Sample records for improved rotor-only axial

1. Toward Improved Rotor-Only Axial Fans—Part II: Design Optimization for Maximum Efficiency

Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Thompson, M. C.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

2000-01-01

Numerical design optimization of the aerodynamic performance of axial fans is carried out, maximizing the efficiency in a designinterval of flow rates. Tip radius, number of blades, and angular velocity of the rotor are fixed, whereas the hub radius andspanwise distributions of chord length......, stagger angle, and camber angle are varied to find the optimum rotor geometry.Constraints ensure a pressure rise above a specified target and an angle of attack on the blades below stall. The optimizationscheme is used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on the width of the design interval...

2. Toward Improved Rotor-Only Axial Fans - Part I: A Numerically Efficient Aerodynamic Model for Arbitrary Vortex Flow

Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

2000-01-01

, and radialposition are derived from the incompressible conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum, and energy. The resulting system of equations isnonlinear and, due to mass conservation and pressure equilibrium far downstream of the rotor, strongly coupled. The equations are solved using theNewton-Raphson...

3. Improving the lattice axial vector current

Horsley, R.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Zanotti, J.M.

2015-11-01

For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order O(a) effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

4. Baryon axial charges from chirally improved fermions - first results

Engel, G.; Gattringer, C.; Glozman, L. Y.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.; Mohler, D.; Schäfer, A.

We present first results from dynamical Chirally Improved (CI) fermion simulations for the axial charge $G_A$ of various hadrons. We work with 16^3x32 lattices of spatial extent 2.4 fm and use the variational method with a suitable basis of Jacobi-smeared interpolators to suppress contaminations from excited states.

5. Improvement of axial power distribution synthesis methodology in CPC

Kim, H. H.; Gee, S. G.;; Kim, Y. B.; In, W. K.

2003-01-01

The capability of axial power distribution synthesis in CPC plays an important role in determining the DNBR and LPD trip caused by CPC. The axial power distribution is synthesized using the cubic spline function based on the three excore detector signals. The axial power distributions are categorized into 8 function sets and each sets are stored as pre-calculated values in CPC to save the calculation time. In this study, the additional function sets, the real break-point function sets and the polynomial function are suggested to evaluate the possibility of improving the synthesis capability in CPC. In addition, RMS errors are compared and evaluated for each synthesis method. As a result, it was confirmed that the function sets stored in CPC were not optimal. The analysis result showed that RMS error could be reduced by selecting the proper function sets suggested in this study

6. Improved axial position detection in optical tweezers measurements

Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene

2004-01-01

We investigate the axial position detection of a trapped microsphere in an optical trap by using a quadrant photodiode. By replacing the photodiode with a CCD camera, we obtain detailed information on the light scattered by the microsphere. The correlation of the interference pattern with the axial...... position displays complex behavior with regions of positive and negative interference. By analyzing the scattered light intensity as a function of the axial position of the trapped sphere, we propose a simple method to increase the sensitivity and control the linear range of axial position detection....

7. Approach to improve the axial power distribution for the application of a core protection system

Koo, Bon Seung; Cho, Jin Young; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Chung Chan

2008-01-01

A Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) is a digital computer based on a safety system for generating trip signals based on a calculation of the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and the Local Power Density (LPD) by using several on-line measured system parameters including 3-level ex-core detector signals. A few approaches to improve the axial power distribution for the application of a core protection system were performed. For the Yonggwang unit 3 (cycle 1), axial power distributions were synthesized by applying the cubic spline method and compared with the neutronics code results. Several new cubic spline function sets were generated for the drastically distorted axial shapes for a 3-level ex-core detector system. In addition, synthesized axial shapes with a 5-level ex-core detector signals were compared with the conventional 3-level detector results. It demonstrates that the newly generated function sets appear to be better than that of the conventional CPC from the aspect of an axial power synthesis, particularly for the heavily distorted shapes. Moreover, synthesis of an axial power distribution using 5-level ex-core detector signals appears to be better than that of the 3-level ex-core detector signals. From the above results, improvement of the thermal margin is expected because of an uncertainty decreasing a core protection system. (authors)

8. Improvement of Axial Reflector Cross Section Generation Model for PWR Core Analysis

Shim, Cheon Bo; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Jin Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2016-10-15

This paper covers the study for improvement of axial reflector XS generation model. In the next section, the improved 1D core model is represented in detail. Reflector XS generated by the improved model is compared to that of the conventional model in the third section. Nuclear design parameters generated by these two XS sets are also covered in that section. Significant of this study is discussed in the last section. Two-step procedure has been regarded as the most practical approach for reactor core designs because it offers core design parameters quite rapidly within acceptable range. Thus this approach is adopted for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reac- Tor) core design in KAERI with the DeCART2D1.1/ MASTER4.0 (hereafter noted as DeCART2D/ MASTER) code system. Within the framework of the two-step procedure based SMART core design, various researches have been studied to improve the core design reliability and efficiency. One of them is improvement of reflector cross section (XS) generation models. While the conventional FA/reflector two-node model used for most core designs to generate reflector XS cannot consider the actual configuration of fuel rods that intersect at right angles to axial reflectors, the revised model reflects the axial fuel configuration by introducing the radially simplified core model. The significance of the model revision is evaluated by observing HGC generated by DeCART2D, reflector XS, and core design parameters generated by adopting the two models. And it is verified that about 30 ppm CBC error can be reduced and maximum Fq error decreases from about 6 % to 2.5 % by applying the revised model. Error of AO and axial power shapes are also reduced significantly. Therefore it can be concluded that the simplified 1D core model improves the accuracy of the axial reflector XS and leads to the two-step procedure reliability enhancement. Since it is hard for core designs to be free from the two-step approach, it is necessary to find

9. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

Fouquet, Coralie; Gilles, Jean-François; Heck, Nicolas; Dos Santos, Marc; Schwartzmann, Richard; Cannaya, Vidjeacoumary; Morel, Marie-Pierre; Davidson, Robert Stephen; Trembleau, Alain; Bolte, Susanne

2015-01-01

Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR) are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF), a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK) with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

10. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

Coralie Fouquet

Full Text Available Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF, a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

11. Improved methodology for generation of axial flux shapes in digital core protection systems

Lee, G.-C.; Baek, W.-P.; Chang, S.H.

2002-01-01

An improved method of axial flux shape (AFS) generation for digital core protection systems of pressurized water reactors is presented in this paper using an artificial neural network (ANN) technique - a feedforward network trained by backpropagation. It generates 20-node axial power shapes based on the information from three ex-core detectors. In developing the method, a total of 7173 axial flux shapes are generated from ROCS code simulation for training and testing of the ANN. The ANN trained 200 data predicts the remaining data with the average root mean square error of about 3%. The developed method is also tested with the real plant data measured during normal operation of Yonggwang Unit 4. The RMS errors in the range of 0.9∼2.1% are about twice as accurate as the cubic spline approximation method currently used in the plant. The developed method would contribute to solve the drawback of the current method as it shows reasonable accuracy over wide range of core conditions

12. Improving CT detection sensitivity for nodal metastases in oesophageal cancer with combination of smaller size and lymph node axial ratio

Liu, Jianfang [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University Electric Power Teaching Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Zhu; Qu, Dong; Yao, Libo [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Beijing (China); Shao, Huafei [Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Yantai (China); Liu, Jian [Meitan General Hospital, Beijing (China)

2018-01-15

To investigate the value of CT with inclusion of smaller lymph node (LN) sizes and axial ratio to improve the sensitivity in diagnosis of regional lymph node metastases in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The contrast-enhanced multidetector row spiral CT (MDCT) multiplanar reconstruction images of 204 patients with OSCC were retrospectively analysed. The long-axis and short-axis diameters of the regional LNs were measured and axial ratios were calculated (short-axis/long-axis diameters). Nodes were considered round if the axial ratio exceeded the optimal LN axial ratio, which was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. A positive predictive value (PPV) exceeding 50% is needed. This was achieved only with LNs larger than 9 mm in short-axis diameter, but nodes of this size were rare (sensitivity 37.3%, specificity 96.4%, accuracy 85.8%). If those round nodes (axial ratio exceeding 0.66) between 7 mm and 9 mm in size were considered metastases as well, it might improve the sensitivity to 67.2% with a PPV of 63.9% (specificity 91.6%, accuracy 87.2%). Combination of a smaller size and axial ratio for LNs in MDCT as criteria improves the detection sensitivity for LN metastases in OSCC. (orig.)

13. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations......-Raphson method, andsolutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs.The model has been validated against published measurementson various fan configurations,comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotatingfan unit and a stator-rotor-stator stage.Comparisons of local...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...

14. Utilizing multiple scale models to improve predictions of extra-axial hemorrhage in the immature piglet.

Scott, Gregory G; Margulies, Susan S; Coats, Brittany

2016-10-01

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. To help understand and better predict TBI, researchers have developed complex finite element (FE) models of the head which incorporate many biological structures such as scalp, skull, meninges, brain (with gray/white matter differentiation), and vasculature. However, most models drastically simplify the membranes and substructures between the pia and arachnoid membranes. We hypothesize that substructures in the pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) contribute substantially to brain deformation following head rotation, and that when included in FE models accuracy of extra-axial hemorrhage prediction improves. To test these hypotheses, microscale FE models of the PAC were developed to span the variability of PAC substructure anatomy and regional density. The constitutive response of these models were then integrated into an existing macroscale FE model of the immature piglet brain to identify changes in cortical stress distribution and predictions of extra-axial hemorrhage (EAH). Incorporating regional variability of PAC substructures substantially altered the distribution of principal stress on the cortical surface of the brain compared to a uniform representation of the PAC. Simulations of 24 non-impact rapid head rotations in an immature piglet animal model resulted in improved accuracy of EAH prediction (to 94 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity), as well as a high accuracy in regional hemorrhage prediction (to 82-100 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). We conclude that including a biofidelic PAC substructure variability in FE models of the head is essential for improved predictions of hemorrhage at the brain/skull interface.

