on AIN-76 diet (10% fat) for 12 weeks. LF supplementation exerted a significant suppression in hepatic lipid accumulation with the concomitant decrease in liver weight. The LF significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid whereas it significantly increased HDL-C concentration and the HDL-C/total-C ratio compared to the CS group. Reduction of hepatic lipid levels in the LF group was related with the suppression of hepatic enzyme activities for fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, and cholesterol regulating enzyme activity compared to the CS and CL groups. Accordingly, low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil is highly effective for improving hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in apo E(-/-) mice.

  20. Single Lipid Molecule Dynamics on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Membrane Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Cheney

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane is a highly compartmentalized, dynamic material and this organization is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes. Nanoscale domains allow proteins to organize for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and other essential processes. Even in the absence of proteins, lipids have the ability to organize into domains as a result of a variety of chemical and physical interactions. One feature of membranes that affects lipid domain formation is membrane curvature. To directly test the role of curvature in lipid sorting, we measured the accumulation of two similar lipids, 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE and hexadecanoic acid (HDA, using a supported lipid bilayer that was assembled over a nanopatterned surface to obtain regions of membrane curvature. Both lipids studied contain 16 carbon, saturated tails and a head group tag for fluorescence microscopy measurements. The accumulation of lipids at curvatures ranging from 28 nm to 55 nm radii was measured and fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulated more than fluorescein labeled HDA at regions of membrane curvature. We then tested whether single biotinylated DHPE molecules sense curvature using single particle tracking methods. Similar to groups of fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulating at curvature, the dynamics of single molecules of biotinylated DHPE was also affected by membrane curvature and highly confined motion was observed.

  1. Electrodiffusion of Lipids on Membrane Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    Random lateral translocation of lipids and proteins is a universal process on membrane surfaces. Local aggregation or organization of lipids and proteins can be induced when this lateral random diffusion is mediated by the electrostatic interactions and membrane curvature. Though the lateral diffusion rates of lipids on membrane of various compositions are measured and the electrostatic free energies of predetermined protein-membrane-lipid systems can be computed, the process of the aggregati...

  2. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-09

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid.

  3. Design of a nanostructured lipid carrier intended to improve the treatment of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marina Pinheiro,1,* Ricardo Ribeiro,1,* Alexandre Vieira,1,* Fernanda Andrade,2 Salette Reis1 1IUCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This work aimed to design, develop, and characterize a lipid nanocarrier system for the selective delivery of rifabutin (RFB to alveolar macrophages. Lipid nanoparticles, specifically nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC, were synthetized by the high-shear homogenization and ultrasonication techniques. These nanoparticles were designed to exhibit both passive and active targeting strategies to be efficiently internalized by the alveolar macrophages, traffic to the acidified phagosomes and phagolysosomes, and release bactericidal concentrations of the antituberculosis drug intracellularly. NLC that could entrap RFB were prepared, characterized, and further functionalized with mannose. Particles’ diameter, zeta potential, morphology, drug% entrapping efficiency, and drug release kinetics were evaluated. The mannose coating process was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared. Further, the cytotoxicity of the formulations was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in A549, Calu-3, and Raw 264.7 cells. The diameter of NLC formulations was found to be in the range of 175–213 nm, and drug entrapping efficiency was found to be above 80%. In addition, high storage stability for the formulations was expected since they maintained the initial characteristics for 6 months. Moreover, the drug release was pH-sensitive, with a faster drug release at acidic pH than at neutral pH. These results pose a strong argument that the developed nanocarrier can be explored as a promising carrier for safer and more efficient management of tuberculosis by exploiting the pulmonary route of

  4. Improving Healthcare Logistics Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes

    logistics processes in hospitals and aims to provide theoretically and empirically based evidence for improving these processes to both expand the knowledge base of healthcare logistics and provide a decision tool for hospital logistics managers to improve their processes. Case studies were conducted...... processes. Furthermore, a method for benchmarking healthcare logistics processes was developed. Finally, a theoretically and empirically founded framework was developed to support managers in making an informed decision on how to improve healthcare logistics processes. This study contributes to the limited...... literature concerned with the improvement of logistics processes in hospitals. Furthermore, the developed framework provides guidance for logistics managers in hospitals on how to improve their processes given the circumstances in which they operate....

  5. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  6. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  7. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  8. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  9. Rhodopsin-lipid interactions studied by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubias, Olivier; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the lipid matrix are known to influence function of integral membrane proteins. We report on a sample preparation method for reconstitution of membrane proteins which uses porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters with 200-nm-wide pores of high density. The substrate permits formation of tubular, single membranes that line the inner surface of pores. One square centimeter of filter with a thickness of 60μm yields on the order of 500cm(2) of solid-supported single bilayer surface, sufficient for NMR studies. The tubular bilayers are free of detergent, fully hydrated, and accessible for ligands from one side of the membrane. The use of AAO filters greatly improves reproducibility of the reconstitution process such that the influence of protein on lipid order parameters can be studied with high resolution. As an example, results for the G protein-coupled receptor of class A, bovine rhodopsin, are shown. By (2)H NMR order parameter measurements, it is detected that rhodopsin insertion elastically deforms membranes near the protein. Furthermore, by (1)H saturation-transfer NMR under conditions of magic angle spinning, we demonstrate detection of preferences in interactions of rhodopsin with particular lipid species. It is assumed that function of integral membrane proteins depends on both protein-induced elastic deformations of the lipid matrix and preferences for interaction of the protein with particular lipid species in the first layer of lipids surrounding the protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  11. E4orf1 improves lipid and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes: a template to improve steatosis & hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Tao, Rongya; Dong, X Charlie; Ye, Jianping; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis often accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. The cornerstones of steatosis treatment include reducing body weight and dietary fat intake, which are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, may offer a template to overcome these limitations. In vitro and in vivo studies collectively indicate that via its E4orf1 protein, Ad36 improves hyperglycemia, and attenuates hepatic steatosis, despite a high fat diet and without weight loss. Considering that hepatic insulin sensitivity, or the synthesis, oxidation, or export of fatty acid by hepatocytes are the key determinant of hepatic lipid storage, we determined the role of E4orf1 protein in modulating these physiological pathways. For this study, HepG2 cells, or mouse primary hepatocytes were transfected with E4orf1 or the null vector. Glucose output by hepatocytes was determined under gluconeogenic conditions (cAMP and dexamethasone, or glucagon exposure). Also, de-novo lipogenesis, palmitate oxidation, and lipid export as determined by apoB secretion were measured 48 h post transfection. Results show that compared to null vector transfected cells, E4orf1 significantly reduced glucose output in basal and gluconeogenic conditions. E4orf1 reduced de-novo lipogenesis by about 35%, increased complete fatty acid oxidation 2-fold (pE4orf1 transfection was in agreement with these findings. Thus, E4orf1 offers a valuable template to exogenously modulate hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism may help develop therapeutic approaches for treating diabetes or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).

  12. Lipid nanoparticle vectorization of indocyanine green improves fluorescence imaging for tumor diagnosis and lymph node resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Fabrice P; Berger, Michel; Guillermet, Stéphanie; Josserand, Véronique; Guyon, Laurent; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Vinet, Françoise; Texier, Isabelle

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescence imaging is opening a new era in image-guided surgery and other medical applications. The only FDA approved contrast agent in the near infrared is IndoCyanine Green (ICG), which despites its low toxicity, displays poor chemical and optical properties for long-term and sensitive imaging applications in human. Lipid nanoparticles are investigated for improving ICG optical properties and in vivo fluorescence imaging sensitivity. 30 nm diameter lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are loaded with ICG. Their characterization and use for tumor and lymph node imaging are described. Nano-formulation benefits dye optical properties (6 times improved brightness) and chemical stability (>6 months at 4 degrees C in aqueous buffer). More importantly, LNP vectorization allows never reported sensitive and prolonged (>1 day) labeling of tumors and lymph nodes. Composed of human-use approved ingredients, this novel ICG nanometric formulation is foreseen to expand rapidly the field of clinical fluorescence imaging applications.

  13. Process correlation analysis model for process improvement identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su-jin; Kim, Dae-Kyoo; Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data.

  14. A model of lipid rearrangements during pore formation in the DPPC lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Artur; Kubica, Krystian

    2017-07-10

    The molecular bases of pore formation in the lipid bilayer remain unclear, as do the exact characteristics of their sizes and distributions. To understand this process, numerous studies have been performed on model lipid membranes including cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). The effect of an electric field on DPPC GUV depends on the lipid membrane state: in the liquid crystalline phase the created pores have a cylinder-like shape, whereas in the gel phase a crack has been observed. The aim of the study was to investigate the geometry of pores created in a lipid bilayer in gel and liquid crystalline phases in reference to literature experimental data. A mathematical model of the pore in a DPPC lipid bilayer developed based on the law of conservation of mass and the assumption of constant volume of lipid molecules, independent of their conformation, allows for analysis of pore shape and accompanying molecular rearrangements. The membrane area occupied by the pore of a cylinder-like shape is greater than the membrane area occupied by lipid molecules creating the pore structure (before pore appearance). Creation of such pores requires more space, which can be achieved by conformational changes of lipid chains toward a more compact state. This process is impossible for a membrane in the most compact, gel phase. We show that the geometry of the pores formed in the lipid bilayer in the gel phase must be different from the cylinder shape formed in the lipid bilayer in a liquid crystalline state, confirming experimental studies. Furthermore, we characterize the occurrence of the 'buffer' zone surrounding pores in the liquid crystalline phase as a mechanism of separation of neighbouring pores.

  15. Threonine supplementation reduces dietary protein and improves lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Wen, Z G; Qiao, S Y; Hou, S S

    2017-12-01

    1. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of threonine (Thr) supplementation on reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and the effects of Thr on lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. The effects of dietary CP concentration (160, 190 and 220 g/kg) and Thr supplemental concentration (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 g/kg) on growth performance, carcass, liver lipid and plasma profiles were determined in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age. 2. A total of 720-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage for each treatment according to average body weight. 3. Dietary Thr supplementation improved growth performance and breast muscle percentage at all CP diets, and ducks fed Thr-supplemented diets had higher plasma concentrations of some plasma amino acids. Thr supplementation reduced the concentrations of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol in liver, and plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterin concentration at 160 and 190 g/kg CP, whereas it increased triglyceride concentration at 160 g/kg CP. 4. Thr requirements based on quadratic broken-line model estimation were 6.6 and 7.0 g/kg for optimal average daily gain (ADG), and 6.7 and 7.3 g/kg for breast muscle percentage of Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age at 190 and 220 g/kg CP, respectively. The dietary Thr requirements and estimated ADG (55.18 vs. 55.86 g/d/bird) and breast muscle percentage (2.79% vs. 2.75%) of Pekin ducks did not differ between 190 and 220 g/kg CP according to the t-test results. 5. Dietary CP level could be reduced to 190 g/kg in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age with Thr supplementation to balance dietary amino acids, and Thr supplementation prevented excess liver lipid deposition in this instance.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Inner Fillets Subjected to Different Thermal Processing Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Arguelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of thermal processing on the physiochemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of chicken inner fillets. The study was divided into three assays. In the first assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Treatments consisted in cooking in water bath, electric oven, microwave oven, deep frying, or grilling. The analyzed variables were: cooking weight loss (CWL and lipid oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In the second assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Each treatment consisted of the same cooking methods applied in the first assay, and storage for 48 hours under refrigeration and reheating in a microwave oven. The variable analyzed in the second assay was lipid oxidation (TBARS. In the third assay, 30 samples of chicken inner fillets were subjected to one, four and eight freeze-thaw cycles, after which meat pH, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, water retention capacity (WRC, and lipid oxidation (TBARS were determined. Chicken inner fillets submitted to deep frying and cooked in a microwave oven presented greater lipid oxidation than the other cooking methods, and deep frying resulted in the highest cooking weight loss. Reheating chicken inner fillets in a microwave oven caused the highest meat lipid oxidation. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the pH, MFI, WRC and TBARS values of chicken inner fillets.

  17. Rigid aromatic linking moiety in cationic lipids for enhanced gene transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, Rui-Mo; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Yan-Hong; Huang, Zheng; Yu, Qing-Ying; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2017-08-18

    Although numerous cationic lipids have been developed as non-viral gene vectors, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these materials remains unclear and needs further investigation. In this work, a series of lysine-derived cationic lipids containing linkages with different rigidity were designed and synthesized. SAR studies showed that lipids with rigid aromatic linkage could promote the formation of tight liposomes and enhance DNA condensation, which is essential for the gene delivery process. These lipids could give much higher transfection efficiency than those containing more flexible aliphatic linkage in various cell lines. Moreover, the rigid aromatic linkage also affords the material higher serum tolerance ability. Flow cytometry assay revealed that the target lipids have good cellular uptake, while confocal microscopy observation showed weaker endosome escape than Lipofectamine 2000. To solve such problem and further increase the transfection efficiency, some lysosomotropic reagents were used to improve the endosome escape of lipoplex. As expected, higher transfection efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 could be obtained via this strategy. Cytotoxicity assay showed that these lipids have lower toxicity in various cell lines than Lipofectamine 2000, suggesting their potential for further application. This work demonstrates that a rigid aromatic linkage might distinctly improve the gene transfection abilities of cationic lipids and affords information to construct safe and efficient gene vector towards practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic development of a two-stage fed-batch process for lipid accumulation in Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eric; Runge, Dennis; Marbà-Ardébol, Anna-Maria; Schmacht, Maximilian; Stahl, Ulf; Senz, Martin

    2017-03-20

    The application of oleaginous yeast cells as feed supplement, for instance in aqua culture, can be a meaningful alternative for fish meal and oil additives. Therefore, a two-stage fed-batch process split into growth and lipogenesis phase was systematically developed to enrich the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Rh-00301 with high amounts of lipids at industrial relevant biomasses. Thereby, the different carbon sources glucose, sucrose and glycerol were investigated concerning their abilities to serve as a suited raw material for growth and/or lipid accumulation. With the background of economic efficiency C/N ratios of 40, 50 and 70 were investigated as well. It became apparent that glycerol is an improper carbon source most likely because of the passive diffusion of this compound caused by absence of active transporters. The opposite was observed for sucrose, which is the main carbon source in molasses. Finally, an industrially applicable process was successfully established that ensures biomasses of 106±2gL -1 combined with an attractive lipid content of 63±6% and a high lipid-substrate yield (Y L/S ) of 0.18±0.02gg -1 in a short period of time (84h). Furthermore, during these studies a non-negligible formation of the by-product glycerol was detected. This characteristic of R. glutinis is discussed related to other oleaginous yeasts, where glycerol formation is absent. Nevertheless, due to modifications in the feeding procedure, the formation of glycerol could have been reduced but not avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies for improved understanding of lipid distributions in human skin by combining stimulated and spontaneous Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossek, A; Thierbach, S; Rancan, F; Vogt, A; Blume-Peytavi, U; Rühl, E

    2017-07-01

    Advanced Raman techniques, such as stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS), have become a valuable tool for investigations of distributions of substances in biological samples. However, these techniques lack spectral information and are therefore highly affected by cross-sensitivities, which are due to blended Raman bands. One typical example is the symmetric CH 2 stretching vibration of lipids, which is blended with the more intense Raman band of proteins. We report in this work an approach to reduce such cross-sensitivities by a factor of 8 in human skin samples. This is accomplished by careful spectral deconvolutions revealing the neat spectra of skin lipids. Extensive Raman studies combining the complementary advantages of fast mapping and scanning, i.e. SRS, as well as spectral information provided by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, were performed on the same skin regions. In addition, an approach for correcting artifacts is reported, which are due to transmission and reflection geometries in Raman microscopy as well as scattering of radiation from rough and highly structured skin samples. As a result, these developments offer improved results obtained from label-free spectromicroscopy provided by Raman techniques. These yield substance specific information from spectral regimes in which blended bands dominate. This improvement is illustrated by studies on the asymmetric CH 2 stretching vibration of lipids, which was previously difficult to identify due to the strong background signal from proteins. The advantage of the correction procedures is demonstrated by higher spatial resolution permitting to perform more detailed investigations on lipids and their composition in skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation: influence of oxygen concentration and membrane lipid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, H.; Tilburg, C.A.M. van; Konings, A.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation -induced lipid peroxidation phospholipid liposomes was investigated in terms of its dependence on lipid composition and oxygen concentration. Non-peroxidizable lipid incorporated in the liposomes reduced the rate of peroxidation of the peroxidizable phospholipid acyl chains, possibly by restricting the length of chain reactions. The latter effect is believed to be caused by interference of the non-peroxidizable lipids in the bilayer. At low oxygen concentration lipid peroxidation was reduced. The cause of this limited peroxidation may be a reduced number of radical initiation reactions possibly involving oxygen-derived superoxide radicals. Killing of proliferating mammalian cells, irradiated at oxygen concentrations ranging from 0 to 100%, appeared to be independent of the concentration of peroxidizable phospholipids in the cell membranes. This indicates that lipid peroxidation is not the determining process in radiation-induced reproductive cell death. (author)

  1. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  2. Production of solid lipid submicron particles for protein delivery using a novel supercritical gas-assisted melting atomization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Stefano; Elvassore, Nicola; Bertucco, Alberto; Caliceti, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide micronization technique based on gas-assisted melting atomization has been designed to prepare protein-loaded solid lipid submicron particles. The supercritical process was applied to homogeneous dispersions of insulin in lipid mixtures: (1) tristearin, Tween-80, phosphatidylcholine and 5 kDa PEG (1:0.1:0.9:1 and 1:0.1:0.9:2 weight ratio); and (2) tristearin, dioctyl sulfosuccinate and phosphatidylcholine (1:1:0.5 weight ratio). Optimized process conditions yielded dry nonagglomerated powders with high product recovery (70%, w/w). Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that two size fractions of particles, with 80-120 and 200-400 nm diameters, were produced. In all final products, dimethylsulfoxide used to prepare the insulin/lipid mixture was below 20 ppm. Protein encapsulation efficiency increased up to 80% as the DMSO content in the insulin/lipid mixture increased. Compared to the particles without PEG, the polymer-containing particles dispersed rapidly in water, and the dispersions were more stable under centrifugation as less than 20% of suspended particles precipitated after extensive centrifugation. In vitro, the protein was slowly released from the formulation without PEG, while a burst and faster release were obtained from the formulations containing PEG. Subcutaneous injection to diabetic mice of insulin extracted from the particles showed that the supercritical process did not impair the protein hypoglycemic activity.

  3. On plate graphite supported sample processing for simultaneous lipid and protein identification by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia; Palmisano, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous identification of lipids and proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) after direct on-plate processing of micro-samples supported on colloidal graphite is demonstrated. Taking advantages of large surface area and thermal conductivity, graphite provided an ideal substrate for on-plate proteolysis and lipid extraction. Indeed proteins could be efficiently digested on-plate within 15 min, providing sequence coverages comparable to those obtained by conventional in-solution overnight digestion. Interestingly, detection of hydrophilic phosphorylated peptides could be easily achieved without any further enrichment step. Furthermore, lipids could be simultaneously extracted/identified without any additional treatment/processing step as demonstrated for model complex samples such as milk and egg. The present approach is simple, efficient, of large applicability and offers great promise for protein and lipid identification in very small samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  5. Comparative lipid production by oleaginous yeasts in hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass and process strategy for high titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slininger, Patricia J; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Moser, Bryan R; Bakota, Erica L; Thompson, Stephanie R; O'Bryan, Patricia J; Cotta, Michael A; Balan, Venkatesh; Jin, Mingjie; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Dale, Bruce E

    2016-08-01

    Oleaginous yeasts can convert sugars to lipids with fatty acid profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, making them attractive for production of biodiesel. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of sugars for yeast lipid production because it is abundant, potentially low cost, and renewable. However, lignocellulosic hydrolyzates are laden with byproducts which inhibit microbial growth and metabolism. With the goal of identifying oleaginous yeast strains able to convert plant biomass to lipids, we screened 32 strains from the ARS Culture Collection, Peoria, IL to identify four robust strains able to produce high lipid concentrations from both acid and base-pretreated biomass. The screening was arranged in two tiers using undetoxified enzyme hydrolyzates of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated cornstover as the primary screening medium and acid-pretreated switch grass as the secondary screening medium applied to strains passing the primary screen. Hydrolyzates were prepared at ∼18-20% solids loading to provide ∼110 g/L sugars at ∼56:39:5 mass ratio glucose:xylose:arabinose. A two stage process boosting the molar C:N ratio from 60 to well above 400 in undetoxified switchgrass hydrolyzate was optimized with respect to nitrogen source, C:N, and carbon loading. Using this process three strains were able to consume acetic acid and nearly all available sugars to accumulate 50-65% of cell biomass as lipid (w/w), to produce 25-30 g/L lipid at 0.12-0.22 g/L/h and 0.13-0.15 g/g or 39-45% of the theoretical yield at pH 6 and 7, a performance unprecedented in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Three of the top strains have not previously been reported for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to lipids. The successful identification and development of top-performing lipid-producing yeast in lignocellulose hydrolyzates is expected to advance the economic feasibility of high quality biodiesel and jet fuels from renewable biomass, expanding the market

  6. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselino Mariana N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into four groups (n=10: GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control, GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control, GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV

  7. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve......Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  8. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  9. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari Soltani, Saman; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Tabibi, Hadi; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Atabak, Shahnaz; Loh, Su-Peng; Rahmani, Leila

    2013-04-01

    Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. Noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of ChlorellaI vulgaris into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with charcoal via a thermo-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2013-02-01

    The noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via a thermo-chemical process was mainly investigated in this work. The crude lipid of C. vulgaris was recovered by means of solvent extraction from C. vulgaris cultivated in a raceway pond. The conventional catalyzed transesterification of crude lipid of C. vulgaris is notably inhibited by the impurities contained in the crude lipid of C. vulgaris. These impurities are inevitably derived from the solvent extraction process for C. vulgaris. However, this work presents the noncatalytic transesterification of microalgal lipid into FAME, which could be an alternative option. For example, the noncatalytic transformation of microalgal lipid into FAME provides evidence that the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides can be combined into a single step less susceptible to the impurities and with a high conversion efficiency (∼97%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New procedure for extraction of algal lipids from wet biomass: a green clean and scalable process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-04-01

    A new procedure, called Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Process (SDEP), for lipid extraction from wet microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella salina) was reported. This method does not require a pre-drying of the biomass and employs alternative solvents such as d-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene. This procedure has been compared with Soxhlet extraction (Sox) and Bligh & Dyer method (B&D). For N. oculata, results showed that SDEP-cymene provided similar lipid yields to B&D (21.45% and 23.78%), while SDEP-limonene and pinene provided lower yields (18.73% and 18.75% respectively). For D. salina, SDEP-pinene provided the maximum lipid yield (3.29%) compared to the other solvents, which is quite close to B&D result (4.03%). No significant differences in terms of distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been obtained for different techniques. Evaluation of energy consumption indicates a substantial saving in the extraction cost by SDEP compared to the conventional extraction technique, Soxhlet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Lipid-Free Nanoformulation for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the bioavailability of orally administered lipophilic coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, we formulated a novel lipid-free nano-CoQ10 system stabilized by various surfactants. Nano-CoQ10s, composed of 2.5% (w/w CoQ10, 1.67% (w/w surfactant, and 41.67% (w/w glycerol, were prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization. The resulting formulations were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, differential scanning calorimetry, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. We found that the mean particle size of all nano-CoQ10s ranged from 66.3±1.5 nm to 92.7±1.5 nm and the zeta potential ranged from -12.8±1.4 mV to -41.6±1.4 mV. The CoQ10 in nano-CoQ10s likely existed in a supercooled state, and nano-CoQ10s stored in a brown sealed bottle were stable for 180 days at 25°C. The bioavailability of CoQ10 was evaluated following oral administration of CoQ10 formulations in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared to the values observed following administration of CoQ10-Suspension, nano-CoQ10 modified with various surfactants significantly increased the maximum plasma concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve. Thus, the lipid-free system of a nano-CoQ10 stabilized with a surfactant may be an effective vehicle for improving oral bioavailability of CoQ10.

  13. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichota, Deise Michele; Silva, Ana Catarina; Sousa Lobo, José Manuel; Amaral, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection), argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration).

  14. Lipid Replacement Therapy Functional Food Formulation with NT Factor for Reducing Weight, Girth, Body Mass, Appetite and Fatigue While Improving Blood Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements

  15. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  16. Lipolysis and lipid oxidation in fermented sausages depending on different processing conditions and different antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Emanuela; Ghidini, Sergio; Battaglia, Alessandra; Chizzolini, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    Lipolysis and lipid oxidation in Mediterranean and North Europe type sausages were studied in relation to raw material, processing conditions and additives. In particular the effect of ascorbic acid, nitrites and spices was evaluated. Lipolysis was measured by the determination of total and free fatty acids of fresh minces and matured products and lipid oxidation was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and cholesterol oxidation products. The increase of free fatty acids during maturation appears to be independent from processing conditions and the differences in polyunsaturated fatty acids increment found among the formulations appear to be due to inherent variations of raw materials. The presence of ascorbic acid and/or nitrite seems important for cholesterol protection and, as a consequence, for the safety of fermented meat products while spices at doses up to 0.1% do not seem to have a remarkable effect. The effect on fatty acid oxidation of the same additives and of the different processing technologies is not significantly different and the variations linked to raw material may play the greatest role.

  17. E4orf1 improves lipid and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes: a template to improve steatosis & hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Dhurandhar

    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis often accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. The cornerstones of steatosis treatment include reducing body weight and dietary fat intake, which are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, may offer a template to overcome these limitations. In vitro and in vivo studies collectively indicate that via its E4orf1 protein, Ad36 improves hyperglycemia, and attenuates hepatic steatosis, despite a high fat diet and without weight loss. Considering that hepatic insulin sensitivity, or the synthesis, oxidation, or export of fatty acid by hepatocytes are the key determinant of hepatic lipid storage, we determined the role of E4orf1 protein in modulating these physiological pathways. For this study, HepG2 cells, or mouse primary hepatocytes were transfected with E4orf1 or the null vector. Glucose output by hepatocytes was determined under gluconeogenic conditions (cAMP and dexamethasone, or glucagon exposure. Also, de-novo lipogenesis, palmitate oxidation, and lipid export as determined by apoB secretion were measured 48 h post transfection. Results show that compared to null vector transfected cells, E4orf1 significantly reduced glucose output in basal and gluconeogenic conditions. E4orf1 reduced de-novo lipogenesis by about 35%, increased complete fatty acid oxidation 2-fold (p<0.0001, and apoB secretion 1.5 fold(p<0.003. Response of key signaling molecules to E4orf1 transfection was in agreement with these findings. Thus, E4orf1 offers a valuable template to exogenously modulate hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism may help develop therapeutic approaches for treating diabetes or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD.

  18. Effect of health information technology interventions on lipid management in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspry, Karen E; Furman, Roy; Karalis, Dean G; Jacobson, Terry A; Zhang, Audrey M; Liptak, Gregory S; Cohen, Jerome D

    2013-01-01

    Large gaps in lipid treatment and medication adherence persist in high-risk outpatients in the United States. Health information technology (HIT) is being applied to close quality gaps in chronic illness care, but its utility for lipid management has not been widely studied. To perform a qualitative review of the impact of HIT interventions on lipid management processes of care (screening or testing; drug initiation, titration or adherence; or referrals) or clinical outcomes (percent at low density lipoprotein cholesterol goal; absolute lipid levels; absolute risk scores; or cardiac hospitalizations) in outpatients with coronary heart disease or at increased risk. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched using Medical Subject Headings related to clinical informatics and cholesterol or lipid management. English language articles that described a randomized controlled design, tested at least one HIT tool in high risk outpatients, and reported at least 1 lipid management process measure or clinical outcome, were included. Thirty-four studies that enrolled 87,874 persons were identified. Study ratings, outcomes, and magnitude of effects varied widely. Twenty-three trials reported a significant positive effect from a HIT tool on lipid management, but only 14 showed evidence that HIT interventions improve clinical outcomes. There was mixed evidence that provider-level computerized decision support improves outcomes. There was more evidence in support of patient-level tools that provide connectivity to the healthcare system, as well as system-level interventions that involve database monitoring and outreach by centralized care teams. Randomized controlled trials show wide variability in the effects of HIT on lipid management outcomes. Evidence suggests that multilevel HIT approaches that target not only providers but include patients and systems approaches will be needed to improve lipid treatment, adherence and quality. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid

  19. Electrodiffusion of lipids on membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y C

    2012-05-28

    Lateral translocation of lipids and proteins is a universal process on membrane surfaces. Local aggregation or organization of lipids and proteins can be induced when the random lateral motion is mediated by the electrostatic interactions and membrane curvature. Although the lateral diffusion rates of lipids on membranes of various compositions are measured and the electrostatic free energies of predetermined protein-membrane-lipid systems can be computed, the process of the aggregation and the evolution to the electrostatically favorable states remain largely undetermined. Here we propose an electrodiffusion model, based on the variational principle of the free energy functional, for the self-consistent lateral drift-diffusion of multiple species of charged lipids on membrane surfaces. Finite sizes of lipids are modeled to enforce the geometrical constraint of the lipid concentration on membrane surfaces. A surface finite element method is developed to appropriate the Laplace-Beltrami operators in the partial differential equations of the model. Our model properly describes the saturation of lipids on membrane surfaces, and correctly predicts that the MARCKS peptide can consistently sequester three multivalent phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate lipids through its basic amino acid residues, regardless of a wide range of the percentage of monovalent phosphatidylserine in the membrane.

  20. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  2. LipidPedia: a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tseng, Yufeng Jane

    2018-04-10

    Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3,923 lipids and more than 400,000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions, and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1,400,000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. yjtseng@csie.ntu.edu.tw. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Effect of Thermal Processing towards Lipid Oxidation and Non-enzymatic Browning Reactions of Antartic Krill (Euphausia superba) Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzi; Cong, Peixu; Li, Beijia; Song, Yu; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2018-04-13

    Antarctic krill is a huge source of biomass and prospective high-quality lipid source. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), nutritionally important lipid components with poor oxidative stability, were used as markers of oxidation during thermal processing of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal by evaluating the lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and non-enzymatic browning reactions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the phospholipids (PLs) and the main oxidation products of free fatty acids (FFAs) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was effective for evaluating the oxidation of EPA and DHA. During boiling, oxidation of EPA and DHA in the FFA and PC fractions and hydrolysis of the fatty acids at the sn-2 position of the PLs were predominant. The changes in PC during drying were mainly attributed to the oxidation of EPA and DHA. Heat treatment increased the oxidation products and concentration of hydrophobic pyrrole owing to pyrrolization between phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and the lipid oxidation products. The lipid oxidation level of Antarctic krill increased after drying, owing to prolonged heating under the severe conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Earth/Prediction Models to Improve Network Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS) primaryseismic network consists of a relatively small number of arrays andthree-component stations. The relatively small number of stationsin the USAEDS primary network make it both necessary and feasibleto optimize both station and network processing.Station processing improvements include detector tuning effortsthat use Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to helpjudiciously set acceptable Type 1 (false) vs. Type 2 (miss) errorrates. Other station processing improvements include the use ofempirical/historical observations and continuous background noisemeasurements to compute time-varying, maximum likelihood probabilityof detection thresholds.The USAEDS network processing software makes extensive use of theazimuth and slowness information provided by frequency-wavenumberanalysis at array sites, and polarization analysis at three-componentsites. Most of the improvements in USAEDS network processing aredue to improvements in the models used to predict azimuth, slowness,and probability of detection. Kriged travel-time, azimuth andslowness corrections-and associated uncertainties-are computedusing a ground truth database. Improvements in station processingand the use of improved models for azimuth, slowness, and probabilityof detection have led to significant improvements in USADES networkprocessing.

  5. Evaluation of a pharmacist-managed lipid clinic that uses point-of-care lipid testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrald, Katherine R; Dixon, Dave L; Barnette, Debra J; Williams, Virginia G

    2010-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a significant, modifiable risk factor for developing coronary heart disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement has improved overall, but many high-risk patients remain above the desired LDL-C goals. Published data have demonstrated the ability of pharmacist-managed lipid clinics to improve lipid management in a variety of clinical settings. This observational analysis aimed to report the impact of a newly developed hospital-based, outpatient lipid clinic by the use of point-of-care testing on LDL-C goal attainment. A retrospective, observational analysis was conducted from February 2007 to December 2008. The primary outcome measure was the change in the proportion of patients who achieved their LDL-C goal at the end of the observation period compared with baseline. A total of 81 patients met study inclusion criteria. Mean duration of follow-up was 9.0 ± 4.9 (SD) months. At the end of the observation period, 82.9% of patients achieved their LDL-C goal compared with 55.3% at baseline (P used point-of-care testing to obtain lipid results for making therapy adjustments during the face-to-face visit. Copyright © 2010 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipid technology: Property prediction and process design/analysis in the edible oil and biodiesel industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Gani, Rafiqul; Sarup, Bent

    2011-01-01

    acid methyl esters); their representation and classification in terms of molecular structures; the collection of available experimental data of their pure component physical properties; the adoption of appropriate property-process models for the design and analysis of production processes through......In this work some of the property related issues in lipid processing technology employed in edible oil and biodiesel production are highlighted. This includes the identification of the most representative chemical species (acylglycerides, free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, carotenes, and fatty...

  7. Lipid-lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colletti, Alessandro; Bajraktari, Gani; Descamps, Olivier; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat; Fras, Zlatko; Katsiki, Niki; Langlois, Michel; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Paragh, Gyorgy; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mitchenko, Olena; Paulweber, Bernhard; Pella, Daniel; Pitsavos, Christos; Reiner, Željko; Ray, Kausik K; Rizzo, Manfredi; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Maria-Corina; Sperling, Laurence S; Toth, Peter P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Vrablík, Michal; Wong, Nathan D; Banach, Maciej

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the possible use of nutraceuticals to improve and optimize dyslipidemia control and therapy. Based on the data from available studies, nutraceuticals might help patients obtain theraputic lipid goals and reduce cardiovascular residual risk. Some nutraceuticals have essential lipid-lowering properties confirmed in studies; some might also have possible positive effects on nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors and have been shown to improve early markers of vascular health such as endothelial function and pulse wave velocity. However, the clinical evidence supporting the use of a single lipid-lowering nutraceutical or a combination of them is largely variable and, for many of the nutraceuticals, the evidence is very limited and, therefore, often debatable. The purpose of this position paper is to provide consensus-based recommendations for the optimal use of lipid-lowering nutraceuticals to manage dyslipidemia in patients who are still not on statin therapy, patients who are on statin or combination therapy but have not achieved lipid goals, and patients with statin intolerance. This statement is intended for physicians and other healthcare professionals engaged in the diagnosis and management of patients with lipid disorders, especially in the primary care setting. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Steve; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  10. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  11. The effects of processing and mastication on almond lipid bioaccessibility using novel methods of in vitro digestion modelling and micro-structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Grundy, Myriam M-L; Grassby, Terri; Parker, Mary L; Cross, Kathryn L; Chessa, Simona; Bisignano, Carlo; Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Laganà, Giuseppina; Butterworth, Peter J; Faulks, Richard M; Wilde, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R; Waldron, Keith W

    2014-11-14

    A number of studies have demonstrated that consuming almonds increases satiety but does not result in weight gain, despite their high energy and lipid content. To understand the mechanism of almond digestion, in the present study, we investigated the bioaccessibility of lipids from masticated almonds during in vitro simulated human digestion, and determined the associated changes in cell-wall composition and cellular microstructure. The influence of processing on lipid release was assessed by using natural raw almonds (NA) and roasted almonds (RA). Masticated samples from four healthy adults (two females, two males) were exposed to a dynamic gastric model of digestion followed by simulated duodenal digestion. Between 7·8 and 11·1 % of the total lipid was released as a result of mastication, with no significant differences between the NA and RA samples. Significant digestion occurred during the in vitro gastric phase (16·4 and 15·9 %) and the in vitro duodenal phase (32·2 and 32·7 %) for the NA and RA samples, respectively. Roasting produced a smaller average particle size distribution post-mastication; however, this was not significant in terms of lipid release. Light microscopy showed major changes that occurred in the distribution of lipid in all cells after the roasting process. Further changes were observed in the surface cells of almond fragments and in fractured cells after exposure to the duodenal environment. Almond cell walls prevented lipid release from intact cells, providing a mechanism for incomplete nutrient absorption in the gut. The composition of almond cell walls was not affected by processing or simulated digestion.

  12. Engineering Aspergillus oryzae A-4 through the chromosomal insertion of foreign cellulase expression cassette to improve conversion of cellulosic biomass into lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Ma, Junwei; Fu, Jianrong; Zhao, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    A genetic modification scheme was designed for Aspergillus oryzae A-4, a natural cellulosic lipids producer, to enhance its lipid production from biomass by putting the spotlight on improving cellulase secretion. Four cellulase genes were separately expressed in A-4 under the control of hlyA promoter, with the help of the successful development of a chromosomal genetic manipulation system. Comparison of cellulase activities of PCR-positive transformants showed that these transformants integrated with celA gene and with celC gene had significantly (pcellulase gene in A2-2 and D1-B1 was subsequently investigated. It was noted that cellulase expression repressed biomass formation but enhanced lipid accumulation; whereas the inhibitory effect on cell growth would be shielded during cellulosic lipids production owing to the essential role of cellulase in substrate utilization. Different metabolic profiles also existed between A2-2 and D1-B1, which could be attributed to not only different transgene but also biological impacts of different integration. Overall, both simultaneous saccharification and lipid accumulation were enhanced in A2-2 and D1-B1, resulting in efficient conversion of cellulose into lipids. A regulation of cellulase secretion in natural cellulosic lipids producers could be a possible strategy to enhance its lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Parker, Mary L.; Bisignano, Carlo; Raciti, Roberto; Baer, David J.; Wilde, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. PMID:29443942

  14. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT. In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA, roasted almonds (RA, roasted diced almonds (DA and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB. Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm. Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut.

  15. Defining Lipid Transport Pathways in Animal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Richard E.; Sleight, Richard G.

    1985-09-01

    A new technique for studying the metabolism and intracellular transport of lipid molecules in living cells based on the use of fluorescent lipid analogs is described. The cellular processing of various intermediates (phosphatidic acid and ceramide) and end products (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) in lipid biosynthesis is reviewed and a working model for compartmentalization during lipid biosynthesis is presented.

  16. Effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid uptake in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Sharon; Jonkers, Richard A. M.; Groen, Albert K.; Nicolay, Klaas; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation. Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, but the impact of exercise on lipid handling in insulin-resistant tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study characterizes the effects of acute exercise on lipid content and

  17. Using fluorescent lipids in live zebrafish larvae: From imaging whole animal physiology to subcellular lipid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J L; Carten, J D; Farber, S A

    2016-01-01

    Lipids serve essential functions in cells as signaling molecules, membrane components, and sources of energy. Defects in lipid metabolism are implicated in a number of pandemic human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Many aspects of how fatty acids and cholesterol are absorbed and processed by intestinal cells remain unclear and present a hurdle to developing approaches for disease prevention and treatment. Numerous studies have shown that the zebrafish is an excellent model for vertebrate lipid metabolism. In this chapter, we review commercially available fluorescent lipids that can be deployed in live zebrafish to better understand lipid signaling and metabolism. In this chapter, we present criteria one should consider when selecting specific fluorescent lipids for the study of digestive physiology or lipid metabolism in larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. No appetite efficacy of a commercial structured lipid emulsion in minimally processed drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, H J; Keenan, E; Kovacs, E M R; Wiseman, S A; Mela, D J; Rogers, P J

    2012-09-01

    Fabuless (Olibra) is a commercially structured lipid emulsion, claimed to be a food ingredient that is effective for food intake and appetite reduction. The present study assessed its efficacy in a yoghurt-based mini-drink undergoing low or minimal food manufacturing (thermal and shear) processes. Study 1: Twenty-four healthy volunteers (16 female, 8 male; age: 18-47 years; body mass index (BMI): 17-28 kg m(-2)) took part in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel crossover trial. Consumption of a minimally processed 'preload' mini-drink (containing two different doses of Fabuless or a control fat) at 2 h after breakfast was followed by appetite and mood ratings, and food intake measured in ad libitum meals at 3 and 7 h post consumption of the preload. Study 2: As Study 1 (16 female, 8 male; age: 20-54 years; BMI: 21-30 kg m(-2)). A chilled, virtually unprocessed, preload breakfast mini-drink (containing minimally processed Fabuless or a control fat) was provided 5 min after a standardised breakfast, followed by appetite and mood ratings, and food intake measured in ad libitum meals at 4 and 8 h post consumption of the preload. The structured lipid emulsion tested had no significant effect on the primary measures of food intake or appetite. Even when exposed to minimal food-manufacturing conditions, Fabuless showed no efficacy on measures of appetite and food intake.

  19. Lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation in simulated whole milk powder as influenced by processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodani, Fatemeh; Perera, Conrad O; Abernethy, Grant; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Chen, Hong

    2018-09-30

    Vitamin D3 levels are known to sometimes decline in fortified products, which could be due to its degradation, although the exact mechanism is unknown. In this study, the influence of processing and storage conditions on lipid oxidation and vitamin D3 degradation were studied. Simulated whole milk powders with and without heat treatment were stored for 12 months at two different storage temperatures (20 °C and 40 °C). Stored samples without heat treatment showed higher lipid oxidation products analyzed by PV and TBARS values compared to those with heat treatment. Higher storage temperature also resulted in higher levels of lipid oxidation products. The concentration of vitamin D3 was also analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS after PTAD derivatization in stored samples. An inverse relationship was observed between lipid oxidation products and vitamin D3 content. Finally, previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 oxidation products were quantified in stored samples using MRM analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos; Szadkowska, Halina; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the mixing properties of membranes to which detergents are added is mandatory for improving the application and interpretation of detergent based protein or lipid extraction assays. For Triton X-100 (TX-100), a nonionic detergent frequently used in the process of solubilizing and purifying membrane proteins and lipids, we present here a detailed study of the mixing properties of binary and ternary lipid mixtures by means of high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). To this end the partitioning thermodynamics of TX-100 molecules from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of various mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), egg-sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (cho) are characterized. Composition-dependent partition coefficients K are analysed within the frame of a thermodynamic model developed to describe nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems. The results imply that POPC, fluid SM, and TX-100 mix almost ideally (nonideality parameters ρ α/β SM/cho ≤-6RT) and unfavourable PC/cho interactions (ρ PC/cho = 2RT) may under certain conditions cause POPC/TX-100-enriched domains to segregate from SM/cho-enriched ones. TX-100/cho contacts are unfavourable (ρ cho/TX = 4RT), so the system tends to avoid them. That means, addition of TX-100 promotes the separation of SM/cho-rich from PC/TX-100-rich domains. It appears that cho/detergent interactions are crucial governing the abundance and composition of detergent-resistant membrane patches

  1. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Lipid Oxidation in Rape (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen Added to Salami during Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L. bee pollen (RBP on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox at the same concentration. The salami with 0.05% RBP extract had higher catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities than that of the control throughout the processing time (p < 0.05. Significant decreases in peroxide value (POV and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS were obtained in the final salami product with 0.05% RBP ethanol extract or 1% RBP (p < 0.05. These results suggested that RBP could improve oxidative stability and had a good potential as a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid oxidation.

  2. Nutrient recycling of lipid-extracted waste in the production of an oleaginous thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Brooks, Marianne S; Armenta, Roberto E

    2016-05-01

    Improving the economics of microalgae production for the recovery of microbial oil requires a comprehensive exploration of the measures needed to improve productivity as well as to reduce the overall processing costs. One avenue for cost reduction involves recycling the effluent waste water remaining after lipid extraction. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling those wastes for growing thraustochytrid biomass, a heterotrophic microalgae, where wastes were generated from the enzymatic extraction of the lipids from the cell biomass. It was demonstrated that secondary cultures of the tested thraustochytrid grown in the recycled wastes performed favorably in terms of cell and oil production (20.48 g cells L(-1) and 40.9 % (w/w) lipid) compared to the control (13.63 g cells L(-1) and 56.8 % (w/w) lipid). Further, the significant uptake of solubilized cell material (in the form of amino acids) demonstrated that the recycled waste has the potential for offsetting the need for fresh medium components. These results indicate that the implementation of a nutrient recycling strategy for industrial microalgae production could be possible, with significant added benefits such as conserving water resources, improving production efficiency, and decreasing material inputs.

  3. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16 or blank gels (n = 16 from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  4. GLP-1 analogue improves hepatic lipid accumulation by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qin; Sha, Sha; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Ming, E-mail: dr_dongming@126.com

    2016-08-05

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. We set up an obesity mouse model with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced hepatocyte steatosis with free fatty acids (FFA) in human L-O2 cells. LRG and two inhibitors of autophagy, Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf), were added into each group, respectively. The lipid profiles and morphological modifications of each group were tested. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure autophagy in this study. The autophagy protein expression of SQSTM1 (P62), and LC3B, along with the signaling pathway proteins of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Beclin1, were evaluated by western blot. Our results showed that LRG improved hepatocyte steatosis by inducing autophagy, and the AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved. These findings suggest an important mechanism for the positive effects of LRG on hepatic steatosis, and provide new evidence for clinical use of LRG in NAFLD. -- Highlights: •Liraglutide reduces lipid accumulation in hepatic steatosis both in vivo and in vitro. •Autophagy was involved in relieving effects of liraglutide on hepatic steatosis. •AMPK/mTOR pathway was involved in liraglutide-induced autophagy.

  5. GLP-1 analogue improves hepatic lipid accumulation by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qin; Sha, Sha; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. We set up an obesity mouse model with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced hepatocyte steatosis with free fatty acids (FFA) in human L-O2 cells. LRG and two inhibitors of autophagy, Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf), were added into each group, respectively. The lipid profiles and morphological modifications of each group were tested. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure autophagy in this study. The autophagy protein expression of SQSTM1 (P62), and LC3B, along with the signaling pathway proteins of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Beclin1, were evaluated by western blot. Our results showed that LRG improved hepatocyte steatosis by inducing autophagy, and the AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved. These findings suggest an important mechanism for the positive effects of LRG on hepatic steatosis, and provide new evidence for clinical use of LRG in NAFLD. -- Highlights: •Liraglutide reduces lipid accumulation in hepatic steatosis both in vivo and in vitro. •Autophagy was involved in relieving effects of liraglutide on hepatic steatosis. •AMPK/mTOR pathway was involved in liraglutide-induced autophagy.

  6. Combining reflectometry and fluorescence microscopy: an assay for the investigation of leakage processes across lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Milena; Mey, Ingo; Steinem, Claudia; Janshoff, Andreas

    2014-02-04

    The passage of solutes across a lipid membrane plays a central role in many cellular processes. However, the investigation of transport processes remains a serious challenge in pharmaceutical research, particularly the transport of uncharged cargo. While translocation reactions of ions across cell membranes is commonly measured with the patch-clamp, an equally powerful screening method for the transport of uncharged compounds is still lacking. A combined setup for reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) and fluorescence microscopy measurements is presented that allows one to investigate the passive exchange of uncharged compounds across a free-standing membrane. Pore-spanning lipid membranes were prepared by spreading giant 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) vesicles on porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, creating sealed attoliter-sized compartments. The time-resolved leakage of different dye molecules (pyranine and crystal violet) as well as avidin through melittin induced membrane pores and defects was investigated.

  7. Permeability Barrier and Microstructure of Skin Lipid Membrane Models of Impaired Glucosylceramide Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sochorov?, Michaela; Sta?kov?, Kl?ra; Pullmannov?, Petra; Kov??ik, Andrej; Zbytovsk?, Jarmila; V?vrov?, Kate?ina

    2017-01-01

    Ceramide (Cer) release from glucosylceramides (GlcCer) is critical for the formation of the skin permeability barrier. Changes in ?-glucocerebrosidase (GlcCer?ase) activity lead to diminished Cer, GlcCer accumulation and structural defects in SC lipid lamellae; however, the molecular basis for this impairment is not clear. We investigated impaired GlcCer-to-Cer processing in human Cer membranes to determine the physicochemical properties responsible for the barrier defects. Minor impairment (...

  8. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  9. Engineering Aspergillus oryzae A-4 through the Chromosomal Insertion of Foreign Cellulase Expression Cassette to Improve Conversion of Cellulosic Biomass into Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Ma, Junwei; Fu, Jianrong; Zhao, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    A genetic modification scheme was designed for Aspergillus oryzae A-4, a natural cellulosic lipids producer, to enhance its lipid production from biomass by putting the spotlight on improving cellulase secretion. Four cellulase genes were separately expressed in A-4 under the control of hlyA promoter, with the help of the successful development of a chromosomal genetic manipulation system. Comparison of cellulase activities of PCR-positive transformants showed that these transformants integrated with celA gene and with celC gene had significantly (pcellulase gene in A2-2 and D1-B1 was subsequently investigated. It was noted that cellulase expression repressed biomass formation but enhanced lipid accumulation; whereas the inhibitory effect on cell growth would be shielded during cellulosic lipids production owing to the essential role of cellulase in substrate utilization. Different metabolic profiles also existed between A2-2 and D1-B1, which could be attributed to not only different transgene but also biological impacts of different integration. Overall, both simultaneous saccharification and lipid accumulation were enhanced in A2-2 and D1-B1, resulting in efficient conversion of cellulose into lipids. A regulation of cellulase secretion in natural cellulosic lipids producers could be a possible strategy to enhance its lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25251435

  10. Improved lipid profile and increased serum antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers after Sambucus ebulus L. fruit infusion consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Tasinov, Oskan; Kiselova-Kaneva, Yoana

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to establish the effect of Sambucus ebulus L. (SE) ripe fruit infusion on body weight, blood pressure, glucose levels, lipid profile and antioxidant markers in healthy volunteers in respect of its possible protective activity against cardiovascular diseases and other oxidative stress-related diseases. The study involved 21 healthy volunteers, aged between 20 and 59, BMI 23.12 ± 1.31, who consumed 200 ml SE infusion/day for a period of 30 d. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of the intervention. Significant decrease in triglycerides (14.92%), total cholesterol (15.04%) and LDL-C (24.67%) was established at the end of the study. In addition, HDL-C/LDL-C ratio increased by 42.77%. Improved serum antioxidant capacity and total thiol levels were also established. The results presented in this first human intervention study with SE fruit infusion indicate the potential of the plant to improve lipid profile and serum antioxidant capacity in humans.

  11. Lipid Metabolism, Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfa Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy.

  12. Bidirectional Text Messaging to Improve Adherence to Recommended Lipid Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Morrison, Caitlin; Griffin, Jonathan; Anderson, Nick; Edwards, Kelly; Green, Jeff; Waldren, Cleary; Reiter, William

    2017-01-01

    Synergies between technology and health care in the United States are accelerating, increasing opportunities to leverage these technologies to improve patient care. This study was a collaboration between an academic study team, a rural primary care clinic, and a local nonprofit informatics company developing tools to improve patient care through population management. Our team created a text messaging management tool, then developed methods for and tested the feasibility of bidirectional text messaging to remind eligible patients about the need for lipid testing. We measured patient response to the text messages, then interviewed 8 patients to explore their text messaging experience. Of the 129 patients the clinic was able to contact by phone, 29.4% had no cell phone or text-messaging capabilities. An additional 20% refused to participate. Two thirds of the 28 patients who participated in the text messaging intervention (67.9%) responded to at least 1 of the up to 3 messages. Seven of 8 interviewed patients had a positive text-messaging experience. Bidirectional text messaging is a feasible and largely acceptable form of communication for test reminders that has the potential to reach large numbers of patients in clinical care. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  13. Model-based software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettervall, Brenda T.

    1994-01-01

    The activities of a field test site for the Software Engineering Institute's software process definition project are discussed. Products tested included the improvement model itself, descriptive modeling techniques, the CMM level 2 framework document, and the use of process definition guidelines and templates. The software process improvement model represents a five stage cyclic approach for organizational process improvement. The cycles consist of the initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and leveraging phases.

  14. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Progress on lipid extraction from wet algal biomass for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; González González, Lina M; Chan, William; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-11-01

    Lipid recovery and purification from microalgal cells continues to be a significant bottleneck in biodiesel production due to high costs involved and a high energy demand. Therefore, there is a considerable necessity to develop an extraction method which meets the essential requirements of being safe, cost-effective, robust, efficient, selective, environmentally friendly, feasible for large-scale production and free of product contamination. The use of wet concentrated algal biomass as a feedstock for oil extraction is especially desirable as it would avoid the requirement for further concentration and/or drying. This would save considerable costs and circumvent at least two lengthy processes during algae-based oil production. This article provides an overview on recent progress that has been made on the extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass. The biggest contributing factors appear to be the composition of algal cell walls, pre-treatments of biomass and the use of solvents (e.g. a solvent mixture or solvent-free lipid extraction). We compare recently developed wet extraction processes for oleaginous microalgae and make recommendations towards future research to improve lipid extraction from wet algal biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Improvement of lipid content in green algae for subsequent use in bio-fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojtaba Azma; Raha Abdul Rahim; Rosfarizan Mohamad; Arbakariya Ariff

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Heterotrophic cultivation technique of microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, in shake flask under different medium composition and culture conditions were developed aimed at improvement of the cell composition and biomass production for subsequent used in bio diesel synthesis. Heterotrophic microalgae cell was developed from the adaptation of the photo trophic cell by photo periodic, manipulation of medium and culture conditions. The performance of heterotrophic cultivation of T. suecica was substantially improved in term of growth rate, final cell concentration, specific growth rate and productivity as well as cell composition especially totals lipid concentration. The cultivation time to reach maximum cell concentration was decreased from 408 hr in photoautotrophic to 142 hr in heterotrophic cultivation. The final cell concentration (24.3 g/L) was increased more than three times in heterotrophic cultivation as compared to that obtained in photoautotrophic cultivation (8.4 g/L). In addition, the maximum productivity (0.17 g/L.h -1 ) for heterotrophic cultivation was nine times higher than photoautotrophic cultivation (0.02 g/L.h -1 ). Moreover the among of protein decreased from 47.7 percentage of dry cell weight in photoautotrophic to 10.5 percent in heterotrophic cells. On the other side the total lipid (53.8) and carbohydrate (14.8) percentage of dry cell weight in heterotrophic cells increased more than two times compare with photoautotrophic cells (24.5 and 7.4 respectively) that is very important from bio fuel production viewpoint. (author)

  17. Radiotherapy improves serum fatty acids and lipid profile in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Sana; Channa, Naseem Aslam; Talpur, Farha Naz; Younis, Muhammad; Tabassum, Naila

    2017-05-18

    Breast cancer is a disease with diverse clinical symptoms, molecular profiles, and its nature to response its therapeutic treatments. Radiotherapy (RT), along with surgery and chemotherapy is a part of treatment in breast cancer. The aim of present study was to investigate pre and post treatment effects of radiotherapy in serum fatty acids and its lipids profile in patients with breast cancer. In this comparative as well as follow up study, Serum fatty acids were performed by gas chromatography to investigate fatty acids and Microlab for analysis of lipid profile. Among serum free and total fatty acids the major saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in serum lipids of breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) were stearic acid (18:0) and palmitic acid (16:0). These fatty acids contributed about 35-50% of total fatty acids. The decreased concentrations of linoleic acid (C18:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4) with a lower ratio of C18:2/C18:1 was found in pretreated breast cancer patients as compared to controls. The n-3/n-6 ratio of breast cancer patients was decreased before treatment but it was 35% increased after treatment. In addition, plasma activity of D6 desaturase was increased in the breast cancer patients, while the activity of D5 desaturase was decreased. Increased levels of SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) as compared to controls. Serum total cholesterol (TC) (224.4 mg/dL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (142.9 mg/dL) were significantly increased in pretreated breast cancer patients but after the radiotherapy treatment, the TC (150.2 mg/dL) and LDL-C (89.8 mg/dL) were decreased. It seems that RT would have played a potential role in the treatment of BC. After RT the serum levels of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C are improved. Our study reinforces the important role of RT in the management of BC. The level of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C can be

  18. Lipid nanocarriers (GeluPearl) containing amphiphilic lipid Gelucire 50/13 as a novel stabilizer: fabrication, characterization and evaluation for oral drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Abhijit A; Nagarsenker, Mangal S; Vador, Nimish; Jagtap, Aarti

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the ability of Gelucire 50/13 (an amphiphilic lipid excipient) to act as a stabilizer for lipid nanocarriers such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and to establish the ability of Gelucire 50/13 based lipid nanocarriers to improve oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs using repaglinide (RPG) as a model drug. Methods. The ability of Gelucire 50/13 to nanosize various solid lipids was evaluated. The ability of Gelucire 50/13 to yield NLC was evaluated by using Precirol ATO 5 as a model solid lipid and various liquid lipids (oils). Gelucire 50/13 based NLC (GeluPearl) were evaluated for their ability to improve the efficacy of RPG on oral administration in comparison to RPG tablets. The short term stability of RPG-GeluPearl was evaluated at 25 deg. C/60% RH. Results. Gelucire 50/13 could successfully yield SLN and NLC of various solid lipids, demonstrating its potential to act as a novel stabilizer. DSC studies indicated that Gelucire 50/13 interacts with Precirol ATO 5 and this interaction suppresses polymorphic transitions of both the components. RPG-GeluPearl exhibited significantly higher anti-diabetic activity compared to marketed RPG tablets. RPG-GeluPearl demonstrated good colloidal and chemical stability at the end of 1 month.

  19. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC): Overcoming the anatomical and physiological barriers of the eye - Part II - Ocular drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, E; Espina, M; Doktorovova, S; Souto, E B; García, M L

    2017-01-01

    In the recent decades, various controlled delivery systems have been introduced with the aim to improve solubility, stability and bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. Among all, lipid nanoparticles gather interesting properties as drug or gene delivery carriers. These systems, composed either of solid lipids (SLN) or of solid and liquid lipids (NLC) stabilized with surfactants, combine the advantages of other colloidal particles such as polymeric nanoparticles, fat emulsions and liposomes avoiding their main disadvantages. Lipid nanoparticles represent an interesting approach for eye drug delivery as they can improve the corneal absorption of drugs enhancing their bioavailability. The Generally Recognized as Safe status of formulation excipients, the scaling-up facilities and the possibility of sterilization, make them suitable for industrial production. In this review, the latest findings, potential applications, and challenges related to the use of lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery are comprehensively discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  2. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  3. Characterization of lipidic markers of chondrogenic differentiation using mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Beatriz; Cillero-Pastor, Berta; Eijkel, Gert; Bruinen, Anne L; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; Heeren, Ron M A; Blanco, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are an interesting alternative for cell-based therapy of cartilage defects attributable to their capacity to differentiate toward chondrocytes in the process termed chondrogenesis. The metabolism of lipids has recently been associated with the modulation of chondrogenesis and also with the development of pathologies related to cartilage degeneration. Information about the distribution and modulation of lipids during chondrogenesis could provide a panel of putative chondrogenic markers. Thus, the discovery of new lipid chondrogenic markers could be highly valuable for improving MSC-based cartilage therapies. In this work, MS imaging was used to characterize the spatial distribution of lipids in human bone marrow MSCs during the first steps of chondrogenic differentiation. The analysis of MSC micromasses at days 2 and 14 of chondrogenesis by MALDI-MSI led to the identification of 20 different lipid species, including fatty acids, sphingolipids, and phospholipids. Phosphocholine, several sphingomyelins, and phosphatidylcholines were found to increase during the undifferentiated chondrogenic stage. A particularly detected lipid profile was verified by TOF secondary ion MS. Using this technology, a higher intensity of phosphocholine-related ions was observed in the peripheral region of the micromasses collected at day 14. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lipid nanoparticles of zaleplon for improved oral delivery by Box-Behnken design: optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhipala, Narendar; Janga, Karthik Yadav

    2017-07-01

    Zaleplon (ZL) is a hypnotic drug prescribed for the management of insomnia and convulsions. The oral bioavailability of ZL was low (∼30%) owing to poor water solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. The cornerstone of this investigation is to develop and optimize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of ZL with the aid of Box-Behnken design (BBD) to improve the oral bioavailability. A design space with three formulation variables at three levels were evaluated in BBD. Amount of lipid (A 1 ), amount of surfactant (A 2 ) and concentration of co-surfactant (%) (A 3 ) were selected as independent variables, whereas, particle size (B 1 ), entrapment efficiency (B 2 ) and zeta potential (ZP, B 3 ) as responses. ZL-SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization with ultrasonication method and evaluated for responses to obtain optimized formulation. Morphology of nanoparticles was observed under SEM. DSC and XRD studies were examined to understand the native crystalline behavior of drug in SLN formulations. Further, in vivo studies were performed in Wistar rats. The optimized formulation with 132.89 mg of lipid, 106.7 mg of surfactant and 0.2% w/v of co-surfactant ensued in the nanoparticles with 219.9 ± 3.7 nm of size, -25.66 ± 2.83 mV surface charge and 86.83 ± 2.65% of entrapment efficiency. SEM studies confirmed the spherical shape of SLN formulations. The DSC and XRD studies revealed the transformation of crystalline drug to amorphous form in SLN formulation. In conclusion, in vivo studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated an improvement in the oral bioavailability of ZL from SLN over control ZL suspension. The enhancement in the oral bioavailability of ZL from SLNs, developed with the aid of BBD, explicated the potential of lipid-based nanoparticles as a potential carrier in improving the oral delivery of this poorly soluble drug.

  5. Efficient encapsulation of antisense oligonucleotides in lipid vesicles using ionizable aminolipids: formation of novel small multilamellar vesicle structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S C; Klimuk, S K; Harasym, T O; Dos Santos, N; Ansell, S M; Wong, K F; Maurer, N; Stark, H; Cullis, P R; Hope, M J; Scherrer, P

    2001-02-09

    Typical methods used for encapsulating antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and plasmid DNA in lipid vesicles result in very low encapsulation efficiencies or employ cationic lipids that exhibit unfavorable pharmacokinetic and toxicity characteristics when administered intravenously. In this study, we describe and characterize a novel formulation process that utilizes an ionizable aminolipid (1,2-dioleoyl-3-dimethylammonium propane, DODAP) and an ethanol-containing buffer system for encapsulating large quantities (0.15--0.25 g ODN/g lipid) of polyanionic ODN in lipid vesicles. This process requires the presence of up to 40% ethanol (v/v) and initial formulation at acidic pH values where the DODAP is positively charged. In addition, the presence of a poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid was required during the formulation process to prevent aggregation. The 'stabilized antisense-lipid particles' (SALP) formed are stable on adjustment of the external pH to neutral pH values and the formulation process allows encapsulation efficiencies of up to 70%. ODN encapsulation was confirmed by nuclease protection assays and (31)P NMR measurements. Cryo-electron microscopy indicated that the final particles consisted of a mixed population of unilamellar and small multilamellar vesicles (80--140 nm diameter), the relative proportion of which was dependent on the initial ODN to lipid ratio. Finally, SALP exhibited significantly enhanced circulation lifetimes in mice relative to free antisense ODN, cationic lipid/ODN complexes and SALP prepared with quaternary aminolipids. Given the small particle sizes and improved encapsulation efficiency, ODN to lipid ratios, and circulation times of this formulation compared to others, we believe SALP represent a viable candidate for systemic applications involving nucleic acid therapeutics.

  6. Lipid profiling demonstrates that suppressing Arabidopsis phospholipase Dδ retards ABA-promoted leaf senescence by attenuating lipid degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Jia

    Full Text Available Senescence is the last phase of the plant life cycle and has an important role in plant development. Degradation of membrane lipids is an essential process during leaf senescence. Several studies have reported fundamental changes in membrane lipids and phospholipase D (PLD activity as leaves senesce. Suppression of phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1 retards abscisic acid (ABA-promoted senescence. However, given the absence of studies that have profiled changes in the compositions of membrane lipid molecules during leaf senescence, there is no direct evidence that PLD affects lipid composition during the process. Here, we show that application of n-butanol, an inhibitor of PLD, and N-Acylethanolamine (NAE 12∶0, a specific inhibitor of PLDα1, retarded ABA-promoted senescence to different extents. Furthermore, phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ was induced in leaves treated with ABA, and suppression of PLDδ retarded ABA-promoted senescence in Arabidopsis. Lipid profiling revealed that detachment-induced senescence had different effects on plastidic and extraplastidic lipids. The accelerated degradation of plastidic lipids during ABA-induced senescence in wild-type plants was attenuated in PLDδ-knockout (PLDδ-KO plants. Dramatic increases in phosphatidic acid (PA and decreases in phosphatidylcholine (PC during ABA-induced senescence were also suppressed in PLDδ-KO plants. Our results suggest that PLDδ-mediated hydrolysis of PC to PA plays a positive role in ABA-promoted senescence. The attenuation of PA formation resulting from suppression of PLDδ blocks the degradation of membrane lipids, which retards ABA-promoted senescence.

  7. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  8. Nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of Astronium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifácio BV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruna Vidal Bonifácio,1 Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos,1 Patrícia Bento da Silva,2 Kamila Maria Silveira Negri,1 Érica de Oliveira Lopes,1 Leonardo Perez de Souza,3 Wagner Vilegas,4 Fernando Rogério Pavan,1 Marlus Chorilli,2 Taís Maria Bauab11Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Organic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Coastal Campus of São Vicente, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, São Vicente, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The genus Astronium (Anacardiaceae includes species, such as Astronium fraxinifolium, Astronium graveolens, and Astronium urundeuva, which possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, healing, and antimicrobial properties. Nanostructured lipid systems are able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects and improving antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system that was developed as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of stems and leaves from Astronium sp. The antifungal activity against C. albicans (ATCC 18804 was evaluated in vitro by a microdilution technique. In addition to the in vitro assays, the Astronium sp. that showed the best antifungal activity and selectivity index was submitted to an in vivo assay using a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. In these assays, the extracts were either used alone or were incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (comprising 10% oil phase, 10% surfactant, and 80% aqueous phase. The results indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration of 125.00 µg/mL before incorporation into the nanostructured system; this activity was even more enhanced when this extract presented a minimal inhibitory concentration of 15.62 µg/mL after its incorporation. In vivo assay dates showed that the

  9. PROCESS VARIABILITY REDUCTION THROUGH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Mahesh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become one of the most important customer decision factors in the selection among the competing product and services. Consequently, understanding and improving quality is a key factor leading to business success, growth and an enhanced competitive position. Hence quality improvement program should be an integral part of the overall business strategy. According to TQM, the effective way to improve the Quality of the product or service is to improve the process used to build the product. Hence, TQM focuses on process, rather than results as the results are driven by the processes. Many techniques are available for quality improvement. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one such TQM technique which is widely accepted for analyzing quality problems and improving the performance of the production process. This article illustrates the step by step procedure adopted at a soap manufacturing company to improve the Quality by reducing process variability using Statistical Process Control.

  10. Entropy based software processes improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.J.M.; Kusters, R.J.; Kriek, D.; Siemons, P.

    2009-01-01

    Actual results of software process improvement projects show different levels of success. Although many software development organisations have adopted improvement models such as CMMI, it appears to be difficult to improve software development processes in the right way, e.g. tuned to the actual

  11. Engineering Aspergillus oryzae A-4 through the chromosomal insertion of foreign cellulase expression cassette to improve conversion of cellulosic biomass into lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lin

    Full Text Available A genetic modification scheme was designed for Aspergillus oryzae A-4, a natural cellulosic lipids producer, to enhance its lipid production from biomass by putting the spotlight on improving cellulase secretion. Four cellulase genes were separately expressed in A-4 under the control of hlyA promoter, with the help of the successful development of a chromosomal genetic manipulation system. Comparison of cellulase activities of PCR-positive transformants showed that these transformants integrated with celA gene and with celC gene had significantly (p<0.05 higher average FPAase activities than those strains integrated with celB gene and with celD gene. Through the assessment of cellulosic lipids accumulating abilities, celA transformant A2-2 and celC transformant D1-B1 were isolated as promising candidates, which could yield 101%-133% and 35.22%-59.57% higher amount of lipids than the reference strain A-4 (WT under submerged (SmF conditions and solid-state (SSF conditions, respectively. Variability in metabolism associated to the introduction of cellulase gene in A2-2 and D1-B1 was subsequently investigated. It was noted that cellulase expression repressed biomass formation but enhanced lipid accumulation; whereas the inhibitory effect on cell growth would be shielded during cellulosic lipids production owing to the essential role of cellulase in substrate utilization. Different metabolic profiles also existed between A2-2 and D1-B1, which could be attributed to not only different transgene but also biological impacts of different integration. Overall, both simultaneous saccharification and lipid accumulation were enhanced in A2-2 and D1-B1, resulting in efficient conversion of cellulose into lipids. A regulation of cellulase secretion in natural cellulosic lipids producers could be a possible strategy to enhance its lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Strategies to enhance the production of photosynthetic pigments and lipids in chlorophycae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente-Valdés, Juan Roberto; Aguilar, Cristóbal; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan Carlos; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Montañez, Julio

    2016-06-01

    Microalgae are a major natural source for a vast array of valuable compounds as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, pigments among others. Despite many applications, only a few species of microalgae are cultured commercially because of poorly developed of cultivation process. Nowadays some strategies of culture have been used for enhancing biomass and value compounds yield. The most strategies applied to microalgae are classified into two groups: nutrimental and physical. The nutrimental are considered as change in media composition as nitrogen and phosphorous limitation and changes in carbon source, while physical are described as manipulation in operational conditions and external factors such as application of high-light intensities, medium salinity and electromagnetic fields. The exposition to electromagnetic field is a promising technique that can improve the pigments and biomass yield in microalgae culture. Therefore, is important to describe the advantages and applications of the overall process. The aim of this review was to describe the main culture strategies used to improve the photosynthetic and lipids content in chlorophyceae species.

  13. The epidermis of grhl3-null mice displays altered lipid processing and cellular hyperproliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Stephen B; Caddy, Jacinta; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Auden, Alana; Cunningham, John M; Elias, Peter M; Holleran, Walter M; Jane, Stephen M

    2005-04-01

    The presence of an impermeable surface barrier is an essential homeostatic mechanism in almost all living organisms. We have recently described a novel gene that is critical for the developmental instruction and repair of the integument in mammals. This gene, Grainy head-like 3 (Grhl3) is a member of a large family of transcription factors that are homologs of the Drosophila developmental gene grainy head (grh). Mice lacking Grhl3 fail to form an adequate skin barrier, and die at birth due to dehydration. These animals are also unable to repair the epidermis, exhibiting failed wound healing in both fetal and adult stages of development. These defects are due, in part, to diminished expression of a Grhl3 target gene, Transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1), which encodes a key enzyme involved in cross-linking of epidermal structural proteins and lipids into the cornified envelope (CE). Remarkably, the Drosophila grh gene plays an analogous role, regulating enzymes involved in the generation of quinones, which are essential for cross-linking structural components of the fly epidermis. In an extension of our initial analyses, we focus this report on additional defects observed in the Grhl3-null epidermis, namely defective extra-cellular lipid processing, altered lamellar lipid architecture and cellular hyperproliferation. These abnormalities suggest that Grhl3 plays diverse mechanistic roles in maintaining homeostasis in the skin.

  14. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated......Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  15. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  16. Strawberry (cv. Romina Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS content and antioxidant enzymes’ activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction.

  17. Process improvement : the creation and evaluation of process alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    Companies continuously strive to improve their processes to increase productivity and delivered quality against lower costs. With Business Process Redesign (BPR) projects such improvement goals can be achieved. BPR involves the restructuring of business processes, stimulated by the application of

  18. Why Process Improvement Training Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dawei; Betts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying reasons why providing process improvement training, by itself, may not be sufficient to achieve the desired outcome of improved processes; and to attempt a conceptual framework of management training for more effective improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Two similar units within…

  19. Electrosprayed core–shell polymer–lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Stride, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core–shell polymer–lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core–shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core–shell form. (paper)

  20. Encapsulation of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in lipid particles improves antitumoral efficacy in vivo in a human melanoma line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, C; Biroccio, A; Benassi, B; Stringaro, A; Stoppacciaro, A; Semple, S C; Zupi, G

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorothioate c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides [S]ODNs (free INX-6295) were encapsulated in a new liposome formulation and the antitumor activity was compared to the unencapsulated antisense in a human melanoma xenograft. The systemic administration of INX-6295 encapsulated in stabilized antisense lipid particles (SALP INX-6295) improved plasma AUC (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) and initial half-life of free INX-6295, resulting in a significant enhancement in tumor accumulation and improvement in tumor distribution of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Animals treated with SALP INX-6295 exhibited a prolonged reduction of c-myc expression, reduced tumor growth and increased mice survival. When administered in combination with cisplatin (DDP), SALP INX-6295 produced a complete tumor regression in approximately 30% of treated mice, which persisted for at least 60 days following the first cycle of treatment. Finally, the median survival of mice treated with DDP/SALP INX-6295 increased by 105% compared to 84% for animals treated with the combination DDP/free INX-6295. These data indicate that the biological activity and the therapeutic efficacy of c-myc antisense therapy may be improved when these agents are administered in lipid-based delivery systems.