15. An improved design of axially driven permanent maglev centrifugal pump with streamlined impeller.

Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

2007-01-01

In 1839, Earnshaw proved theoretically that it is impossible to achieve a stable equilibrium with a pure permanent maglev. Furthermore, in 1939, Braunbeck deduced that it is only possible to stabilize a super conductive or an electric maglev. In 2000, however, the present authors discovered that stable levitation is achievable by a combination of permanent magnetic and nonmagnetic forces, and its stability can be maintained even with mere passive magnetic forces by use of the gyro-effect. An improved design of permanent maglev impeller pump has been developed. Passive magnetic (PM) bearings support the rotor radially; on its right side, an impeller is fixed and on its left side a motor magnets-assemble is mounted. Unlike a previous prototype design, in which the rotor magnets were driven by a motor via magnetic coupling, a motor coil is installed opposite to the motor magnets disc, producing a rotating magnetic field. At standstill or if the rotating speed is lower than 4000 rpm, the rotor has one axial point contact with the motor coil. The contact point is located at the centre of the rotor. As the rotating speed increases gradually to higher than 4000 rpm, the rotor will be drawn off from the contact point by the hydrodynamic force of the fluid. Then the rotor becomes fully suspended. For radial and peripheral stabilization, a gyro-effect is important, which is realized by designing the motor magnets disc to have large diameter, short length and high rotating speed; for axial stability, an axial rehabilitating force is necessary, which is produced by PM bearings. The rotor demonstrated a full levitation by rotation over 4000 rpm. As a left ventricular assist device, the rotation of the pump has a speed range from 5000 to 8000 rpm. The relation between pressure head and flow rate indicates that there is neither mechanical friction nor hydrodynamic turbulence inside the pump; the former is due to the frictionless maglev and the latter is a result of the

16. Improving the Management of Psoriatic Arthritis and Axial Spondyloarthritis: Roundtable Discussions with Healthcare Professionals and Patients.

Garrido-Cumbrera, Marco; Hillmann, Ottfrid; Mahapatra, Raj; Trigos, David; Zajc, Petra; Weiss, Luisa; Bostynets, Galya; Gossec, Laure; Coates, Laura C

2017-12-01

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) are both chronic, inflammatory conditions that result in a substantial burden of disease and reduced quality of life for patients. Patient involvement in developing optimal disease management strategies, including defining appropriate goals, therapies, and treatment options, as well as in setting policy priorities and agendas, is key. A working group of patient organization representatives and rheumatologists explored what patients consider to be unmet needs, important treatment gaps, and future priorities in PsA and AxSpA management. Reducing pain and fatigue, and improving physical and social functioning and work productivity were identified as important treatment goals for patients. Although the major treatment target for both PsA and AxSpA is remission, with low/minimal disease activity an alternative target for patients with established or long-standing disease, the meaning of remission from the patient's perspective needs to be explored further as it may differ considerably from the physician's perspective. Key recommendations from the working group to tackle unmet needs included reducing time to diagnosis, increasing patient and physician disease awareness, focusing on patients' priorities for treatment goals, and improving patient-physician communication. By addressing these key action points moving forward, the hope is that outcomes will continue to improve for patients with PsA and AxSpA.

17. Modeling and Performance Improvement of the Constant Power Regulator Systems in Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump

Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik

2013-01-01

An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software. PMID:24282389

18. Modeling and Performance Improvement of the Constant Power Regulator Systems in Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump

Sung Hwan Park

2013-01-01

Full Text Available An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.

19. Modeling and performance improvement of the constant power regulator systems in variable displacement axial piston pump.

Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik

2013-01-01

An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.

20. Beyond axial symmetry: An improved class of models for global data

Castruccio, Stefano; Genton, Marc G.

2014-01-01

An important class of models for data on a spherical domain, called axially symmetric, assumes stationarity across longitudes but not across latitudes. The main aim of this work is to introduce a new and more flexible class of models by relaxing the assumption of longitudinal stationarity in the context of regularly gridded climate model output. In this investigation, two other related topics are discussed: the lack of fit of an axially symmetric parametric model compared with a non-parametric model and to longitudinally reversible processes, an important subclass of axially symmetric models.

1. Beyond axial symmetry: An improved class of models for global data

Castruccio, Stefano

2014-03-01

An important class of models for data on a spherical domain, called axially symmetric, assumes stationarity across longitudes but not across latitudes. The main aim of this work is to introduce a new and more flexible class of models by relaxing the assumption of longitudinal stationarity in the context of regularly gridded climate model output. In this investigation, two other related topics are discussed: the lack of fit of an axially symmetric parametric model compared with a non-parametric model and to longitudinally reversible processes, an important subclass of axially symmetric models.

2. O(a) improvement of the HYP static axial and vector currents at one-loop order of perturbation theory

Grimbach, A; Knechtli, F; Palombi, Filippo

2008-01-01

We calculate analytically the improvement coefficients of the static axial and vector currents in O(a) improved lattice QCD at one-loop order of perturbation theory. The static quark is described by the hypercubic action, previously introduced in the literature in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of static observables. Within a Schroedinger Functional setup, we derive the Feynman rules of the hypercubic link in time-momentum representation. The improvement coefficients are obtained from on-shell correlators of the static axial and vector currents. As a by-product, we localise the minimum of the static self-energy as a function of the smearing parameters of the action at one-loop order and show that the perturbative minimum is close to its non-perturbative counterpart.

3. Improving of the working process of axial compressors of gas turbine engines by using an optimization method

Marchukov, E.; Egorov, I.; Popov, G.; Baturin, O.; Goriachkin, E.; Novikova, Y.; Kolmakova, D.

2017-08-01

The article presents one optimization method for improving of the working process of an axial compressor of gas turbine engine. Developed method allows to perform search for the best geometry of compressor blades automatically by using optimization software IOSO and CFD software NUMECA Fine/Turbo. Optimization was performed by changing the form of the middle line in the three sections of each blade and shifts of three sections of the guide vanes in the circumferential and axial directions. The calculation of the compressor parameters was performed for work and stall point of its performance map on each optimization step. Study was carried out for seven-stage high-pressure compressor and three-stage low-pressure compressors. As a result of optimization, improvement of efficiency was achieved for all investigated compressors.

4. Non-perturbative improvement of the axial current with three dynamical flavors and the Iwasaki gauge action

Kaneko, T.; Hashimoto, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Aoki, S. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences]|[Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). Riken BNL Research Center; Della Morte, M. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland); Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sommer, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

2007-03-15

We perform a non-perturbative determination of the improvement coefficient c{sub A} to remove O(a) discretization errors in the axial vector current in three-flavor lattice QCD with the Iwasaki gauge action and the standard O(a)-improved Wilson quark action. An improvement condition with a good sensitivity to c{sub A} is imposed at constant physics. Combining our results with the perturbative expansion, c{sub A} is now known rather precisely for a{sup -1}>or similar 1.6 GeV. (orig.)

5. Non-perturbative improvement of the axial current with three dynamical flavors and the Iwasaki gauge action

Kaneko, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Aoki, S.; Hoffmann, R.

2007-03-01

We perform a non-perturbative determination of the improvement coefficient c A to remove O(a) discretization errors in the axial vector current in three-flavor lattice QCD with the Iwasaki gauge action and the standard O(a)-improved Wilson quark action. An improvement condition with a good sensitivity to c A is imposed at constant physics. Combining our results with the perturbative expansion, c A is now known rather precisely for a -1 >or similar 1.6 GeV. (orig.)

6. Improvement in Scoliosis Top View: Evaluation of Vertebrae Localization in Scoliotic Spine-Spine Axial Presentation

Paweł Główka

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Morphological analysis of the scoliotic spine is based on two-dimensional X-rays: coronal and sagittal. The three-dimensional character of scoliosis has raised the necessity for analyzing scoliosis in three planes. We proposed a new user-friendly method of graphical presentation of the spine in the third plane–the Spine Axial Presentation (SAP. Eighty-five vertebrae of patients with scoliosis were analyzed. Due to different positions during X-rays (standing and computer tomography (CT (supine, the corresponding measurements cannot be directly compared. As a solution, a software creating Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs from CT scans was developed to replace regular X-rays with DRRs. Based on the measurements performed on DRRs, the coordinates of vertebral bodies central points were defined. Next, the geometrical centers of vertebral bodies were determined on CT scans. The reproducibility of measurements was tested with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, using p = 0.05. The intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability for vertebral body central point’s coordinates (x, y, z were high for results obtained based on DRRs and CT scans, as well as for comparison results obtained based on DRR and CT scans. Based on two standard radiographs, it is possible to localize vertebral bodies in 3D space. The position of vertebral bodies can be present in the Spine Axial Presentation.

7. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method

Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

2002-06-01

With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation. Numerical investigations show that a proper enlargement of guide vane distribution diameter is advantageous to improve the performance of axial hydraulic turbine runner. Copyright

8. An immediate effect of axial neck rotation training with real time visual feedback using a smartphone inclinometer on improvement in axial neck rotation function.

Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Kim, Si-Hyun; Jeon, In-Cheol

2017-03-01

The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of axial neck rotation training (Axi-NRT) with and without real-time visual feedback (VF) using a smartphone inclinometer on the range of motion (ROM) for axial neck rotation and the onset of compensatory neck lateral bending and extension during active neck rotation. Twenty participants with restricted ROM for neck rotation but no neck pain (21.1 ± 1.6 years and 8 males, 12 females) were recruited for Axi-NRT with VF, and twenty age- and gender-matched participants with restricted ROM for neck rotation were recruited for Axi-NRT without VF. Changes in ROM for neck rotation and the onset time of compensatory neck movement during active neck rotation were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system. Axi-NRT with VF was more effective in increasing ROM for neck rotation and decreasing and delaying the onset of compensatory neck movements during active neck rotation compared with Axi-NRT without VF. Repeated Axi-NRT using VF is useful to educate participants in maintaining the axis of the cervical spine and to increase ROM for axial neck rotation with less compensatory neck motion in participants with a restricted range of neck rotations.

9. Axial myopathy

Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John

2016-01-01

Classically, myopathies are categorized according to limb or cranial nerve muscle affection, but with the growing use of magnetic resonance imaging it has become evident that many well-known myopathies have significant involvement of the axial musculature. New disease entities with selective axial...

10. Improvement in the voltage grading (axial and radial) of the generator column of a Van de Graaf generator by the use of a resistor chain

Prabhakar, B.R.

1977-01-01

It is well known that the use of a series of resistors, connected between the equipotential rings of a Van de Graaff generator, improves the axial voltage grading of the generator. The work reported in this paper shows how the resistor chain also improves the radial voltage gradient. The electrolytic field mapping technique was adopted in the present work. (Auth.)

11. Improved axial resolution of FINCH fluorescence microscopy when combined with spinning disk confocal microscopy.

Siegel, Nisan; Brooker, Gary

2014-09-22

FINCH holographic fluorescence microscopy creates super-resolved images with enhanced depth of focus. Addition of a Nipkow disk real-time confocal image scanner is shown to reduce the FINCH depth of focus while improving transverse confocal resolution in a combined method called "CINCH".