  1. Enhanced lipid extraction from microalgae in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myung-Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to secure more effective lipid extraction method, this research investigated new lipid extraction method using laser with absorbent and sought its optimum operation control. In addition, this study compared lipid extraction efficiency and FAME conversion rate between laser extraction method at optimum condition and existing extraction method. Results from experiments for optimizing lipid extraction method using laser showed that the maximum extraction efficiency (81.8% was attained when using laser with an output capacity of 75Wh/L. Extraction efficiency increased up to 90.8% when microwave treatment as pretreatment process was conducted. Addition of absorbents during lipid extraction process with laser showed higher extraction efficiency than laser and chemical method. It was also found that laser extraction method with absorbent had higher total fatty acid content (853.7 mg/g oil in extracted lipid than chemical extraction method (825.4 mg/g oil. Furthermore, it had the highest FAME conversion rate (94.2%.

  2. Fat & fabulous: bifunctional lipids in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkant, Per; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2014-08-01

    Understanding biological processes at the mechanistic level requires a systematic charting of the physical and functional links between all cellular components. While protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid networks have been subject to many global surveys, other critical cellular components such as membrane lipids have rarely been studied in large-scale interaction screens. Here, we review the development of photoactivatable and clickable lipid analogues-so-called bifunctional lipids-as novel chemical tools that enable a global profiling of lipid-protein interactions in biological membranes. Recent studies indicate that bifunctional lipids hold great promise in systematic efforts to dissect the elaborate crosstalk between proteins and lipids in live cells and organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cationic lipid-coated PEI/DNA polyplexes with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity for gene delivery into mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song HM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongmei Song, Gang Wang, Bin He, Li Li, Caixia Li, Yusi Lai, Xianghui Xu, Zhongwei GuNational Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Effective gene transfection without serum deprivation is a prerequisite for successful stem cell-based gene therapy. Polyethylenimine (PEI is an efficient nonviral gene vector, but its application has been hindered by serum sensitivity and severe cytotoxicity.Methods: To solve this problem, a new family of lipopolyplexes was developed by coating PEI/DNA polyplexes with three serum-resistant cationic lipids, namely, lysinylated, histidylated, and arginylated cholesterol. The physical properties, transfection efficiency, cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and cytotoxicity of the lipopolyplexes was investigated.Results: The outer coat composed of lysinylated or histidylated cholesterol remarkably improved the transfection efficiency of the polyplex with a low PEI/DNA ratio of 2 in the presence of serum. The resulting lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipopolyplexes were even more efficient than the best performing polyplex with a high PEI/DNA ratio of 10. Results from cellular uptake and subcellular distribution studies suggest that their higher transfection efficiency may result from accelerated DNA nuclear localization. The superiority of the lipopolyplexes over the best performing polyplex was also confirmed by delivering the therapeutic gene, hVEGF165. Equally importantly, the lipid coating removed the necessity of introducing excess free PEI chains into the transfection solution for higher efficiency, generating lipopolyplexes with no signs of cytotoxicity.Conclusion: Noncovalent modification of polyplexes with lysinylated and histidylated cholesterol lipids can simultaneously improve efficiency and reduce the toxicity of gene delivery under serum conditions, showing great promise for genetic modification of bone

  4. SEL's Software Process-Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin; McGarry, Frank; Page, Jerry; Waligora, Sharon; Pajerski, Rose

    1995-01-01

    The goals and operations of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is reviewed. For nearly 20 years the SEL has worked to understand, assess, and improve software and the development process within the production environment of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SEL was established in 1976 with the goals of reducing: (1) the defect rate of delivered software, (2) the cost of software to support flight projects, and (3) the average time to produce mission-support software. After studying over 125 projects of FDD, the results have guided the standards, management practices, technologies, and the training within the division. The results of the studies have been a 75 percent reduction in defects, a 50 percent reduction in cost, and a 25 percent reduction in development time. Over time the goals of SEL have been clarified. The goals are now stated as: (1) Understand baseline processes and product characteristics, (2) Assess improvements that have been incorporated into the development projects, (3) Package and infuse improvements into the standard SEL process. The SEL improvement goal is to demonstrate continual improvement of the software process by carrying out analysis, measurement and feedback to projects with in the FDD environment. The SEL supports the understanding of the process by study of several processes including, the effort distribution, and error detection rates. The SEL assesses and refines the processes. Once the assessment and refinement of a process is completed, the SEL packages the process by capturing the process in standards, tools and training.

  5. Lipids in the cell: organisation regulates function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana L; Preta, Giulio

    2018-06-01

    Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Lipid organisation is tightly regulated and can be observed across different model organisms, including bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that lipid organisation is evolutionarily conserved. In this review, we summarise the importance and function of specific lipid domains in main cellular organelles and discuss recent advances that investigate how these specific and highly regulated structures contribute to diverse biological processes.

  6. Evaluation of lipid extractability after flash hydrolysis of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Ali; Adams, Kameron J.; Dong, Tao; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-07-01

    Microalgae is identified as a promising feedstock for producing renewable liquid transportation fuels; however, lipids extraction from microalgae for downstream processing to biofuels is one of the important challenges for algal based biorefineries. This work aims at evaluating the potential of applying flash hydrolysis (FH) as a chemical-free technique to increase the lipids extractability of algal biomass as well as its integration with the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae to enhance the biocrude yields and characteristics for fuel production. To this aim, the FH process was performed on three different algal species (Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Chlorella vulgaris) at 280 degrees C and 10 s of residence time. Following FH, in addition to the nutrients rich hydrolysate, approximately, 40 wt% of solids containing almost all (>90 wt%) the lipids termed as biofuels intermediates (BI), were recovered. Kinetics study on lipids extractability from the BI and their lipid profile analyses were conducted for each algal species. The results showed that the FH process had significantly enhanced the lipids extractability. For all three algae species, lipid yields from BI were higher than that of the raw algae. Lipid yields of Chlorella vulgaris in the first 15 min were more than five times higher (52.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.7 +/- 0.9 wt%) than that of raw algae during n-hexane based solvent extraction. The kinetics of lipids extractability followed a zero-order reaction rate for all wet raw microalgae and the BI of Scenedesmus sp., while the BI recovered from the other two algal species were determined as a second-order reaction. Comparison of fatty acids profiles indicated the contribution of the FH process in saturating fatty acids. Subsequent to lipids extraction, a conventional hydrothermal liquefaction was performed at 350 degrees C and 1 h to compare the biocrude yields from raw versus BI of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The results showed that the

  7. The Mediator Complex and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoping; Yang, Fajun

    2013-03-01

    The precise control of gene expression is essential for all biological processes. In addition to DNA-binding transcription factors, numerous transcription cofactors contribute another layer of regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotic cells. One of such transcription cofactors is the highly conserved Mediator complex, which has multiple subunits and is involved in various biological processes through directly interacting with relevant transcription factors. Although the current understanding on the biological functions of Mediator remains incomplete, research in the past decade has revealed an important role of Mediator in regulating lipid metabolism. Such function of Mediator is dependent on specific transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which represent the master regulators of lipid metabolism. The medical significance of these findings is apparent, as aberrant lipid metabolism is intimately linked to major human diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we briefly review the functions and molecular mechanisms of Mediator in regulation of lipid metabolism.

  8. Lipofectamine and related cationic lipids strongly improve adenoviral infection efficiency of primitive human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, T; Haddada, H; Vainchenker, W; Louache, F

    1998-11-20

    Adenoviral vectors have the potential to infect a large number of cell types including quiescent cells. Their use in hematopoietic cells is limited by the episomal form of their DNA, leading to transgene loss in the progeny cells. However, the use of this vector may be interesting for short-term in vitro modifications of primitive human hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we have investigated the ability of adenovirus to transduce cord blood CD34+ cells. Several promoters were tested using the lacZ reporter gene. The PGK and CMV promoters induced transgene expression in 18-25% of the cells, whereas the HTLV-I and especially the RSV promoter were almost inactive. To improve infection efficiency, adenovirus was complexed with cationic lipids. Lipofectamine, Cellfectin, and RPR120535b, but not Lipofectin, Lipofectace, or DOTAP, markedly improved transgene expression in CD34+ cells (from 19 to 35%). Lipofectamine strongly enhanced infection efficiency of the poorly infectable primitive CD34+CD38low cells (from 11 to 28%) whereas the more mature CD34+CD38+ cells were only slightly affected (from 24 to 31%). Lipofectamine tripled the infection of CFU-GMs and LTC-ICs derived from the CD34+CD38low cell fraction (from 4 to 12% and from 5 to 16%, respectively) and doubled that of BFU-Es (from 13 to 26%). We conclude that cationic lipids can markedly increase the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells.

  9. Improved outcome in neonatal short bowel syndrome using parenteral fish oil in combination with ω-6/9 lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angsten, Gertrud; Finkel, Yigael; Lucas, Steven; Kassa, Ann-Marie; Paulsson, Mattias; Lilja, Helene Engstrand

    2012-09-01

    Newborn infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) represent a high-risk group of developing intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), which may be fatal. However, infants have a great capacity for intestinal growth and adaptation if IFALD can be prevented or reversed. A major contributing factor to IFALD may be the soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsions used since the introduction of parenteral nutrition (PN) 40 years ago. This retrospective study compares the outcome in 20 neonates with SBS treated with parenteral fish oil (Omegaven) in combination with ω-6/9 lipid emulsions (ClinOleic) with the outcome in a historical cohort of 18 patients with SBS who received a soybean oil-based intravenous lipid emulsion (Intralipid). Median gestational age was 26 weeks in the treatment group and 35.5 weeks in the historical group. All patients were started on PN containing Intralipid that was switched to ClinOleic/Omegaven in the treatment group at a median age of 39 gestational weeks. In the treatment group, direct bilirubin levels were reversed in all 14 survivors with cholestasis (direct bilirubin >50 umol/L). Median time to reversal was 2.9 months. Only 2 patients died of liver failure (10%). In the historical cohort, 6 patients (33%) died of liver failure, and only 2 patients showed normalization of bilirubin levels. Parenteral fish oil in combination with ω-6/9 lipid emulsions was associated with improved outcome in premature neonates with SBS. When used instead of traditional soybean-based emulsions, this mixed lipid emulsion may facilitate intestinal adaptation by increasing the IFALD-free period.

  10. Pluronic-Functionalized Silica-Lipid Hybrid Microparticles: Improving the Oral Delivery of Poorly Water-Soluble Weak Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shasha; Richter, Katharina; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Boyd, Ben J; Porter, Christopher J H; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A

    2015-12-07

    A Pluronic-functionalized silica-lipid hybrid (Plu-SLH) microparticle system for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble, weak base drugs is reported for the first time. A highly effective Plu-SLH microparticle system was composed of Labrasol as the lipid phase, Pluronic F127 as the polymeric precipitation inhibitor (PPI), and silica nanoparticles as the solid carrier. For the model drug cinnarizine (CIN), the Plu-SLH delivery system was shown to offer significant biopharmaceutical advantages in comparison with unformulated drug and drug in the silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) system. In vitro two-phase dissolution studies illustrated significantly reduced pH provoked CIN precipitation and an 8- to 14-fold improvement in the extent of dissolution in intestinal conditions. In addition, under simulated intestinal digesting conditions, the Plu-SLH provided approximately three times more drug solubilization than the SLH. Oral administration in rats resulted in superior bioavailability for Plu-SLH microparticles, i.e., 1.6- and 2.1-fold greater than the SLH and the unformulated CIN, respectively. A physical mixture of Pluronic and SLH (Plu&SLH), having the same composition as Plu-SLH, was also evaluated, but showed no significant increase in CIN absorption when compared to unmodified CIN or SLH. This work represents the first study where different methods of incorporating PPI to formulate solid-state lipid-based formulations were compared for the impact on the biopharmaceutical performance. The data suggest that the novel physicochemical properties and structure of the fabricated Plu-SLH microparticle delivery system play an important role in facilitating the synergistic advantage of Labrasol and Pluronic F127 in preventing drug precipitation, and the Plu-SLH provides efficient oral delivery of poorly water-soluble weak bases.

  11. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Orodispersible tablets containing taste-masked solid lipid pellets with metformin hydrochloride: Influence of process parameters on tablet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Compaction of multiparticulates into tablets, particularly into orodispersible tablets (ODTs), is challenging. The compression of pellets, made by solid lipid extrusion/spheronization processes, presents peculiar difficulties since solid lipids usually soften or melt at relatively low temperature ranges and due to applied mechanical forces. Until now, there are no reports in literature about the development of ODTs based on solid lipid pellets. To investigate the feasibility of producing such tablets, a design of experiment (DoE) approach was performed to elucidate the influence of compression force and amount of two co-processed excipients (Ludiflash ® and Parteck ® ODT) on properties of the tablets (friability, tensile strength, and disintegration time). ODTs (15 mm, flat-faced) with solid lipid pellets (250-1000 µm in diameter) containing 500 mg of metformin HCl, presenting immediate drug release profile and taste-masked properties, were targeted. During compression, a strong lamination of the tablets containing Parteck ® ODT was observed. This phenomenon was prominently observed when high compression forces (≥5 kN) and high excipient amounts (≥40%; w/w) were used. On the other hand, the DoE focused on tablets with Ludiflash ® showed better results regarding the production of ODTs. A positive influence of the compression force on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets, regarding specifications of the Ph. Eur., was observed. The increase in the amount of this excipient resulted in fast disintegrating tablets, however, a negative influence on the tensile strength was noticed. After optimization of the parameters and formulation, based on the DoE results and considering the Ph. Eur. specifications for tablets, ODTs based on lipid pellets containing metformin HCl presenting immediate release profile (85% drug release in less than 30 min) and taste-masked properties (determined by an electronic tongue) were successfully

  13. Aging Increases Susceptibility to High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6 Mice: Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profile after Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Nunes-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been considered a novel component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, with the oxidative stress participating in its progression. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic profile in young and old mice with MetS, and the effects of apocynin and tempol on glycemic and lipid parameters. Young and old C57BL/6 mice with high fat diet- (HFD- induced MetS received apocynin and tempol 50 mg·kg−1/day in their drinking water for 10 weeks. After HFD, the young group showed elevated fasting glucose, worsened lipid profile in plasma, steatosis, and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the old group presented significant increase in fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and pronounced steatosis. The hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ between the groups. Tempol and apocynin seemed to prevent hepatic lipid deposition in both groups. Furthermore, apocynin improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in old mice. In summary, old mice are more susceptible to HFD-induced metabolic changes than their young counterparts. Also, the antioxidant therapy improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and in addition, apocynin seemed to prevent the HFD-induced hepatic fat deposition, suggesting an important role of oxidative stress in the induction of NAFLD.

  14. Cellular uptake and processing of surfactant lipids and apoprotein SP-A by rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.L.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The intracellular pathways and the kinetics of metabolism of surfactant apoprotein and lipid, which may be recycled from the alveolar space, are largely unknown. We used a lipid-apoprotein complex made from liposomes of pure lipids in a ratio found in mammalian pulmonary surfactant plus surfactant apoprotein (SP-A, Mr = 26,000-36,000) to test some possible relationships in the recycling of these major surfactant components between intrapulmonary compartments. After intratracheal instillation of 80 microliters of an apoprotein-liposome mixture with separate radiolabels in the lipid and the apoprotein, rats were killed at times from 8 min to 4 h later. The lungs were lavaged with saline, and subcellular fractions were isolated on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. Both the [ 14 C]lipid radiolabel and the 125 I-apoprotein radiolabel demonstrated a time-dependent increase in radioactivity recovered in a lamellar body-enriched fraction. Uptake of the radiolabels into other subcellular fractions did not exhibit a clear-cut time dependence; more of the protein than the lipid radiolabel was found in the Golgi-rich and microsomal fractions. We conclude that both the lipid and apoprotein portions of lung surfactant are taken up by lung cells and are incorporated into secretory granules of the cells

  15. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  16. [Germ cell membrane lipids in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Xiao; Quan, Song

    2016-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  17. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  18. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  19. Improving the Delivery of SOD1 Antisense Oligonucleotides to Motor Neurons Using Calcium Phosphate-Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1 in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs can efficiently silence proteins with gain-of-function mutations. However, naked ASOs have a short circulation half-life and are unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB warranting the use of a drug carrier for effective delivery. In this study, calcium phosphate lipid coated nanoparticles (CaP-lipid NPs were developed for delivery of SOD1 ASO to motor neurons. The most promising nanoparticle formulation (Ca/P ratio of 100:1, had a uniform spherical core–shell morphology with an average size of 30 nm, and surface charge (ζ-potential of −4.86 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of ASO was 48% and stability studies found the particle to be stable over a period of 20 days. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged ASO-loaded CaP-lipid NPs could effectively deliver SOD1-targeted ASO into a mouse motor neuron-like cell line (NSC-34 through endocytosis and significantly down-regulated SOD1 expression in HEK293 cells. The CaP-lipid NPs exhibited a pH-dependant dissociation, suggesting that that the acidification of lysosomes is the likely mechanism responsible for facilitating intracellular ASO release. To demonstrate tissue specific delivery and localization of these NPs we performed in vivo microinjections into zebrafish. Successful delivery of these NPs was confirmed for the zebrafish brain, the blood stream, and the spinal cord. These results suggest that CaP-lipid

  20. The simulation approach to lipid-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, Teresa; Garzón, Diana; Holdbrook, Daniel A; Khalid, Syma; Bond, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between lipids and proteins are crucial for a range of biological processes, from the folding and stability of membrane proteins to signaling and metabolism facilitated by lipid-binding proteins. However, high-resolution structural details concerning functional lipid/protein interactions are scarce due to barriers in both experimental isolation of native lipid-bound complexes and subsequent biophysical characterization. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach provides a means to complement available structural data, yielding dynamic, structural, and thermodynamic data for a protein embedded within a physiologically realistic, modelled lipid environment. In this chapter, we provide a guide to current methods for setting up and running simulations of membrane proteins and soluble, lipid-binding proteins, using standard atomistically detailed representations, as well as simplified, coarse-grained models. In addition, we outline recent studies that illustrate the power of the simulation approach in the context of biologically relevant lipid/protein interactions.

  1. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  2. Lipids from yeasts and fungi: Tomorrow's source of Biodiesel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new transport fuels from renewable resources, biodiesel from microbial lipids comes into view. We have evaluated the lipid yield and energy use of a process for production of biodiesel from agricultural waste using lipid-accumulating yeast and fungi. We included different

  3. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have evaluated the antioxidant effect of green tea on cadmium-induced hepatic dysfunction and stress oxidant in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were administered cadmium by injection with 20 μmoles/Kg bw/3 days for six months. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) liver dysfunction, lipid peroxidation and a decline in ...

  4. Case Studies in Continuous Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on improving the SMT assembly process in a low-volume, high-reliability environment with emphasis on fine pitch and BGA packages. Before a process improvement is carried out, it is important to evaluate where the process stands in terms of process capability.

  5. Future directions in lipid therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Cholesterol management to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern. Despite widespread recognition of lipid abnormalities as cardiovascular risk factors, significant cardiovascular event reductions with cholesterol-lowering therapies, and dissemination of treatment guidelines, most high-risk patients are not at target lipid levels. In addition to lifestyle changes, four major drug classes are available to modify lipid levels: fibrates, niacin, resins, and statins. High efficacy and tolerability in clinical trials make statins the most widely prescribed of these agents. Newer, more potent members of this class and novel formulations of niacin and resins may provide more effective therapy for dyslipidemia with fewer side effects. Several agents in development (cholesterol-absorption inhibitors and ACAT inhibitors) exploit mechanisms of action complementary to those of current treatments and combined with statins may produce greater improvements in lipid profiles than are now possible. These innovations should enable a greater number of patients to achieve more aggressive cholesterol goals, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.

  6. Determination of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in processed food and complex lipid matrices. A new solid phase extraction (SPE) method for detection of irradiated components in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Detection of irradiated components in processed food with complex lipid matrices can be affected by two problems. First, the processed food may contain only a small amount of the irradiated component, and the radiation-induced hydrocarbons may be diluted throughout the lipid matrix of the whole food. Second, in complex lipid matrices, the detection of prior irradiation is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. In these cases, common solid phase extraction (SPE) Florisil clean-up alone is inadequate in the detection of prior irradiation. Subsequent SPE argentation chromatography of the Florisil eluate allows the measurement of small amounts of irradiated lipid-containing ingredients in processed food as well as the detection of prior irradiation in complex lipid matrices such as paprika and chilli. SPE argetation chromatography is the first method available for the selective enrichment of radiation-specific hydrocarbons from even complex lipid matrices, thus enabling the detection of irradiation does as low as 0.025 kGy. Furthermore, by using radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the detection of prior irradiation of paprika and chilli powder, a second independent method, the first being measurement of thermoluminescence, is available for the analysis of these matrices. Such analysis could be achieved by using this highly sensitive, cheap and easy to perform combined SPE Florisil/argentation chromatography method, without the need for sophisticated techniques like SFE-GC/MS or LC-GC/MS, so that highly sensitive detection of prior irradiation colud be performed in almost every laboratory

  7. Identification and characterization of lipid metabolism-related microRNAs in the liver of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-Fan; Qiang, Jun; Yin, Guo-Jun; Xu, Pao; Shi, Qiong; Bao, Jing-Wen

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in modulating diverse metabolic processes in the liver, including lipid metabolism. Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus), an important aquaculture species in China, is susceptible to hepatic steatosis when reared in intensive culture systems. To investigate the miRNAs involved in GIFT lipid metabolism, two hepatic small RNA libraries from high-fat diet-fed and normal-fat diet-fed GIFT were constructed and sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 204 known and 56 novel miRNAs were identified by aligning the sequencing data with known Danio rerio miRNAs listed in miRBase 21.0. Six known miRNAs (miR-30a-5p, miR-34a, miR-145-5p, miR-29a, miR-205-5p, and miR-23a-3p) that were differentially expressed between the high-fat diet and normal-fat diet groups were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs, and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated that these miRNAs may play important roles in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in GIFT. Our results provide a foundation for further studies of the role of miRNAs in tilapia lipid homeostasis regulation, and may help to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions to reduce the occurrence of fatty liver disease in farmed tilapia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Combined effects of headgroup charge and tail unsaturation of lipids on lateral organization and diffusion of lipids in model biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao-Jie; Liang Qing

    2017-01-01

    Lateral organization and dynamics of lipids in plasma membranes are crucial for several cellular processes such as signal transduction across the membrane and still remain elusive. In this paper, using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we theoretically study the combined effects of headgroup charge and tail unsaturation of lipids on the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids in ternary lipid bilayers. In neutral ternary lipid bilayers composed of saturated lipids, unsaturated lipids, and cholesterols, under the conditions of given temperature and components, the main factor for the phase separation is the unsaturation of unsaturated lipids and the bilayers can be separated into liquid-ordered domains enriched in saturated lipids and cholesterols and liquid-disordered domains enriched in unsaturated lipids. Once the headgroup charge is introduced, the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged lipid headgroups will increase the distance between the charged lipids. We find that the lateral organization and diffusion of the lipids in the (partially) charged ternary lipid bilayers are determined by the competition between the headgroup charge and the unsaturation of the unsaturated lipids. In the bilayers containing unsaturated lipids with lower unsaturation, the headgroup charge plays a crucial role in the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids. The headgroup charge may make the lipid domains unstable and even can suppress phase separation of the lipids in some systems. However, in the bilayers containing highly unsaturated lipids, the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids are mainly dominated by the unsaturation of the unsaturated lipids. This work may provide some theoretical insights into understanding the formation of nanosized domains and lateral diffusion of lipids in plasma membranes. (paper)

  9. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuxing; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Wang, Yueqi; Yang, Xianqing; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) was evaluated during processing with commonly used analytical indices, such as the peroxide value (POV), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and oxidative-relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Additionally, fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both POV and TBARS increased significantly ( P acids were identified. Combined eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n3) content varied between (19.20 ± 0.37) mg g-1 and (23.45 ± 1.05) mg g-1. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio in yellow croaker was 0.73-1.10, and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was approximately 0.13-0.20. The contents of most fatty acids varied significantly ( P acids are potential markers for evaluating lipid oxidation in fish muscle because there was a significant correlation between these markers and TBARS and LOX activity ( P 0.931.

  10. Detection of irradiated constituents in processed food with complex lipid matrices. Results of a research project of Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1999-01-01

    The detection of irradiated constituents in processed food with a complex lipid matrix can be adversely affected by two conditions. The small amounts of radiation-induced hydrocarbons are diluted by the fat matrix of the food, or there are substances accompanying the lipids in the matrix and thus make the analysis more difficult. In those cases, sample preparation alone by means of Florisil SPE (solid-phase extraction) is not enough and requires additional, subsequent SPE argentation chromatography of the Florisil eluate, as this latter analytical method permits reliable detection down to very small amounts of irradiated, fat-containing constituents even in a complex lipid matrix. SPE-Florisil/argentation chromatography detects and selects radiation-induced hydrocarbons in a complex lipid matrix, so that detection of irradiation at even very low doses down to 0.025 kGy is possible. The method described is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and easy to apply. It efficiently substitutes such complex preparation or measuring methods as SFE-GC/MS or LC-GC/MS. This highly sensitive testing method for detection of food irradiation can be carried out in almost any analytical laboratory. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Positive regulation of prostate cancer cell growth by lipid droplet forming and processing enzymes DGAT1 and ABHD5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranjana; Le, Thuc T; Gorjala, Priyatham; Goodman, Oscar B

    2017-09-06

    Neoplastic cells proliferate rapidly and obtain requisite building blocks by reprogramming metabolic pathways that favor growth. Previously, we observed that prostate cancer cells uptake and store lipids in the form of lipid droplets, providing building blocks for membrane synthesis, to facilitate proliferation and growth. Mechanisms of lipid uptake, lipid droplet dynamics and their contribution to cancer growth have yet to be defined. This work is focused on elucidating the prostate cancer-specific modifications in lipid storage pathways so that these modified gene products can be identified and therapeutically targeted. To identify genes that promote lipid droplet formation and storage, the expression profiles of candidate genes were assessed and compared between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and prostate cancer cells. Subsequently, differentially expressed genes were inhibited and growth assays performed to elucidate their role in the growth of the cancer cells. Cell cycle, apoptosis and autophagy assays were performed to ascertain the mechanism of growth inhibition. Our results indicate that DGAT1, ABHD5, ACAT1 and ATGL are overexpressed in prostate cancer cells compared to PBMCs and of these overexpressed genes, DGAT1 and ABHD5 aid in the growth of the prostate cancer cells. Blocking the expression of both DGAT1 and ABHD5 results in inhibition of growth, cell cycle block and cell death. DGAT1 siRNA treatment inhibits lipid droplet formation and leads to autophagy where as ABHD5 siRNA treatment promotes accumulation of lipid droplets and leads to apoptosis. Both the siRNA treatments reduce AMPK phosphorylation, a key regulator of lipid metabolism. While DGAT1 siRNA reduces phosphorylation of ACC, the rate limiting enzyme in de novo fat synthesis and triggers phosphorylation of raptor and ULK-1 inducing autophagy and cell death, ABHD5 siRNA decreases P70S6 phosphorylation, leading to PARP cleavage, apoptosis and cell death. Interestingly, DGAT-1 is involved

  12. New insights on glucosylated lipids: metabolism and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Kohyama-Koganeya, Ayako; Hirabayashi, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    Ceramide, cholesterol, and phosphatidic acid are major basic structures for cell membrane lipids. These lipids are modified with glucose to generate glucosylceramide (GlcCer), cholesterylglucoside (ChlGlc), and phosphatidylglucoside (PtdGlc), respectively. Glucosylation dramatically changes the functional properties of lipids. For instance, ceramide acts as a strong tumor suppressor that causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, while GlcCer has an opposite effect, downregulating ceramide activities. All glucosylated lipids are enriched in lipid rafts or microdomains and play fundamental roles in a variety of cellular processes. In this review, we discuss the biological functions and metabolism of these three glucosylated lipids. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methotrexate carried in lipid core nanoparticles reduces myocardial infarction size and improves cardiac function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranhão RC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Raul C Maranhão,1,2 Maria C Guido,1 Aline D de Lima,1 Elaine R Tavares,1 Alyne F Marques,1 Marcelo D Tavares de Melo,3 Jose C Nicolau,3 Vera MC Salemi,3 Roberto Kalil-Filho3 1Laboratory of Metabolism and Lipids, 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Heart Failure Unit, Clinical Cardiology Division, Heart Institute (InCor, Medical School Hospital, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: Acute myocardial infarction (MI is accompanied by myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, and ventricular remodeling that, when excessive or not properly regulated, may lead to heart failure. Previously, lipid core nanoparticles (LDE used as carriers of the anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate (MTX produced an 80-fold increase in the cell uptake of MTX. LDE-MTX treatment reduced vessel inflammation and atheromatous lesions induced in rabbits by cholesterol feeding. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of LDE-MTX on rats with MI, compared with commercial MTX treatment.Materials and methods: Thirty-eight Wistar rats underwent left coronary artery ligation and were treated with LDE-MTX, or with MTX (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, once/week, starting 24 hours after surgery or with LDE without drug (MI-controls. A sham-surgery group (n=12 was also included. Echocardiography was performed 24 hours and 6 weeks after surgery. The animals were euthanized and their hearts were analyzed for morphometry, protein expression, and confocal microscopy.Results: LDE-MTX treatment achieved a 40% improvement in left ventricular (LV systolic function and reduced cardiac dilation and LV mass, as shown by echocardiography. LDE-MTX reduced the infarction size, myocyte hypertrophy and necrosis, number of inflammatory cells, and myocardial fibrosis, as shown by morphometric analysis. LDE-MTX increased antioxidant enzymes; decreased apoptosis, macrophages, reactive oxygen species production; and tissue hypoxia in non-infarcted myocardium. LDE-MTX increased adenosine

  14. Luteolin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles synthesis, characterization, & improvement of bioavailability, pharmacokinetics in vitro and vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hao; Meng, Murtaza Hasan Weiwei; Zhao, Haiwei; Iqbal, Javed; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin; Lv, Fang

    2014-04-01

    Luteolin (LU, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) most active compound in Chinese herbal flavones has been acting as a antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antimutagen. However, its poor bioavailability, hydrophobicity, and pharmacokinetics restrict clinical application. Here in this study, LU-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have been prepared by hot-microemulsion ultrasonic technique to improve the bioavailability & pharmacokinetics of compound. LU-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle size was confirmed by particle size analyzer with range from 47 to 118 nm, having zepta potential -9.2 mV and polydisperse index 0.247, respectively. Round-shaped SLNPs were obtained by using transmission electron microscope, and encapsulation efficiency 74.80 % was calculated by using HPLC. Both in vitro and vivo studies, LC-MS/MS technique was used for quantification of Luteolin in rat. The T max value of drug with LU-SLNs after the administration was Ten times shorter than pure Luteolin suspension administration. C max value of drug after the administration of LU-SLNs was five times higher than obtained with native drug suspension. Luteolin with SLNs has increased the half-life approximately up to 2 h. Distribution and clearance of drug with SLNs were significantly decreased by 2.16-10.57 fold, respectively. In the end, the relative bioavailability of SLNs has improved about 4.89 compared to Luteolin with SLNs. From this study, it can be concluded that LU-SLNs have not only great potential for improving solubility but also increased the drug concentration in plasma. Furthermore, use of LC-MS/MS for quantification of LU-SLNs in rat plasma is reliable and of therapeutic usefulness, especially for neurodegenerative and cancerous disorders in humans.

  15. Targeting Lipid Metabolic Reprogramming as Anticancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Ji-Young; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and survival, and this metabolic reprogramming has been recognized as an emerging hallmark of cancer. Lipid metabolism is pivotal in cellular process that converts nutrients into energy, building blocks for membrane biogenesis and the generation of signaling molecules. Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells show alterations in different aspects of lipid metabolism. The changes in lipid metabolism of cancer cells c...

  16. A Repeatable Collaboration Process for Exploring Business Process Improvement Alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Amiyo, Mercy; Nabukenya, J.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic nature of organisations has increased demand for business process agility leading to the adoption of continuous Business Process Improvement (BPI). Success of BPI projects calls for continuous process analysis and exploration of several improvement alternatives. These activities are

  17. The Making and Taking of Lipids: The Role of Bacterial Lipid Synthesis and the Harnessing of Host Lipids in Bacterial Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozo, E M; Rucks, E A

    2016-01-01

    In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. A resulting adaptation is for pathogens to scavenge the host environment for readily available lipid sources. The pathogen takes advantage of these host-derived lipids to increase or decrease the rigidity of their own membranes, to provide themselves with valuable precursors to feed central metabolic pathways, or to impact host signalling and processes. Within, we review the diverse mechanisms that both extracellular and intracellular pathogens employ to alter their own membranes as well as their use of host-derived lipids in membrane synthesis and modification, in order to increase survival and perpetuate disease within the human host. Furthermore, we discuss how pathogen employed mechanistic utilization of host-derived lipids allows for their persistence, survival and potentiation of disease. A more thorough understanding of all of these mechanisms will have direct consequences for the development of new therapeutics, and specifically, therapeutics that target pathogens, while preserving normal flora. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  18. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Membrane Lipid Oscillation: An Emerging System of Molecular Dynamics in the Plant Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki

    2018-03-01

    Biological rhythm represents a major biological process of living organisms. However, rhythmic oscillation of membrane lipid content is poorly described in plants. The development of lipidomic technology has led to the illustration of precise molecular profiles of membrane lipids under various growth conditions. Compared with conventional lipid signaling, which produces unpredictable lipid changes in response to ever-changing environmental conditions, lipid oscillation generates a fairly predictable lipid profile, adding a new layer of biological function to the membrane system and possible cross-talk with the other chronobiological processes. This mini review covers recent studies elucidating membrane lipid oscillation in plants.

  20. Modelling phagosomal lipid networks that regulate actin assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Roland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When purified phagosomes are incubated in the presence of actin under appropriate conditions, microfilaments start growing from the membrane in a process that is affected by ATP and the lipid composition of the membrane. Isolated phagosomes are metabolically active organelles that contain enzymes and metabolites necessary for lipid interconversion. Hence, addition of ATP, lipids, and actin to the system alter the steady-state composition of the phagosomal membrane at the same time that the actin nucleation is initiated. Our aim was to model all these processes in parallel. Results We compiled detailed experimental data on the effects of different lipids and ATP on actin nucleation and we investigated experimentally lipid interconversion and ATP metabolism in phagosomes by using suitable radioactive compounds. In a first step, a complex lipid network interconnected by chemical reactions catalyzed by known enzymes was modelled in COPASI (Complex Pathway Simulator. However, several lines of experimental evidence indicated that only the phosphatidylinositol branch of the network was active, an observation that dramatically reduced the number of parameters in the model. The results also indicated that a lipid network-independent ATP-consuming activity should be included in the model. When this activity was introduced, the set of differential equations satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. On the other hand, a molecular mechanism connecting membrane lipids, ATP, and the actin nucleation process is still missing. We therefore adopted a phenomenological (black-box approach to represent the empirical observations. We proposed that lipids and ATP influence the dynamic interconversion between active and inactive actin nucleation sites. With this simple model, all the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a single positive parameter per lipid and ATP. Conclusion By establishing an active 'dialogue' between an

  1. Multifaceted role of lipids in Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkamaljit; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium leprae must adopt a metabolic strategy and undergo various metabolic alterations upon infection to survive inside the human body for years in a dormant state. A change in lipid homeostasis upon infection is highly pronounced in Mycobacterium leprae. Lipids play an essential role in the survival and pathogenesis of mycobacteria. Lipids are present in several forms and serve multiple roles from being a source of nutrition, providing rigidity, evading the host immune response to serving as virulence factors, etc. The synthesis and degradation of lipids is a highly regulated process and is the key to future drug designing and diagnosis for mycobacteria. In the current review, an account of the distinct roles served by lipids, the mechanism of their synthesis and degradation has been elucidated.

  2. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  3. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  4. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Scyoc, Karl [Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.) Inc., DNV Energy Solutions, 16340 Park Ten Place, Suite 100, Houston, TX 77084 (United States)], E-mail: karl.van.scyoc@dnv.com

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  5. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given

  6. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  7. Hetero-azeotropic distillation: combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, A J; Isabella, B L; Beattie, J E; Herbert, R A

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost single-stage laboratory process combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction was compared with a traditional two-stage method employing freeze-drying and subsequent mechanical disruption in the presence of solvent. The ability of a number of organic solvents to form hetero-azeotropes with water was exploited. Chloroform, cyclohexane and hexane were assessed in their abilities to both dry and extract lipid from the oleaginous phycomycete Mortierella alpina (ATCC 32222). Drying rate and lipid extraction were maximised under conditions that prevented fungal agglomeration. The total processing time was limited by the rate of dehydration rather than by the rate of lipid extraction. In all cases azeotropic distillation facilitated a greater rate of dehydration than was possible with freeze-drying. A consequent reduction in overall processing time was observed. Uniquely, both the solvent used and the mode of mixing employed controlled the morphology of the aggregates formed during distillation. In combination with mild mixing chloroform discouraged agglomeration whereas cyclohexane and hexane promoted aggregation. Successful lipid extraction was dependent on the use of dry biomass rather than on the application of heat to effect distillation. Neither the application of heat nor the solvent employed had any significant effect on the lipid composition of the extracted oil.

  8. Influence of Polyethylene Glycol Lipid Desorption Rates on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of siRNA Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara L Mui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs encapsulating short interfering RNAs that target hepatic genes are advancing through clinical trials, and early results indicate the excellent gene silencing observed in rodents and nonhuman primates also translates to humans. This success has motivated research to identify ways to further advance this delivery platform. Here, we characterize the polyethylene glycol lipid (PEG-lipid components, which are required to control the self-assembly process during formation of lipid particles, but can negatively affect delivery to hepatocytes and hepatic gene silencing in vivo. The rate of transfer from LNPs to plasma lipoproteins in vivo is measured for three PEG-lipids with dialkyl chains 14, 16, and 18 carbons long. We show that 1.5 mol % PEG-lipid represents a threshold concentration at which the chain length exerts a minimal effect on hepatic gene silencing but can still modify LNPs pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Increasing the concentration to 2.5 and 3.5 mol % substantially compromises hepatocyte gene knockdown for PEG-lipids with distearyl (C18 chains but has little impact for shorter dimyristyl (C14 chains. These data are discussed with respect to RNA delivery and the different rates at which the steric barrier disassociates from LNPs in vivo.

  9. Improved biomass and lipid production in Synechocystis sp. NN using industrial wastes and nano-catalyst coupled transesterification for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaharraj, Kalimuthu; Karpagam, Rathinasamy; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Moorthy, Innasi Muthu Ganesh; Arumugam, Muthu; Varalakshmi, Perumal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the improved biomass (1.6 folds) and lipid (1.3 folds) productivities in Synechocystis sp. NN using agro-industrial wastes supplementation through hybrid response surface methodology-genetic algorithm (RSM-GA) for cost-effective methodologies for biodiesel production was achieved. Besides, efficient harvesting in Synechocystis sp. NN was achieved by electroflocculation (flocculation efficiency 97.8±1.2%) in 10min when compared to other methods. Furthermore, different pretreatment methods were employed for lipid extraction and maximum lipid content of 19.3±0.2% by Synechocystis sp. NN was attained by ultrasonication than microwave and liquid nitrogen assisted pretreatment methods. The highest FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) conversion of 36.5±8.3mg FAME/g biomass was obtained using titanium oxide as heterogeneous nano-catalyst coupled whole-cell transesterification based method. Conclusively, Synechocystis sp. NN may be used as a biodiesel feedstock and its fuel production can be enriched by hybrid RSM-GA and nano-catalyst technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Xu, Danyan

    2017-07-05

    Dyslipidemia is the risk of cardiovascular disease, and their relationship is clear. Lowering serum cholesterol can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. At present, the main treatment is taking medicine, however, drug treatment has its limitations. Exercise not only has a positive effect on individuals with dyslipidemia, but can also help improve lipids profile. This review is intending to provide information on the effects of exercise training on both tranditional lipids, for example, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and new lipids and lipoproteins such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and postprandial lipoprotein. The mechanisms of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins are also briefly described.

  11. Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Improves Lipid Profile and Decreases Cardiovascular Risk: a 5-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study of 1048 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, Daniel; Favre, Lucie; Allemann, Pierre; Fournier, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Suter, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. The aim of the study was to assess lipid profiles and their impact on CV risk changes in a large patient cohort 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All patients who underwent primary RYGB for severe obesity in our two hospitals between January 1999 and December 2009 were included. The Framingham risk score was used. One thousand and forty-eight patients were included, 791 women and 257 men. Five-year complete lipid profile was available for 77% of patients. At 5 years, mean body mass index (BMI) decreased from 45.7 ± 6 to 31 ± 5.8 kg/m 2 (p profile improved more in patients with greater weight loss (%EBMIL ≥ 50 or %TWL ≥ 25%). Assuming that all patients were non-smokers and other baseline risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) remained unchanged at 5 years, the amelioration of the lipid profile itself yielded to a 27% reduction of CV risk (p profile from the first to fifth postoperative year. This improvement translates into significantly lower CV risk from the first year after surgery.

  12. Amylose folding under the influence of lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Cesar A.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation technique was used to study the folding and complexation process of a short amylose fragment in the presence of lipids. In aqueous solution, the amylose chain remains as an extended left-handed helix. After the addition of lipids in the system, however, we observe

  13. Applications of process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Eric Peter

    2016-03-01

    Major changes in the management and funding of healthcare are underway that will markedly change the way radiology studies will be reimbursed. The result will be the need to deliver radiology services in a highly efficient manner while maintaining quality. The science of process improvement provides a practical approach to improve the processes utilized in radiology. This article will address in a step-by-step manner how to implement process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

  14. Performance of structured lipids incorporating selected phenolic and ascorbic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Przybylski, Roman; Aladedunye, Felix

    2015-04-15

    Conditions applied during frying require antioxidant which is stable at these conditions and provides protection for frying oil and fried food. Novel structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants were formed by enzymatic transesterification, exploring canola oil and naturally occurring antioxidants such as ascorbic and selected phenolic acids as substrates. Lipozyme RM IM lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used as biocatalyst. Frying performance and oxidative stability of the final transesterification products were evaluated. The novel lipids showed significantly improved frying performance compared to canola oil. Oxidative stability assessment of the structured lipids showed significant improvement in resistance to oxidative deterioration compared to original canola oil. Interestingly, the presence of ascorbic acid in an acylglycerol structure protected α-tocopherol against thermal degradation, which was not observed for the phenolic acids. Developed structured lipids containing nutraceuticals and antioxidants may directly affect nutritional properties of lipids also offering nutraceutical ingredients for food formulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The physiology of lipid storage and use in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R

    2017-08-01

    Lipid metabolism is central to understanding whole-animal energetics. Reptiles store most excess energy in lipid form, mobilise those lipids when needed to meet energetic demands, and invest lipids in eggs to provide the primary source of energy to developing embryos. Here, I review the mechanisms by which non-avian reptiles store, transport, and use lipids. Many aspects of lipid absorption, transport, and storage appear to be similar to birds, including the hepatic synthesis of lipids from glucose substrates, the transport of triglycerides in lipoproteins, and the storage of lipids in adipose tissue, although adipose tissue in non-avian reptiles is usually concentrated in abdominal fat bodies or the tail. Seasonal changes in fat stores suggest that lipid storage is primarily for reproduction in most species, rather than for maintenance during aphagic periods. The effects of fasting on plasma lipid metabolites can differ from mammals and birds due to the ability of non-avian reptiles to reduce their metabolism drastically during extended fasts. The effect of fasting on levels of plasma ketones is species specific: β-hydroxybutyrate concentration may rise or fall during fasting. I also describe the process by which the bulk of lipids are deposited into oocytes during vitellogenesis. Although this process is sometimes ascribed to vitellogenin-based transport in reptiles, the majority of lipid deposition occurs via triglycerides packaged in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), based on physiological, histological, biochemical, comparative, and genomic evidence. I also discuss the evidence for non-avian reptiles using 'yolk-targeted' VLDLs during vitellogenesis. The major physiological states - feeding, fasting, and vitellogenesis - have different effects on plasma lipid metabolites, and I discuss the possibilities and potential problems of using plasma metabolites to diagnose feeding condition in non-avian reptiles. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement Workgroup; Notice of Public Meeting...) Process Improvement Work Group. EPA plans to meet its ESA consultation obligations through the pesticide... a pesticide during the registration review process. This meeting of the PRIA Process Improvement...

  17. Functional liposomes and supported lipid bilayers: towards the complexity of biological archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Debora; Caminati, Gabriella; Baglioni, Piero

    2011-05-21

    This perspective paper provides some illustrative examples on the interplay between information gathered on planar supported lipid bilayers (SLB) and unilamellar lipid vesicles (ULV) to get an integrated description of phenomena occurring at the nanoscale that involve locally bilayered structures. Similarities and differences are underlined and critically compared in terms of biomimetic fidelity and instrumental accessibility to structural and dynamical parameters, focusing on some recent reports that either explicitly address this comparison or introducing some studies that separately investigate the same process in SLB and lipid vesicles. Despite the structural similarity on the nanoscale, the different topology implies radically different characterization techniques that have evolved in sectorial and separated approaches. The quest for increasing levels of compositional complexity for bilayered systems should not result in a loss of structural and dynamical control: this is the central challenge of future research in this area, where the integrated approach highlighted in this contribution would enable improved levels of understanding. © The Owner Societies 2011

  18. CARS microscopy for the monitoring of lipid storage in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika; Brackmann, Christian; Axäng, Claes; Åkeson, Madeleine; Pilon, Marc

    2008-02-01

    After several years of proof-of-principle measurements and focus on technological development, it is timely to make full use of the capabilities of CARS microscopy within the biosciences. We have here identified an urgent biological problem, to which CARS microscopy provides unique insights and consequently may become a widely accepted experimental procedure. In order to improve present understanding of mechanisms underlying dysfunctional metabolism regulation reported for many of our most wide-spread diseases (obesity, diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases etc.), we have monitored genetic and environmental impacts on cellular lipid storage in the model organism C. elegans in vivo in a full-scale biological study. Important advantages of CARS microscopy could be demonstrated compared to present technology, i.e. fluorescence microscopy of labelled lipid stores. The fluorescence signal varies not only with the presence of lipids, but also with the systemic distribution of the fluorophore and the chemical properties of the surrounding medium. By instead probing high-density regions of CH bonds naturally occurring in the sample, the CARS process was shown to provide a consistent representation of the lipid stores. The increased accumulation of lipid stores in mutants with deficiencies in the insulin and transforming growth factor signalling pathways could hereby be visualized and quantified. Furthermore, spectral CARS microscopy measurements in the C-H bond region of 2780-2930 cm -1 provided the interesting observation that this accumulation comes with a shift in the ordering of the lipids from gel- to liquid phase. The present study illustrates that CARS microscopy has a strong potential to become an important instrument for systemic studies of lipid storage mechanisms in living organisms, providing new insights into the phenomena underlying metabolic disorders.

  19. Orlistat in polycystic ovarian syndrome reduces weight with improvement in lipid profile and pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of exercise, metformin, and orlistat on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, endocrine parameters, and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women were compared. AIM: The aim was to study the efficacy of orlistat compared with metformin and exercise in PCOS. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. Methods: A total of 90 eligible PCOS women were randomly assigned to receive either of the two drugs (orlistat or metformin in combination with lifestyle interventions or as controls where they received lifestyle interventions alone. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline and 4 weekly intervals for 3 months. Androgen levels, insulin resistance, ovulation and conception rates and lipid profile were also assessed at the end of study. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17.0. Results: The levels of fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance were comparable in three treatment groups. Mean total testosterone, serum hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in all arms were comparable and statistically nonsignificant. However, orlistat and metformin were more effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. However, side-effects were less with orlistat. Ovulation rate was 33.3%, 23.35% with orlistat and metformin group respectively, but were not statistically significant. In orlistat group, significant improvement was observed in lipid profile at the end of 3 months. Conception rates were 40% and 16.7% and 3.3% in orlistat, metformin group and control group respectively (P - 0.003. Weight loss was found to be the best predictor of ovulation with sensitivity with good sensitivity. Conclusion: Orlistat is as effective as metformin in reducing weight and achieves similar ovulation rates in obese PCOS patients. However, orlistat has minimal side

  20. Mapping social networks in software process improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    Software process improvement in small, agile organizations is often problematic. Model-based approaches seem to overlook problems. We have been seeking an alternative approach to overcome this through action research. Here we report on a piece of action research from which we developed an approach...... to map social networks and suggest how it can be used in software process improvement. We applied the mapping approach in a small software company to support the realization of new ways of improving software processes. The mapping approach was found useful in improving social networks, and thus furthers...... software process improvement....

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids, lipids, and apoE lipidation in Alzheimer's disease: a rationale for multi-nutrient dementia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Michaelson, Daniel M; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-11-01

    In the last decade, it has become obvious that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely linked to changes in lipids or lipid metabolism. One of the main pathological hallmarks of AD is amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Aβ is derived from sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, both, the APP and all APP secretases are transmembrane proteins that cleave APP close to and in the lipid bilayer. Moreover, apoE4 has been identified as the most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD. ApoE is the main lipoprotein in the brain, which has an abundant role in the transport of lipids and brain lipid metabolism. Several lipidomic approaches revealed changes in the lipid levels of cerebrospinal fluid or in post mortem AD brains. Here, we review the impact of apoE and lipids in AD, focusing on the major brain lipid classes, sphingomyelin, plasmalogens, gangliosides, sulfatides, DHA, and EPA, as well as on lipid signaling molecules, like ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. As nutritional approaches showed limited beneficial effects in clinical studies, the opportunities of combining different supplements in multi-nutritional approaches are discussed and summarized. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Diclofenac sodium sustained release hot melt extruded lipid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithani, K; Cuppok, Y; Mostafa, S; Slipper, I J; Snowden, M J; Douroumis, D

    2014-08-01

    Sustained release diclofenac sodium (Df-Na) solid lipid matrices with Compritol® 888 ATO were developed in this study. The drug/lipid powders were processed via cold and hot melt extrusion at various drug loadings. The influence of the processing temperatures, drug loading and the addition of excipients on the obtained dissolution rates was investigated. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded batches showed the existence of crystalline drug in the extrudates with a small amount being solubilized in the lipid matrix. The drug content and uniformity on the tablet surface were also investigated by using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The dissolution rates were found to depend on the actual Df-Na loading and the nature of the added excipients, while the effect of the processing temperatures was negligible. The dissolution mechanism of all extruded formulations followed Peppas-Korsemeyer law, based on the estimated determination coefficients and the dissolution constant rates, indicating drug diffusion from the lipid matrices.

  3. Adsorption of human tear lipocalin to human meibomian lipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J; Mudgil, Poonam; Butovich, Igor A; Palaniappan, Chendur K

    2009-01-01

    Tear lipocalin (Tlc) is a major lipid binding protein in tears and is thought to have an important role in stabilizing the Meibomian lipid layer by transferring lipids to it from the aqueous layer or ocular surface, or by adsorbing to it directly. These possible roles have been investigated in vitro using human Tlc. Tlc was purified from human tears by size exclusion chromatography followed by ion exchange chromatography. Three additional samples of the Tlc were prepared by lipidation, delipidation, and relipidation. The lipids extracted from the purified Tlc were analyzed by HPLC-MS followed by fragmentation. Adsorption of these different forms of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film spread on the surface of an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough were observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (Pi-T profile) and monitoring the appearance of the film microscopically. These results were compared with similar experiments using a bovine Meibomian lipid film. The results indicated that Tlc binds slowly to a human Meibomian lipid film compared with lysozyme or lactoferrin, even at 37 degrees C. The adsorption of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film was very different from its adsorption to a bovine Meibomian lipid film, indicating the nature of the lipids in the film is critical to the adsorption process. Similarly, the different forms of Tlc had quite distinct adsorption patterns, as indicated both by changes in Pi-T profiles and the microscopic appearance of the films. It was concluded that human Tlc was capable of adsorbing to and penetrating into a Meibomian lipid layer, but this process is very complex and depends on both the types of lipids bound to Tlc and the lipid complement comprising the Meibomian lipid film.

  4. Adsorption of Human Tear Lipocalin to Human Meibomian Lipid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J.; Mudgil, Poonam; Butovich, Igor A.; Palaniappan, Chendur K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tear lipocalin (Tlc) is a major lipid binding protein in tears and is thought to have an important role in stabilizing the Meibomian lipid layer by transferring lipids to it from the aqueous layer or ocular surface, or by adsorbing to it directly. These possible roles have been investigated in vitro using human Tlc. Methods Tlc was purified from human tears by size exclusion chromatography followed by ion exchange chromatography. Three additional samples of the Tlc were prepared by lipidation, delipidation, and relipidation. The lipids extracted from the purified Tlc were analyzed by HPLC-MS followed by fragmentation. Adsorption of these different forms of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film spread on the surface of an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough were observed by recording changes in the pressure with time (∏-T profile) and monitoring the appearance of the film microscopically. These results were compared with similar experiments using a bovine Meibomian lipid film. Results The results indicated that Tlc binds slowly to a human Meibomian lipid film compared with lysozyme or lactoferrin, even at 37°C. The adsorption of Tlc to a human Meibomian lipid film was very different from its adsorption to a bovine Meibomian lipid film, indicating the nature of the lipids in the film is critical to the adsorption process. Similarly, the different forms of Tlc had quite distinct adsorption patterns, as indicated both by changes in ∏-T profiles and the microscopic appearance of the films. Conclusions It was concluded that human Tlc was capable of adsorbing to and penetrating into a Meibomian lipid layer, but this process is very complex and depends on both the types of lipids bound to Tlc and the lipid complement comprising the Meibomian lipid film. PMID:18757516

  5. The effect of a herbal paste and oil extract on the lipid content of canine hair fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiro; Kadoya, Chihiro; Gin, Azusa; Kobayashi, Jun; Nakamura, Yuka; Matsubara, Takako; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-08-01

    Application of herbal paste and oil to a dog's coat and body before rinsing (often combining with shampooing) is a cosmetic therapy available in Japan. It is highly appreciated by users, who claim that the treatment makes the coat shinier, improves volume and eliminates tangles. However, there has been no scientific evaluation of such treatments. Improvement of hair condition is derived from oils such as sebum and conditioning oils because chemicals are not used. Therefore, we examined nonpolar lipids (the primary lipids in dog hair) and the botanical oils used in this therapy. Hair samples were obtained from six beagle dogs. Groups were based on different combinations of the following processes: rinsing, shampooing, herbal therapy and herbal therapy with oil extract. Analysis of lipids was performed by high performance thin layer chromatography. The processes of shampooing and herbal therapy were associated with an equivalent reduction in cholesterol ester and triglyceride (TG). However, hair treated by herbal therapy combined with oil extract had an almost three-fold higher TG content, even after shampooing. This study demonstrated that the herbal therapy was able to coat hair samples with TG that was not removed with rinsing. Further investigation is required to evaluate the possible benefits of the application of botanical products containing lipids, such as TG, on hair coat quality in dogs. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Enhancement of neutral lipid productivity in the microalga Isochrysis affinis Galbana (T-Iso) by a mutation-selection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougaran, Gaël; Rouxel, Catherine; Dubois, Nolwenn; Kaas, Raymond; Grouas, Sophie; Lukomska, Ewa; Le Coz, Jean-René; Cadoret, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae offer a high potential for energetic lipid storage as well as high growth rates. They are therefore considered promising candidates for biofuel production, with the selection of high lipid-producing strains a major objective in projects on the development of this technology. We developed a mutation-selection method aimed at increasing microalgae neutral lipid productivity. A two step method, based on UVc irradiation followed by flow cytometry selection, was applied to a set of strains that had an initial high lipid content and improvement was assessed by means of Nile-red fluorescence measurements. The method was first tested on Isochrysis affinis galbana (T-Iso). Following a first round of mutation-selection, the total fatty acid content had not increased significantly, being 262 ± 21 mgTFA (gC)-1 for the wild type (WT) and 269 ± 49 mgTFA (gC)-1 for the selected population (S1M1). Conversely, fatty acid distribution among the lipid classes was affected by the process, resulting in a 20% increase for the fatty acids in the neutral lipids and a 40% decrease in the phospholipids. After a second mutation-selection step (S2M2), the total fatty acid content reached 409 ± 64 mgTFA (gC)-1 with a fatty acid distribution similar to the S1M1 population. Growth rate remained unaffected by the process, resulting in a 80% increase for neutral lipid productivity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Self-Assembled Core-Shell-Type Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles: Intracellular Trafficking and Relevance for Oral Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuxia; Xia, Dengning; Tao, Jinsong; Shen, Aijun; He, Yuan; Gan, Yong; Wang, Chi

    2017-10-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) are advantageous for drug delivery. However, their intracellular trafficking mechanism and relevance for oral drug absorption are poorly understood. In this study, self-assembled core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid NPs made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and various lipids were developed to study their differing intracellular trafficking in intestinal epithelial cells and their relevance for oral absorption of a model drug saquinavir (SQV). Our results demonstrated that the endocytosis and exocytosis of hybrid NPs could be changed by varying the kind of lipid. A glyceride mixture (hybrid NPs-1) decreased endocytosis but increased exocytosis in Caco-2 cells, whereas the phospholipid (E200) (hybrid NPs-2) decreased endocytosis but exocytosis was unaffected as compared with PLGA nanoparticles. The transport of hybrid NPs-1 in cells involved various pathways, including caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, which was different from the other groups of NPs that involved only caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Compared with that of the reference formulation (nanoemulsion), the oral absorption of SQV-loaded hybrid NPs in rats was poor, probably due to the limited drug release and transcytosis of NPs across the intestinal epithelium. In conclusion, the intracellular processing of hybrid NPs in intestinal epithelia can be altered by adding lipids to the NP. However, it appears unfavorable to use PLGA-based NPs to improve oral absorption of SQV compared with nanoemulsion. Our findings will be essential in the development of polymer-based NPs for the oral delivery of drugs with the purpose of improving their oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Lipid Experiments (ALEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter; Tarasov, Kirill; Katafiasz, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Global lipidomics analysis across large sample sizes produces high-content datasets that require dedicated software tools supporting lipid identification and quantification, efficient data management and lipidome visualization. Here we present a novel software-based platform for streamlined data...... processing, management and visualization of shotgun lipidomics data acquired using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The platform features the ALEX framework designed for automated identification and export of lipid species intensity directly from proprietary mass spectral data files......, and an auxiliary workflow using database exploration tools for integration of sample information, computation of lipid abundance and lipidome visualization. A key feature of the platform is the organization of lipidomics data in "database table format" which provides the user with an unsurpassed flexibility...

  9. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle

  10. Managerial implications for improving continuous production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Vanhatalo, Erik; Bergquist, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    . In this article we highlight SPC and DoE implementation challenges described in the literature for managers, researchers and practitioners interested in continuous production process improvement. The results may help managers support the implementation of these methods and make researchers and practitioners aware......Data analytics remains essential for process improvement and optimization. Statistical process control and design of experiments are among the most powerful process and product improvement methods available. However, continuous process environments challenge the application of these methods...... of methodological challenges in continuous process environments...

  11. Computer Simulations of Lipid Bilayers and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The importance of computer simulations in lipid bilayer research has become more prominent for the last couple of decades and as computers get even faster, simulations will play an increasingly important part of understanding the processes that take place in and across cell membranes. This thesis...... entitled Computer simulations of lipid bilayers and proteins describes two molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of pure lipid bilayers as well as a study of a transmembrane protein embedded in a lipid bilayer matrix. Below follows a brief overview of the thesis. Chapter 1. This chapter is a short...... in the succeeding chapters is presented. Details on system setups, simulation parameters and other technicalities can be found in the relevant chapters. Chapter 3, DPPC lipid parameters: The quality of MD simulations is intimately dependent on the empirical potential energy function and its parameters, i...

  12. A meta-analysis of efficacy of Morus alba Linn. to improve blood glucose and lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimarn, Wiraphol; Wichaiyo, Kittisak; Silpsavikul, Khuntawan; Sungthong, Bunleu; Saramunee, Kritsanee

    2017-06-01

    The previous studies have reported the Morus alba may improve blood glucose and lipid profile. The evidence from these studies is not consistent. This meta-analysis was to evaluate efficacy of products derived from M. alba on blood glucose and lipid levels. Literature was reviewed via international database (PubMed, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, and SciSearch) and Thai databases. Thirteen RCTs with high quality, assessed by Jadad score, were included. M. alba expressed a significant reduction in postprandial glucose (PPG) at 30 min (MD -1.04, 95 % CI -1.36, -0.73), 60 min (MD -0.87, 95 % CI -1.27, -0.48) and 90 min (MD -0.55, 95 % CI -0.87, -0.22). The difference was not found in the levels of other glycaemic (FBS, HbA1C, or HOMA-IR) and lipidaemic (TC, TG, LDL, or HDL) markers. Serious adverse effects were found neither in the control nor in the group received M. alba. Products derived from M. alba can effectively contribute to the reduction in PPG levels, but large-scale RCTs would be informative.

  13. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion

  14. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yifei, E-mail: sunif@buaa.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qiao, Wei [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Wang, Wei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu, Tianle [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  15. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Giménez, María Dolores García; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  16. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guillén-Bejarano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw/day and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day, saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF, the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA, fiber fraction (FF, and flavonoid fraction (FVF to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD. In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  18. A Phytosterol-Enriched Spread Improves Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Xing, Baoheng

    2016-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become a serious health risk among pregnant women throughout the world. Phytosterol-enriched margarines are capable of lowering total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but little is known about its effects on GDM. We aimed to examine the effects of daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched spread on insulin resistance and lipid profile in pregnant GDM women. Pregnant women suffering from GDM in their second trimester were recruited and randomly assigned to consume a margarine spread either with or without phytosterols daily for 16 weeks. Serum lipid profile and glucose and insulin metabolisms were assessed at week 0 (baseline) and week 16 (end of trial). After 16 weeks, levels of triacylglycerol, TC, and LDL were significantly decreased, while high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased, compared with the baseline in the phytosterol group. In addition, in the same treatment group, glucose metabolic parameters, including fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, the quantitative insulin check index, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance, and β-cell function, were also significantly improved. Daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched spread improved insulin resistance and lipid profile in women with GDM.

  19. Improving the Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) Delivery Order Award Process: Results of a Process Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    putting all tasks directed towsrds achieving an outcome in aequence. The tasks can be viewed as steps in the process (39:2.3). Using this...improvement opportunity is investigated. A plan is developed, root causes are identified, and solutions are tested and implemented. The process is... solutions , check for actual improvement, and integrate the successful improvements into the process. ?UP 7. Check Improvement Performance. Finally, the

  20. Lipids, lipid bilayers and vesicles as seen by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Lipid molecules self-assemble into bilayers in water with their hydrocarbon chains facing inward due to their amphiphilic nature. The structural and dynamical properties of lipids and lipid bilayers have been studied by neutron scattering intensively. In this article, 3 topics are shown as typical examples. 1) a time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering on uni-lamellar vesicles composed of deuterated and protonated lipids to determine lipid kinetics, 2) small-angle neutron scattering to investigate spontaneous formation of nanopores on uni-lamellar vesicles, and 3) neutron spin echo study to determine bending modulus of lipid bilayers. (author)

  1. Next Generation Software Process Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turnas, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... The application of these processes allows for an organization to mature. The software maturity level, and process improvement, of an organization can be measured with the Capability Maturity Model...

  2. A survey of useful salt additives in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of lipids: introducing nitrates for improved analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Rian L; Bunch, Josephine

    2012-07-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is a powerful technique for the direct analysis of lipids in complex mixtures and thin tissue sections, making it an extremely attractive method for profiling lipids in health and disease. Lipids are readily detected as [M+H](+), [M+Na](+) and [M+K](+) ions in positive ion MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. This not only decreases sensitivity, but can also lead to overlapping m/z values of the various adducts of different lipids. Additives can be used to promote formation of a particular adduct, improving sensitivity, reducing spectral complexity and enhancing structural characterization in collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+) and NH(4)(+) cations were considered as a range of salt types (acetates, chlorides and nitrates) incorporated into DHB matrix solutions at concentrations between 5 and 80 mM. The study was extended to evaluate the effect of these additives on CID experiments of a lipid standard, after optimization of collision energy parameters. Experiments were performed on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument. The systematic evaluation of new and existing additives in MALDI-MS and MS/MS of lipids demonstrated the importance of additive cation and anion choice and concentration for tailoring spectral results. The recommended choice of additive depends on the desired outcomes of the experiment to be performed (MS or MS/MS). Nitrates are found to be particularly useful additives for lipid analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing different types of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Márcia Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different types of lipid diets on the lipid metabolism of aging rats. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were studied from the time of weaning to 12 and 18 months of age. Their diets were supplemented as follows: with soybean oil (S, canola oil (CA, lard and egg yolk (LE, and canola oil + lard and egg yolk (CA + LE. Blood pressure (BP was measured every month, and the heart/body ratio (H/BR was determined. The rats were euthanized at the age of 12 and 18 months, and blood samples were collected for lipid analysis as follows: total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose. RESULTS: The type of oil ingested by the animals significantly altered BP, H/BR, and serum lipid levels in rats at 12 and 18 months. No difference was observed in the survival curve of the animals in the different groups. The LE group had the highest BP, and the CA group was the only one in which BP did not change with aging. A reduction in the H/BR was observed in the LE and CA+LE animals. At the age of 12 months, differences in TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, and glucose were observed. At the age of 18 months, a significant difference in TC, HDL-C, and glucose was observed. The highest TC value was found in the CA group and the lowest in the S group. CONCLUSION: No increase in BP occurred, and an improvement was evident in the lipid profile of rats fed a diet supplemented with CA, in which an elevation in HDL-C levels was observed, as compared with levels with the other types of diet.

  4. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

  5. Lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Effects of membrane lipid composition and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, C.; Ringdahl, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of lipid peroxidation has been followed in whole liver homogenates from mice using the TBA-method. Liver homogenates with different membrane fatty acid composition were obtained from mice fed diets containing different sources of fat i.e. sunflower seed oil (S), coconut oil (C) and hydrogenated lard (L). The yields of the TBA-chromophore (TBA-c) were 4 times higher in the liver homogenates S compared to C and L after 4 hour incubation at 37 0 C. Irradiation of the liver homogenates before incubation inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidation products in a dose dependent way. The catalytic capacity of the homogenates was investigated, followed as the autooxidation of cysteamine or modified by addition of the metal chelator EDTA. The rate of autooxidation of cysteamine, which is dependent on the presence of metal ions (Fe/sup 2+/ or Cu/sup 2+/), was decreased with increasing dose, thus indicating an alteration in the availability of metal catalysts in the system. The addition of Fe/sup 2+/ to the system restored the lipid peroxidation yields in the irradiated systems and the presence of EDTA inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidation products in all three dietary groups. It is suggested that irradiation alters the catalytic activity needed in the autooxidation processes of polyunsaturated fatty acids

  6. Process Improvement for Interinstitutional Research Contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Michael; Logan, Jennifer; Bjorklund, Todd; Whitfield, Jesse; Reed, Peggy; Lesher, Laurie; Sikalis, Amy; Brown, Brent; Drollinger, Sandy; Larrabee, Kristine; Thompson, Kristie; Clark, Erin; Workman, Michael; Boi, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Sponsored research increasingly requires multiinstitutional collaboration. However, research contracting procedures have become more complicated and time consuming. The perinatal research units of two colocated healthcare systems sought to improve their research contracting processes. The Lean Process, a management practice that iteratively involves team members in root cause analyses and process improvement, was applied to the research contracting process, initially using Process Mapping and then developing Problem Solving Reports. Root cause analyses revealed that the longest delays were the individual contract legal negotiations. In addition, the "business entity" was the research support personnel of both healthcare systems whose "customers" were investigators attempting to conduct interinstitutional research. Development of mutually acceptable research contract templates and language, chain of custody templates, and process development and refinement formats decreased the Notice of Grant Award to Purchase Order time from a mean of 103.5 days in the year prior to Lean Process implementation to 45.8 days in the year after implementation (p = 0.004). The Lean Process can be applied to interinstitutional research contracting with significant improvement in contract implementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Extra virgin olive oil improves post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Petruccioli, Andreina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Monticolo, Roberto; Cava, Edda; Violi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycaemia in healthy subjects but it has never been investigated if this can be detected in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated if EVOO affects post-prandial glucose and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Thirty IFG patients were randomly allocated to a meal containing or not 10 g of EVOO in a cross-over design. Before, 60 min and 120 min after lunch a blood sample was taken to measure glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo B-48. The meal containing EVOO was associated with a reduction of glucose (p = 0.009) and DPP4 activity (p < 0.001) and a significant increase of insulin (p < 0.001) and GLP-1 (p < 0.001) compared with the meal without EVOO. Furthermore, the meal containing EVOO showed a significant decrease of triglycerides (p = 0.002) and Apo B-48 (p = 0.002) compared with the meal without EVOO. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels did not significantly change between the two groups. This is the first study to show that in IFG patients EVOO improves post-prandial glucose and lipid profile with a mechanism probably related to incretin up-regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation of water transport through a lipid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrink, S.J.; Berendsen, H.J.C. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1994-04-14

    To obtain insight in the process of water permeation through a lipid membrane we performed molecular dynamics simulations on a phospholipid (DPPC)/water system with atomic detail. Since the actual process of permeation is too slow to be studied directly, we deduced the permeation rate indirectly via computation of the free energy and diffusion rate profiles of a water molecule across the bilayer. We concluded that the permeation of water through a lipid membrane cannot be described adequately by a simple homogeneous solubility-diffusion model. Both the excess free energy and the diffusion rate strongly depend on the position in the membrane, as a result from the inhomogeneous nature of the membrane. The calculated excess free energy profile has a shallow slope and a maximum height of 26 kJ/mol. The diffusion rate is highest in the middle of the membrane where the lipid density is low. In the interfacial region almost all water molecules are bound by the lipid headgroups, and the diffusion turns out to be 1 order of magnitude smaller. The total transport process is essentially determined by the free energy barrier. 78 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Recycling of lipid-extracted hydrolysate as nitrogen supplementation for production of thraustochytrid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-08-01

    Efficient resource usage is important for cost-effective microalgae production, where the incorporation of waste streams and recycled water into the process has great potential. This study builds upon emerging research on nutrient recycling in thraustochytrid production, where waste streams are recovered after lipid extraction and recycled into future cultures. This research investigates the nitrogen flux of recycled hydrolysate derived from enzymatic lipid extraction of thraustochytrid biomass. Results indicated the proteinaceous content of the recycled hydrolysate can offset the need to supply fresh nitrogen in a secondary culture, without detrimental impact upon the produced biomass. The treatment employing the recycled hydrolysate with no nitrogen addition accumulated 14.86 g L(-1) of biomass in 141 h with 43.3 % (w/w) lipid content compared to the control which had 9.26 g L(-1) and 46.9 % (w/w), respectively. This improved nutrient efficiency and wastewater recovery represents considerable potential for enhanced resource efficiency of commercial thraustochytrid production.