12. Study on unsteady tip leakage vortex cavitation in an axial-flow pump using an improved filter-based model

Zhang, Desheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Ruijie; Shi, Weidong; Pan, Qiang [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Esch, B. P. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2017-02-15

The aim of the present investigation is to simulate and analyze the tip leakage flow structure and instantaneous evolution of tip vortex cavitation in a scaled axial-flow pump model. The improved filter-based turbulence model based on the density correction and a homogeneous cavitation model were used for implementing this work. The results show that when entering into the tip clearance, the backward flow separates from the blade tip near the pressure side, resulting in the generation of a corner vortex with high magnitude of turbulence kinetic energy. Then, at the exit of the tip clearance, the leakage jets would re-attach on the blade tip wall. Moreover, the maximum swirling strength method was employed in identifying the TLV core and a counter-rotating induced vortex near the end-wall successfully. The three dimensional cavitation patterns and in-plain cavitation structures obtained by the improved numerical method agree well with the experimental results. At the sheet cavitation trailing edge in the tip region, the perpendicular cavitation cloud induced by TLV sheds and migrates toward the pressure side of the neighboring blade. During its migration, it breaks down abruptly and generates a large number of smallscale cavities, leading to severe degradation of the pump performance, which is similar with the phenomenon observed by Tan et al.

13. An improvement of the axial impulse theory for rotors, and the consequence for the aerodynamics of wind energy. De verbetering van de axiale impulstheorie voor rotoren, en de betekenis hiervan voor de windenergie aerodynamika

Van Kuik, G.A.M.

1985-11-01

The classical axial momentum theory for wind turbines is critically considered and improved. The homogeneous load on the 'porous disk', i.e. the diameter of the rotor is found not to be homogeneous, but forces at the edge of this disk cause significant deviations. Consequences are: less power is generated than calculated and Lanchester-Betz maximum is not an absolute maximum. This edge-effect is not fully understood and calculated yet, nor is it incorporated in any existing model. Further investigations are made at Eindhoven with a helicopter rotor. (A.V.)

14. Stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan with end wall injection and suction; Hekimen fukidashi suidashi ni yoru han'yo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

1999-06-25

The experimental studies are conducted to reveal the mechanism of stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan by injection or suction from the end wall. In case of injection, the largest improvement is obtained by the injection at about 0. 14 {approx} 0 .21 times axial chord length downstream from leading edge. The reason for large improvement is that stall vortex, shed intermittent separation vortex and tip leakage vortex are dissipated by this injection, and also that this blowing suppresses the separation of boundary layer. In case of suction, the largest improvement is found for the suction from the end wall near leading edge. The amplitude of periodic static pressure after stall inception becomes smaller in comparison with injection cases. These effects are increased with the increase of suction flow rate, because the discharge of the vortex occurs more easily. On the other hand, the suction from the upstream of leading edge reduces the axial velocity near rotor tip, and then it induces stall. Also we tried to visualize the tip region flow, The suppression mechanism is discussed based on the visualization. The suppression of stall is successfully photographed. (author)

15. Improvement of the Cubic Spline Function Sets for a Synthesis of the Axial Power Distribution of a Core Protection System

Koo, Bon-Seung; Lee, Chung-Chan; Zee, Sung-Quun

2006-01-01

Online digital core protection system(SCOPS) for a system-integrated modular reactor is being developed as a part of a plant protection system at KAERI. SCOPS calculates the minimum CHFR and maximum LPD based on several online measured system parameters including 3-level ex-core detector signals. In conventional ABB-CE digital power plants, cubic spline synthesis technique has been used in online calculations of the core axial power distributions using ex-core detector signals once every 1 second in CPC. In CPC, pre-determined cubic spline function sets are used depending on the characteristics of the ex-core detector responses. But this method shows an unnegligible power distribution error for the extremely skewed axial shapes by using restrictive function sets. Therefore, this paper describes the cubic spline method for the synthesis of an axial power distribution and it generates several new cubic spline function sets for the application of the core protection system, especially for the severely distorted power shapes needed reactor type

16. Axial tomography

Brueckner, K.A.; Lewis, J.H.

1979-01-01

The invention relates to axial tomography, sometimes referred to as cross-sectional x-ray. The apparatus described may utilize the conventional x-ray or ultrasonic source and detector and scanning mechanism for producing the plurality of sets of radiation detector output signals. It has the means for storing the detector output signals in analog form with the signals of one set overlying the signals of another set so that signals resulting from radiation through a zone of the object being examined are summed at a corresponding zone in the storage device, typically an electronic storage tube. The summed signals are read from the storage device with a radially inversely proportional reader producing a second signal for storage, again typically in an electronic storage tube. These signals stored in the second storage device are read with Laplacian relation, with the resultant sigal being a video signal that may be connected to a TV monitor for display of the sectional image. In alternative embodiments, optical film systems and electrostatic systems are utilized. (JTA)

17. Clinical application in the improved method of whirbone axial view X-ray photography and synthetical evaluation of various survey methods

Ma Xiushan; Zou Dehua; Lin Bo; Liu Xiying; Xu Yingjie; Zhang Guoxian; Wang Limin

2007-01-01

Objective: To summarize the improved method of photographing axial view of the patella by genuflex at 25 degree angle and evaluate synthetically various measures. Methods: Special projection frame was made to photograph in the study. Thirty normal people were enrolled as controls and 154 patients with fore-knee pain were included in the patient group. The patients were found to be abnormal in the arrangement of the patella by patella axial view photographs. Measures included sulcus angle (SA), congruence angle (CA), lateral shift (LS), later patellofemoral angle (LPFA), patellofemoral index (PFI), and lateral patellar displacement (LPD). Results: The average value of the parameter of two groups respectively are comparison group of SA 137.38 degree, CA -10.73 degree, LS 10.49%, LPFA 13.70 degree, PFI 0.48, LPD 0.45 mm and observation group of: SA 142.38 degree, CA -0.71 degree, LS 19.68%, LPFA 12.12 degree, PFI 1.13, LPD 0.42 mm. There was significant difference between the control group and patients for most measures except LPD (P<0.01). The measures of PFI, CA, LS, LPTA and LPD were sensitive to the disarrangement of the patella, with sensitivity of 71.66%, 63.33%, 56.66%, 21.60%, 16.66% respectively. Conclusions: The method of photographing axial view of the patella by genuflex at 25 degree angle is effective. It increases distinctness of the photographs. Furthermore, the method makes line-drawing more easily and measuring more accurately. (authors)

18. Effect of annealing on SiO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} axial heterostructure nanowires and improved photodetection

Dhar, J. C.; Singh, N. K. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Nagaland, Dimapur, Nagaland 797103 (India); Mondal, A., E-mail: aniruddhamo@gmail.com; Chakrabartty, S. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Bhattacharyya, A. [Department of Radio Physics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2013-12-28

Glancing angle deposition technique has been used to synthesize the axial heterostructure SiO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) on the Si substrate. The field emission gun scanning electron microscope image shows the formation of perpendicular NWs on Si substrate. A typical transmission electron microscope image confirms the heterostructure NW which consists of SiO{sub x} of length ∼130 nm and TiO{sub 2} of length ∼170 nm. The amorphous NWs transformed to polycrystalline nature after annealing. The trap assisted radiative recombination process is absent for the annealed NWs. An averagely 1.1 fold enhanced photoabsorption was exhibited by the annealed NWs in the 200–350 nm region and 1.5 fold in the 500–850 nm region. The leakage current (2.6 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2} at −0.5 V) significantly reduced for annealed NWs device. A maximum 1.4 × 10{sup 3} times enlarged photodetection has been observed for annealed device.

19. Conceptual study of axial offset fluctuations upon stepwise power changes in a thorium–plutonium core to improve load-following conditions

Lau, Cheuk Wah; Dykin, Victor; Nylén, Henrik; Björk, Klara Insulander; Sandberg, Urban

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Thorium–plutonium mixed oxide to improve nuclear reactors load-following capability. • SIMULATE-3 was the main calculation tool. • The Ringhals-3 PWR unit in Sweden was used as a reference. • Lower xenon poisoning and shorter reactor dead time. - Abstract: The increased share of renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, will increase the demand for load-following power sources, and nuclear reactors could be one option. However, during rapid load-following events, traditional UOX cores could be restricted by the volatile oscillation of the power distribution. Therefore, a conceptual study on stability properties of Th-MOX PWR concerning axial offset power excursion during load-following events are investigated and discussed. The study is performed in SIMULATE-3 for a realistic PWR core (Ringhals-3) at the end of cycle, where the largest amplitude of the axial offset oscillations is expected. It is shown that the Th-MOX core possesses much better stability characteristics and shorter reactor dead time compared with a traditional UOX core, and the main reasons are the lower sensitivity to perturbations in the neutron spectrum, lower xenon poisoning and lower thermal neutron flux

20. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

Noertoft Soerensen, Dan

1998-01-01

A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

1. Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis

2016-01-01

This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment

2. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort).

van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A

2017-12-01

To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining the change in the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) over time by the change in absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment over time. Effect modification and confounding were tested for age, gender, arm of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria, HLA-B27, duration of chronic back pain, profession and medication. At baseline, in 105 axSpA patients (48% female, mean age 30.8 years, mean symptom duration 13.6 months, 92% HLA-B27 positive, 24% radiographic sacroiliitis), the mean ASDAS was 2.4 (s.d. 1.0), absenteeism 9% (s.d. 23), presenteeism 33% (s.d. 28), WPL 36% (s.d. 30) and activity impairment 37% (s.d. 25). After 1 year, the mean ASDAS decreased to 2.0 (s.d. 0.8) and absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved to 6% (s.d. 22), 26% (s.d. 26), 27% (s.d. 29) and 27% (s.d. 26), respectively. Models showed that if ASDAS decreased 1 unit, absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved by 5, 17, 16 and 18%, respectively. The impact of disease activity on work productivity was higher in patients with shorter symptom duration and the impact on absenteeism was higher in patients starting pharmacological treatment. In early axSpA patients, work productivity and daily activities are seriously impacted at baseline and 1 year. However, decreasing disease activity is associated with marked improvements in work productivity and daily activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

3. BWR AXIAL PROFILE

Huffer, J.

2004-01-01

The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I

4. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort)

van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A.

2017-01-01

To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining

5. Perturbative determination of mass-dependent renormalization and improvement coefficients for the heavy-light vector and axial-vector currents with relativistic heavy and domain-wall light quarks

Yamada, Norikazu; Aoki, Sinya; Kuramashi, Yoshinobu

2005-01-01

We determine the mass-dependent renormalization as well as improvement coefficients for the heavy-light vector and axial-vector currents consisting of the relativistic heavy and the domain-wall light quarks through the standard matching procedure. The calculation is carried out perturbatively at the one-loop level to remove the systematic error of O(α s (am Q ) n ap) as well as O(α s (am Q ) n ) (n>=0), where p is a typical momentum scale in the heavy-light system. We point out that renormalization and improvement coefficients of the heavy-light vector current agree with those of the axial-vector current, thanks to the exact chiral symmetry for the light quark. The results obtained with three different gauge actions, plaquette, Iwasaki and DBW2, are presented as a function of heavy quark mass and domain-wall height

6. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

1990-06-01

Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

7. Signatures for axial chromodynamics

Pati, J.C.

1978-07-01

Within the context of basic left-right symmetry and the hypothesis of unification of weak, electromagnetic and strong forces at a mass level approximately equal to 10 4 -10 6 GeV, relatively light ''mass'' axial gluons, confined or liberated, must be postulated. The authors remark that the existence of such ''light'' axial gluons supplementing the familiar vector octet preserves the successes of QCD, both for deep inelastic processes and charmonium physics. Through the characteristic spin-spin force, generated by their exchange, they may even help resolve some of the discrepancies between vector QCD predictions and charmonium physics. The main remark of this note is that if colour is liberated, not only vector but also axial-vector gluons are produced in high-energy e - e + experiments, e.g. at PETRA and PEP, with fairly large cross-section. Distinctive decay modes of such liberated axial gluons are noted

8. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

1993-01-01

The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

9. Can Parameters Other than Minimal Axial Diameter in MRI and PET/CT Further Improve Diagnostic Accuracy for Equivocal Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodes in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma?

Wang, Yu-Wen; Wu, Chin-Shun; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Chang, Chih-Han; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Yao, Wei-Jen; Chang, Yu-Kang; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Lin, Li-Ching; Lin, Keng-Ren

2016-01-01

Minimal axial diameter (MIAD) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recognized as the most useful parameter in diagnosing lateral retropharyngeal lymph (LRPL) nodes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aims to explore the additional nodal parameters in MRI and positron emission tomography-computed tomography for increasing the prediction accuracy. A total of 663 LRPL nodes were retrospectively collected from 335 patients with NPC. The LRPL nodes ascertained on follow-up MRI were considered positive for metastases. First, the optimal cutoff value of each parameter was derived for each parameter. In addition, neural network (NN) nodal evaluation was tested for all combinations of three parameters, namely MIAD, maximal axial diameter (MAAD), and maximal coronal diameter (MACD). The optimal approach was determined through brute force attack, and the results of two methods were compared using a bootstrap sampling method. Second, the mean standard uptake value (NSUVmean) was added as the fourth parameter and tested in the same manner for 410 nodes in 219 patients. In first and second analysis, the accuracy rate (percentage) for the MIAD was 89.0% (590/663) and 89.0% (365/410), with the optimal cutoff values being 6.1 mm and 6.0 mm, respectively. With the combination of all three and four parameters, the accuracy rate of the NN was 89% (288/332) and 88.8% (182/205), respectively. In prediction, the optimal combinations of the three and four parameters resulted in correct identification of three (accuracy: 593/663, 89.4%) and six additional nodes (371/410, 90.5%), representing 4% (3/73) and 13.3% (6/45) decreases in incorrect prediction, respectively. NPC LRPL nodes with an MIAD ≥ 6.1 mm are positive. Among nodes with an MIAD < 6.1 mm, if the NSUVmean ≥ 2.6 or MACD ≥ 25 mm and MAAD ≥ 8 mm, the nodes are positive; otherwise, they are negative.

10. On renormalization of axial anomaly

Efremov, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

1989-01-01

It is shown that multiplicative renormalization of the axial singlet current results in renormalization of the axial anomaly in all orders of perturbation theory. It is a necessary condition for the Adler - Bardeen theorem being valid. 10 refs.; 2 figs

11. Axial tomographic scanner

1976-01-01

An axial tomographic system is described comprising axial tomographic means for collecting sets of data corresponding to the transmission or absorption of a number of beams of penetrating radiation through a planar slice of an object. It includes means to locate an object to be analyzed, a source and detector for directing one or more beams of penetrating radiation through the object from the source to the detector, and means to rotate (and optionally translate) the source as well as means to process the collected sets of data. Data collection, data processing, and data display can each be conducted independently of each other. An additional advantage of the system described is that the raw data (i.e., the originally collected data) are not destroyed by the data processing but instead are retained intact for further reference or use, if needed

12. Can Parameters Other than Minimal Axial Diameter in MRI and PET/CT Further Improve Diagnostic Accuracy for Equivocal Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodes in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma?

Yu-Wen Wang

Full Text Available Minimal axial diameter (MIAD in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was recognized as the most useful parameter in diagnosing lateral retropharyngeal lymph (LRPL nodes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study aims to explore the additional nodal parameters in MRI and positron emission tomography-computed tomography for increasing the prediction accuracy.A total of 663 LRPL nodes were retrospectively collected from 335 patients with NPC. The LRPL nodes ascertained on follow-up MRI were considered positive for metastases. First, the optimal cutoff value of each parameter was derived for each parameter. In addition, neural network (NN nodal evaluation was tested for all combinations of three parameters, namely MIAD, maximal axial diameter (MAAD, and maximal coronal diameter (MACD. The optimal approach was determined through brute force attack, and the results of two methods were compared using a bootstrap sampling method. Second, the mean standard uptake value (NSUVmean was added as the fourth parameter and tested in the same manner for 410 nodes in 219 patients.In first and second analysis, the accuracy rate (percentage for the MIAD was 89.0% (590/663 and 89.0% (365/410, with the optimal cutoff values being 6.1 mm and 6.0 mm, respectively. With the combination of all three and four parameters, the accuracy rate of the NN was 89% (288/332 and 88.8% (182/205, respectively. In prediction, the optimal combinations of the three and four parameters resulted in correct identification of three (accuracy: 593/663, 89.4% and six additional nodes (371/410, 90.5%, representing 4% (3/73 and 13.3% (6/45 decreases in incorrect prediction, respectively.NPC LRPL nodes with an MIAD ≥ 6.1 mm are positive. Among nodes with an MIAD < 6.1 mm, if the NSUVmean ≥ 2.6 or MACD ≥ 25 mm and MAAD ≥ 8 mm, the nodes are positive; otherwise, they are negative.

Walt Wells

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

14. Axial spatial distribution focusing: improving MALDI-TOF/RTOF mass spectrometric performance for high-energy collision-induced dissociation of biomolecules.

Belgacem, O; Pittenauer, E; Openshaw, M E; Hart, P J; Bowdler, A; Allmaier, G

2016-02-15

For the last two decades, curved field reflectron technology has been used in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometers, assisting in the generation of post-source-decay (PSD) or collision-induced dissociation (CID) without decelerating precursor ions, producing true high-energy CID spectra. The result was the generation of product ion mass spectra with product ions typical of high-energy (10 keV and beyond) collision processes. The disadvantage of this approach was the lack of resolution in CID spectra resulting from the excess laser energy deposition used to generate those MS/MS spectra. The work presented in this study overcomes this limitation and includes comprehensive examples of high-energy and high-resolution CID MALDI-MS/MS spectra of biomolecules. The devices used in this study are TOF/RTOF instruments equipped with a high-vacuum MALDI ion source. High-resolution and high-energy CID spectra result from the use of axial spatial distribution focusing (ASDF) in combination with curved field reflectron technology. A CID spectrum of the P14 R1 peptide exhibits product ion resolution in excess of 10,000 (FWHM) but at the same time yields typical high-energy product ions such as w- and [y-2]-type ion series. High-energy CID spectra of lipids, exemplified by a glycerophospholipid and triglyceride, demonstrate C-C backbone fragmentation elucidating the presence of a hydroxyl group in addition to double-bond positioning. A complex high mannose carbohydrate (Man)8 (GlcNAc)2 was also studied at 20 keV collision energy and revealed further high-energy product ions with very high resolution, allowing unambiguous detection and characterization of cross-ring cleavage-related ions. This is the first comprehensive study using a MALDI-TOF/RTOF instrument equipped with a curved field reflectron and an ASDF device prior to the reflectron. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley

15. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

Lampmann, L.E.H.

1982-01-01

Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

16. Intrinsic carpal ligaments on MR and multidetector CT arthrography: comparison of axial and axial oblique planes

Lee, Ryan K.L.; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex W.H.; Law, Eric K.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Tse, W.L.; Wong, Clara W.Y.; Ho, P.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

2017-03-15

To compare axial and oblique axial planes on MR arthrography (MRA) and multidetector CT arthrography (CTA) to evaluate dorsal and volar parts of scapholunate (SLIL) and lunotriquetral interosseous (LTIL) ligaments. Nine cadaveric wrists of five male subjects were studied. The visibility of dorsal and volar parts of the SLIL and LTIL was graded semi-quantitatively (good, intermediate, poor) on MRA and CTA. The presence of a ligament tear was determined on arthrosocopy and sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of tear detection were calculated. Oblique axial imaging was particularly useful for delineating dorsal and volar parts of the LTIL on MRA with overall 'good' visibility increased from 11 % to 78 %. The accuracy of MRA and CTA in revealing SLIL and LTIL tear was higher using the oblique axial plane. The overall accuracy for detecting SLIL tear on CTA improved from 94 % to 100 % and from 89 % to 94 % on MRA; the overall accuracy of detecting LTIL tear on CTA improved from 89 % to 100 % and from 72 % to 89 % on MRA Oblique axial imaging during CT and MR arthrography improves detection of tears in the dorsal and volar parts of both SLIL and LTIL. (orig.)

17. Stall margin improvements of conventional axial flow fans with the reformed casingtreatments; Casingtreatment ni yoru hanyo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan); Takeishi, M.