  10. Models of lipid droplets growth and fission in adipocyte cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschi, Federico, E-mail: federico.boschi@univr.it [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro [Department of Medicine, Geriatric Section, University of Verona, Piazzale Stefani 1, 37126 Verona (Italy); Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Lipid droplets (LD) are spherical cellular inclusion devoted to lipids storage. It is well known that excessive accumulation of lipids leads to several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. LDs' size range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes and is related to the lipid content, but their growth is still a puzzling question. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to the fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained by the merging of two smaller LDs, but these events seems to be rare and difficult to be observed. Many other processes are thought to be involved in the number and growth of LDs, like the de novo formation and the growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in pre-existing droplets. Moreover the number and size of LDs are influenced by the catabolism and the absorption or interaction with other organelles. The comprehension of these processes could help in the confinement of the pathologies related to lipid accumulation. In this study the LDs' size distribution, number and the total volume of immature (n=12), mature (n=12, 10-days differentiated) and lipolytic (n=12) 3T3-L1 adipocytes were considered. More than 11,000 LDs were measured in the 36 cells after Oil Red O staining. In a previous work Monte Carlo simulations were used to mimic the fusion process alone between LDs. We found that, considering the fusion as the only process acting on the LDs, the size distribution in mature adipocytes can be obtained with numerical simulation starting from the size distribution in immature cells provided a very high rate of fusion events. In this paper Monte Carlo simulations were developed to mimic the interaction between LDs taking into account many other processes in addition to fusion (de novo formation and the growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in pre-existing droplets) in order to reproduce the LDs growth and we also simulated the

  11. Models of lipid droplets growth and fission in adipocyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, Federico; Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LD) are spherical cellular inclusion devoted to lipids storage. It is well known that excessive accumulation of lipids leads to several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. LDs' size range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes and is related to the lipid content, but their growth is still a puzzling question. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to the fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained by the merging of two smaller LDs, but these events seems to be rare and difficult to be observed. Many other processes are thought to be involved in the number and growth of LDs, like the de novo formation and the growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in pre-existing droplets. Moreover the number and size of LDs are influenced by the catabolism and the absorption or interaction with other organelles. The comprehension of these processes could help in the confinement of the pathologies related to lipid accumulation. In this study the LDs' size distribution, number and the total volume of immature (n=12), mature (n=12, 10-days differentiated) and lipolytic (n=12) 3T3-L1 adipocytes were considered. More than 11,000 LDs were measured in the 36 cells after Oil Red O staining. In a previous work Monte Carlo simulations were used to mimic the fusion process alone between LDs. We found that, considering the fusion as the only process acting on the LDs, the size distribution in mature adipocytes can be obtained with numerical simulation starting from the size distribution in immature cells provided a very high rate of fusion events. In this paper Monte Carlo simulations were developed to mimic the interaction between LDs taking into account many other processes in addition to fusion (de novo formation and the growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in pre-existing droplets) in order to reproduce the LDs growth and we also simulated the

  12. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shami, S. M.; El-Mallah, M. H.; Mohamed, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable a...

  13. Unlimited energy, restricted carbohydrate diet improves lipid parameters in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Brian S; Bailes, James R

    2008-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a leading health concern. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited energy diet for weight reduction in elementary school-aged children. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have looked at the effect of this diet on lipid profiles in elementary school-aged children. Therefore, the objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, unlimited energy diet on lipid profiles in obese children 6 to 12 years of age. Overweight children (body mass index >97%) referred to our obesity clinic were treated with a restricted-carbohydrate (unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. Weight, height, body mass index, and fasting lipid profiles were obtained at baseline and at 10 weeks on each patient. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in our study, with a total of 18 patients returning for our 10 week follow-up (67%). The study group included 10 males and 8 females, with an age range of 6 to 12 years. Both total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed a significant reduction; 24.2 (P = 0.018) and 56.9 (P = 0.015) mg/dL, respectively. We have demonstrated a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides in elementary school-aged children after 10 weeks of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. We suggest that this diet may decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese children. Long-term studies will be needed to substantiate these data.

  14. Optimization of 14C liquid scintillation counting of plant and soil lipids to trace short term formation, translocation and degradation of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenberg, G.L.B.; Gocke, M.; Yakov Kuzyakov

    2010-01-01

    Two powerful approaches are frequently used to trace incorporation and degradation of plant derived C in soil: 14 C labelling/chasing and analysis of lipid composition. In this study, we coupled these approaches in order to trace short term incorporation of plant derived lipids into rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. Methodological optimization was required and implied 14 C liquid scintillation counting improvement for plant lipid extracts taking into account organic solvents, solvent-to-scintillation cocktail ratio, and amount of lipids. Following method optimization, 14 C data of fatty acids indicated a notable contribution of root derived lipids to rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. Coupling of 14 C labelling/chasing with lipid analysis is a powerful and cheap approach for tracing of root derived C in soil allowing for estimation of C budget, for determination of C formation and translocation within plants and from plant to soil, as well as for identification of short term dynamics of specific compound classes within soil. (author)

  15. Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Bagus Boedi Iswanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD, which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC, which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs. In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft–processed PDC.

  16. Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswanto, Arya Bagus Boedi; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2017-04-03

    A bstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD), which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs) is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC), which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS) and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs). In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft-processed PDC.

  17. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan; Luo, Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  18. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  19. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  20. Causal Role of Alcohol Consumption in an Improved Lipid Profile: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh N; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Nambi, Vijay; Volcik, Kelly A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels. This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels were analyzed. Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit.

  1. Lipids and bariatric procedures Part 2 of 2: scientific statement from the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the National Lipid Association (NLA), and Obesity Medicine Association (OMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Kothari, Shanu N; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John M; Nguyen, Ninh T; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures generally improve dyslipidemia, sometimes substantially so. Bariatric procedures also improve other major cardiovascular risk factors. This 2-part Scientific Statement examines the lipid effects of bariatric procedures and reflects contributions from authors representing the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the National Lipid Association (NLA), and the Obesity Medicine Association (OMA). Part 1 was published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology, and reviewed the impact of bariatric procedures upon adipose tissue endocrine and immune factors, adipose tissue lipid metabolism, as well as the lipid effects of bariatric procedures relative to bile acids and intestinal microbiota. This Part 2 reviews: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies, that may occur after bariatric procedures. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  3. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Lipid Metabolic Process in Liver Related to the Difference of Carcass Fat Content in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of carcass fat in farm animals, including fish, has a significant impact on meat quality and on the cost of feeding. Similar to farmed animals and humans, the liver can be considered one of the most important organs involved in lipid metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. RNA-seq based whole transcriptome sequencing was performed to liver tissue of rainbow trout with high and low carcass fat content in this study. In total 1,694 differentially expressed transcripts were identified, including many genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as L-FABP, adiponectin, PPAR-α, PPAR-β, and IGFBP1a. Evidence presented in this study indicated that lipid metabolic process in liver may be related to the difference of carcass fat content. The relevance of PPAR-α and PPAR-β as molecular markers for fat storage in liver should be worthy of further investigation.

  4. Identifying lipidic emulsomes for improved oxcarbazepine brain targeting: In vitro and rat in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaafarany, Ghada M; Soliman, Mahmoud E; Mansour, Samar; Awad, Gehanne A S

    2016-04-30

    Lipid-based nanovectors offer effective carriers for brain delivery by improving drug potency and reducing off-target effects. Emulsomes are nano-triglyceride (TG) carriers formed of lipid cores supported by at least one phospholipid (PC) sheath. Due to their surface active properties, PC forms bilayers at the aqueous interface, thereby enabling encapsulated drug to benefit from better bioavailability and stability. Emulsomes of oxcarbazepine (OX) were prepared, aimed to offer nanocarriers for nasal delivery for brain targeting. Different TG cores (Compritol(®), tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein) and soya phosphatidylcholine in different amounts and ratios were used for emulsomal preparation. Particles were modulated to generate nanocarriers with suitable size, charge, encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release. Cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetic studies were also implemented. Nano-spherical OX-emulsomes with maximal encapsulation of 96.75% were generated. Stability studies showed changes within 30.6% and 11.2% in the size and EE% after 3 months. MTT assay proved a decrease in drug toxicity by its encapsulation in emulsomes. Incorporation of OX into emulsomes resulted in stable nanoformulations. Tailoring emulsomes properties by modulating the surface charge and particle size produced a stable system for the lipophilic drug with a prolonged release profile and mean residence time and proved direct nose-to-brain transport in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soy Germ Protein With or Without-Zn Improve Plasma Lipid Profile in Metabolic Syndrome Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIWI PRAMATAMA MARS WIJAYANTI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of soy germ protein on lipid profile of metabolic syndrome (MetS patients. Respondents were 30 women with criteria, i.e. blood glucose level > normal, body mass index > 25 kg/m2, hypertriglyceridemia, low cholesterol-HDL level, 40-65 years old, living in Purwokerto, and signed the informed consent. The project was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Faculty from Gadjah Mada University-Yogyakarta. Respondents were divided into three randomly chosen groups consisting of ten women each. The first, second, and third groups were treated, respectively, with milk enriched soy germ protein plus Zn, milk enriched soy germ protein (without Zn, and placebo for two months. Blood samples were taken at baseline, one and two months after observation. Two months after observation the groups consuming milk enriched with soy germ protein, both with or without Zn, had their level of cholesterol-total decrease from 215.8 to 180.2 mg/dl (P = 0.03, triglyceride from 240.2 to 162.5 mg/dl (P = 0.02, and LDL from 154.01 to 93.85 mg/dl (P = 0.03. In contrast, HDL increased from 38.91 to 49.49 mg/dl (P = 0.0008. In conclusion, soy germ protein can improve lipid profile, thus it can inhibit atherosclerosis incident.

  6. Essential oil-loaded lipid nanoparticles for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, Francesca; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Boselli, Cinzia; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Mannucci, Barbara; Grisoli, Pietro; Vigani, Barbara; Ferrari, Franca

    2018-01-01

    Chronic wounds and severe burns are diseases responsible for severe morbidity and even death. Wound repair is a crucial process and tissue regeneration enhancement and infection prevention are key factors to minimize pain, discomfort, and scar formation. The aim of this work was the development of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers [NLC]), to be loaded with eucalyptus or rosemary essential oils and to be used, as medical devices, to enhance healing of skin wounds. Lipid nanoparticles were based on natural lipids: cocoa butter, as solid lipid, and olive oil or sesame oil, as liquid lipids. Lecithin was chosen as surfactant to stabilize nanoparticles and to prevent their aggregation. The systems were prepared by high shear homogenization followed by ultrasound application. Nanoparticles were characterized for physical-chemical properties, bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward normal human dermal fibroblasts. Antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles was evaluated against two reference microbial strains, one of Staphylococcus aureus , the other of Streptococcus pyogenes . Finally, the capability of nanoparticles to promote wound healing in vivo was evaluated on a rat burn model. NLC based on olive oil and loaded with eucalyptus oil showed appropriate physical-chemical properties, good bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward fibroblasts, associated to antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the in vivo results evidenced the capability of these NLC to enhance the healing process. Olive oil, which is characterized by a high content of oleic acid, proved to exert a synergic effect with eucalyptus oil with respect to antimicrobial activity and wound repair promotion.

  7. Extracts of black and brown rice powders improve hepatic lipid accumulation via the activation of PPARα in obese and diabetic model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Angelina Dr; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Mami; Katsumata-Tsuboi, Rie; Satoh, Ryo; Soon Hui, Teoh; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Inoue, Hirofumi; Uehara, Mariko

    2017-11-01

    Rice powder extract (RPE) from black and brown rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) improves hepatic lipid accumulation in obese and diabetic model mice via peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. RPE showed PPARα agonistic activity which did not differ between black and brown RPE despite a higher anthocyanin content in black RPE.

  8. Biologic activity of porphyromonas endodontalis complex lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirucki, Christopher S; Abedi, Mehran; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran E; Clark, Robert B; Nichols, Frank C

    2014-09-01

    Periapical infections secondary to pulpal necrosis are associated with bacterial contamination of the pulp. Porphyromonas endodontalis, a gram-negative organism, is considered to be a pulpal pathogen. P. gingivalis is phylogenetically related to P. endodontalis and synthesizes several classes of novel complex lipids that possess biological activity, including the capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. The purpose of this study was to extract and characterize constituent lipids of P. endodontalis and evaluate their capacity to promote proinflammatory secretory responses in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, as well as their capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and inhibit osteoblast activity. Constituent lipids of both organisms were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and were structurally characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry or electrospray-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The virulence potential of P. endodontalis lipids was then compared with known biologically active lipids isolated from P. gingivalis. P. endodontalis total lipids were shown to promote tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion from RAW 264.7 cells, and the serine lipid fraction appeared to account for the majority of this effect. P. endodontalis lipid preparations also increased osteoclast formation from RAW 264.7 cells, but osteoblast differentiation in culture was inhibited and appeared to be dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 expression. These effects underscore the importance of P. endodontalis lipids in promoting inflammatory and bone cell activation processes that could lead to periapical pathology. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Manipulating environmental stresses and stress tolerance of microalgae for enhanced production of lipids and value-added products-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bailing; Wan, Chun; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have promising potential to produce lipids and a variety of high-value chemicals. Suitable stress conditions such as nitrogen starvation and high salinity could stimulate synthesis and accumulation of lipids and high-value products by microalgae, therefore, various stress-modification strategies were developed to manipulate and optimize cultivation processes to enhance bioproduction efficiency. On the other hand, advancements in omics-based technologies have boosted the research to globally understand microalgal gene regulation under stress conditions, which enable further improvement of production efficiency via genetic engineering. Moreover, integration of multi-omics data, synthetic biology design, and genetic engineering manipulations exhibits a tremendous potential in the betterment of microalgal biorefinery. This review discusses the process manipulation strategies and omics studies on understanding the regulation of metabolite biosynthesis under various stressful conditions, and proposes genetic engineering of microalgae to improve bioproduction via manipulating stress tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of lipids in host microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roland; Mattner, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular constituents and serve as signal molecules, energy sources, metabolic precursors and structural membrane components in various organisms. The function of lipids can be modified by multiple biochemical processes such as (de-)phosphorylation or (de-)glycosylation, and the organization of fatty acids into distinct cellular pools and subcellular compartments plays a pivotal role for the morphology and function of various cell populations. Thus, lipids regulate, for example, phagosome formation and maturation within host cells and thus, are critical for the elimination of microbial pathogens. Vice versa, microbial pathogens can manipulate the lipid composition of phagosomal membranes in host cells, and thus avoid their delivery to phagolysosomes. Lipids of microbial origin belong also to the strongest and most versatile inducers of mammalian immune responses upon engagement of distinct receptors on myeloid and lymphoid cells. Furthermore, microbial lipid toxins can induce membrane injuries and cell death. Thus, we will review here selected examples for mutual host-microbe interactions within the broad and divergent universe of lipids in microbial defense, tissue injury and immune evasion.

  11. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  12. Skin photoprotection improvement: synergistic interaction between lipid nanoparticles and organic UV filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, S; Keck, C M; Anselmi, C; Müller, R H

    2011-07-29

    A photoprotective formulation was developed with an increased sunprotection factor (SPF), compared to a conventional nanoemulsion, but having the same concentration of three molecular sunscreens, namely ethylhexyl triazone, bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine, and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. The sunscreen mixture was incorporated into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The ability of nine different solid lipids to yield stable aqueous NLC suspensions was assessed. After the production by hot high pressure homogenization, the NLC were analyzed in terms of particle size, physical state, particle shape, ultraviolet absorbance and stability. The particle size for all NLC was around 200 nm after production. The NLC suspension with carnauba wax had superior UV absorbance, NLC from bees wax showed similar efficiency as the reference emulsion. The NLC formulations were incorporated into hydrogel formulations and the in vitro SPF was measured. This study demonstrated that approximately 45% higher SPF values could be obtained when the organic UV filters were incorporated into carnauba wax NLC, in comparison to the reference nanoemulsion and bees wax NLC. The data showed that the synergistic effect of NLC and incorporated sunscreens depends not only on the solid state of the lipid but also on its type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  14. Critical fluid technology for the processing of lipid-related natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., Supercritical Fluid Facility, Chemistry Div. NM (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, the technology envelope that embraces critical fluids can involve a wide range of conditions, different types of pure and modified fluids, as well as processing options involving extractions, fractionations or reactions. Technological development drivers continue to be environmentally and consumer-benign processing and/or products, however in recent years expansion of the use of sub- and supercritical fluids has been catalyzed by applications in such opportune fields as nutraceuticals, conversion of biomass (bio-refining), and the ability to modify natural products by reactions. The use of critical fluid technology is an important facet of any sustainable development program, particularly when utilized over a broad, interconnected application platform. In this overview presentation, concepts and applications of critical fluids from the author's research as well as the literature will be cited to support the above trends. A totally 'green' processing platform appears to be viable using carbon dioxide in the appropriate form, ethanol and water as intermediate co-solvents/reactants, and water from above its boiling point to supercritical conditions. These fluids can be combined in overall coupled unit processes, such as combining trans-esterification with hydrogenation, or glycero-lysis of lipid moieties with supercritical fluid fractionation. Such fluids also can exploited sequentially for bio-refining processes or the segregation of value-added products, but may require using coupled fluid or unit operations to obtain the targeted product composition or purity. Changing the reduced temperatures and/or pressures of critical fluids offers a plethora of opportunity, an excellent example being the relative critical fluid state of water. For example, sub-critical water slightly above its boiling point provides a unique medium that mimics polar organic solvents, and has been used even for the extraction of thermally labile solutes or

  15. Lipid dip-pen nanolithography on self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavutis, Martynas; Navikas, Vytautas; Rakickas, Tomas; Vaitekonis, Šarūnas; Valiokas, Ramūnas

    2016-01-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) with lipids as an ink enables functional micro/nanopatterning on different substrates at high process speeds. However, only a few studies have addressed the influence of the physicochemical properties of the surface on the structure and phase behavior of DPN-printed lipid assemblies. Therefore, by combining the scanning probe and optical imaging techniques in this work we have analyzed lipid microdomain formation on the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold as well-defined model surfaces that displayed hydrophilic (protein-repellent) or hydrophobic (protein-adhesive) characteristics. We have found that on the tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAM the lipid ink transfer was fast (∼10 –1 μm 3 s −1 ), quasi-linear and it yielded unstable, sparsely packed lipid microspots. Contrary to this, on the methyl-terminated SAM the lipid transfer was ∼20 times slower, nonlinear, and the obtained stable dots of ∼1 μm in diameter consisted of lipid multilayers. Our comparative analysis indicated that the measured lipid transfer was consistent with the previously reported so-called polymer transfer model (Felts et al 2012, Nanotechnology 23 215301). Further on, by employing the observed distinct contrast in the DPN ink behavior we constructed confined lipid microdomains on pre-patterned SAMs, in which the lipids assembled either into monolayer or multilamellar phases. Such microdomains can be further utilized for lipid membrane mimetics in microarray and lab-on-a-chip device formats. (paper)

  16. Role of surfactant protein A (SP-A)/lipid interactions for SP-A functions in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), an oligomeric glycoprotein, is a member of a group of proteins named collectins that contain collagen-like and Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains. SP-A interacts with a broad range of amphipathic lipids (glycerophospholipids, sphingophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, lipid A, and lipoglycans) that are present in surfactant or microbial membranes. This review summarizes SP-A/lipid interaction studies regarding the lipid system used (i.e., phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid monolayers, and lipids immobilized on silica or adsorbed on a solid support). The effect of calcium, ionic strength, and pH on the binding of SP-A to lipids and the subsequent lipid aggregation process is discussed. Current evidence suggests that hydrophobic-binding forces are involved in the peripherical association of SP-A to membranes. It is also proposed that fluid and liquid-ordered phase coexistence in surfactant membranes might favor partition of SP-A into those membranes. The binding of SP-A to surfactant membranes containing hydrophobic surfactant peptides makes possible the formation of a membrane reservoir in the alveolar fluid that is protected by SP-A against inactivation and improves the rate of surfactant film formation. In addition, the interaction of SP-A with membranes might enhance the affinity of SP-A for terminal carbohydrates of glycolipids or glycoproteins on the surface of invading microorganisms.

  17. Refractory Hyperlactatemia with Organ Insufficiency in Lipid Storage Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanda; Zhou, Li; Liang, Weibo; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Liang, Xiuling; Zhong, Nanshan; Li, Yimin

    2015-08-01

    Lipid storage myopathy is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal lipid accumulation in muscle fibers and progressive muscle weakness. Here, we report the case of a 17-year-old woman with progressive muscle weakness, refractory hyperlactatemia, and multiple organ insufficiency. Severe pneumonia was the initial diagnosis. After anti-infective treatment, fluid resuscitation, and mechanical ventilation, the patient's symptoms improved but hyperlactatemia and muscle weakness persisted. She was empirically treated with carnitine. Biochemical tests, electromyography, and muscle biopsy confirmed lipid storage myopathy. After 7 weeks of treatment, the patient resumed normal daily life. An empirical treatment with carnitine may be beneficial for patients before an accurate diagnosis of lipid storage myopathy is made.

  18. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    Microalgae have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids of high interest for the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and energy (e.g. biodiesel) industries. However, current lipid extraction methods show efficiency limitation and until now, extraction protocols have not been fully optimized for specific lipid compounds. The present study thus presents a novel lipid extraction method, consisting in the addition of a water treatment of biomass between the two-stage solvent extraction steps of current extraction methods. The resulting modified method not only enhances lipid extraction efficiency, but also yields a higher triacylglycerols (TAG) ratio, which is highly desirable for biodiesel production. Modification of four existing methods using acetone, chloroform/methanol (Chl/Met), chloroform/methanol/H 2 O (Chl/Met/H 2 O) and dichloromethane/methanol (Dic/Met) showed respective lipid extraction yield enhancement of 72.3, 35.8, 60.3 and 60.9%. The modified acetone method resulted in the highest extraction yield, with 68.9 ± 0.2% DW total lipids. Extraction of TAG was particularly improved with the water treatment, especially for the Chl/Met/H 2 O and Dic/Met methods. The acetone method with the water treatment led to the highest extraction level of TAG with 73.7 ± 7.3 µg/mg DW, which is 130.8 ± 10.6% higher than the maximum value obtained for the four classical methods (31.9 ± 4.6 µg/mg DW). Interestingly, the water treatment preferentially improved the extraction of intracellular fractions, i.e. TAG, sterols, and free fatty acids, compared to the lipid fractions of the cell membranes, which are constituted of phospholipids (PL), acetone mobile polar lipids and hydrocarbons. Finally, from the 32 fatty acids analyzed for both neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) fractions, it is clear that the water treatment greatly improves NL-to-PL ratio for the four standard methods assessed. Water treatment of biomass after the first solvent extraction step

  19. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations......Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...

  20. Complementary feeding messages that target cultural barriers enhance both the use of lipid-based nutrient supplements and underlying feeding practices to improve infant diets in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keriann H; Muti, Monica; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Madzima, Rufaro C; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Supplementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LiNS) is promoted as an approach to prevent child undernutrition and growth faltering. Previous LiNS studies have not tested the effects of improving the underlying diet prior to providing LiNS. Formative research was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to develop feeding messages to improve complementary feeding with and without LiNS. Two rounds of Trials of Improved Practices were conducted with mothers of infants aged 6-12 months to assess the feasibility of improving infant diets using (1) only locally available resources and (2) locally available resources plus 20 g of LiNS as Nutributter®/day. Common feeding problems were poor dietary diversity and low energy density. Popular improved practices were to process locally available foods so that infants could swallow them and add processed local foods to enrich porridges. Consumption of beans, fruits, green leafy vegetables, and peanut/seed butters increased after counselling (P < 0.05). Intakes of energy, protein, vitamin A, folate, calcium, iron and zinc from complementary foods increased significantly after counselling with or without the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). Intakes of fat, folate, iron, and zinc increased only (fat) or more so (folate, iron, and zinc) with the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). While provision of LiNS was crucial to ensure adequate intakes of iron and zinc, educational messages that were barrier-specific and delivered directly to mothers were crucial to improving the underlying diet. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer increase endothelial progenitor cells, enhance myocardial vascularity, and improve diastolic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Gordts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol contribute to coronary heart disease but little is known about their direct effects on myocardial function. Low HDL and raised non-HDL cholesterol levels carried increased risk for heart failure development in the Framingham study, independent of any association with myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC number and function after lipid lowering or HDL raising gene transfer in C57BL/6 low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/- mice may be associated with an enhanced relative vascularity in the myocardium and an improved cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer were performed using the E1E3E4-deleted LDLr expressing adenoviral vector AdLDLr and the human apolipoprotein A-I expressing vector AdA-I, respectively. AdLDLr transfer in C57BL/6 LDLr(-/- mice resulted in a 2.0-fold (p<0.05 increase of the circulating number of EPCs and in an improvement of EPC function as assessed by ex vivo EPC migration and EPC adhesion. Capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium were 28% (p<0.01 and 22% (p<0.05 higher, respectively, in AdLDLr mice compared to control mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 12% (p<0.05 and the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation was decreased by 14% (p<0.05 after AdLDLr transfer. Similarly, HDL raising gene transfer increased EPC number and function and raised both capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium by 24% (p<0.05. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 16% (p<0.05 in AdA-I mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer have beneficial effects on EPC biology, relative myocardial vascularity, and diastolic function. These findings raise concerns over the

  2. Functional-drink rich in antioxidant cardamom-rhizome (Amomum cardamomum willd) suppresses inflammation and improves lipid profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarsi, H.; Susilowati, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know the effect of functional drink rich in antioxidant cardamom rhizome (Fd-Carrhi) on level of IL-6, C-RP, and lipid profile of atherosclerotic. A total of 30 women with atherosclerosis, age 40-65 years old, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, lived in Purwokerto, Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia, and were willing to sign informed consent, recruited as research subjects. They consumed simvastatin from doctors, divided by 3 groups of 10 people each. Group I, given Fd-Carrhi; II, placebo; and III, only simvastatin, for 2 months. As many as 100 ml of Fd-Carrhi or placebo were given every morning. Blood samples were taken 3 times, 1 ml, at baseline, 1 and 2 months after intervention. Blood plasma was determined levels of IL-6, C-RP, as well as total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TG), LDL-c, and HDL-c. Result showed Fd-Carrhi versus placebo significantly decreased plasma level of IL-6, C-RP, total-c, and LDL-c, and otherwise increased HDL-c, but no differences were seen in TG. The findings clearly support Fd-Carrhi inhibit the development of atherosclerosis towards cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD) by suppressing IL-6 and CRP levels, and improving lipid profile.

  3. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  4. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  5. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition.

  6. [Sustainable process improvement with application of 'lean philosophy'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouppe van der Voort, Marc B V; van Merode, G G Frits; Veraart, Henricus G N

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement is increasingly being implemented, particularly with the aid of 'lean philosophy'. This management philosophy aims to improve quality by reducing 'wastage'. Local improvements can produce negative effects elsewhere due to interdependence of processes. An 'integrated system approach' is required to prevent this. Some hospitals claim that this has been successful. Research into process improvement with the application of lean philosophy has reported many positive effects, defined as improved safety, quality and efficiency. Due to methodological shortcomings and lack of rigorous evaluations it is, however, not yet possible to determine the impact of this approach. It is, however, obvious that the investigated applications are fragmentary, with a dominant focus on the instrumental aspect of the philosophy and a lack of integration in a total system, and with insufficient attention to human aspects. Process improvement is required to achieve better and more goal-oriented healthcare. To achieve this, hospitals must develop integrated system approaches that combine methods for process design with continuous improvement of processes and with personnel management. It is crucial that doctors take the initiative to guide and improve processes in an integral manner.

  7. Inpatient preanalytic process improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Phipps, Ron; Del Guidice, Robert; Middleton, Lavinia P; Bingham, John; Prejean, Cheryl; Johnson-Hamilton, Martha; Philip, Pheba; Le, Ngoc Han; Muses, Waheed

    2013-12-01

    Phlebotomy services are a common target for preanalytic improvements. Many new, quality engineering tools have recently been applied in clinical laboratories. However, data on relatively few projects have been published. This example describes a complete application of current, quality engineering tools to improve preanalytic phlebotomy services. To decrease the response time in the preanalytic inpatient laboratory by 25%, to reduce the number of incident reports related to preanalytic phlebotomy, and to make systematic process changes that satisfied the stakeholders. The Department of Laboratory Medicine, General Services Section, at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) is responsible for inpatient phlebotomy in a 24-hour operation, which serves 689 inpatient beds. The study director was project director of the Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine's Quality Improvement Section and was assisted by 2 quality technologists and an industrial engineer from MD Anderson Office of Performance Improvement. After implementing each solution, using well-recognized, quality tools and metrics, the response time for blood collection decreased by 23%, which was close to meeting the original responsiveness goal of 25%. The response time between collection and arrival in the laboratory decreased by 8%. Applicable laboratory-related incident reports were reduced by 43%. Comprehensive application of quality tools, such as statistical control charts, Pareto diagrams, value-stream maps, process failure modes and effects analyses, fishbone diagrams, solution prioritization matrices, and customer satisfaction surveys can significantly improve preset goals for inpatient phlebotomy.

  8. Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Technological Improvement of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pizzol, Carine; O'Reilly, Andre; Winter, Evelyn; Sonaglio, Diva; de Campos, Angela Machado; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal particles consisting of a matrix composed of solid (at room and body temperatures) lipids dispersed in aqueous emulsifier solution. During manufacture, their physicochemical properties may be affected by several formulation parameters, such as type and concentration of lipid, proportion of emulsifiers and amount of solvent. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of these variables on the preparation of SLN. A D-optimal Response Surface Methodology design was used to establish a mathematical model for the optimization of SLN. A total of 30 SLN formulations were prepared using the ultrasound method, and then characterized on the basis of their physicochemical properties, including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and Zeta Potential (s). Particle sizes ranged between 107 and 240 nm. All SLN formulations showed negative sigma and PI values below 0.28. Prediction of the optimal conditions was performed using the desirability function targeting the reduction of all responses. The optimized SLN formulation showed similar theoretical and experimental values, confirming the sturdiness and predictive ability of the mathematical model for SLN optimization.

  9. Business Processes Improvement in e-Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Rejman Petrovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a model to improve business processes in e-supply chains involves the use of a process approach to and a methodology for information systems development and includes the definition of the requirement, logical key process modeling with the defined information flow within the logical subsystem, logical data modeling, the logical network and data distribution modeling, and the logical interface modeling in order to meet different users´ needs. In doing so, a variety of methods and techniques for the different development stages of management information systems are used, namely: the business process management, the business process performance management and the analytic hierarchy process as a method for multiple-criteria decision making. This paper analyzes business processes and different types of supply chains in the automotive industry, as the representative of complex systems. Based on the selected key business processes and key performance indicators of business processes, the analytic hierarchy process model is developed, followed by their optimization. The result is the management information system model intended to improve the key business processes in e-supply chains. The research results show that the performance improvement of business processes in e-supply chains, the application of the model to improve the key business processes and the application of Web-based information and communication solutions affect the efficiency and quality of e-supply chains.

  10. Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Ochiuz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on solid lipid particles (SLPs, described in the literature as the most effective lipid drug delivery systems that have been introduced in the last decades, as they actually combine the advantages of polymeric particles, hydrophilic/lipophilic emulsions and liposomes. In the current study, we present our most recent advances in the preparation of alendronate (AL-loaded SLPs prepared by hot homogenization and ultrasonication using various ratios of a self-emulsifying lipidic mixture of Compritol 888, Gelucire 44/14, and Cremophor A 25. The prepared AL-loaded SLPs were investigated for their physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics by dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. Entrapment efficacy and actual drug content were assessed by a validated HPLC method. In vitro dissolution tests performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids and phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4 revealed a prolonged release of AL of 70 h. Additionally, release kinetics analysis showed that both in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in phosphate buffer solution, AL is released from SLPs based on equal ratios of lipid excipients following zero-order kinetics, which characterizes prolonged-release drug systems.

  11. Engaged Research in Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived.......This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived....

  12. Next generation software process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Turnas, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Software is often developed under a process that can at best be described as ad hoc. While it is possible to develop quality software under an ad hoc process, formal processes can be developed to help increase the overall quality of the software under development. The application of these processes allows for an organization to mature. The software maturity level, and process improvement, of an organization can be measured with the Cap...

  13. Lycium barbarum Reduces Abdominal Fat and Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Zanchet, Mayara Zagonel; Nardi, Geisson Marcos; de Oliveira Souza Bratti, Letícia; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola Branco; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants present in fruits have attracted considerable interest due to their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals of goji berry (GB) in patients with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. In this study, we examined anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome after the consumption of GB. The patients were divided into two groups, control (C) and supplemented (S), and followed up for 45 days. Participants were individually instructed to carry out a healthy diet, but additionally, an inclusion of 14 g of the natural form of goji berry in the diet during 45 days for the S group was proposed. After 45 days of study, a significant reduction in transaminases as well as an improvement in lipid profile in the S group was observed. Likewise, a significant reduction in the waist circumference of the S group was observed when compared with that of the C group, and increased glutathione and catalase levels associated with a reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that this is an effective dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  15. Improvement of Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status of Hyperlipidaemic Albino Rats by Gamma-irradiated Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; Farag, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Hyper-Lipidemia is a dominant risk factor that contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Safflower is rich in the essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds which are known to be effective for the treatment of hyper- lipidemia. This study was performed to examine the efficacy of safflower to ameliorate the induced hyper-lipidemia in rats. The results obtained revealed that rats fed on high fat diet (HFD) significantly induced an increase in lipid profile, glucose and some liver enzymes as well as elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) associated with a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), glutathione (GSH) content and some antioxidant enzymes activity. However, when rats received HFD containing either raw or irradiated safflower (1% w/w), a significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters was seen. In conclusion, safflower supplementation in diet of rats pointed out to a promising role of safflower, a natural product, on antioxidant enzymes, liver function and lipid profile of hyper-lipidemic rats, regardless if it is irradiated or not

  16. Competing Values in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the article is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on software process improvement (SPI). Is cultural congruence between an organization and an adopted process model required? How can the level of congruence between an organizational culture and the values...... and assumptions underlying an adopted process model be assessed? How can cultural incongruence be managed to facilitate success of software process improvement? Design/methodology/approach The competing values framework and its associated assessment instrument are used in a case study to establish......-step process, SPI managers establish and compare culture profiles and decide how to address identified problems. To that end the text analysis technique is offered as a web service that allows for analysis of all text-based process models and standards, and of internal process documentation. Originality...

  17. A one-stage cultivation process for lipid- and carbohydrate-rich biomass of Scenedesmus obtusiusculus based on artificial and natural water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christian; Reinhardt, Jakob; Wurster, Martina; Ortiz-Tena, José Guillermo; Sieber, Volker; Mundt, Sabine

    2016-10-01

    A one-stage cultivation process of the microalgae Scenedesmus obtusiusculus with medium based on natural water sources was developed to enhance lipids and carbohydrates. A medium based on artificial sea water, Baltic Sea water and river water with optimized nutrient concentrations compared to the standard BG-11 for nitrate (-75%), phosphate and iron (-90%) was used for cultivation. Although nitrate exhaustion over cultivation resulted in nitrate limitation, growth of the microalgae was not reduced. The lipid content increased from 6.0% to 19.9%, an increase in oleic and stearic acid was observed. The unsaponifiable matter of the lipid fraction was reduced from 19.5% to 11.4%. The carbohydrate yield rose from 45% to 50% and the protein content decreased from 32.4% to 15.9%. Using natural water sources with optimized nutrient concentrations could open the opportunity to modulate biomass composition and to reduce the cultivation costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of nanocarriers for nanoscale drug delivery to enhance cancer treatment using hybrid polymer and lipid building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui Xue; Ahmed, Taksim; Li, Lily Yi; Li, Jason; Abbasi, Azhar Z; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2017-01-26

    Polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLN) are an emerging nanocarrier platform made from building blocks of polymers and lipids. PLN integrate the advantages of biomimetic lipid-based nanoparticles (i.e. solid lipid nanoparticles and liposomes) and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles. PLN are constructed from diverse polymers and lipids and their numerous combinations, which imparts PLN with great versatility for delivering drugs of various properties to their nanoscale targets. PLN can be classified into two types based on their hybrid nanoscopic structure and assembly methods: Type-I monolithic matrix and Type-II core-shell systems. This article reviews the history of PLN development, types of PLN, lipid and polymer candidates, fabrication methods, and unique properties of PLN. The applications of PLN in delivery of therapeutic or imaging agents alone or in combination for cancer treatment are summarized and illustrated with examples. Important considerations for the rational design of PLN for advanced nanoscale drug delivery are discussed, including selection of excipients, synthesis processes governing formulation parameters, optimization of nanoparticle properties, improvement of particle surface functionality to overcome macroscopic, microscopic and cellular biological barriers. Future directions and potential clinical translation of PLN are also suggested.