1998-09-25

At the first part of this paper, the experiments and results to the blowing and suction on a fan are presented, and it is found that blowing toward the down stream direction are more effective and blowing location is suitable on the leading edge side of blades. On basis of these results, the reformed casingtreatments which the blowing air from the slots makes the large relative momentum for blade chord are build, and the experiments using the two conventional fans equipped with the reformed casingtreatment and conventional one are performed. So, the very large stall margin improvements (about 1.7 times) and about 0.5% efficiency penalty of 10% stall margin improvement at design flow rate are obtained for the reformed casingtreatment. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

18. Dissipative Axial Inflation

Notari, Alessio

2016-12-22

We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

19. Characterization of Multiflux Axial Compressors

Brasnarof, Daniel; Kyung Kyu-Hyung; Rivarola, Martin; Gonzalez Jose; Florido, Pablo; Orellano, Pablo; Bergallo, Juan

2003-01-01

In the present work the results of analytical models of performance are compared with experimental data acquired in the multi flux axial compressor test facility, built in The Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex for the SIGMA project.We describe the experimental circuit and the data of the dispersion inside the axial compressor obtained using a tracer gas through one of the annular inlets.The attained results can be used to validate the design code for the multi flux axial compressors and SIGMA industrial plant

20. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

None

2016-02-23

Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

1. Study of axial magnetic effect

Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

2016-01-22

The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

2. Dissipative axial inflation

Notari, Alessio [Departament de Física Fondamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Tywoniuk, Konrad, E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es, E-mail: konrad.tywoniuk@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

2016-12-01

We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term φ/ f {sub γ} F ∼ F , such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρ{sub R}, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff f {sub γ}, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if f {sub γ} is smaller than the field excursion φ{sub 0} by about a factor of at least O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4–5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with f {sub γ}. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρ{sub R} rather than φ-dot {sup 2}/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/ f {sub γ} to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/ f {sub G} to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed φ{sub 0∼} f {sub G}.

3. Computerized axial tomography in traumatic cervical lesions

Koyama, Tsunemaro

1982-01-01

Although plain computerized axial tomography cannot routinely demonstrate the spinal cord, it does provide excellent visualization of the bony outline of the spinal canal and vertebral column. So it should be reasonable to use this technique in cases of cervical traumatic disorders. In this paper we presented 10 cases of cervical traumatic lesions; 3 atlanto-axial dislocation, 2 cervical canal stenosis, 3 OPLL, 1 intramedullary hematoma and 1 C 2 -neurinoma. In some patients neurologic deficits were induced by cervical trauma. Bony lesions appeared more adequately deliniated than intraspinal lesions, however, in some cases intramedullary changes could also be demonstrated. The use of metrizamide with high resolution CT-scanner could improve the usefullness of this technique. (author)

4. Improvement of diagnostic confidence for detection of multiple myeloma involvement of the ribs by a new CT software generating rib unfolded images: Comparison with 5- and 1-mm axial images

Homann, Georg; Mustafa, Deedar Farhad; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Weisel, Katja [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Internal Medicine II, Tuebingen (Germany); Ditt, Hendrik [Healthcare Sector Imaging and Therapy Division, Siemens AG, Forchheim (Germany)

2015-04-02

To investigate the performance of a new CT software generating rib unfolded images for improved detection of rib osteolyses in patients with multiple myeloma. One hundred sixteen patients who underwent whole-body reduced-dose multidetector computed tomography (WBRD-MDCT) for multiple myeloma diagnosis and during follow-up were retrospectively evaluated. Nonenhanced CT scans with 5- and 1-mm slice thickness were interpreted by two readers with focus on detection of rib involvement (location, number, fracture). Image analysis of ''unfolded,'' 1-mm-based CT rib images was subsequently undertaken. We classified the number of lytic bone lesions into 0, 1, 2, <5, <10 and ≥10. For all three data sets the reading time was registered. An approximated sum of 6,727 myeloma-related rib lesions was found. On a patient-based analysis, CT (5 mm), CT (1 mm) and CT (1 mm ''unfolded rib'') yielded a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 79.7/94.7/87.1, 88.1/93/90.5 and 98.3/96.5/97.4, respectively. In a lesion-based analysis, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the three evaluations were 69.7/87.2/70.5, 79.8/55.9/78 and 96.5/89.7/96.1. Mean reading time for 5 mm/1 mm axial images and unfolded images was 178.7/215.1/90.8 s, respectively. The generation of ''unfolded rib'' images improves detection of rib involvement in patients with multiple myeloma and significantly reduces reading time. (orig.)

5. Computational analysis of a multistage axial compressor

Mamidoju, Chaithanya

Turbomachines are used extensively in Aerospace, Power Generation, and Oil & Gas Industries. Efficiency of these machines is often an important factor and has led to the continuous effort to improve the design to achieve better efficiency. The axial flow compressor is a major component in a gas turbine with the turbine's overall performance depending strongly on compressor performance. Traditional analysis of axial compressors involves throughflow calculations, isolated blade passage analysis, Quasi-3D blade-to-blade analysis, single-stage (rotor-stator) analysis, and multi-stage analysis involving larger design cycles. In the current study, the detailed flow through a 15 stage axial compressor is analyzed using a 3-D Navier Stokes CFD solver in a parallel computing environment. Methodology is described for steady state (frozen rotor stator) analysis of one blade passage per component. Various effects such as mesh type and density, boundary conditions, tip clearance and numerical issues such as turbulence model choice, advection model choice, and parallel processing performance are analyzed. A high sensitivity of the predictions to the above was found. Physical explanation to the flow features observed in the computational study are given. The total pressure rise verses mass flow rate was computed.

6. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval from MODIS Spectral Reflectance over the Global Ocean Using New Aerosol Models Archived from AERONET Inversion Data and Tri-axial Ellipsoidal Dust Database

Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yang, P.; Hsu, N. C.

2012-01-01

New over-ocean aerosol models are developed by integrating the inversion data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun/sky radiometers with a database for the optical properties of tri-axial ellipsoid particles. The new aerosol models allow more accurate retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the case of high AOD (AOD greater than 0.3). The aerosol models are categorized by using the fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm and the singlescattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm from the AERONET inversion data to include a variety of aerosol types found around the globe. For each aerosol model, the changes in the aerosol optical properties (AOPs) as functions of AOD are considered to better represent aerosol characteristics. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and MODIS for the period from 2003 to 2010 show that the use of the new aerosol models enhances the AOD accuracy with a Pearson coefficient of 0.93 and a regression slope of 0.99 compared to 0.92 and 0.85 calculated using the MODIS Collection 5 data. Moreover, the percentage of data within an expected error of +/-(0.03 + 0.05xAOD) is increased from 62 percent to 64 percent for overall data and from 39 percent to 51 percent for AOD greater than 0.3. Errors in the retrieved AOD are further characterized with respect to the Angstrom exponent (AE), scattering angle, SSA, and air mass factor (AMF). Due to more realistic AOPs assumptions, the new algorithm generally reduces systematic errors in the retrieved AODs compared with the current operational algorithm. In particular, the underestimation of fine-dominated AOD and the scattering angle dependence of dust-dominated AOD are significantly mitigated as results of the new algorithm's improved treatment of aerosol size distribution and dust particle nonsphericity.

7. Improvement of aerosol optical depth retrieval from MODIS spectral reflectance over the global ocean using new aerosol models archived from AERONET inversion data and tri-axial ellipsoidal dust database

J. Lee

2012-08-01

Full Text Available New over-ocean aerosol models are developed by integrating the inversion data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sun/sky radiometers with a database for the optical properties of tri-axial ellipsoid particles. The new aerosol models allow more accurate retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in the case of high AOD (AOD > 0.3. The aerosol models are categorized by using the fine-mode fraction (FMF at 550 nm and the single-scattering albedo (SSA at 440 nm from the AERONET inversion data to include a variety of aerosol types found around the globe. For each aerosol model, the changes in the aerosol optical properties (AOPs as functions of AOD are considered to better represent aerosol characteristics. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and MODIS for the period from 2003 to 2010 show that the use of the new aerosol models enhances the AOD accuracy with a Pearson coefficient of 0.93 and a regression slope of 0.99 compared to 0.92 and 0.85 calculated using the MODIS Collection 5 data. Moreover, the percentage of data within an expected error of ± (0.03 + 0.05 × AOD is increased from 62% to 64% for overall data and from 39% to 5% for AOD > 0.3. Errors in the retrieved AOD are further characterized with respect to the Ångström exponent (AE, scattering angle (Θ, SSA, and air mass factor (AMF. Due to more realistic AOPs assumptions, the new algorithm generally reduces systematic errors in the retrieved AODs compared with the current operational algorithm. In particular, the underestimation of fine-dominated AOD and the scattering angle dependence of dust-dominated AOD are significantly mitigated as results of the new algorithm's improved treatment of aerosol size distribution and dust particle nonsphericity.

8. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric axial anisotropic forward modeling and inversion

Cao, Hui; Wang, Kunpeng; Wang, Tao; Hua, Boguang

2018-06-01

Magnetotelluric (MT) data has been widely used to image underground electrical structural. However, when the significant axial resistivity anisotropy presents, how this influences three-dimensional MT data has not been resolved clearly yet. We here propose a scheme for three-dimensional modeling of MT data in presence of axial anisotropic resistivity, where the electromagnetic fields are decomposed into primary and secondary components. A 3D staggered-grid finite difference method is then used to resolve the resulting 3D governing equations. Numerical tests have completed to validate the correctness and accuracy of the present algorithm. A limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method is then utilized to realize the 3D MT axial anisotropic inversion. The testing results show that, compared to the results of isotropic resistivity inversion, taking account the axial anisotropy can much improve the inverted results.

9. The Design Method of Axial Flow Runners Focusing on Axial Flow Velocity Uniformization and Its Application to an Ultra-Small Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine

Yasuyuki Nishi

2016-01-01

Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.

10. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

1985-01-18

Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

11. A note on axial symmetries

Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

2015-01-01

This note describes how to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry or four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period 2π. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties. (note)

12. Axial structure of the nucleon

Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner

2002-01-01

We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

13. Comparison of femoropopliteal artery stents under axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsion deformations.

Maleckis, Kaspars; Deegan, Paul; Poulson, William; Sievers, Cole; Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason; Kamenskiy, Alexey

2017-11-01

High failure rates of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) stenting appear to be associated with the inability of certain stent designs to accommodate severe biomechanical environment of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) that bends, twists, and axially compresses during limb flexion. Twelve Nitinol stents (Absolute Pro, Supera, Lifestent, Innova, Zilver, Smart Control, Smart Flex, EverFlex, Viabahn, Tigris, Misago, and Complete SE) were quasi-statically tested under bench-top axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsional deformations. Stents were compared in terms of force-strain behavior, stiffness, and geometrical shape under each deformation mode. Tigris was the least stiff stent under axial compression (6.6N/m axial stiffness) and bending (0.1N/m) deformations, while Smart Control was the stiffest (575.3N/m and 105.4N/m, respectively). Under radial compression Complete SE was the stiffest (892.8N/m), while Smart Control had the lowest radial stiffness (211.0N/m). Viabahn and Supera had the lowest and highest torsional stiffness (2.2μNm/° and 959.2μNm/°), respectively. None of the 12 PAD stents demonstrated superior characteristics under all deformation modes and many experienced global buckling and diameter pinching. Though it is yet to be determined which of these deformation modes might have greater clinical impact, results of the current analysis may help guide development of new stents with improved mechanical characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

14. Stability management of high speed axial flow compressor stage through axial extensions of bend skewed casing treatment

DilipkumarBhanudasji Alone

2016-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results to understand the performance of moderately loaded high speed single stage transonic axial flow compressor subjected to various configurations of axial extensions of bend skewed casing treatment with moderate porosity. The bend skewed casing treatment of 33% porosity was coupled with rectangular plenum chamber of depth equal to the slots depth. The five axial extensions of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% were used for the experimental evaluations of compressor performance. The main objective was to identify the optimum extension of the casing treatment with reference to rotor leading edge which results in maximum stall margin improvements with minimum loss in the stage efficiency. At each axial extension the compressor performance is distinctive. The improvement in the stall margin was very significant at some axial extensions with 4%–5% penalty in the stage efficiency. The compressors stage shows recovery in terms of efficiency at lower axial extensions of 20% and 40% with increase in the peak stage efficiency. Measurements of flow parameters showed the typical behaviors at near stall flow conditions. Hot wire sensor was placed at the rotor upstream in the tip region to capture the oscillations in the inlet axial and tangential velocities at stall conditions. In the absence of casing treatment the compressor exhibit abrupt stall with very high oscillations in the inlet axial and tangential velocity of the flow. The extents of oscillations reduce with bend skewed casing treatment. Few measurements were also performed in the plenum chamber and salient results are presented in this paper.

15. Investigation of angular and axial smoothing of PET data

Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Carson, R.E.

1996-01-01

Radial filtering of emission and transmission data is routinely performed in PET during reconstruction in order to reduce image noise. Angular smoothing is not typically done, due to the introduction of a non-uniform resolution loss; axial filtering is also not usually performed on data acquired in 2D mode. The goal of this paper was to assess the effects of angular and axial smoothing on noise and resolution. Angular and axial smoothing was incorporated into the reconstruction process on the Scanditronix PC2048-15B brain PET scanner. In-plane spatial resolution and noise reduction were measured for different amounts of radial and angular smoothing. For radial positions away from the center of the scanner, noise reduction and degraded tangential resolution with no loss of radial resolution were seen. Near the center, no resolution loss was observed, but there was also no reduction in noise for angular filters up to a 7 degrees FWHM. These results can be understood by considering the combined effects of smoothing projections across rows (angles) and then summing (backprojecting). Thus, angular smoothing is not optimal due to its anisotropic noise reduction and resolution degradation properties. However, uniform noise reduction comparable to that seen with radial filtering can be achieved with axial smoothing of transmission data. The axial results suggest that combined radial and axial transmission smoothing could lead to improved noise characteristics with more isotropic resolution degradation

16. Axial magnetic field produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent rings

Peng, Q.L.; McMurry, S.M.; Coey, J.M.D.

2004-01-01

Axial magnetic fields produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent magnet rings were studied. First, the axial magnetic field produced by a current loop is introduced, from which the axial field generated by an infinitely thin solenoid and by an infinitely thin current disk can be derived. Then the axial fields produced by axially and by radially magnetized permanent magnet rings can be obtained. An analytic formula for the axial fields produced by two axially magnetized rings is given. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field is fabricated, the measured results agree with the theoretical calculation very well. As an example, the axial periodic field produced by an arrangement of alternating axially and radially magnetized rings has been discussed

17. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

1980-01-01

The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

18. Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Program

1975-10-01

Assembly . .. . .... ..... 33 5 Tie Bolt...... .. .. .. .. . *.. .. .. .. .. .. ... 34 6 Axial Compressor Rotor Assembly Runouts . . .. . 34 7 CCV Blow...1.796 Impeller Slip Factor ’Ce2/U 2 ) .91 Impeller Wheel Speed ft/sec 1992.2 Impellet ’.ip Radius in. 3.780 Blade Tip Metal Angle- deg 0 Numbec of Blades...test item to the next Phase V component test. The test vehicle final balance levels and rotor runouts were normal at teardown, and no rubsI were

19. Axial sesamoiditis in the horse: A review

Christelle Le Roux

2018-03-01

Full Text Available Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious, and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL, also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion. Radiographic technique warrants careful attention to make a diagnosis, and exposure factors may need to be adjusted. Perineural, intra-articular and intra-thecal anaesthesia does not seem to provide consistent improvement of lameness in these cases, with literature reporting inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic findings include digital flexor sheath effusion, loss of the normal fibre structure of the PL at its attachment to the PSBs, abnormal echogenicity or change in thickness of the PL, and irregular hyperechoic cortical margins of the axial margins of the PSBs. Scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, although not necessary to make a diagnosis, may add valuable information regarding the location and extent of lesions. The prognosis remains guarded to poor for return to athletic function. The focus of this paper is a comprehensive review of the proposed aetiopathogenesis of the condition, the prognosis, and a summary of the literature findings with focus on the notable diagnostic imaging features, including radiography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

20. Axial tomography in live cell laser microscopy

Richter, Verena; Bruns, Sarah; Bruns, Thomas; Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Cremer, Christoph; Schneckenburger, Herbert

2017-09-01

Single cell microscopy in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment is reported. Cells are grown in an agarose culture gel, located within microcapillaries and observed from different sides after adaptation of an innovative device for sample rotation. Thus, z-stacks can be recorded by confocal microscopy in different directions and used for illustration in 3-D. This gives additional information, since cells or organelles that appear superimposed in one direction, may be well resolved in another one. The method is tested and validated with single cells expressing a membrane or a mitochondrially associated green fluorescent protein, or cells accumulating fluorescent quantum dots. In addition, axial tomography supports measurements of cellular uptake and distribution of the anticancer drug doxorubicin in the nucleus (2 to 6 h after incubation) or the cytoplasm (24 h). This paper discusses that upon cell rotation an enhanced optical resolution in lateral direction compared to axial direction can be utilized to obtain an improved effective 3-D resolution, which represents an important step toward super-resolution microscopy of living cells.

1. Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.

Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan

2017-09-04

The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

2. Electron angular distribution axial channeling

Khokonov, A.Kh.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

1989-01-01

Angular distributions of ultra-relativistic electrons are calculated in the assumption about presence of statistical equilibrium. Analysis is based on numerical solution of Fokker-Planck type kinetic equation. It is shown that in contrast to case of amorphous medium, the multiple scattering at axial channeling of negative particles results in self-focusing of the initial beam particles and due to it number of electrons moving at an angles to the chain, which are smaller, than critical angle of channeling, may increase by several times as compared to the initial one

3. Axial tomography in 3D live cell microscopy

Richter, Verena; Bruns, Sarah; Bruns, Thomas; Piper, Mathis; Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Cremer, Christoph; Schneckenburger, Herbert

2017-07-01

A miniaturized setup for sample rotation on a microscope stage has been developed, combined with light sheet, confocal or structured illumination microscopy and applied to living cells as well as to small organisms. This setup permits axial tomography with improved visualization of single cells or small cell clusters as well as an enhanced effective 3D resolution upon sample rotation.

4. Radiographic analysis of body composition by computerized axial tomography

Heymsfield, S.B.

1986-01-01

Radiographic methods of evaluating body composition have been applied for over five decades. A marked improvement in this approach occurred in the mid-nineteen-seventies with the introduction of computerized axial tomography. High image contrast, cross-sectional imaging and rapid computerized data processing make this technique a sophisticated clinically applicable tool. (author)

5. Multi-axial mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered cartilage: Review

S D Waldman

2007-04-01

Full Text Available The development of tissue engineered cartilage is a promising new approach for the repair of damaged or diseased tissue. Since it has proven difficult to generate cartilaginous tissue with properties similar to that of native articular cartilage, several studies have used mechanical stimuli as a means to improve the quantity and quality of the developed tissue. In this study, we have investigated the effect of multi-axial loading applied during in vitro tissue formation to better reflect the physiological forces that chondrocytes are subjected to in vivo. Dynamic combined compression-shear stimulation (5% compression and 5% shear strain amplitudes increased both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis (76 ± 8% and 73 ± 5%, respectively over the static (unstimulated controls. When this multi-axial loading condition was applied to the chondrocyte cultures over a four week period, there were significant improvements in both extracellular matrix (ECM accumulation and the mechanical properties of the in vitro-formed tissue (3-fold increase in compressive modulus and 1.75-fold increase in shear modulus. Stimulated tissues were also significantly thinner than the static controls (19% reduction suggesting that there was a degree of ECM consolidation as a result of long-term multi-axial loading. This study demonstrated that stimulation by multi-axial forces can improve the quality of the in vitro-formed tissue, but additional studies are required to further optimize the conditions to favour improved biochemical and mechanical properties of the developed tissue.

6. Evaluation of efficiency of axial profiling in WWER-440 fuel assemblies

Ananjev, Yu. A.; Kurakin, K. Yu.; Artemov, V.G.; Ivanov, A.S.

2005-01-01

The present report deals with consideration of fuel enrichment axial profiling in WWER-440 assemblies. The study is performed on improving the effectiveness of fuel utilization using the example of implementing the axial profiling in the assemblies of the second generation. For simulation of fuel loadings the computer code package SAPFIR 9 5 and RC is used that allows for correct consideration of specific features of assemblies design changes. The methodical approach to assessment of effectiveness of implementing the axial profiling is considered with the use of capabilities of the mentioned code package. In conclusion the recommendations are given on using the fuel enrichment axial profiling in WWER-440 assemblies (Authors)

7. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

1978-01-01

An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

8. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

J.M. Acaglione

2003-01-01

The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B andW 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001)

9. Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos

Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.

2018-05-01

We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.