  19. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  20. JAZF1 can regulate the expression of lipid metabolic genes and inhibit lipid accumulation in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Guang-feng [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Changsha 410078, Hunan (China); Department of Critical Care Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan (China); Xiao, Di; Gong, Wei-jing [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Changsha 410078, Hunan (China); Liu, Hui-xia; Liu, Jun [Department of Geriatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan (China); Zhou, Hong-hao [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Changsha 410078, Hunan (China); Liu, Zhao-qian, E-mail: liuzhaoqian63@126.com [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Changsha 410078, Hunan (China)

    2014-03-14

    Highlights: • JAZF1 was significantly upregulated during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • JAZF1 overexpression inhibited lipid accumulation in differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • JAZF1 overexpression inhibited the expression of SREBP1, ACC, and FAS. • JAZF1 overexpression upregulated the expression of HSL and ATGL. • SREBP1 and JAZF1 could regulate each other in adipocytes. - Abstract: JAZF1 is a newly identified gene with unknown functions. A recent genome-wide association study showed that JAZF1 is associated with type 2 diabetes and is highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue. Studies have demonstrated that JAZF1 is the co-repressor for nuclear orphan receptor TAK1, whereas most nuclear orphan receptor family members are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Therefore, JAZF1 could be closely related to glycolipid metabolism. In this study, JAZF1 was significantly upregulated during the induced differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The overexpression of JAZF1 inhibited lipid accumulation in differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes and significantly inhibited the expression of SREBPl, ACC, and FAS, which were important in lipid synthesis, while upregulating the expression of key enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase in lipoclasis. Moreover, SREBPl exhibited an inhibitory function on the expression of JAZF1. SREBP1 reversed the inhibitory action on lipid accumulation of JAZF1. SREBP1 and JAZF1 were observed to regulate each other in adipocytes. Therefore, JAZF1 could regulate the expression of particular genes related to lipid metabolism and inhibit lipid accumulation in adipocytes. This result suggests that JAZF1 may be a potential target for the treatment of diseases, such as obesity and lipid metabolism disorders.

  1. JAZF1 can regulate the expression of lipid metabolic genes and inhibit lipid accumulation in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Guang-feng; Xiao, Di; Gong, Wei-jing; Liu, Hui-xia; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Hong-hao; Liu, Zhao-qian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • JAZF1 was significantly upregulated during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. • JAZF1 overexpression inhibited lipid accumulation in differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • JAZF1 overexpression inhibited the expression of SREBP1, ACC, and FAS. • JAZF1 overexpression upregulated the expression of HSL and ATGL. • SREBP1 and JAZF1 could regulate each other in adipocytes. - Abstract: JAZF1 is a newly identified gene with unknown functions. A recent genome-wide association study showed that JAZF1 is associated with type 2 diabetes and is highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue. Studies have demonstrated that JAZF1 is the co-repressor for nuclear orphan receptor TAK1, whereas most nuclear orphan receptor family members are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Therefore, JAZF1 could be closely related to glycolipid metabolism. In this study, JAZF1 was significantly upregulated during the induced differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The overexpression of JAZF1 inhibited lipid accumulation in differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes and significantly inhibited the expression of SREBPl, ACC, and FAS, which were important in lipid synthesis, while upregulating the expression of key enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase in lipoclasis. Moreover, SREBPl exhibited an inhibitory function on the expression of JAZF1. SREBP1 reversed the inhibitory action on lipid accumulation of JAZF1. SREBP1 and JAZF1 were observed to regulate each other in adipocytes. Therefore, JAZF1 could regulate the expression of particular genes related to lipid metabolism and inhibit lipid accumulation in adipocytes. This result suggests that JAZF1 may be a potential target for the treatment of diseases, such as obesity and lipid metabolism disorders

  2. Characterization of lipid oxidation process of beef during repeated freeze-thaw by electron spin resonance technology and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingmin; Xie, Yunfei; Xi, Jinzhong; Guo, Yahui; Qian, He; Cheng, Yuliang; Chen, Yi; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-15

    In this study, electron spin resonance (ESR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize lipid oxidation of beef during repeated freeze-thaw (RFT). Besides the conventional indexes including peroxide values (PV), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and acid values (AV) were evaluated, the radical and molecular structure changes were also measured by ESR and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that PV, TBARS and AV were increased (PRaman intensity of ν(CC) stretching region (1655cm -1 ) was decreased during RFT. Furthermore, lower Raman intensity ratio of I 1655 /I 1442 , I 1655 /I 1745 that determine total unsaturation was also observed. Significant correlations (pRaman spectroscopy. Our result has proved that ESR and Raman spectroscopy showed great potential in characterizing lipid oxidation process of beef during RFT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Meejoo Smith, Siwaporn; Treetong, Alongkot; Pratontep, Sirapat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-03-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of γ-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812® as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the γ-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the 1H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of γ-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the 1H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in γ-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in γ-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of γ-oryzanol and

  4. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo; Treetong, Alongkot; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong; Pratontep, Sirapat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2010-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of γ-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the γ-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the 1 H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of γ-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the 1 H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in γ-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in γ-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of γ-oryzanol and

  5. Interpreting the CMMI a process improvement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Margaret K

    2008-01-01

    Written by experienced process improvement professionals who have developed and implemented computer based systems in organizations around the world, Interpreting the CMMI®: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition provides you with specific techniques for performing process improvement. Employing everyday language and supported by real world examples, the authors describe the fundamental concepts of the CMMI model, covering goals, practices, architecture, and definitions, and provide a structured approach for implementing the concepts of the CMMI into any organization. They discuss gett

  6. Assessing the nature of lipid raft membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Perttu S; Ollila, Samuli; Hyvönen, Marja T

    2007-01-01

    of highly ordered lateral domains rich in sphingomyelin and cholesterol (CHOL). These domains, called functional lipid rafts, have been suggested to take part in a variety of dynamic cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the activity of membrane proteins......-scale simulations to elucidate the properties of ternary raft mixtures with CHOL, palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM), and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine. We simulate two bilayers of 1,024 lipids for 100 ns in the liquid-ordered phase and one system of the same size in the liquid-disordered phase. The studies provide...... heterogeneity more difficult. The findings reveal aspects of the role of favored (specific) lipid-lipid interactions within rafts and clarify the prominent role of CHOL in altering the properties of the membrane locally in its neighborhood. Also, we show that the presence of PSM and CHOL in rafts leads...

  7. Development of solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced solubility of poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potta, Sriharsha Gupta; Minemi, Sriharsha; Nukala, Ravi Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by using a solvent free high pressure homogenization process. CyA was incorporated into SLNs that consisted of stearic acid, trilaurin or tripalmitin lipid solid cores in order to enhance drug solubility. The process was conducted...

  8. Lipid alterations in lipid rafts from Alzheimer's disease human brain cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Virginia; Fabelo, Noemí; Santpere, Gabriel; Puig, Berta; Marín, Raquel; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. These biochemical microstructures are characterized by their high contents of sphingolipids, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we have purified lipid rafts of human frontal brain cortex from normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized their biochemical lipid composition. The results revealed that lipid rafts from AD brains exhibit aberrant lipid profiles compared to healthy brains. In particular, lipid rafts from AD brains displayed abnormally low levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, mainly 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) and monoenes (mainly 18:1n-9, oleic acid), as well as reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes. Also, multiple relationships between phospholipids and fatty acids were altered in AD lipid rafts. Importantly, no changes were observed in the mole percentage of lipid classes and fatty acids in rafts from normal brains throughout the lifespan (24-85 years). These indications point to the existence of homeostatic mechanisms preserving lipid raft status in normal frontal cortex. The disruption of such mechanisms in AD brains leads to a considerable increase in lipid raft order and viscosity, which may explain the alterations in lipid raft signaling observed in AD.

  9. Improved procedure for high purity gaseous peroxyacyl nitrate production: use of heavy lipid solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, J S; Fajer, R; Senum, G I

    1984-01-01

    An improved procedure is described for the production of peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN's) in the gas phase. The method of Nielsen et al. (1982) has been modified to yield PAN's of high purity with no further chromatographic purification required. Extraction of PAN's from the nitration of the peracids is accomplished by use of a heavy lipid solvent (n-tridecane). This solvent's low vapor pressure allows the simple separation and preparation of high purity gaseous PAN's (>98%) as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Using this method infrared integrated band strengths are reported for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) perdeutero-peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN-D/sub 3/) and peroxyproprionyl nitrate (PPN). The method allows facile production of large amounts of gaseous PAN's for smog chamber and laboratory studies, toxicological and health effects research, as well as for calibration of PAN analyses.

  10. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  11. Alleviation of reactive oxygen species enhances PUFA accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. through regulating genes involved in lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular heterotrophic thraustochytrids are attractive candidates for commercial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA production. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in their aerobic fermentation process often limits their PUFA titer. Yet, the specific mechanisms of ROS involvement in the crosstalk between oxidative stress and intracellular lipid synthesis remain poorly described. Metabolic engineering to improve the PUFA yield in thraustochytrids without compromising growth is an important aspect of economic feasibility. To fill this gap, we overexpressed the antioxidative gene superoxide dismutase (SOD1 by integrating it into the genome of thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. PKU#Mn4 using a novel genetic transformation system. This study reports the ROS alleviation, enhanced PUFA production and transcriptome changes resulting from the SOD1 overexpression. SOD1 activity in the recombinant improved by 5.2–71.6% along with 7.8–38.5% decline in ROS during the fermentation process. Interestingly, the total antioxidant capacity in the recombinant remained higher than wild-type and above zero in the entire process. Although lipid profile was similar to that of wild-type, the concentrations of major fatty acids in the recombinant were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher. The PUFA titer increased up to 1232 ± 41 mg/L, which was 32.9% higher (p ≤ 0.001 than the wild type. Transcriptome analysis revealed strong downregulation of genes potentially involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisome and upregulation of genes catalyzing lipid biosynthesis. Our results enrich the knowledge on stress-induced PUFA biosynthesis and the putative role of ROS in the regulation of lipid metabolism in oleaginous thraustochytrids. This study provides a new and alternate strategy for cost-effective industrial fermentation of PUFA. Keywords: Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Schizochytrium sp., Superoxide dismutase, Transgene

  12. Structural and physicochemical properties of polar lipids from thermophilic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Gmajner, Dejan; Raspor, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The essential general features required for lipid membranes of extremophilic archaea to fulfill biological functions are that they are in the liquid crystalline phase and have extremely low permeability of solutes that is much less temperature sensitive due to a lack of lipid-phase transition and highly branched isoprenoid chains. Many accumulated data indicate that the organism's response to extremely low pH is the opposite of that to high temperature. The high temperature adaptation does not require the tetraether lipids, while the adaptation of thermophiles to acidic environment requires the tetraether polar lipids. The presence of cyclopentane rings and the role of polar heads are not so straightforward regarding the correlations between fluidity and permeability of the lipid membrane. Due to the unique lipid structures and properties of archaeal lipids, they are a valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. This microreview focuses primarily on structural and physicochemical properties of polar lipids of (hyper)thermophilic archaea.

  13. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Beaman, Joni L; He, Yi; Guo, Zhixin; Sun, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of Puer tea extract (PTE) on body weight, body-fat composition, and lipid profile in a non-Asian population in the absence of dietary restrictions. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. A total of 59 overweight or mildly obese subjects were enrolled upon screening to confirm fasting cholesterol level at or above 220 mg/dL (5.7 mmol/dL). After giving informed consent, subjects were randomized to consume PTE (3 g/day) or placebo for 20 weeks. At baseline and at 4-week intervals, blood lipids, C-reactive protein, and fasting blood glucose were evaluated. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at baseline and at study exit to evaluate changes to body composition. Appetite and physical and mental energy were scored at each visit using visual analog scales (0-100). Consumption of PTE was associated with statistically significant weight loss when compared to placebo (PConsumption of PTE was associated with improvements to lipid profile, including a mild reduction in cholesterol and the cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio after only 4 weeks, as well as a reduction in triglycerides and very small-density lipoproteins, where average blood levels reached normal range at 8 weeks and remained within normal range for the duration of the study (Pconsumption of PTE was associated with significant weight loss, reduced body mass index, and an improved lipid profile.

  14. Major roles for minor bacterial lipids identified by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa A

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry of lipids, especially those isolated from bacteria, has ballooned over the past two decades, affirming in the process the complexity of the lipidome. With this has come the identification of new and interesting lipid structures. Here is an overview of several novel lipids, from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with roles in health and disease, whose structural identification was facilitated using mass spectrometry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yatabe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG, which is called “preconditioning”. However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS. After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB, contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods.

  16. Spectral imaging toolbox: segmentation, hyperstack reconstruction, and batch processing of spectral images for the determination of cell and model membrane lipid order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Miles; Browning, Richard; Carugo, Dario; Sezgin, Erdinc; Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Eggeling, Christian; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-05-12

    Spectral imaging with polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes enables the quantification of cell and model membrane physical properties, including local hydration, fluidity, and lateral lipid packing, usually characterized by the generalized polarization (GP) parameter. With the development of commercial microscopes equipped with spectral detectors, spectral imaging has become a convenient and powerful technique for measuring GP and other membrane properties. The existing tools for spectral image processing, however, are insufficient for processing the large data sets afforded by this technological advancement, and are unsuitable for processing images acquired with rapidly internalized fluorescent probes. Here we present a MATLAB spectral imaging toolbox with the aim of overcoming these limitations. In addition to common operations, such as the calculation of distributions of GP values, generation of pseudo-colored GP maps, and spectral analysis, a key highlight of this tool is reliable membrane segmentation for probes that are rapidly internalized. Furthermore, handling for hyperstacks, 3D reconstruction and batch processing facilitates analysis of data sets generated by time series, z-stack, and area scan microscope operations. Finally, the object size distribution is determined, which can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying changes in membrane properties and is desirable for e.g. studies involving model membranes and surfactant coated particles. Analysis is demonstrated for cell membranes, cell-derived vesicles, model membranes, and microbubbles with environmentally-sensitive probes Laurdan, carboxyl-modified Laurdan (C-Laurdan), Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, and Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA (FE), for quantification of the local lateral density of lipids or lipid packing. The Spectral Imaging Toolbox is a powerful tool for the segmentation and processing of large spectral imaging datasets with a reliable method for membrane segmentation and no ability in programming required. The

  17. Problem Diagnosis in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jakob; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses software process improvement. In particular it reports on action research undertaken to understand the problems with software processes of a large Danish company. It is argued that in order to understand what the specific problems are we may, on the one hand, rely on process...... to enable process improvement to effectively take place. It is argued that problem diagnosis a useful approach and that it has advantages over model-based assessment....... models like CMM or Bootstrap. On the other hand, we may also see the specific and unique features of software processes in this company through what we call problem diagnosis. Problem diagnosis deals with eliciting problems perceived by software project managers and with forming commitment structures...

  18. Development of ionic-complex-based nanostructured lipid carriers to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of breviscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zheng, Yong; Shan, Feng-ying; Zhou, Jing; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-rong

    2013-08-01

    Breviscapine isolated from the Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz is widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of breviscapine using nanostructured lipid carrier based on an ionic complex formation. Breviscapine nanostructured lipid carrier (Bre-NLC) was prepared using the thin film homogenization method. The morphology of Bre-NLCs was determined using transmission electron microscopy. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta-potential analysis and entrapment efficiency were analized. In vitro release was studied using the dialysis method. In vitro stability was studied in fresh plasma and liver slurry of rats. In vivo pharmacokinetics was analyzed in rats after intravenous injection of a dose equivalent to breviscapine (10 mg/kg). The Bre-NLCs were spherical with a mean particle size of ~170 nm, a zeta potential of ∼20 mV and a high entrapment efficiency of ~89%. Compared with a commercially available solution, a substantial decrease in the cumulative release of breviscapine was found for the Bre-NLCs. The NLC has a significantly protective effect against the liver enzyme degradation of breviscapine. After intravenous administration in rats, the Bre-NLCs exhibited a 32 times increase in the AUC0-t and a 12 times increase in T1/2 as compared to the commercially available breviscapine solution. The results demonstrate that the NLC has great potential to use as a novel sustained release system for breviscapine.

  19. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  20. Pots and lipids: molecular and isotope evidence of the food processing at Maharski prekop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ogrinc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pottery assemblage from the Maharski prekop site was analysed to obtain insights into vessel use and husbandry practices. Total lipid extracts of pottery samples were subjected to gas chromatography (GC, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS, gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS and soft ionisation electrospray mass spectrometric techniques ESI Q–TOF MS and ESI Q–TOF MS/MS. The charred organic deposits on vessels were AMS 14C dated. The results show that some vessels were used for cooking ruminant meat, while in other traces of mixed non–ruminant and ruminant meat or plants and animal meat cooking were identified. Some vessels were used for milk processing.

  1. Development and optimization of sulforaphane-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers by the Box-Behnken design for improved oral efficacy against cancer: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kriti; Rizwanullah, Md; Kohli, Kanchan

    2017-11-28

    In the present study, sulforaphane (SFN)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were developed and optimized for improved oral efficacy against cancer. The SFN-loaded NLC formulation was developed by melt emulsification ultrasonication technique and optimized by Box-Behnken statistical design. The optimized SFN-loaded NLC formulation composed of precirol ® ATO 5 (solid lipid) and vitamin E (liquid lipid) as lipid phase (3% w/v), poloxamer 188 (1%) and Tween 80 (1%) as surfactant. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (%) and drug loading (%) of optimized SFN-loaded NLC formulation was observed to be 145.38 ± 4.46 nm, 0.181 ± 0.023, -25.12 ± 2.36 mV, 84.94 ± 3.82% and 14.82 ± 3.46%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that the release of SFN from optimized NLC formulation was significantly higher (86.52 ± 5.48%) compared to SFN suspension (38.47 ± 5.52%) up to 24 h. Ex vivo gut permeation studies revealed a very good enhancement in permeation of drug present in the NLC compared to plain SFN solution and were further confirmed by CLSM. MTT assay in different cancer cell lines showed that the optimized SFN-loaded NLC formulation exhibited significantly improved (p < .05) cytotoxicity compared to free SFN solution. SFN-loaded NLC formulation showed significantly improved antioxidant activity compared to free SFN solution. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic study on albino Wistar rats showed 5.04-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability with NLC (p < .05) compared to SFN suspension. Therefore, NLC represents a great potential for improved efficacy of SFN after oral administration.

  2. Do lipids shape the eukaryotic cell cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furse, Samuel; Shearman, Gemma C

    2018-01-01

    Successful passage through the cell cycle presents a number of structural challenges to the cell. Inceptive studies carried out in the last five years have produced clear evidence of modulations in the lipid profile (sometimes referred to as the lipidome) of eukaryotes as a function of the cell cycle. This mounting body of evidence indicates that lipids play key roles in the structural transformations seen across the cycle. The accumulation of this evidence coincides with a revolution in our understanding of how lipid composition regulates a plethora of biological processes ranging from protein activity through to cellular signalling and membrane compartmentalisation. In this review, we discuss evidence from biological, chemical and physical studies of the lipid fraction across the cell cycle that demonstrate that lipids are well-developed cellular components at the heart of the biological machinery responsible for managing progress through the cell cycle. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanisms by which this careful control is exercised. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Treetong, Alongkot; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok (Thailand); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit, E-mail: uracha@nanotec.or.th [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2010-03-26

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of {gamma}-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the {gamma}-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the {sup 1}H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of {gamma}-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the {sup 1}H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in {gamma}-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in {gamma}-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of {gamma}-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of {gamma}-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction of lipid from fish waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. A.; Omar, R.; Ethaib, S.; Siti Mazlina, M. K.; Awang Biak, D. R.; Nor Aisyah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Processing fish waste for extraction of value added products such as protein, lipid, gelatin, amino acids, collagen and oil has become one of the most intriguing researches due to its valuable properties. In this study the extraction of lipid from sardine fish waste was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and compared with Soxhlets and Hara and Radin methods. A mixture of two organic solvents isopropanol/hexane and distilled water were used for MAE and Hara and Radin methods. Meanwhile, Soxhlet method utilized only hexane as solvent. The results show that the higher yield of lipid 80.5 mg/g was achieved using distilled water in MAE method at 10 min extraction time. Soxhlet extraction method only produced 46.6 mg/g of lipid after 4 hours of extraction time. Lowest yield of lipid was found at 15.8 mg/g using Hara and Radin method. Based on aforementioned results, it can be concluded MAE method is superior compared to the Soxhlet and Hara and Radin methods which make it an attractive route to extract lipid from fish waste.

  5. Design and Synthesis of Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takaoki

    Maintaining the correct ion homeostasis across membranes is a major challenge in both nature and artificial systems. Archaea, have evolved to solve membrane permeability problems to survive in extreme environments by incorporating unique structural features found in their lipid. Specifically, inclusion of phytanyl side chains, ether glycerol linkages, tethering of lipids, cycloalkanes, and different polar lipid headgroups into their lipid membrane are believed to contribute to membrane stability. We sought to gain a better understanding of the functional benefits attributed to these structural features to membrane stability to design a new class of synthetic Archaea inspired lipid membranes that can be used to overcome limitations (i.e. unstable in serum environment, high background leakage, and prone to hydrolysis) found in current lipid based technologies. Leakage experiments revealed liposomes made from GMGTPC (glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraether lipid with phosphatidylcholine headgroup) demonstrated a two order magnitude reduction in membrane leakage to small ions when compared with liposomes made from EggPC. Additionally, liposomes composed of GMGTPC-CH (cyclohexane integrated) lipid displayed an additional 40% decrease in membrane leakage to small ions when compared with liposomes made from GMGTPC lipids. Furthermore, leakage experiments revealed a higher degree of tolerance to headgroup modifications to membrane leakage for liposomes made from GMGT lipid analogs when compared with liposomes made from POPC. After designing an optimal tetraether lipid scaffold that incorporates key Archaeal structural features for membrane leakage, we explored to integrate strategies employed by eukaryotes to improve membrane properties (i.e. addition of cholesterol). Liposomes made from the hybrid lipid, GcGTPC-CH, displayed a five-fold decrease in membrane leakage when compared with liposomes made from GMGTPC-CH, while maintaining functional membrane properties similar to

  6. [Cholesterol metabolism and lipid peroxidation processes in hypodynamia. Effect of using ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikov, A V; Tsapok, P I

    2010-01-01

    Study status of cholesterol metabolism, processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in blood plasma, erythrocytes and homogenates of the, heart, liver, muscle femors of rats attached to movement active. Establishment effects application of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were infused daily. The daily dosage was 2 and 1 mg respectively. Characteristic shift changes of cholesterol metabolism in conditions of limited muscular activity were revealed. It was shown that vitamin antioxidants play a role in correction of metabolic disorders in case of immobile distress syndrome.

  7. Exploring lipids with nonlinear optical microscopy in multiple biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba

    Lipids are crucial biomolecules for the well being of humans. Altered lipid metabolism may give rise to a variety of diseases that affect organs from the cardiovascular to the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of lipid metabolic processes would spur medical research towards developing precise diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and preventive strategies for reducing the impact of lipid diseases. Lipid visualization remains a complex task because of the perturbative effect exerted by traditional biochemical assays and most fluorescence markers. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy enables interrogation of biological samples with minimum disturbance, and is particularly well suited for label-free visualization of lipids, providing chemical specificity without compromising on spatial resolution. Hyperspectral imaging yields large datasets that benefit from tailored multivariate analysis. In this thesis, CRS microscopy was combined with Raman spectroscopy and other label-free nonlinear optical techniques to analyze lipid metabolism in multiple biological systems. We used nonlinear Raman techniques to characterize Meibum secretions in the progression of dry eye disease, where the lipid and protein contributions change in ratio and phase segregation. We employed similar tools to examine lipid droplets in mice livers aboard a spaceflight mission, which lose their retinol content contributing to the onset of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. We also focused on atherosclerosis, a disease that revolves around lipid-rich plaques in arterial walls. We examined the lipid content of macrophages, whose variable phenotype gives rise to contrasting healing and inflammatory activities. We also proposed new label-free markers, based on lifetime imaging, for macrophage phenotype, and to detect products of lipid oxidation. Cholesterol was also detected in hepatitis C virus infected cells, and in specific strains of age-related macular degeneration diseased cells by

  8. A DMAIC approach for process capability improvement an engine crankshaft manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2014-05-01

    The define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) approach is a five-strata approach, namely DMAIC. This approach is the scientific approach for reducing the deviations and improving the capability levels of the manufacturing processes. The present work elaborates on DMAIC approach applied in reducing the process variations of the stub-end-hole boring operation of the manufacture of crankshaft. This statistical process control study starts with selection of the critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristic in the define stratum. The next stratum constitutes the collection of dimensional measurement data of the CTQ characteristic identified. This is followed by the analysis and improvement strata where the various quality control tools like Ishikawa diagram, physical mechanism analysis, failure modes effects analysis and analysis of variance are applied. Finally, the process monitoring charts are deployed at the workplace for regular monitoring and control of the concerned CTQ characteristic. By adopting DMAIC approach, standard deviation is reduced from 0.003 to 0.002. The process potential capability index ( C P) values improved from 1.29 to 2.02 and the process performance capability index ( C PK) values improved from 0.32 to 1.45, respectively.

  9. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won; Lim, JitKang

    2014-01-01

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO 2 nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO 2 ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO 2 concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO 2 (5 g/L TiO 2 ) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO 2 (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO 2 /UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO 2 and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO 2 /UV-A

  10. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day, isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05. The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an

  11. Teaching the NIATx Model of Process Improvement as an Evidence-Based Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alyson C.; Rieckmann, Traci; Fitzgerald, Maureen M.; Gustafson, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Process Improvement (PI) is an approach for helping organizations to identify and resolve inefficient and ineffective processes through problem solving and pilot testing change. Use of PI in improving client access, retention and outcomes in addiction treatment is on the rise through the teaching of the Network for the Improvement of Addiction…

  12. Research on the Changes to the Lipid/Polymer Membrane Used in the Acidic Bitterness Sensor Caused by Preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Harada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A taste sensor that uses lipid/polymer membranes can evaluate aftertastes felt by humans using Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption (CPA measurements. The sensor membrane for evaluating bitterness, which is caused by acidic bitter substances such as iso-alpha acid contained in beer, needs an immersion process in monosodium glutamate (MSG solution, called “MSG preconditioning”. However, what happens to the lipid/polymer membrane during MSG preconditioning is not clear. Therefore, we carried out three experiments to investigate the changes in the lipid/polymer membrane caused by the MSG preconditioning, i.e., measurements of the taste sensor, measurements of the amount of the bitterness substance adsorbed onto the membrane and measurements of the contact angle of the membrane surface. The CPA values increased as the preconditioning process progressed, and became stable after 3 d of preconditioning. The response potentials to the reference solution showed the same tendency of the CPA value change during the preconditioning period. The contact angle of the lipid/polymer membrane surface decreased after 7 d of MSG preconditioning; in short, the surface of the lipid/polymer membrane became hydrophilic during MSG preconditioning. The amount of adsorbed iso-alpha acid was increased until 5 d preconditioning, and then it decreased. In this study, we revealed that the CPA values increased with the progress of MSG preconditioning in spite of the decrease of the amount of iso-alpha acid adsorbed onto the lipid/polymer membrane, and it was indicated that the CPA values increase because the sensor sensitivity was improved by the MSG preconditioning.

  13. Teacher Research as Continuous Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charles; Castle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Teacher research (inquiry) has been characterized as practice improvement, professional development and action research, among numerous names and descriptions. The purpose of this paper is to support the case that teacher research is also a form of quality improvement known as continuous process improvement (CPI).…

  14. The importance of reaching lipid targets: statins and the prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, P

    2003-06-01

    To help prevent the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), the European and NCEP guidelines have recommended target cholesterol levels for all individuals. Lifestyle changes are advocated for individuals not achieving these targets. Intervention with lipid-modifying agents may be required for patients at high risk of a cardiovascular event and statins are generally recognised as first-line therapy. Unfortunately, large numbers of patients at risk of cardiovascular events are not being treated to the guideline targets. Primary care physicians are in a good position to improve lipid management by assessing risk factors, implementing lipid management strategies, monitoring whether targets are being reached and amending treatment appropriately. Furthermore, by educating and motivating patients,primary care physicians may improve compliance with lifestyle changes and medication. These approaches may help more patients to achieve recommended lipid levels and prevent the development of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Sagunja-Tang Improves Lipid Related Disease in a Postmenopausal Rat Model and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroe Go

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Sagunja-tang on the lipid related disease in a rat model of menopausal hyperlipidemia and lipid accumulation in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo study using menopausal hyperlipidemia rats, Sagunja-tang reduced retroperitoneal and perirenal fat, serum lipids, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, media thickness, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score, when compared to menopausal hyperlipidemia control rats. In HepG2 cells, Sagunja-tang significantly decreased the lipid accumulation, total cholesterol levels, and low-density/very-low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, Sagunja-tang reversed the methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced decrease in the protein levels of critical molecule involved in cholesterol synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibited protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase as well as activity. Phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase was stimulated by Sagunja-tang. These results suggest that Sagunja-tang has effect on inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol synthesis and AMPK activity in vitro. These observations support the idea that Sagunja-tang is bioavailable both in vivo and in vitro and could be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent of hyperlipidemia in postmenopausal females.

  16. A REVIEW ON CORRELATION BETWEEN LIPID PROFILE AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Devi Dhulipala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical intervention data indicate that low levels of circulating lipids and cholesterol are the risk factors for depressive symptoms. Olie et al 2011 (1 showed an association of low cholesterol and self-harm in their study. In the present scenario, depression and anxiety disorders have high prevalence rates and are frequently related. Understanding the subject and concepts/mechanisms related to neurobiological basis for these disorders is very important and the available techniques or methods are ineffective. Lipids generally play an important role in neural function in the brain. The composition of lipid of the brain influences perception, mood and behaviour. Lipids are responsible to regulate the membrane's function which acts as a barrier between the intracellular and extracellular spaces. It is found that membrane lipids determine the local behaviour and characterisation and function of proteins within the membrane. It is found from the literature that lipids can influence both exo-and endocytic processes and work within the membrane as second messengers. This paper discusses some important case studies related to the correlation between lipid profile and the depression.

  17. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  18. Towards an Evaluation Framework for Software Process Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chow Kian; Permadi, Rahadian Bayu

    2009-01-01

    Software has gained an essential role in our daily life in the last decades. This condition demands high quality software. To produce high quality software many practitioners and researchers put more attention on the software development process. Large investments are poured to improve the software development process. Software Process Improvement (SPI) is a research area which is aimed to address the assessment and improvement issues in the software development process. One of the most impor...

  19. Bioactive lipids in kidney physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sałata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids not only have structural functions, but also play an important role as signaling and regulatory molecules and participate in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Bioactive lipids act both as extracellular mediators, which are associated with receptors on the surface of cells, and intracellular mediators triggering different signal pathways. They are present and active in physiological conditions, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. Bioactive lipids such as derivatives of arachidonic acid and sphingolipids have an important role in renal development, physiology and in many renal diseases. Some of them are potential indicators of kidney damage degree and/or function of the transplanted kidneys.

  20. Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, S M; van Heugten, E

    2014-02-01

    Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P source. Fat increased (P sources.

  1. Social network analysis in software process improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Tjørnehøj, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    Software process improvement in small organisation is often problematic and communication and knowledge sharing is more informal. To improve software processes we need to understand how they communicate and share knowledge. In this article have studied the company SmallSoft through action research...

  2. Adaptation Method Bligh & Dyer a Lipid Extraction of Colomb ian Microalgas Biodiesel Production for Third Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Delgado Ángel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the biodiesel production process from microalgae, the cell disruption and lipid extraction stages are important for obtaining triglycerides that can be transesterified to biodiesel and glycerol. In this work, the Bligh & Dyer method was adapted for lipid extraction from native microalgae using organosolv pretreatment or acid hydrolysis as cell disruption mechanism for improve the extraction process. Chloroform-methanol-water are the solvents employed in the Bligh & Dyer extraction method. The microalgae species Botryococcus braunii, Nannocloropsis, Closterium, Guinardia y Amphiprora were employed for the experimental part. Adaptation of the method was found the best extraction conditions, these were: 1:20 biomass/solvent ratio, initial ratio solvents CHCl3:CH3OH:H2O (1:2:0, stirring conditions of 5000 rpm for 14 minutes and centrifuge of 3400 rpm for 15 minutes. The cell disruption mechanisms allowed to obtain extracts with high lipid content after performing the extraction with Bligh & Dyer method, but decreases significantly the total extraction yield. Finally, the fatty acids profiles showed that Botryococcus braunii specie contains higher acylglycerol percentage area suitable for the production of biodiesel.

  3. Marshaling and Acquiring Resources for the Process Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    stakeholders. ( Geber , 1990) D. IDENTIFYING SUPPLIERS Suppliers are just as crucial to setting requirements for processes as are customers. Although...output ( Geber , 1990, p. 32). Before gathering resources for process improvement, the functional manager must ensure that the relationship of internal...him patent information and clerical people process his applications. ( Geber , 1990, pp. 29-34) To get the full benefit of a white-collar worker as a

  4. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground......-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases....

  5. [Review: plant polyphenols modulate lipid metabolism and related molecular mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan-li; Zou, Yu-xiao; Liu, Fan; Li, Hong-zhi

    2015-11-01

    Lipid metabolism disorder is an important risk factor to obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes as well as other chronic metabolic disease. It is also a key target in preventing metabolic syndrome, chronic disease prevention. Plant polyphenol plays an important role in maintaining or improving lipid profile in a variety of ways. including regulating cholesterol absorption, inhibiting synthesis and secretion of triglyceride, and lowering plasma low density lipoprotein oxidation, etc. The purpose of this article is to review the lipid regulation effects of plant polyphenols and its related mechanisms.

  6. Lycium barbarum Reduces Abdominal Fat and Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Zagonel de Souza Zanchet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants present in fruits have attracted considerable interest due to their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals of goji berry (GB in patients with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. In this study, we examined anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome after the consumption of GB. The patients were divided into two groups, control (C and supplemented (S, and followed up for 45 days. Participants were individually instructed to carry out a healthy diet, but additionally, an inclusion of 14 g of the natural form of goji berry in the diet during 45 days for the S group was proposed. After 45 days of study, a significant reduction in transaminases as well as an improvement in lipid profile in the S group was observed. Likewise, a significant reduction in the waist circumference of the S group was observed when compared with that of the C group, and increased glutathione and catalase levels associated with a reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that this is an effective dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Developing a lean measurement system to enhance process improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key ingredient to underpin process improvement is a robust, reliable, repeatable measurement system. Process improvement activity needs to be supported by accurate and precise data because effective decision making, within process improvement activity, demands the use of “hard” data. One of the oldest and most established process improvement methods is Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA cycle which is reliant on the check phase, a measurement activity where data is being gathered and evaluated. Recent expansions of the PDCA such as the Six-Sigma Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control (DMAIC methodology place significant importance upon measurement. The DMAIC cycle incorporates the regimented requirement for the inclusion of measurement system analysis (MSA into the breakthrough strategy. The call for MSA within the DMAIC cycle is to provide the improvement activity with a robust measurement system that will ensure a pertinent level of data during any validation process. The Lean methodology is heavily centred on the removal of the seven Mudas (wastes from a manufacturing process: defects, overproduction, transportation, waiting, inventory, motion and processing. The application of lean, particularly within the manufacturing industry, has led to a perception that measurement is a waste within a manufacturing process because measurement processes identify defective products. The metrologists’ pursuit for measurement excellence could be construed as a hindrance by the “cost down” demands being perpetrated from the same organisation’s lean policy. So what possible benefits does enforcing the regimes of the lean and quality philosophies upon the measurement process have and how does this ultimately enhance the process improvement activity? The key fundamental to embed with any process improvement is the removal of waste. The process improvement techniques embedded within lean and quality concepts are extremely powerful practices in the

  8. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  9. Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Role of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Esteban Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers. This lipotoxicity is one of the most common causes of insulin resistance (IR. In this scenario, the “isolation” of certain lipids in specific cell compartments, through the action of the specific lipid droplet, perilipin (PLIN family of proteins, is conceived as a lifeguard compensatory strategy. In this review, we summarize the cellular mechanism underlying lipid mobilization and metabolism inside skeletal muscle, focusing on the function of lipid droplets, the PLIN family of proteins, and how these entities are modified in exercise, obesity, and IR conditions.

  10. LKB1 regulates lipid oxidation during exercise independently of AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg; Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Jordy, Andreas Børsting

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is important for health and insulin action, yet the fundamental process of regulating lipid metabolism during muscle contraction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that LKB1 muscle-specific knockout (LKB1 MKO) mice display decreased fatty acid (FA) oxidation during treadmi...

  11. Bioactive Lipids and Chronic Inflammation: Managing the Fire Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Chiurchiù

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an immune response that works as a contained fire that is pre-emptively sparked as a defensive process during infections or upon any kind of tissue insult, and that is spontaneously extinguished after elimination or termination of the damage. However, persistent and uncontrolled immune reactions act as a wildfire that promote chronic inflammation, unresolved tissue damage and, eventually, chronic diseases. A wide network of soluble mediators, among which endogenous bioactive lipids, governs all immune processes. They are secreted by basically all cells involved in inflammatory processes and constitute the crucial infrastructure that triggers, coordinates and confines inflammatory mechanisms. However, these molecules are also deeply involved in the detrimental transition from acute to chronic inflammation, be it for persistent or excessive action of pro-inflammatory lipids or for the impairment of the functions carried out by resolving ones. As a matter of fact, bioactive lipids have been linked, to date, to several chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on the involvement of the main classes of endogenous bioactive lipids—namely classical eicosanoids, pro-resolving lipid mediators, lysoglycerophospholipids/sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids—in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to the pathogenesis of chronic disorders.

  12. Antioxidant effect of bisphosphonates and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrecht, E.J.; De Tollenaere, C.B.; Aerts, K.; Cos, P.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Bridts, C.H.; Van Offel, J.F.; Ebo, D.G.; Stevens, W.J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. For this purpose, a flow cytometrical method using C11-BODIPY 581/591 was developed to detect hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation in chondrocytes. Tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced a time and concentration dependent increase in chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. Addition of a Fe 2+ /EDTA complex to t-BHP or hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) clearly enhanced lipid peroxidation. The lipophilic simvastatin demonstrated a small inhibition in the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. None of three tested BPs (clodronate, pamidronate, and risedronate) had an effect on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation induced by t-BHP. However, when Fe 2+ /EDTA complex was added to t-BHP or H 2 O 2 , BPs inhibited the lipid peroxidation process varying from 25% to 58%. This study demonstrates that BPs have antioxidant properties as iron chelators, thereby inhibiting the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. These findings add evidence to the therapeutic potential of bisphosphonates and statins in rheumatoid arthritis

  13. Lxr-driven enterocyte lipid droplet formation delays transport of ingested lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Schlegel, Amnon

    2014-09-01

    Liver X receptors (Lxrs) are master regulators of cholesterol catabolism, driving the elimination of cholesterol from the periphery to the lumen of the intestine. Development of pharmacological agents to activate Lxrs has been hindered by synthetic Lxr agonists' induction of hepatic lipogenesis and hypertriglyceridemia. Elucidating the function of Lxrs in regulating enterocyte lipid handling might identify novel aspects of lipid metabolism that are pharmacologically amenable. We took a genetic approach centered on the single Lxr gene nr1h3 in zebrafish to study the role of Lxr in enterocyte lipid metabolism. Loss of nr1h3 function causes anticipated gene regulatory changes and cholesterol intolerance, collectively reflecting high evolutionary conservation of zebrafish Lxra function. Intestinal nr1h3 activation delays transport of absorbed neutral lipids, with accumulation of neutral lipids in enterocyte cytoplasmic droplets. This delay in transport of ingested neutral lipids protects animals from hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. On a gene regulatory level, Lxra induces expression of acsl3a, which encodes acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3a, a lipid droplet-anchored protein that directs fatty acyl chains into lipids. Forced overexpression of acls3a in enterocytes delays, in part, the appearance of neutral lipids in the vasculature of zebrafish larvae. Activation of Lxr in the intestine cell-autonomously regulates the rate of delivery of absorbed lipids by inducting a temporary lipid intestinal droplet storage depot. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Hernandez, Ernesto; Webb, Colin

    2012-07-01

    This paper focuses on a novel process for adding value to algae residue. In current processes oleaginous microalgae are grown and harvested for lipid production leaving a lipid-free algae residue. The process described here includes conversion of the carbohydrate fraction into glucose prior to lipid extraction. This can be fermented to produce up to 15% additional lipids using another oleaginous microorganism. It was found that in situ enzymes can hydrolyze storage carbohydrates in the algae into glucose and that a temperature of 55 °C for about 20 h gave the best glucose yield. Up to 75% of available carbohydrates were converted to a generic fermentation feedstock containing 73 g/L glucose. The bioconversion step was found to increase the free water content by 60% and it was found that when the bioconversion was carried out prior to the extraction step, it improved the solvent extractability of lipids from the algae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi criteria decision making to select the best method for the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles of rasagiline mesylate using analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveksarathi Kunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select best method for the development of rasagiline mesylate (RM loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles using analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Improper method selection may lead to waste of time, loss of material and financial resources. One of the possibilities to overcome these difficulties, AHP was employed to find the suitable method. In the AHP, a decision of hierarchy was constructed with a goal, criteria, sub-criteria, and alternatives. After constructing the AHP, the expert choice software was used to compute the overall priority of criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The best alternative selected was based on the highest priority. Nanoscale solid lipid particles of RM was formulated by the selected microemulsion method (M4 and it shows the particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were within acceptable limits. Drug content and entrapment efficiency of the RM-solid lipid nanoparticles were 97.26% and 86.57%, respectively. This study concludes that the AHP was viable and effective tool for selecting a most suitable method for the fabrication of RM loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles.

  16. From Pragmatic to Systematic Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Software processes improvement (SPI) is a challenging task, as many different stakeholders, project settings, and contexts and goals need to be considered. SPI projects are often operated in a complex and volatile environment and, thus, require a sound management that is resource......-intensive requiring many stakeholders to contribute to the process assessment, analysis, design, realisation, and deployment. Although there exist many valuable SPI approaches, none address the needs of both process engineers and project managers. This article presents an Artefact-based Software Process Improvement...

  17. LipidPioneer : A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Bowden, John A.

    2017-03-01

    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g., serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user-generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data.

  18. Lipid Oxidation in Carriers of Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Gene Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Daniil, Georgios; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Hovingh, G. Kees; Schimmel, Alinda W.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Hazen, Stanley L.; Chroni, Angeliki; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Objective-Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) has been shown to play a role in the depletion of lipid oxidation products, but this has so far not been studied in humans. In this study, we investigated processes and parameters relevant to lipid oxidation in carriers of functional LCAT

  19. Lipid Oxidation in Carriers of Lecithin : Cholesterol Acyltransferase Gene Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Daniil, Georgios; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Hovingh, G. Kees; Schimmel, Alinda W.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Hazen, Stanley L.; Chroni, Angeliki; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) has been shown to play a role in the depletion of lipid oxidation products, but this has so far not been studied in humans. In this study, we investigated processes and parameters relevant to lipid oxidation in carriers of functional LCAT

  20. Antioxidant Potential and Modulatory Effects of Restructured Lipids from the Amazonian Palms on Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Oliveira Falcão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification is used to manipulate oil and fat in order to obtain improved restructured lipids with desired technological properties. However, with raw materials containing significant amounts of bioactive compounds, the influence of this enzymatic process on the bioactivity of the final product is still not clear. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant potential and modulatory effects of two raw materials from the Amazonian area, buriti oil and murumuru fat, before and after lipase interesterification, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2. The results indicate that minor bioactive compounds naturally found in the raw materials and their antioxidant capacity are preserved after enzymatic interesterification, and that the restructured lipids modulate HepG2 endogenous antioxidant enzyme.

  1. Polar Quassinoids in Standardized Eurycoma longifolia Extract Formulated into a Lipid-Based Solid Dispersion to Improve Rat Sperm Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Qiu; Ebrahimi, Forough; Low, Bin-Seng; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-12-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is popularly sought in Southeast Asian countries for traditional remedies to improve sexual performance and fertility. 13α(21)-Epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanone, two major quassinoids in a root extract (TAF2) were reported to improve rat spermatogenesis and fertility. Unfortunately, these quassinoids possess low bioavailability because of high aqueous solubility and low lipid membrane permeability. Often, other possible barriers may be P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux in the gut and presystemic hepatic metabolism. The present study attempted to solve these problems by formulating a lipid-based solid dispersion (TAF2-SD) of optimized mixture of TAF2 and emulsifiers, which was then orally administered to rats prior to sperm count analysis. The TAF2-SD-treated rats showed significantly twofold (p < 0.001) and fourfold (p < 0.001) higher sperm count than did TAF2-treated and vehicle-treated (control) rats, respectively. The study also demonstrated no significant in vitro ileal absorption changes of the quassinoids by P-gp efflux inhibitors and concentration change or secondary metabolite formation upon in vitro incubation with rat liver homogenates, suggesting that P-gp-mediated efflux and presystemic metabolism were not limiting their bioavailability. Further study on orally TAF2-treated rats confirmed that the area under the curve and bioavailability curve of each quassinoid in the absence and presence of ketoconazole were unchanged. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bioenergetics of growth and lipid production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küçük, Kübra; Tevatia, Rahul; Sorgüven, Esra; Demirel, Yaşar; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The study of thermodynamic aspects of the lipid, e.g., raw material for biodiesel, production in microalgae is important, as the non-lipid producing biological activities of the algal cultivation consume part of the solar energy captured during photosynthesis in expense of the exergetic efficiency of the lipid production process. The cultivation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a unicellular biflagellate fresh-water microalga) is modeled as a three-step chemical mechanism representing growth, respiration, and lipid production. Further, the comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of these mechanisms is presented. The cumulative degree of perfection of the cellular proliferation, after excluding the lipid synthesis, fluctuates with no trend around 0.52 ± 0.19. The exergy analysis has indicated that C. reinhardtii prefers to maximize the lipid production when it is difficult to generate new cells. Under batch production of algal biomass, the highest heat and exergy loss per unit biomass production are accountable under the most favorable biological growth conditions, whereas the highest exergetic efficiency of the lipid production accounted under the least favorable growth conditions, which is in line with the previous studies. - Highlights: • Biomass, lipid production and respiration modeled as three-step chemical reaction. • CDP (cumulative degree of perfection) is calculated based on the model. • The CDP of the algae, after excluding the lipids, is about 0.52 ± 0.19. • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii maximized lipid production when it was difficult to grow

  3. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  4. Enhancement of Biomass and Lipid Productivities of Water Surface-Floating Microalgae by Chemical Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Daisuke; Ishizuka, Yuki; Muto, Masaki; Ujiro, Asuka; Kodama, Fumito; Yoshino, Tomoko; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-05-27

    Water surface-floating microalgae have great potential for biofuel applications due to the ease of the harvesting process, which is one of the most problematic steps in conventional microalgal biofuel production. We have collected promising water surface-floating microalgae and characterized their capacity for biomass and lipid production. In this study, we performed chemical mutagenesis of two water surface-floating microalgae to elevate productivity. Floating microalgal strains AVFF007 and FFG039 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sp. and Chlorococcum sp., respectively) were exposed to ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and pale green mutants (PMs) were obtained. The most promising FFG039 PM formed robust biofilms on the surface of the culture medium, similar to those formed by wild type strains, and it exhibited 1.7-fold and 1.9-fold higher biomass and lipid productivities than those of the wild type. This study indicates that the chemical mutation strategy improves the lipid productivity of water surface-floating microalgae without inhibiting biofilm formation and floating ability.

  5. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  6. Quality improvement tools and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Catherine Y

    2015-04-01

    The Model for Improvement and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is a popular quality improvement (QI) tool for health care providers to successfully lead QI projects and redesign care processes. This tool has several distinct components that must be addressed in sequence to organize and critically evaluate improvement activities. Unlike other health sciences clinical research, QI projects and research are based on dynamic hypotheses that develop into observable, serial tests of change with continuous collection and feedback of performance data to stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won [Daejeon, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, JitKang [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO{sub 2} ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO{sub 2} concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO{sub 2} (5 g/L TiO{sub 2}) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO{sub 2} (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO{sub 2}/UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO{sub 2} and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO{sub 2}/UV-A.

  8. Activating clinical trials: a process improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diego A; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Yalcin, Ali; Zayas-Castro, José L; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2016-02-24

    The administrative process associated with clinical trial activation has been criticized as costly, complex, and time-consuming. Prior research has concentrated on identifying administrative barriers and proposing various solutions to reduce activation time, and consequently associated costs. Here, we expand on previous research by incorporating social network analysis and discrete-event simulation to support process improvement decision-making. We searched for all operational data associated with the administrative process of activating industry-sponsored clinical trials at the Office of Clinical Research of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. We limited the search to those trials initiated and activated between July 2011 and June 2012. We described the process using value stream mapping, studied the interactions of the various process participants using social network analysis, and modeled potential process modifications using discrete-event simulation. The administrative process comprised 5 sub-processes, 30 activities, 11 decision points, 5 loops, and 8 participants. The mean activation time was 76.6 days. Rate-limiting sub-processes were those of contract and budget development. Key participants during contract and budget development were the Office of Clinical Research, sponsors, and the principal investigator. Simulation results indicate that slight increments on the number of trials, arriving to the Office of Clinical Research, would increase activation time by 11 %. Also, incrementing the efficiency of contract and budget development would reduce the activation time by 28 %. Finally, better synchronization between contract and budget development would reduce time spent on batching documentation; however, no improvements would be attained in total activation time. The presented process improvement analytic framework not only identifies administrative barriers, but also helps to devise and evaluate potential improvement scenarios. The strength

  9. Polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles as enhanced indomethacin delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Bochicchio, Sabrina; Nasibullin, Shamil F; Bertoncin, Paolo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela; Moustafine, Rouslan I

    2018-05-17

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. indomethacin used for rheumatoid arthritis and non-rheumatoid inflammatory diseases, are known for their injurious actions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Mucosal damage can be avoided by using nanoscale systems composed by a combination of liposomes and biodegradable natural polymer, i.e. chitosan, for enhancing drug activity. Aim of this study was to prepare chitosan-lipid hybrid delivery systems for indomethacin dosage through a novel continuous method based on microfluidic principles. The drop-wise conventional method was also applied in order to investigate the effect of the two polymeric coverage processes on the nanostructures features and their interactions with indomethacin. Thermal-physical properties, mucoadhesiveness, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro release behavior in simulated GI fluids and stability in stocking conditions were assayed and compared, respectively, for the uncoated and chitosan-coated nanoliposomes prepared by the two introduced methods. The prepared chitosan-lipid hybrid structures, with nanometric size, have shown high indomethacin loading (about 10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency up to 99%. TEM investigation has highlighted that the developed novel simil-microfluidic method is able to put a polymeric layer, surrounding indomethacin loaded nanoliposomes, thicker and smoother than that achievable by the drop-wise method, improving their storage stability. Finally, double pH tests have confirmed that the chitosan-lipid hybrid nanostructures have a gastro retentive behavior in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids thus can be used as delivery systems for the oral-controlled release of indomethacin. Based on the present results, the simil-microfluidic method, working with large volumes, in a rapid manner, without the use of drastic conditions and with a precise control over the covering process, seems to be the most promising method for the production of suitable

  10. Formation and mobilization of neutral lipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Daum, G

    2005-11-01

    Since energy storage is a basic metabolic process, the synthesis of neutral lipids occurs in all kingdoms of life. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, widely accepted as a model eukaryotic cell, contains two classes of neutral lipids, namely STEs (steryl esters) and TAGs (triacylglycerols). TAGs are synthesized through two pathways governed by the acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase Dga1p and the phospholipid diacylglycerol acyltransferase Lro1p. STEs are formed by two STE synthases Are1p and Are2p, two enzymes with overlapping function, which also catalyse TAG formation, although to a minor extent. Neutral lipids are stored in the so-called lipid particles and can be utilized for membrane formation under conditions of lipid depletion. For this purpose, storage lipids have to be mobilized by TAG lipases and STE hydrolases. A TAG lipase named Tgl3p was identified as a major yeast TAG hydrolytic enzyme in lipid particles. Recently, a new family of hydrolases was detected which is required for STE mobilization in S. cerevisiae. These enzymes, named Yeh1p, Yeh2p and Tgl1p, are paralogues of the mammalian acid lipase family. The role of these proteins in biosynthesis and mobilization of TAG and STE, and the regulation of these processes will be discussed in this minireview.

  11. Cell-based lipid flippase assay employing fluorescent lipid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases, s...... flippase activities in the plasma membrane of cells, using yeast as an example.......P-type ATPases in the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are transmembrane proteins unique for eukaryotes that act as lipid flippases, i.e., to translocate phospholipids from the exofacial to the cytofacial monolayer of cellular membranes. While initially characterized as aminophospholipid translocases......, studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid...

  12. How synthetic membrane systems contribute to the understanding of lipid-driven endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Thomas; Römer, Winfried

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic membrane systems, such as giant unilamellar vesicles and solid supported lipid bilayers, have widened our understanding of biological processes occurring at or through membranes. Artificial systems are particularly suited to study the inherent properties of membranes with regard to their components and characteristics. This review critically reflects the emerging molecular mechanism of lipid-driven endocytosis and the impact of model membrane systems in elucidating the complex interplay of biomolecules within this process. Lipid receptor clustering induced by binding of several toxins, viruses and bacteria to the plasma membrane leads to local membrane bending and formation of tubular membrane invaginations. Here, lipid shape, and protein structure and valency are the essential parameters in membrane deformation. Combining observations of complex cellular processes and their reconstitution on minimal systems seems to be a promising future approach to resolve basic underlying mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of Biodiesel from Lipid of Phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through Ultrasonic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwangdinata, Raymond; Raya, Indah; Zakir, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extraction method using ethanol 96%, while biodiesel synthesis was carried out by transesterification reaction using methanol and KOH catalyst under sonication. Weight of biodiesel yield per biomass Chaetoceros calcitrans is 35.35%. Characterization of biodiesel was well carried out in terms of physical properties which are density and viscosity and chemical properties which are FFA content, saponification value, and iodine value. These values meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) standard levels, except for the viscosity value which was 1.14 g·cm−3. PMID:24688372

  14. Off-lattice model for the phase behavior of lipid-cholesterol bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1999-01-01

    and previous approximate theories have suggested that cholesterol incorporated into lipid bilayers has different microscopic effects on lipid-chain packing and conformations and that cholesterol thereby leads to decoupling of the two ordering processes, manifested by a special equilibrium phase, "liquid...

  15. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  16. Unusual lipid structures selectively reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoff, A.S.; Boni, L.T.; Popescu, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Ribbon-like structures result when amphotericin B interacts with lipid in an aqueous environment. At high ratios of amphotericin to lipid these structures, which are lipid-stabilized amphotericin aggregates, become prevalent resulting in a dramatic attenuation of amphotericin-mediated mammalian cell, but not fungal cell, toxicity. Studies utilizing freeze-etch electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, 31 P NMR, x-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy revealed that this toxicity attenuation is related to the macromolecular structure of the complexes in a definable fashion. It is likely that amphotericin in this specific form will have a much improved therapeutic utility

  17. Nanostructured nanoparticles of self-assembled lipid pro-drugs as a route to improved chemotherapeutic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Kimpton, Kathleen; Waddington, Lynne J.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO/LW)

    2014-09-24

    We demonstrate that oral delivery of self-assembled nanostructured nanoparticles consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) lipid prodrugs results in a highly effective, target-activated, chemotherapeutic agent, and offers significantly enhanced efficacy over a commercially available alternative that does not self-assemble. The lipid prodrug nanoparticles have been found to significantly slow the growth of a highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast tumour, and essentially halt the growth of a human MDA-MB-231 breast tumour in mouse xenografts. Systemic toxicity is avoided as prodrug activation requires a three-step, enzymatic conversion to 5-FU, with the third step occurring preferentially at the tumour site. Additionally, differences in the lipid prodrug chemical structure and internal nanostructure of the nanoparticle dictate the enzymatic conversion rate and can be used to control sustained release profiles. Thus, we have developed novel oral nanomedicines that combine sustained release properties with target-selective activation.

  18. Mechanisms of stable lipid loss in a social insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Seth A.; Chan, Queenie W.; Wheeler, Marsha M.; Nixon, Scott E.; Johnson, S. Peir; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Foster, Leonard J.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Worker honey bees undergo a socially regulated, highly stable lipid loss as part of their behavioral maturation. We used large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic experiments, physiological experiments and RNA interference to explore the mechanistic basis for this lipid loss. Lipid loss was associated with thousands of gene expression changes in abdominal fat bodies. Many of these genes were also regulated in young bees by nutrition during an initial period of lipid gain. Surprisingly, in older bees, which is when maximum lipid loss occurs, diet played less of a role in regulating fat body gene expression for components of evolutionarily conserved nutrition-related endocrine systems involving insulin and juvenile hormone signaling. By contrast, fat body gene expression in older bees was regulated more strongly by evolutionarily novel regulatory factors, queen mandibular pheromone (a honey bee-specific social signal) and vitellogenin (a conserved yolk protein that has evolved novel, maturation-related functions in the bee), independent of nutrition. These results demonstrate that conserved molecular pathways can be manipulated to achieve stable lipid loss through evolutionarily novel regulatory processes. PMID:22031746

  19. Mechanisms of stable lipid loss in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Seth A; Chan, Queenie W; Wheeler, Marsha M; Nixon, Scott E; Johnson, S Peir; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Foster, Leonard J; Robinson, Gene E

    2011-11-15

    Worker honey bees undergo a socially regulated, highly stable lipid loss as part of their behavioral maturation. We used large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic experiments, physiological experiments and RNA interference to explore the mechanistic basis for this lipid loss. Lipid loss was associated with thousands of gene expression changes in abdominal fat bodies. Many of these genes were also regulated in young bees by nutrition during an initial period of lipid gain. Surprisingly, in older bees, which is when maximum lipid loss occurs, diet played less of a role in regulating fat body gene expression for components of evolutionarily conserved nutrition-related endocrine systems involving insulin and juvenile hormone signaling. By contrast, fat body gene expression in older bees was regulated more strongly by evolutionarily novel regulatory factors, queen mandibular pheromone (a honey bee-specific social signal) and vitellogenin (a conserved yolk protein that has evolved novel, maturation-related functions in the bee), independent of nutrition. These results demonstrate that conserved molecular pathways can be manipulated to achieve stable lipid loss through evolutionarily novel regulatory processes.

  20. Use of Process Improvement Tools in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, James V; Kannan, Amogha; Furman, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Process improvement techniques are common in manufacturing and industry. Over the past few decades these principles have been slowly introduced in select health care settings. This article reviews the Plan, Do, Study, and Act cycle, Six Sigma, the System of Profound Knowledge, Lean, and the theory of constraints. Specific process improvement tools in health care and radiology are presented in the order the radiologist is likely to encounter them in an improvement project. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A simple osmium post-fixation paraffin-embedment technique to identify lipid accumulation in fish liver using medaka (Oryziaslatipes) eggs and eleutheroembryos as lipid rich models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondon, J.A.; Howitt, J.; Tosiano, M.; Kwok, K.W.H.; Hinton, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hepatic lipidosis in fish liver is often misdiagnosed or overlooked. → Specific histological fat stains and cryostat sections are not commonly used. → Standard paraffin processing removes lipid leaving vacuoles of unknown origin. → Osmium post-fixed paraffin-embedment is a cost effective alternative. → Medaka trials show suitability for lipid visualization in tissues from egg to adult. - Abstract: Hepatic lipidosis is a non-specific biomarker of effect from pollution exposure in fish. Fatty liver is often misdiagnosed or overlooked in histological assessments due to the decreasing application of specific fat procedures and stains. For example, ethanol dehydration in standard paraffin processing removes lipids, leaving vacuoles of which the precise nature is unknown. Lipids can be identified using osmium post-fixation in semi-thin resin sections or transmission electron microscopy. However, both are expensive and technically demanding procedures, often not available for routine environmental risk assessment and monitoring programs. The current emphasis to reduce and refine animal toxicity testing, requires refinement of the suite of histopathological techniques currently available to maximize information gained from using fish for toxicity testing and as bio-indicators of environmental quality. This investigation has successfully modified an osmium post-fixation technique to conserve lipids in paraffin-embedded tissues using medaka (Oryzias latipes) eleutheroembryos and eggs (embryos) as lipid rich models.

  2. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL AT THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS PREPARATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusko Pavletic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper expresses base for an operational quality improvement model at the manufacturing process preparation level. A numerous appropriate related quality assurance and improvement methods and tools are identified. Main manufacturing process principles are investigated in order to scrutinize one general model of manufacturing process and to define a manufacturing process preparation level. Development and introduction of the operational quality improvement model is based on a research conducted and results of methods and tools application possibilities in real manufacturing processes shipbuilding and automotive industry. Basic model structure is described and presented by appropriate general algorithm. Operational quality improvement model developed lays down main guidelines for practical and systematic application of quality improvements methods and tools.

  3. Structural properties of lipid reconstructs and lipid composition of normotensive and hypertensive rat vascular smooth muscle cell membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cell membrane alterations have been reported to be the cause of various forms of hypertension. The present study focuses on the lipid portion of the membranes, characterizing the microviscosity of membranes reconstituted with lipids extracted from the aorta and mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and normotensive control rat strains (WKY and NWR. Membrane-incorporated phospholipid spin labels were used to monitor the bilayer structure at different depths. The packing of lipids extracted from both aorta and mesenteric arteries of normotensive and hypertensive rats was similar. Lipid extract analysis showed similar phospholipid composition for all membranes. However, cholesterol content was lower in SHR arteries than in normotensive animal arteries. These findings contrast with the fact that the SHR aorta is hyporeactive while the SHR mesenteric artery is hyperreactive to vasopressor agents when compared to the vessels of normotensive animal strains. Hence, factors other than microviscosity of bulk lipids contribute to the vascular smooth muscle reactivity and hypertension of SHR. The excess cholesterol in the arteries of normotensive animal strains apparently is not dissolved in bulk lipids and is not directly related to vascular reactivity since it is present in both the aorta and mesenteric arteries. The lower cholesterol concentrations in SHR arteries may in fact result from metabolic differences due to the hypertensive state or to genes that co-segregate with those that determine hypertension during the process of strain selection.

  4. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological-phased kinetic characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth and lipid synthesis considering synergistic effects of light, carbon and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiang; Chang, Hai-Xing; Fu, Qian; Huang, Yun; Xia, Ao; Zhu, Xun; Zhong, Nianbing

    2018-02-01

    To comprehensively understand kinetic characteristics of microalgae growth and lipid synthesis in different phases, a phase-feeding strategy was proposed to simultaneously regulate light, carbon and nutrients in adaption, growth and stationary phases of microalgae cultivation. Physiological-phased kinetic characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth and lipid synthesis under synergistic effects of light, carbon and nutrients were investigated, and supply-demand relationships of electrons and energy between light and dark reactions of photosynthesis process were discussed. Finally, the optimized cultivation strategy for microalgae in various phases were obtained, under which the lipid productivity was significantly improved from 130.11 mg/L/d to 163.42 mg/L/d. The study provided some important guidance for the large-scale production of biofuels from microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved plasma lipid profile: the Aragon Health Workers Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalvo, José L; Oliva, Belén; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Uzhova, Irina; Moreno-Franco, Belén; León-Latre, Montserrat; Ordovás, José María

    2015-04-01

    There is wide recognition of the importance of healthy eating in cardiovascular health promotion. The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns among a Spanish population, and to determine their relationship with plasma lipid profiles. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data from 1290 participants of the Aragon Workers Health Study cohort. Standardized protocols were used to collect clinical and biochemistry data. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, quantifying habitual intake over the past 12 months. The main dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The association between adherence to dietary patterns and plasma lipid levels was assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two dietary patterns were identified: a Mediterranean dietary pattern, high in vegetables, fruits, fish, white meat, nuts, and olive oil, and a Western dietary pattern, high in red meat, fast food, dairy, and cereals. Compared with the participants in the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western dietary pattern, those in the highest quintile had 4.6 mg/dL lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P dietary pattern had 3.3mg/dL higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P dietary pattern is associated with improved lipid profile compared with a Western dietary pattern, which was associated with a lower odds of optimal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in this population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of cadmium on lipids of almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Jomni, Chiraz; Marzouk, Brahim; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium uptake and distribution, as well as its effects on lipid composition was investigated in almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis) grown in culture solution supplied with two concentrations of Cd (50 and 150 μM). The accumulation of Cd increased with external metal concentrations, and was considerably higher in roots than in leaves. Fourteen days after Cd treatment, the membrane lipids were extracted and separated on silica-gel thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by FID-GC on a capillary column. Our results showed that Cd stress decreased the quantities of all lipids classes (phospholipids, galactolipids and neutral lipids). Galactolipid, phospholipid and neutral lipid concentrations decreased more in roots than in leaves by Cd-treatment. In almost all lipid classes the proportion of palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic (18: 2) and that of linolenic (18: 3) acid decreased, suggesting that heavy metal treatment induced an alteration in the fatty acid synthesis processes. In conclusion, our results show that the changes found in total fatty acids, in the quantities of all lipids classes, and in the in the profiles of individual polar lipids suggest that membrane structure and function might be altered by Cd stress.

  9. A review of lipid extraction from fish processing by-product for use as a biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, Ibraheem A.; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Fish processing facilities generate a significant amount of fish by-products that could be an important source of energy, food, or industrial feedstock. While fish oil is a natural source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) used in nutritional supplements, the ability to extract, refine, and get to market of these oils may be challenging at processing facilities where there is limited infrastructure and plants are remotely located. Under these conditions, extraction of oil from fish by-product for use as an in-house or regional fuel may be both economically and environmentally be a more sustainable approach. Processes to extract and refine fish oil for fuel are less energy intensive than the processes for nutritional quality oils and do not require the stringent product specifications and approval process as in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Unlike food crops, extraction of oil from fish residue does not negatively impact food production. This paper presents an overview of developments made in fish oil extraction methodologies including physical, chemical and biological processes. - Highlights: • We have reviewed various lipid extraction methods from fish residue. • Low grade fish oils for fuel applications can be beneficial to facility and region. • The environmental impacts and safety issues can be reduced using SFE method

  10. Software process improvement in CMS-are we different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues faced in HEP in recent years is the question of how to capitalise on software development and maintenance experience in a continuous manner. To capitalise in our context means to evaluate and apply new technologies as they arise, and to further evolve technologies already widely in use. It also implies the definition and adoption of standards, while ensuring reproducibility and quality of results. The CMS process improvement effort is two-pronged. It aims at continuous improvement of the ways we do Object Oriented software, as well as continuous improvement in the efficiency of the working environment. In particular the use and creation of de-facto software process standards within CMS has proven to be key to successful software process improvement program. The authors describe the successful CMS implementation of a software process improvement strategy, following ISO 15504 since three years. The authors give the current status of the most important processes families formally established in CMS, and provide the guidelines followed both for tool development, and methodology establishment

  11. Automation of a Nile red staining assay enables high throughput quantification of microalgal lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschett, Holger; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco

    2016-02-09

    protocols, namely biomass adjustment and limited throughput. Automation was shown to improve data reliability, as well as experimental throughput simultaneously minimizing the needed hands-on-time to a third. Thereby, the presented protocol meets the demands for the analysis of samples generated by the upcoming generation of devices for higher throughput phototrophic cultivation and thereby contributes to boosting the time efficiency for setting up algae lipid production processes.

  12. Continuous improvement: A win-win process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, T.M.; Wichert, A.

    1992-01-01

    The strategies used within PanCanadian Petroleum Limited's production division to successfully introduce the continuous improvement (CI) process are discussed. Continuous improvement is an operating philosophy and management style which allows all employees to participate in and improve the way an organization performs its day-to-day business. In the CI work environment the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling, to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem-solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing win-win situation for both PanCanadian and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants, and enjoying their work in a team environment. The company is benefiting through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to the many innovative ideas introduced by employees. 4 refs

  13. Transport mechanism of lipid covered saquinavir pure drug nanoparticles in intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; He, Yuan; Li, Qiuxia

    2018-01-01

    are transported. To improve cellular uptake and transport of pure nanodrug in cells, here, a lipid covered saquinavir (SQV) pure drug NP (Lipo@nanodrug) was designed by modifying a pure SQV NP (nanodrug) with a phospholipid bilayer. We studied their endocytosis, intracellular trafficking mechanism using Caco-2...... their intracellular processing, helping to improve drug transport across intestinal epithelium. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of the novel phospholipid bilayer covered SQV pure drug NP design, and a mechanistic study on intracellular trafficking in in vitro cell models has been described......Pure drug nanoparticles (NPs) represent a promising formulation for improved drug solubility and controlled dissolution velocity. However, limited absorption by the intestinal epithelium remains challenge to their clinical application, and little is known about how these NPs within the cells...

  14. Improved Lipid Profile Associated with Daily Consumption of Tri-Sura-Phon in Healthy Overweight Volunteers: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirigoon Kuamsub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tri-Sura-Phon (TSP, a traditional Thai polyherbal formula renowned for its rejuvenating properties, is commonly used as a blood tonic. It comprises Cinnamomum bejolghota, Cinnamomum parthenoxylon, and Aquilaria crassna. The aim of this study is to evaluate the beneficial properties of TSP tea consumption on blood glucose regulation and serum lipid profiles of healthy overweight volunteers. This open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 healthy overweight adults. Two groups of 35 subjects took a TSP infusion or a placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 8 weeks. The blood glucose regulation, serum lipid profiles, BMI, and liver function tests of the subjects were determined at the baseline, 4th week, and endpoint (8th week. Significant decreases in the average fasting levels of total cholesterol (p=0.013, triglyceride (p=0.001, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, p=0.017 were observed in the TSP group at the 8th week compared to those at the baseline. The average HDL level in the TSP group at the beginning of the study was 65.2 mg/dL, and it increased significantly (p=0.005 to 72.4 mg/dL after 8 weeks of TSP intake. This study showed that the intake of TSP tea as an antioxidant-rich beverage might be safe and improve lipid profiles in overweight adults.

  15. Improved Lipid Profile Associated with Daily Consumption of Tri-Sura-Phon in Healthy Overweight Volunteers: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuamsub, Sirigoon; Singthong, Pariyaphat; Chanthasri, Wipawee; Chobngam, Nicharee; Sangkaew, Warissara; Hemdecho, Sasithorn; Kaewmanee, Thammarat

    2017-01-01

    Tri-Sura-Phon (TSP), a traditional Thai polyherbal formula renowned for its rejuvenating properties, is commonly used as a blood tonic. It comprises Cinnamomum bejolghota, Cinnamomum parthenoxylon, and Aquilaria crassna. The aim of this study is to evaluate the beneficial properties of TSP tea consumption on blood glucose regulation and serum lipid profiles of healthy overweight volunteers. This open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 healthy overweight adults. Two groups of 35 subjects took a TSP infusion or a placebo (cornstarch) twice daily for 8 weeks. The blood glucose regulation, serum lipid profiles, BMI, and liver function tests of the subjects were determined at the baseline, 4th week, and endpoint (8th week). Significant decreases in the average fasting levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.013), triglyceride (p = 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, p = 0.017) were observed in the TSP group at the 8th week compared to those at the baseline. The average HDL level in the TSP group at the beginning of the study was 65.2 mg/dL, and it increased significantly (p = 0.005) to 72.4 mg/dL after 8 weeks of TSP intake. This study showed that the intake of TSP tea as an antioxidant-rich beverage might be safe and improve lipid profiles in overweight adults. PMID:28484502

  16. Improved Lipid Profile Associated with Daily Consumption of Tri-Sura-Phon in Healthy Overweight Volunteers: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuamsub, Sirigoon; Singthong, Pariyaphat; Chanthasri, Wipawee; Chobngam, Nicharee; Sangkaew, Warissara; Hemdecho, Sasithorn; Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Chusri, Sasitorn

    2017-01-01

    Tri-Sura-Phon (TSP), a traditional Thai polyherbal formula renowned for its rejuvenating properties, is commonly used as a blood tonic. It comprises Cinnamomum bejolghota , Cinnamomum parthenoxylon , and Aquilaria crassna . The aim of this study is to evaluate the beneficial properties of TSP tea consumption on blood glucose regulation and serum lipid profiles of healthy overweight volunteers. This open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 healthy overweight adults. Two groups of 35 subjects took a TSP infusion or a placebo (cornstarch) twice daily for 8 weeks. The blood glucose regulation, serum lipid profiles, BMI, and liver function tests of the subjects were determined at the baseline, 4th week, and endpoint (8th week). Significant decreases in the average fasting levels of total cholesterol ( p = 0.013), triglyceride ( p = 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, p = 0.017) were observed in the TSP group at the 8th week compared to those at the baseline. The average HDL level in the TSP group at the beginning of the study was 65.2 mg/dL, and it increased significantly ( p = 0.005) to 72.4 mg/dL after 8 weeks of TSP intake. This study showed that the intake of TSP tea as an antioxidant-rich beverage might be safe and improve lipid profiles in overweight adults.