10. Research on a novel axial-flux magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with low axial force and high efficiency

Chengde Tong

2017-05-01

Full Text Available The axial-flux magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM is a possible alternative as a power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, the existence of large axial force may lead to assembly problems and rich inner air-gap harmonics could result in high PM loss and low efficiency. This paper proposes a novel axial-flux MFM-BDRM with improved PM rotor structure. 2-D analytical method to predict the magnetic-field distribution of the proposed MFM-BDRM is developed and the design procedure of the proposed machine is illustrated. The impact of key geometrical parameters on axial force and torque is investigated. To evaluate the advantage of the proposed machine, a comparison is made with a conventional one with respect to electromagnetic performances. Results show that the proposed machine is effective in reducing PM eddy loss and axial force by 60% and 35%, respectively.

11. Axial vector mass spectrum and mixing angles

Caffarelli, R.V.; Kang, K.

1976-01-01

Spectral sum rules of the axial-vector current and axial-vector current-pseudoscalar field are used to study the axial-vector mass spectrum and mixing angles, as well as the decay constants and mixing angles of the pseudoscalar mesons. In general, the result is quite persuasive for the existence of the Jsup(PC) = 1 ++ multiplet in which one has a canonical D-E mixing. (Auth.)

12. Electric machines with axial magnetic flux

Nuca, I.; Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Turcanu, A.

2018-01-01

The paper contains information on the performance of axial machines compared to cylindrical ones. At the same time, various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets and asynchronous with short-circuited rotor are presented. In the developed constructions, the aim is to maximize the usage of the material of the stator windings. The design elements of the axial machine magnetic system are presented. The FEMM application depicted the array of the magnetic field of an axial machine.

13. Centrifugal and axial compressor control

McMillan, Gregory K

2009-01-01

Control engineers, mechanical engineers and mechanical technicians will learn how to select the proper control systems for axial and centrifugal compressors for proper throughput and surge control, with a particular emphasis on surge control. Readers will learn to understand the importance of transmitter speed, digital controller sample time, and control valve stroking time in helping to prevent surge. Engineers and technicians will find this book to be a highly valuable guide on compressor control schemes and the importance of mitigating costly and sometimes catastrophic surge problems. It can be used as a self-tutorial guide or in the classroom with the book's helpful end-of-chapter questions and exercises and sections for keeping notes.

14. Axial channeling in electron diffraction

Ichimiya, A.; Lehmpfuhl, G.

1978-01-01

Kossel patterns from Silicon and Niobium were obtained with a convergent electron beam. An intensity maximum in the direction of the zone axes [001] and [111] of Nb was interpreted as axial channeling. The intensity distribution in Kossel patterns was calculated by means of the Bloch wave picture of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Particularly zone axis patterns were calculated for different substance-energy combinations and they were compared with experimental observations. The intensity distribution in the calculated Kossel patterns was very sensitive to the model of absorption and it was found that a treatment of the absorption close to the model of Humphreys and Hirsch [Phil. Mag. 18, 115 (1968)] gave the best agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore it is shown which Bloch waves are important for the intensity distribution in the Kossel patterns, how they are absorbed and how they change with energy. (orig.) [de

15. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

1982-07-01

The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

16. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

1982-01-01

The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

17. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

2018-05-01

Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

18. Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

2006-01-01

The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift

19. Origin of axial current in scyllac

Sugisaki, K.

1975-12-01

The origin of the axial current observed in Scyllac (a high beta stellarator experiment) is discussed. A shaped coil and/or helical winding produce rotational transform which links magnetic lines of force to the plasma column and the axial current is induced electromagnetically. This phenomenon is inherent in a pulsed high-beta stellarator. The rotational transform produced by the induced axial current is much smaller than that associated with the l = 1, 0 equilibrium fields. The effect of the axial current on the equilibrium and stability of the plasma column is thus small. It is also shown that the magnetic field shear near a plasma surface is very strong

20. Radial and axial compression of pure electron

Park, Y.; Soga, Y.; Mihara, Y.; Takeda, M.; Kamada, K.

2013-01-01

Experimental studies are carried out on compression of the density distribution of a pure electron plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning Trap in Kanazawa University. More than six times increase of the on-axis density is observed under application of an external rotating electric field that couples to low-order Trivelpiece-Gould modes. Axial compression of the density distribution with the axial length of a factor of two is achieved by controlling the confining potential at both ends of the plasma. Substantial increase of the axial kinetic energy is observed during the axial compression. (author)

1. Temporal and Spatial Variability in the Geochemistry of Axial and CoAxial Segment Lavas and their Mantle Sources

Smith, M. C.; Perfit, M. R.; Davis, C.; Kamenov, G. D.

2011-12-01

Three spatially related volcanic eruptions along the CoAxial Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) have documented emplacements between 1981 and 1993. Two of the historic flows outcrop at the "Flow Site" and were emplaced within less than 12 years and 500 m from one another. The third was emplaced at the "Floc Site" to the south in the 1980s. Previous studies have documented that CoAxial lavas are among the most incompatible element and isotopically depleted lavas along the entire JdFR, whereas the Axial Seamount segment immediately south of CoAxial has erupted the most chemically enriched lavas south of the Endeavor Segment. Geochemical studies have shown little temporal change in the chemistry of recent Axial Seamount eruptives, whereas CoAxial lavas exhibit distinct chemical differences over short time periods. Significant chemical differences observed among depleted CoAxial lavas emplaced close to one another in space and time are in marked contrast to the relatively constant chemical characteristics of enriched lavas erupted at the magmatically more robust Axial segment only 10's of kilometers to the south and west. New trace element and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) geochemical analyses of historic and older CoAxial lavas have resulted in better documentation of interflow and intraflow chemical variation providing an improved understanding of spatial/temporal chemical variability in lavas, and further insight into JdFR magmatic processes. Modeling of major and trace element abundances suggest that the observed intraflow chemical variation within CoAxial lavas is largely due to shallow-level fractional crystallization but that a single fractional crystallization model cannot account for all interflow chemical variation. In fact, elemental and isotopic data require different parental magmas for each of the three recent CoAxial Segment lava flows suggesting very short-term differences or changes in the chemical character of the mantle source region. In particular

2. Utility of axial images in an early Alzheimer disease diagnosis support system (VSRAD)

Goto, Masami; Aoki, Shigeki; Abe, Osamu

2006-01-01

In recent years, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has become a popular tool for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. The Voxel-Based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), a VBM system that uses MRI, has been reported to be clinically useful. The able-bodied person database (DB) of VSRAD, which employs sagittal plane imaging, is not suitable for analysis by axial plane imaging. However, axial plane imaging is useful for avoiding motion artifacts from the eyeball. Therefore, we created an able-bodied person DB by axial plane imaging and examined its utility. We also analyzed groups of able-bodied persons and persons with dementia by axial plane imaging and reviewed the validity. After using the DB of axial plane imaging, the Z-score of the intrahippocampal region improved by 8 in 13 instances. In all brains, the Z-score improved by 13 in all instances. (author)

3. [Utility of axial images in an early Alzheimer disease diagnosis support system (VSRAD)].

Goto, Masami; Aoki, Shigeki; Abe, Osamu; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Yasushi; Satake, Yoshiroh; Nishida, Katsuji; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Iida, Kyohhito; Mima, Kazuo; Ohtomo, Kuni

2006-09-20

In recent years, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has become a popular tool for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. The Voxel-Based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), a VBM system that uses MRI, has been reported to be clinically useful. The able-bodied person database (DB) of VSRAD, which employs sagittal plane imaging, is not suitable for analysis by axial plane imaging. However, axial plane imaging is useful for avoiding motion artifacts from the eyeball. Therefore, we created an able-bodied person DB by axial plane imaging and examined its utility. We also analyzed groups of able-bodied persons and persons with dementia by axial plane imaging and reviewed the validity. After using the DB of axial plane imaging, the Z-score of the intrahippocampal region improved by 8 in 13 instances. In all brains, the Z-score improved by 13 in all instances.

4. Stochastic quantization for the axial model

Farina, C.; Montani, H.; Albuquerque, L.C.

1991-01-01

We use bosonization ideas to solve the axial model in the stochastic quantization framework. We obtain the fermion propagator of the theory decoupling directly the Langevin equation, instead of the Fokker-Planck equation. In the Appendix we calculate explicitly the anomalous divergence of the axial-vector current by using a regularization that does not break the Markovian character of the stochastic process

5. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

Bakas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

6. Decay Properties of Axially Symmetric D-Solutions to the Steady Navier-Stokes Equations

Weng, Shangkun

2018-03-01

We investigate the decay properties of smooth axially symmetric D-solutions to the steady Navier-Stokes equations. The achievements of this paper are two folds. One is improved decay rates of u_{θ } and \

7. An axial calculation method for accurate two-dimensional PWR core simulation

Grimm, P.

1985-02-01

An axial calculation method, which improves the agreement of the multiplication factors determined by two- and three-dimensional PWR neutronic calculations, is presented. The axial buckling is determined at each time point so as to reproduce the increase of the leakage due to the flattening of the axial power distribution and the effect of the axial variation of the group constants of the fuel on the reactivity is taken into account. The results of a test example show that the differences of k-eff and cycle length between two- and three-dimensional calculations, which are unsatisfactorily large if a constant buckling is used, become negligible if the results of the axial calculation are used in the two-dimensional core simulation. (Auth.)

8. Effects of casing treatment on a small, transonic axial-flow compressor

Holman, F. F.; Kidwell, J. R.

1975-01-01

Improved axial compressor surge margin through effective rotor casing treatment has been identified from test results on large axial compressors. A modified scale of a large compressor was built and tested to determine if similar improvements in surge margin could be duplicated in small-size turbomachinery. In addition, the effects of rotor radial running clearance, both with and without casing treatment, were investigated and are discussed. Test results of the scale configuration are presented and compared to the parent compressor.

9. Detection of pulmonary nodules at paediatric CT: maximum intensity projections and axial source images are complementary

Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Arthurs, Owen J.; Tasker, Angela D.; Set, Patricia A.K.