  17. Positive regulation of prostate cancer cell growth by lipid droplet forming and processing enzymes DGAT1 and ABHD5

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Ranjana; Le, Thuc T.; Gorjala, Priyatham; Goodman Jr., Oscar B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Neoplastic cells proliferate rapidly and obtain requisite building blocks by reprogramming metabolic pathways that favor growth. Previously, we observed that prostate cancer cells uptake and store lipids in the form of lipid droplets, providing building blocks for membrane synthesis, to facilitate proliferation and growth. Mechanisms of lipid uptake, lipid droplet dynamics and their contribution to cancer growth have yet to be defined. This work is focused on elucidating the prosta...

  18. Effect of anti-gut inflammatory agent on insulin resistance and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin and the curve of glucose tolerance test (GTT) in mice fed LFD, HFD or HFC diet were not affected by 5-ASA treatment. Although plasma lipid levels were similar between 5-ASA consuming and non-5-ASA groups in mice fed LFD and HFD, improved lipid profile was ...

  19. Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaf Hussain Shaik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction

  20. Anionic lipids and the maintenance of membrane electrostatics in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Jaillais, Yvon

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of signaling processes occurs at the cell surface through the reversible association of proteins from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Some low abundant lipids are enriched at the membrane of specific compartments and thereby contribute to the identity of cell organelles by acting as biochemical landmarks. Lipids also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as an important feature in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters are crucial for signal transduction and include lipid packing, membrane curvature and electrostatics. In particular, membrane electrostatics specifies the identity of the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Membrane surface charges are carried by anionic phospholipids, however the exact nature of the lipid(s) that powers the plasma membrane electrostatic field varies among eukaryotes and has been hotly debated during the last decade. Herein, we discuss the role of anionic lipids in setting up plasma membrane electrostatics and we compare similarities and differences that were found in different eukaryotic cells.

  1. Imaging of blood plasma coagulation at supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxälv, Lars; Hume, Jasmin; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-12-15

    The blood coagulation system relies on lipid membrane constituents to act as regulators of the coagulation process upon vascular trauma, and in particular the 2D configuration of the lipid membranes is known to efficiently catalyze enzymatic activity of blood coagulation factors. This work demonstrates a new application of a recently developed methodology to study blood coagulation at lipid membrane interfaces with the use of imaging technology. Lipid membranes with varied net charges were formed on silica supports by systematically using different combinations of lipids where neutral phosphocholine (PC) lipids were mixed with phospholipids having either positively charged ethylphosphocholine (EPC), or negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups. Coagulation imaging demonstrated that negatively charged SiO(2) and membrane surfaces exposing PS (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of PS) had coagulation times which were significantly shorter than those for plain PC membranes and EPC exposing membrane surfaces (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of EPC). Coagulation times decreased non-linearly with increasing negative surface charge for lipid membranes. A threshold value for shorter coagulation times was observed below a PS content of ∼6%. We conclude that the lipid membranes on solid support studied with the imaging setup as presented in this study offers a flexible and non-expensive solution for coagulation studies at biological membranes. It will be interesting to extend the present study towards examining coagulation on more complex lipid-based model systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IRB Process Improvements: A Machine Learning Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenbill, Kimberly; Song, Yiqiang; Cobb, Nichelle L; Drezner, Marc K; Mendonca, Eneida A

    2017-06-01

    Clinical research involving humans is critically important, but it is a lengthy and expensive process. Most studies require institutional review board (IRB) approval. Our objective is to identify predictors of delays or accelerations in the IRB review process and apply this knowledge to inform process change in an effort to improve IRB efficiency, transparency, consistency and communication. We analyzed timelines of protocol submissions to determine protocol or IRB characteristics associated with different processing times. Our evaluation included single variable analysis to identify significant predictors of IRB processing time and machine learning methods to predict processing times through the IRB review system. Based on initial identified predictors, changes to IRB workflow and staffing procedures were instituted and we repeated our analysis. Our analysis identified several predictors of delays in the IRB review process including type of IRB review to be conducted, whether a protocol falls under Veteran's Administration purview and specific staff in charge of a protocol's review. We have identified several predictors of delays in IRB protocol review processing times using statistical and machine learning methods. Application of this knowledge to process improvement efforts in two IRBs has led to increased efficiency in protocol review. The workflow and system enhancements that are being made support our four-part goal of improving IRB efficiency, consistency, transparency, and communication.

  3. Lipids in host-pathogen interactions: pathogens exploit the complexity of the host cell lipidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer-Janssen, Ynske P M; van Galen, Josse; Batenburg, Joseph J; Helms, J Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Lipids were long believed to have a structural role in biomembranes and a role in energy storage utilizing cellular lipid droplets and plasma lipoproteins. Research over the last decades has identified an additional role of lipids in cellular signaling, membrane microdomain organization and dynamics, and membrane trafficking. These properties make lipids an attractive target for pathogens to modulate host cell processes in order to allow their survival and replication. In this review we will summarize the often ingenious strategies of pathogens to modify the lipid homeostasis of host cells, allowing them to divert cellular processes. To this end pathogens take full advantage of the complexity of the lipidome. The examples are categorized in generalized and emerging principles describing the involvement of lipids in host-pathogen interactions. Several pathogens are described that simultaneously induce multiple changes in the host cell signaling and trafficking mechanisms. Elucidation of these pathogen-induced changes may have important implications for drug development. The emergence of high-throughput lipidomic techniques will allow the description of changes of the host cell lipidome at the level of individual molecular lipid species and the identification of lipid biomarkers.

  4. Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Perkins, L Brian; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A shelf-life study was conducted to evaluate the effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of extruded jerky-style salmon snacks. Deterioration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) due to lipid oxidation is a major concern for this healthy snack. A control jerky with no added antioxidants and 4 jerkies with antioxidants (rosemary, mixed tocopherols, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and ascorbyl palmitate) added as 0.02% of the lipid content were extruded in duplicate in a Coperion ZSK-25 twin screw extruder. Salmon jerkies from each formulation were placed in 3 mil barrier pouches, flushed with nitrogen, and stored at 35 °C and 75% relative humidity. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as by peroxide value and malonaldehyde content. Other chemical analyses included total fatty acid composition, lipid content, moisture, water activity, pH, and salt. Astaxanthin and CIE L*, a*, b* color were also analyzed at 4-wk intervals. Rosemary inhibited peroxide formation better than did other antioxidants at week 8; no treatment inhibited malonaldehyde levels. All jerkies had lower astaxanthin levels after 8 wk, but rosemary-treated jerky had higher pigment concentrations than did the control at weeks 4 and 8. Protection of omega-3 lipids in these extruded jerkies must be improved to offer consumers a convenient source of these healthful lipids. Practical Application: Salmon flesh can be extruded to produce a jerky that provides 410 mg of omega-3 lipids per serving. Natural antioxidants such as rosemary should be added at levels over 0.02% of the lipid content to help control lipid oxidation. Astaxanthin and CIE a* values correlated well with lipid stability and could be used to monitor quality during storage if initial values are known.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin-Ioan Popescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infects over 150 million people worldwide. In most cases HCV infection becomes chronic, causing liver disease ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV affects the cholesterol homeostasis and at the molecular level, every step of the virus life cycle is intimately connected to lipid metabolism. In this review, we present an update on the lipids and apolipoproteins that are involved in the HCV infectious cycle steps: entry, replication and assembly. Moreover, the result of the assembly process is a lipoviroparticle, which represents a peculiarity of hepatitis C virion. This review illustrates an example of an intricate virus-host interaction governed by lipid metabolism.

  6. Influence of membrane phospholipid composition and structural organization on spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, R; Markovska, T; Antonov, P; Ivanova, L; Momchilova, A

    2006-09-01

    Investigations were carried out on the influence of phospholipid composition of model membranes on the processes of spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes. Acceptor vesicles were prepared from phospholipids extracted from plasma membranes of control and ras-transformed fibroblasts. Acceptor model membranes with manipulated levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin and phosphatidic acid were also used in the studies. Donor vesicles were prepared of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and contained two fluorescent lipid analogues, NBD-PC and N-Rh-PE, at a self-quenching concentration. Lipid transfer rate was assessed by measuring the increase of fluorescence in acceptor membranes due to transfer of fluorescent lipid analogues from quenched donor to unquenched acceptor vesicles. The results showed that spontaneous NBD-PC transfer increased upon fluidization of acceptor vesicles. In addition, elevation of PE concentration in model membranes was also accompanied by an increase of lipid transfer to all series of acceptor vesicles. The results are discussed with respect to the role of lipid composition and structural order of cellular plasma membranes in the processes of spontaneous lipid exchange between membrane bilayers.

  7. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...... to new specialized frameworks. New and specialized frameworks account for the majority of the contributions found (approx. 38%). Furthermore, we find a growing interest in success factors (approx. 16%) to aid companies in conducting SPI and in adapting agile principles and practices for SPI (approx. 10...

  8. Combining vibrational biomolecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques for the study of response and sensitivity of molecular structures/functional groups mainly related to lipid biopolymer to various processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) combine vibrational spectroscopy with chemometric multivariate techniques to determine the effect of processing applications on molecular structural changes of lipid biopolymer that mainly related to functional groups in green- and yellow-type Crop Development Centre (CDC) pea varieties [CDC strike (green-type) vs. CDC meadow (yellow-type)] that occurred during various processing applications; (2) relatively quantify the effect of processing applications on the antisymmetric CH3 ("CH3as") and CH2 ("CH2as") (ca. 2960 and 2923 cm(-1), respectively), symmetric CH3 ("CH3s") and CH2 ("CH2s") (ca. 2873 and 2954 cm(-1), respectively) functional groups and carbonyl C=O ester (ca. 1745 cm(-1)) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH3 to antisymmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3as to CH2as), ratios of symmetric CH3 to symmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3s to CH2s), and ratios of carbonyl C=O ester peak area to total CH peak area (ratio of C=O ester to CH); and (3) illustrate non-invasive techniques to detect the sensitivity of individual molecular functional group to the various processing applications in the recently developed different types of pea varieties. The hypothesis of this research was that processing applications modified the molecular structure profiles in the processed products as opposed to original unprocessed pea seeds. The results showed that the different processing methods had different impacts on lipid molecular functional groups. Different lipid functional groups had different sensitivity to various heat processing applications. These changes were detected by advanced molecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques which may be highly related to lipid utilization and availability. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization) are unable to fully distinguish the structural differences in the

  9. The role of red dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) to improvement blood lipid levels of hyperlipidaemia male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati; Setiawan, N. A.; Shintawati, R.; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to know the role of red dragon fruit peel powder to total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and weight in the male hyperlipidaemic Balb-C mice (Mus musculus). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) and four replicates for each dose treatments. Samples were 24 male mice that divided into six groups i.e. positive and negative controls, doses of 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg/kgBW/days red dragon fruit peel powder. Before being given treatment, mice were given feed containing high fat for 20 days until experiencing conditions hyperlipidaemia. The red dragon fruit peel powder was given at oral with used gavage for 30 days. Blood samples were taken from the tail on vena caudalis. Blood lipid samples were analysed at enzymatic with BIOLABO kits. The results of this study indicate that after administration of red dragon fruit peel powder total cholesterol levels, triglycerides and LDL-c decreased, along with increasing doses of red dragon fruit peel powder for 30 days. Furthermore showed that dragon fruit powder can increase HDL-c levels. The conclusion of this research was The red dragon fruit peel powder can improve blood lipid level of male Balb-c mice hyperlipidaemia.

  10. Vesicle fusion with bilayer lipid membrane controlled by electrostatic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Oshima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of proteoliposomes is a promising approach for incorporating membrane proteins in artificial lipid membranes. In this study, we employed an electrostatic interaction between vesicles and supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs to control the fusion process. We combined large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs containing anionic lipids, which we used instead of proteoliposomes, and s-BLMs containing cationic lipids to control electrostatic interaction. Anionic LUVs were never adsorbed or ruptured on the SiO2 substrate with a slight negative charge, and selectively fused with cationic s-BLMs. The LUVs can be fused effectively to the target position. Furthermore, as the vesicle fusion proceeds and some of the positive charges are neutralized, the attractive interaction weakens and finally the vesicle fusion saturates. In other words, we can control the number of LUVs fused with s-BLMs by controlling the concentration of the cationic lipids in the s-BLMs. The fluidity of the s-BLMs after vesicle fusion was confirmed to be sufficiently high. This indicates that the LUVs attached to the s-BLMs were almost completely fused, and there were few intermediate state vesicles in the fusion process. We could control the position and amount of vesicle fusion with the s-BLMs by employing an electrostatic interaction.

  11. An Aspect-Oriented Framework for Business Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahid, Alireza; Mussbacher, Gunter; Amyot, Daniel; Weiss, Michael

    Recently, many organizations invested in Business Process Management Systems (BPMSs) in order to automate and monitor their processes. Business Activity Monitoring is one of the essential modules of a BPMS as it provides the core monitoring capabilities. Although the natural step after process monitoring is process improvement, most of the existing systems do not provide the means to help users with the improvement step. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing an aspect-oriented framework that allows the impact of changes to business processes to be explored with what-if scenarios based on the most appropriate process redesign patterns among several possibilities. As the four cornerstones of a BPMS are process, goal, performance and validation views, these views need to be aligned automatically by any approach that intends to support automated improvement of business processes. Our framework therefore provides means to reflect process changes also in the other views of the business process. A health care case study presented as a proof of concept suggests that this novel approach is feasible.

  12. Rapid Quantification and Validation of Lipid Concentrations within Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla B. Roces

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the lipid content in liposomal adjuvants for subunit vaccine formulation is of extreme importance, since this concentration impacts both efficacy and stability. In this paper, we outline a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method that allows for the rapid and simultaneous quantification of lipid concentrations within liposomal systems prepared by three liposomal manufacturing techniques (lipid film hydration, high shear mixing, and microfluidics. The ELSD system was used to quantify four lipids: 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC, cholesterol, dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA bromide, and ᴅ-(+-trehalose 6,6′-dibehenate (TDB. The developed method offers rapidity, high sensitivity, direct linearity, and a good consistency on the responses (R2 > 0.993 for the four lipids tested. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were 0.11 and 0.36 mg/mL (DMPC, 0.02 and 0.80 mg/mL (cholesterol, 0.06 and 0.20 mg/mL (DDA, and 0.05 and 0.16 mg/mL (TDB, respectively. HPLC-ELSD was shown to be a rapid and effective method for the quantification of lipids within liposome formulations without the need for lipid extraction processes.

  13. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2011-03-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders.

  14. Duke Power's liquid radwaste processing improvement efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.E. Jr.; Bramblett, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The rising cost of processing liquid radwaste and industry efforts to reduce offsite isotopic contributions has drawn greater attention to the liquid radwaste area. Because of economic pressures to reduce cost and simultaneously improve performance, Duke Power has undertaken a wide ranging effort to cost effectively achieve improvements in the liquid radwaste processing area. Duke Power has achieved significant reductions over recent years in the release of curies to the environment from the Liquid Radwaste Treatmentt systems at its Catawba, McGuire, and Oconee stations. System wide site curie reductions of 78% have been achieved in a 3 year period. These curie reductions have been achieved while simultaneously reducing the amount of media used to accomplish treatment. The curie and media usage reductions have been achieved at low capital cost expenditures. A large number of approaches and projects have been used to achieve these curie and media usage reductions. This paper will describe the various projects and the associated results for Duke Power's processing improvement efforts. The subjects/projects which will be described include: (1) Cooperative philosophy between stations (2) Source Control (3) Processing Improvements (4) Technology Testing

  15. Using Unified Modelling Language (UML) as a process-modelling technique for clinical-research process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, P; De Lusignan, S; Ellis, T; Jones, B

    2007-03-01

    The Primary Care Data Quality programme (PCDQ) is a quality-improvement programme which processes routinely collected general practice computer data. Patient data collected from a wide range of different brands of clinical computer systems are aggregated, processed, and fed back to practices in an educational context to improve the quality of care. Process modelling is a well-established approach used to gain understanding and systematic appraisal, and identify areas of improvement of a business process. Unified modelling language (UML) is a general purpose modelling technique used for this purpose. We used UML to appraise the PCDQ process to see if the efficiency and predictability of the process could be improved. Activity analysis and thinking-aloud sessions were used to collect data to generate UML diagrams. The UML model highlighted the sequential nature of the current process as a barrier for efficiency gains. It also identified the uneven distribution of process controls, lack of symmetric communication channels, critical dependencies among processing stages, and failure to implement all the lessons learned in the piloting phase. It also suggested that improved structured reporting at each stage - especially from the pilot phase, parallel processing of data and correctly positioned process controls - should improve the efficiency and predictability of research projects. Process modelling provided a rational basis for the critical appraisal of a clinical data processing system; its potential maybe underutilized within health care.

  16. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms in coronary CT angiography improve the detection of lipid-core plaque - a comparison with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchner, Stefan B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ferencik, Maros [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Lenduelet Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu [CV Path Institute Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Schlett, Christopher L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate whether iterative reconstruction algorithms improve the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for detection of lipid-core plaque (LCP) compared to histology. CCTA and histological data were acquired from three ex vivo hearts. CCTA images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive-statistical (ASIR) and model-based (MBIR) iterative algorithms. Vessel cross-sections were co-registered between FBP/ASIR/MBIR and histology. Plaque area <60 HU was semiautomatically quantified in CCTA. LCP was defined by histology as fibroatheroma with a large lipid/necrotic core. Area under the curve (AUC) was derived from logistic regression analysis as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Overall, 173 CCTA triplets (FBP/ASIR/MBIR) were co-registered with histology. LCP was present in 26 cross-sections. Average measured plaque area <60 HU was significantly larger in LCP compared to non-LCP cross-sections (mm{sup 2}: 5.78 ± 2.29 vs. 3.39 ± 1.68 FBP; 5.92 ± 1.87 vs. 3.43 ± 1.62 ASIR; 6.40 ± 1.55 vs. 3.49 ± 1.50 MBIR; all p < 0.0001). AUC for detecting LCP was 0.803/0.850/0.903 for FBP/ASIR/MBIR and was significantly higher for MBIR compared to FBP (p = 0.01). MBIR increased sensitivity for detection of LCP by CCTA. Plaque area <60 HU in CCTA was associated with LCP in histology regardless of the reconstruction algorithm. However, MBIR demonstrated higher accuracy for detecting LCP, which may improve vulnerable plaque detection by CCTA. (orig.)

  17. Metabolic control by S6 kinases depends on dietary lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R Castañeda

    Full Text Available Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism.

  18. Lipid polymorphism and the functional roles of lipids in biological membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cullis, P.R.; Kruijff, B. de

    1979-01-01

    The reasons for the great variety of lipids found in biological membranes, and the relations between lipid composition and membrane function pose major unsolved problems in membrane biology. Perhaps the only major functional role of lipids which may be regarded as firmly established involves the

  19. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

  20. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  1. Continuous improvement: A win... win process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, T.; Wichert, A.

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a continuous improvement (CI) process within PanCanadian's oil and gas production operations might have been a simple assignment if one were not also trying to capture the hearts and imaginations of the people in a changing work environment. Meeting the challenge is resulting in big payoffs to both the organization and its people. The plan used within the Company's Production Division to successfully introduce the CI process is discussed. A brief insight is provided on the process philosophy, with emphasis placed on planning, training and coaching used to launch the process. Also reviewed at length are the impediments to change and the challenges faced when changing an organization's culture. In a CI work environment, the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing 'win-win' situation for both the Company and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants and enjoying their work more in a team environment. The Company is winning through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to many innovative ideas which the employees have implemented. 4 refs

  2. LipiDex: An Integrated Software Package for High-Confidence Lipid Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Paul D; Russell, Jason D; Coon, Joshua J

    2018-04-17

    State-of-the-art proteomics software routinely quantifies thousands of peptides per experiment with minimal need for manual validation or processing of data. For the emerging field of discovery lipidomics via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), comparably mature informatics tools do not exist. Here, we introduce LipiDex, a freely available software suite that unifies and automates all stages of lipid identification, reducing hands-on processing time from hours to minutes for even the most expansive datasets. LipiDex utilizes flexible in silico fragmentation templates and lipid-optimized MS/MS spectral matching routines to confidently identify and track hundreds of lipid species and unknown compounds from diverse sample matrices. Unique spectral and chromatographic peak purity algorithms accurately quantify co-isolation and co-elution of isobaric lipids, generating identifications that match the structural resolution afforded by the LC-MS/MS experiment. During final data filtering, ionization artifacts are removed to significantly reduce dataset redundancy. LipiDex interfaces with several LC-MS/MS software packages, enabling robust lipid identification to be readily incorporated into pre-existing data workflows. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NanoSIMS Analysis of Intravascular Lipolysis and Lipid Movement across Capillaries and into Cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Cuiwen; Weston, Thomas A; Jung, Rachel S

    2018-01-01

    , mice were given an injection of [2H]triglyceride-enriched TRLs, and the movement of 2H-labeled lipids across capillaries and into cardiomyocytes was examined by NanoSIMS. TRL processing and lipid movement in tissues were extremely rapid. Within 30 s, TRL-derived lipids appeared in the subendothelial...

  4. Lipids characterization of ultrasound and microwave processed germinated sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sadia; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nazir; Khan, Muhammad Kamran

    2017-06-27

    Cereal crops and oilseeds provide diverse pool of fatty acids with characteristic properties. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) provides the staple food with serving as main source of energy and protein. Germination of sorghum generally increases the nutritive value of seeds and the effects of germination on lipids composition of seeds vary greatly with processing conditions. Therefore, the current study was conducted to compare the effect of emerging processing techniques such as ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) on fatty acids composition and oil yield of sorghum seeds before and after germination. Initially sorghum grains were soaked with 5% NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) for surface sterilization. Afterwards, grains were soaked in excess water for 22 h at room temperature and were divided into four portions. The first portion (100 g grains) was subjected to germination without applying any microwave and ultrasonic treatment (T 0 ). Second portion was further divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group) and grains were subjected to ultrasonic treatments using two different ultrasonic intensities (US 1 : 40%; US 2 : 60%) within range of 0-100% and with two different time durations (t US1 : 5 min; t US2 : 10 min) at constant temperature. Third portion was also divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group) and exposed to microwave treatments at two different power levels (MW 1 : 450 watt; MW 2 : 700 watt) within the range of 100-900 W for two different time durations (t MW1 : 15 s; t MW2 : 30s). Similarly, fourth portion was divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group). Each group was exposed to both MW (MW 1 , MW 2 ) (100-900 watt power) & US (US 1 , US 2 ) (0-100% intensity) treatments at two different time levels (t US , t MW ). Then, germination was carried out and pre-treated raw and pre-treated germinated sorghum grains were analyzed for total oil yield, fatty acid

  5. Radiation induced lipid oxidation in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snauwaert, F.; Tobback, P.; Maes, E.; Thyssen, J.

    1977-01-01

    Oxidative rancidity in herring and redfish was studied as a function of the applied irradiation dose, the storage time and storage temperature and the packaging conditions. - Measurements of the TBA (thiobarbituric acid) value and the peroxide value were used to evaluate the degree of oxidation of lipids, and were related with sensory scores. - Especially for the fatty fish species (herring) irradiation accelerated lipid oxidation and induced oxidative rancidity. Irradiation of vacuum-packed herring fillets and subsequent storage at +2 C seems to be an interesting process. For the experiments conducted on a semi-fatty fish (redfish), oxidative rancidity was never the limiting factor for organoleptic acceptability. (orig.) [de

  6. Quality improvement process pilot project at Gallagher station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondielingen, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    A Quality Improvement Process was piloted at Gallagher station in 1990 to address issues of two Electric System Strategy Group (ESSG) goals. Darrell McElravy headed a group to address quality, productivity and prove and Judy Rushing headed a group to address innovation and recognition. These groups combined when a process was identified that could address both issues. The process was designed for PSI Energy by Business Incentives and is an incentive-based quality improvement process that seeks employee involvement to identify inhibitors t performance and to establish a method to eliminate the problem. Performance goals were also established that help focus efforts to improve performance and reward employees for their efforts

  7. Anaerobic modeling for improving synergy and robustness of a manure co-digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, D. M. F.; Rodrigues, J. A. D.; Boe, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is becoming increasingly important in the environmental area because, besides treating wastewaters, it also generates energy. Co-digestion has become more and more powerful since it is possible, with the use of abundant and cheap substrates, to dilute the inhibitory effects...... of various other substrates, making the process of anaerobic digestion more efficient and stable. Biogas process modelling describes the kinetics and stoichiometry of different steps in the anaerobic digestion process. This mathematical modelling provides an understanding of the processes and interactions...... occurring inside the biogas system. The present work investigated the interactions between different simple co-substrates (carbohydrate, lipid and protein) and real co-substrates (corn silage, fodder beet, grass and wheat straw) under co-digestion with manure, in order to verify synergetic effects...

  8. Improvement of curcuminoid bioaccessibility from turmeric by a nanostructured lipid carrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jin; Garcia, Coralia V; Shin, Gye Hwa; Kim, Jun Tae

    2018-06-15

    Turmeric contains curcumin and its analogues, which show anticancer and antiinflammatory effects; however, curcuminoids are lipophilic and are poorly absorbed by the human body. Nanostructured lipid carriers for encapsulating whole turmeric powder were successfully produced by ultrasonication, and their physicochemical properties and stability in simulated gastric and intestinal media were evaluated. The turmeric nanostructured lipid carriers (TNLCs) exhibited a round shape, small diameter (282 ± 7.19 nm), adequate zeta potential (-22.75 ± 1.20 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (93.3 ± 0.01%). The TNLCs were able to protect the encapsulated curcuminoids under acidic gastric conditions, and effectively released 95 ± 2.51% of the curcuminoids in the simulated intestinal medium, demonstrating their suitability for controlled release. The in vitro bioaccessibility of the encapsulated curcuminoids was 75 ± 1.24%, representing more than a fourfold increase compared to that of free turmeric. Therefore, the proposed TNLCs are a promising delivery system for increasing the bioaccessibility of curcuminoids from turmeric. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Furosemide Loaded Silica-Lipid Hybrid Microparticles: Formulation Development, in vitro and ex vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraj, Swapna; Ammula, Divya; Nagabandi, Vijaykumar

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the current research work was to formulate and evaluate furosemide loaded silica lipid hybrid microparticles for improved oral delivery. A novel silica-lipid hybrid microparticulate system is used for enhancing the oral absorption of low solubility and low permeability of (BCS Class IV) drugs. Silica-lipid hybrid microparticles include the drug solubilising effect of dispersed lipids and stabilizing effect of hydrophilic silica particles to increase drug solubilisation, which leads to enhanced oral bioavailability. The slica lipid hybrid (SLH) microparticles were composed of poorly soluble drug (furosemide), dispersion of oil phase (Soya bean oil and miglyol) in lecithin (Phospholipoid 90H), non-ionic surfactant (Polysorbate 80) and adsorbent (Aerosol 380). Saturation solubility studies were performed in different oils and surfactants with increased concentration of drug revealed increased solubility of furosemide. In vitro dissolution studies conducted under simulated gastric medium revealed 2-4 fold increase in dissolution efficiencies for SLH microparticles compared to that of pure drug (furosemide) and marketed formulation Lasix®. Ex vivo studies showed enhanced lipid digestibility, which improved drug permeability. Solid-state characterization of SLH microparticles by X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis confirmed non-crystalline nature and more compatibility of furosemide in silica-lipid hybrid microparticles. It can be concluded that the role of lipids and hydrophilic silica based carrier highlighted in enhancing solubility and permeability, and hence the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

  10. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savian, Ana L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Daiane [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Weber, Julia; Ribeiro, Roseane F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana H. [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Adams, Andréa I.H. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Andrade, Diego F. de; Beck, Ruy C.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-01

    Dithranol is a very effective drug for the topical treatment of psoriasis. However, it has some adverse effects such as irritation and stain in the skin that make its application and patient adherence to treatment difficult. The aims of this work were to prepare and characterize dithranol-loaded nanocapsules as well as to evaluate the photostability and the irritation potential of these nanocarriers. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol (0.5 mg/mL) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. EDTA (0.05%) or ascorbic acid (0.02%) was used as antioxidants. After preparation, dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed satisfactory characteristics: drug content close to the theoretical concentration, encapsulation efficiency of about 100%, nanometric mean size (230–250 nm), polydispersity index below 0.25, negative zeta potential, and pH values from 4.3 to 5.6. In the photodegradation study against UVA light, we observed a higher stability of the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules comparing to the solution containing the free drug (half-life times around 4 and 1 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing EDTA, respectively; half-life times around 17 and 7 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing ascorbic acid, respectively). Irritation test by HET-CAM method was conducted to evaluate the safety of the formulations. From the results it was found that the nanoencapsulation of the drug decreased its toxicity compared to the effects observed for the free drug. - Highlights: • Strategy to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol • Evaluation of the nanoencapsulation effect on the photostability and irritation • Evaluation of the in vitro release of dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.

  11. SREBP-regulated lipid metabolism: convergent physiology - divergent pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Hitoshi; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2017-12-01

    Cellular lipid metabolism and homeostasis are controlled by sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs). In addition to performing canonical functions in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis and uptake of lipids, genome-wide system analyses have revealed that these versatile transcription factors act as important nodes of convergence and divergence within biological signalling networks. Thus, they are involved in myriad physiological and pathophysiological processes, highlighting the importance of lipid metabolism in biology. Changes in cell metabolism and growth are reciprocally linked through SREBPs. Anabolic and growth signalling pathways branch off and connect to multiple steps of SREBP activation and form complex regulatory networks. In addition, SREBPs are implicated in numerous pathogenic processes such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, autophagy and apoptosis, and in this way, they contribute to obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. This Review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of SREBPs in physiology and pathophysiology at the cell, organ and organism levels.

  12. Process improvement in healthcare: Overall resource efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Kemper, B.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Mandjes, M.; van der Bijl, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a unifying and quantitative conceptual framework for healthcare processes from the viewpoint of process improvement. The work adapts standard models from operation management to the specifics of healthcare processes. We propose concepts for organizational modeling of

  13. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  14. Nanointaglio fabrication of optical lipid multilayer diffraction gratings with applications in biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Troy Warren

    The dynamic self-organization of lipids in biological systems is a highly regulated process that enables the compartmentalization of living systems at microscopic and nanoscopic levels. Exploiting the self-organization and innate biofunctionality of lyotropic liquid crystalline phospholipids, a novel nanofabrication process called "nanointaglio" was invented in order to rapidly and scalably integrate lipid nanopatterns onto the surface. The work presented here focuses on using nanointaglio fabricated lipid diffraction micro- and nanopatterns for the development of new sensing and bioactivity studies. The lipids are patterned as diffraction gratings for sensor functionality. The lipid multilayer gratings operate as nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. To demonstrate the label free detection capabilities, lipid nanopatterns are shown to be suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone) in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering, indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose. A second main application is demonstrated for the study of membrane binding proteins. Although in vitro methods for assaying the catalytic activity of individual enzymes are well established, quantitative methods for assaying the kinetics of

  15. Improved cellular uptake of antisense Peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cell-penetrating Peptide and a lipid domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    based on a splicing correction of a mutated luciferase gene in HeLa pLuc705 cells by targeting antisense oligonucleotides to a cryptic splice site. Further improvement in the delivery of CatLip-PNA conjugates is achieved by using auxiliary agents/treatments (e.g., chloroquine, calcium ions......Unaided cellular uptake of RNA interference agents such as antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA is extremely poor, and in vivo bioavailability is also limited. Thus, effective delivery strategies for such potential drugs are in high demand. Recently, a novel approach using a class of short cationic....... We have found, however, that this low -bioavailability can be significantly improved by chemical conjugation to a lipid domain ("Lip," such as a fatty acid), thereby creating "CatLip"-conjugates. The cellular uptake of these conjugates is conveniently evaluated using a sensitive cellular assay system...

  16. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  17. Mitochondrial and cellular mechanisms for managing lipid excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Aon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current scientific debates center on the impact of lipids and mitochondrial function on diverse aspects of human health, nutrition and disease, among them the association of lipotoxicity with the onset of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and with heart dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Mitochondria play a fundamental role in aging and in prevalent acute or chronic diseases. Lipids are main mitochondrial fuels however these molecules can also behave as uncouplers and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Knowledge about the functional composition of these contradictory effects and their impact on mitochondrial-cellular energetics/redox status is incomplete.Cells store fatty acids (FAs as triacylglycerol and package them into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs. New emerging data shows the LD as a highly dynamic storage pool of FAs that can be used for energy reserve. Lipid excess packaging into LDs can be seen as an adaptive response to fulfilling energy supply without hindering mitochondrial or cellular redox status and keeping low concentration of lipotoxic intermediates.Herein we review the mechanisms of action and utilization of lipids by mitochondria reported in liver, heart and skeletal muscle under relevant physiological situations, e.g. exercise. We report on perilipins, a family of proteins that associate with LDs in response to loading of cells with lipids. Evidence showing that in addition to physical contact, mitochondria and LDs exhibit metabolic interactions is presented and discussed. A hypothetical model of channeled lipid utilization by mitochondria is proposed. Direct delivery and channeled processing of lipids in mitochondria could represent a reliable and efficient way to maintain ROS within levels compatible with signaling while ensuring robust and reliable energy supply.

  18. Methods of downstream processing for the production of biodiesel from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; Yoo, Gursong; Lee, Hansol; Lim, Juntaek; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Chul Woong; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Despite receiving increasing attention during the last few decades, the production of microalgal biofuels is not yet sufficiently cost-effective to compete with that of petroleum-based conventional fuels. Among the steps required for the production of microalgal biofuels, the harvest of the microalgal biomass and the extraction of lipids from microalgae are two of the most expensive. In this review article, we surveyed a substantial amount of previous work in microalgal harvesting and lipid extraction to highlight recent progress in these areas. We also discuss new developments in the biodiesel conversion technology due to the importance of the connectivity of this step with the lipid extraction process. Furthermore, we propose possible future directions for technological or process improvements that will directly affect the final production costs of microalgal biomass-based biofuels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Improving Accuracy of Processing Through Active Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Barbashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important task of modern mathematical statistics with its methods based on the theory of probability is a scientific estimate of measurement results. There are certain costs under control, and under ineffective control when a customer has got defective products these costs are significantly higher because of parts recall.When machining the parts, under the influence of errors a range scatter of part dimensions is offset towards the tolerance limit. To improve a processing accuracy and avoid defective products involves reducing components of error in machining, i.e. to improve the accuracy of machine and tool, tool life, rigidity of the system, accuracy of the adjustment. In a given time it is also necessary to adapt machine.To improve an accuracy and a machining rate there, currently  become extensively popular various the in-process gaging devices and controlled machining that uses adaptive control systems for the process monitoring. Improving the accuracy in this case is compensation of a majority of technological errors. The in-cycle measuring sensors (sensors of active control allow processing accuracy improvement by one or two quality and provide a capability for simultaneous operation of several machines.Efficient use of in-cycle measuring sensors requires development of methods to control the accuracy through providing the appropriate adjustments. Methods based on the moving average, appear to be the most promising for accuracy control since they include data on the change in some last measured values of the parameter under control.

  1. Lipid structure does not modify incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood lipids in healthy adults: a randomised-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Annette L; Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation is an effective means to improve EPA and DHA status. However, it is unclear whether lipid structure affects EPA+DHA bioavailability. We determined the effect of consuming different EPA and DHA lipid structures on their concentrations in blood during the postprandial period and during dietary supplementation compared with unmodified fish oil TAG (uTAG). In a postprandial cross-over study, healthy men (n 9) consumed in random order test meals containing 1·1 g EPA+0·37 g DHA as either uTAG, re-esterified TAG, free fatty acids (FFA) or ethyl esters (EE). In a parallel design supplementation study, healthy men and women (n 10/sex per supplement) consumed one supplement type for 12 weeks. Fatty acid composition was determined by GC. EPA incorporation over 6 h into TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC) did not differ between lipid structures. EPA enrichment in NEFA was lower from EE than from uTAG (P=0·01). Plasma TAG, PC or NEFA DHA incorporation did not differ between lipid structures. Lipid structure did not affect TAG or NEFA EPA incorporation and PC or NEFA DHA incorporation following dietary supplementation. Plasma TAG peak DHA incorporation was greater (P=0·02) and time to peak shorter (P=0·02) from FFA than from uTAG in men. In both studies, the order of EPA and DHA incorporation was PC>TAG>NEFA. In conclusion, EPA and DHA lipid structure may not be an important consideration in dietary interventions.

  2. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  3. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  4. Performance Results of CMMI-Based Process Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, Diane L; Goldenson, Dennis R; Kost, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... There now is evidence that process improvement using the CMMI Product Suite can result in improvements in schedule and cost performance, product quality, return on investment and other measures of performance outcome...

  5. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)