2013-01-01

Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images might be useful in helping to differentiate small pulmonary nodules from adjacent vessels on thoracic multidetector CT (MDCT). The aim was to evaluate the benefits of axial MIP images over axial source images for the paediatric chest in an interobserver variability study. We included 46 children with extra-pulmonary solid organ malignancy who had undergone thoracic MDCT. Three radiologists independently read 2-mm axial and 10-mm MIP image datasets, recording the number of nodules, size and location, overall time taken and confidence. There were 83 nodules (249 total reads among three readers) in 46 children (mean age 10.4 ± 4.98 years, range 0.3-15.9 years; 24 boys). Consensus read was used as the reference standard. Overall, three readers recorded significantly more nodules on MIP images (228 vs. 174; P < 0.05), improving sensitivity from 67% to 77.5% (P < 0.05) but with lower positive predictive value (96% vs. 85%, P < 0.005). MIP images took significantly less time to read (71.6 ± 43.7 s vs. 92.9 ± 48.7 s; P < 0.005) but did not improve confidence levels. Using 10-mm axial MIP images for nodule detection in the paediatric chest enhances diagnostic performance, improving sensitivity and reducing reading time when compared with conventional axial thin-slice images. Axial MIP and axial source images are complementary in thoracic nodule detection. (orig.)

10. Modernity: A new axial (era culture?

Wolfgang Schluchter

2017-10-01

Full Text Available The proposition of an axial age, lasting roughly from 800 to 200 B.C. and occurring in major civilizations (China, India, Near East independent of each other, first introduced by Alfred Weber and Karl Jaspers, then further developed by Robert Bellah and S. N. Eisenstadt among others, implied from the outset the question whether there has been a second axial age, leading to modernity, and if so, whether this second axial age consists in a secularization of the achievements of the first axial age. In this article it is argued that the notion of a second axial age is meaningful, but that the emergence of modernity can›t be accounted for in terms of secularization of the achievements of the first axial age. Rather, a new axial principle was institutionalized which separates the modern from the premodern world. This new principle is spelled out with reference to Hans Blumenberg, Charles Taylor and especially Max Weber. The emphasis is on the dialectics of disenchantment and the place of religion in a secular age

11. The nucleon axial charge in full lattice QCD

Edwards, R.G.; Richards, D.G.; Fleming, G.T.; Haegler, P.; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Orginos, K.; College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA; Renner, D.B.; Schroers, W.

2005-10-01

The nucleon axial charge is calculated as a function of the pion mass in full QCD. Using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks, we present the first calculation with pion masses as light as 354 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm) 3 . We show that finite volume effects are small for our volumes and that a constrained fit based on finite volume chiral perturbation theory agrees with experiment within 7% statistical errors. (orig.)

12. Moving blade for steam turbines with axial flow

Raschke, K.; Wehle, G.

1976-01-01

The invention concerns the improvement of the production of moving blades for steam turbines with axial flow, especially of multi-blades produced by welding of the top plates. It is proposed to weld the top plates before the moving blades are fitted into the rotor. Welding is this made much easier and can be carried out under protective gas and with better results. (UWI) [de

13. Development of submersible axial pump for wastewater

Yun, Jeong Eui [Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-02-15

This study was performed to develop a high efficiency submersible axial pump for concentration wastewater treatment. To do this, we simulated the effect of some parameters such as the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}), the radial twist angle of a blade({alpha}) and the length of a blade ({iota}) on pump efficiency using commercial code, ANSYS CFX and BladeGen. The results showed that the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}) was the most sensible parameter on the pump efficiency. And the pump efficiency had a maximum at {beta}=20.deg, {alpha}=110.deg and {iota}=240mm.

14. The Nucleon Axial Form Factor and Staggered Lattice QCD

Meyer, Aaron Scott [Chicago U.

2017-01-01

The study of neutrino oscillation physics is a major research goal of the worldwide particle physics program over the upcoming decade. Many new experiments are being built to study the properties of neutrinos and to answer questions about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These experiments need precise theoretical cross sections in order to access fundamental neutrino properties. Neutrino oscillation experiments often use large atomic nuclei as scattering targets, which are challenging for theorists to model. Nuclear models rely on free-nucleon amplitudes as inputs. These amplitudes are constrained by scattering experiments with large nuclear targets that rely on the very same nuclear models. The work in this dissertation is the rst step of a new initiative to isolate and compute elementary amplitudes with theoretical calculations to support the neutrino oscillation experimental program. Here, the eort focuses on computing the axial form factor, which is the largest contributor of systematic error in the primary signal measurement process for neutrino oscillation studies, quasielastic scattering. Two approaches are taken. First, neutrino scattering data on a deuterium target are reanalyzed with a model-independent parametrization of the axial form factor to quantify the present uncertainty in the free-nucleon amplitudes. The uncertainties on the free-nucleon cross section are found to be underestimated by about an order of magnitude compared to the ubiquitous dipole model parametrization. The second approach uses lattice QCD to perform a rst-principles computation of the nucleon axial form factor. The Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action is employed for both valence and sea quarks. The results presented in this dissertation are computed at physical pion mass for one lattice spacing. This work presents a computation of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer, and forms the basis for a computation of the axial form factor momentum dependence

15. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

user

2016-10-04

Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

16. Nucleon axial coupling from Lattice QCD

Cheng Chang, Chia; Nicholson, Amy; Rinaldi, Enrico; Berkowitz, Evan; Garron, Nicolas; Brantley, David; Monge-Camacho, Henry; Monahan, Chris; Bouchard, Chris; Clark, M. A.; Joó, Bálint; Kurth, Thorsten; Orginos, Kostas; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, André

2018-03-01

We present state-of-the-art results from a lattice QCD calculation of the nucleon axial coupling, gA, using Möbius Domain-Wall fermions solved on the dynamical Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 HISQ ensembles after they are smeared using the gradient-flow algorithm. Relevant three-point correlation functions are calculated using a method inspired by the Feynman-Hellmann theorem, and demonstrate significant improvement in signal for fixed stochastic samples. The calculation is performed at five pion masses of mπ {400, 350, 310, 220, 130} MeV, three lattice spacings of a {0.15, 0.12, 0.09} fm, and we do a dedicated volume study with mπL {3.22, 4.29, 5.36}. Control over all relevant sources of systematic uncertainty are demonstrated and quantified. We achieve a preliminary value of gA = 1.285(17), with a relative uncertainty of 1.33%.

17. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

Dr Obe

1984-09-01

Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

18. Precision axial translator with high stability.

Bösch, M A

1979-08-01

We describe a new type of translator which is inherently stable against torsion and twisting. This concentric translator is also ideally suited for precise axial motion with clearance of the center line.

19. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

2009-01-01

force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

20. Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations

Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare

1977-01-24

A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.

1. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

2016-11-15

February 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to...300169 1 of 9 BUOYANT HELICAL TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is a divisional...application and claims the benefit of the filing date of United States Patent Application No. 14/280,889; filed on May 19, 2014; and entitled “Twin-Axial

2. Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex

ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang

2002-01-01

It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.

3. Dechanneling function for relativistic axially channeled electrons

Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.

1981-01-01

Behaviour of the x(t) dechanneling function depending on the depth is theoretically studied. Theoretical consideration of x(t) for axial channeled relativistic electrons in anisotropic medium results in two-dimensional kinetic equation with mixed derivatives of the parabolic type. The kinetic equation in the approximation of the continuous Lindchard model for relativistic axial channeled electrons is numerically solved. The depth dependence of the x(t) dechanneling function is obtained [ru

4. Axial forces in centrifugal compressor couplings

Ivanov, A. N.; Ivanov, N. M.; Yun, V. K.

2017-08-01

The article presents the results of the theoretical and experimental investigation of axial forces arising in the toothed and plate couplings of centrifugal compressor shaft lines. Additional loads on the thrust bearing are considered that can develop in the toothed couplings as a result of coupled rotors misalignment. Design relationships to evaluate the level of axial forces and recommendations for their reduction in the operating conditions are given.

5. Singlet axial constant from QCD sum rules

Belitskij, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

1995-01-01

We analyze the singlet axial form factor of the proton for small momentum transferred in the framework of QCD sum rules using the interpolating nucleon current which explicitly accounts for the gluonic degrees of freedom. As the result we come to the quantitative prediction of the singlet axial constant. It is shown that the bilocal power corrections play the most important role in the analysis. 21 refs., 3 figs

6. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

Duliu, Octavian G.

2002-01-01

Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

7. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

Li, S., E-mail: alexlee.zn@gmail.com; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.

2013-11-15

Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

8. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.

2013-01-01

Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested

9. Hyperquenched hyaloclastites from Axial Seamount

Zezin, D.; Helo, C.; Richard, D.; Clague, D. A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Stix, J.

2009-12-01

We determined apparent cooling rates for basaltic hyaloclastites from Axial caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Samples originate from different stratigraphic layers within the unconsolidated volcaniclastic sequences, on flanks of the volcanic edifice. Water depth is ~1400 m below sea level. The hyaloclastite glass fragments comprise two principal morphologies: (1) angular fragments, and (2) thin glassy melt films interpreted as bubble walls, called deep-sea limu o Pele. A natural cooling rate was estimated for each sample of ~50 carefully selected glass shards. The heat capacity was first measured with a differential scanning calorimeter in two heating scans with heating rates of 20 K/min, and a matching cooling rate between those scans. The fictive temperatures Tf were then determined from both heating cycles, and the natural cooling rate derived by the non-Arrhenian relationship between Tf and cooling rate. All samples display hyperquenched states, manifested in a strong exothermic energy release during the initial heating cycle before reaching the glass transition. Cooling rates range from 10 6.73 K/s to 10 3.94 K/s for the limu, and 10 4.92 K/s to 10 2.34 K/s for the angular fragments. Almost all samples of limu shards show elevated cooling rates compared to their angular counterparts of comparable grain mass. In addition, the exothermic part of the enthalpy curves reveal two superimposed relaxation domains, the main broad exothermal peak, ranging from ~350 K to the onset of the glass transition, and a small subordinate peak/shoulder occurring between 550 K and 700 K. The magnitude of the latter varies from clearly identifiable to nearly absent, and tends to be more pronounced in curves obtained from angular fragments. The main exothermal peak is related to the frozen-in structure of the glass and consequently to its thermal history when passing through the glass transition. The subordinate peak may represent strain rate-induced and tensile stress accumulation

10. Vector and axial constants of the baryon decuplet

Belyaev, V.M.; Blok, B.Y.; Kogan, Y.I.

1985-01-01

On the basis of the QCD sum rules for the polarization operator in external axial and vector fields we determine the vector and axial transition constants in the 3/2 + baryon decuplet. We show that the renormalization of the axial constant is due to the interaction of the external axial field with the quark condensate

11. Δ(1232) Axial Charge and Form Factors from Lattice QCD

Alexandrou, Constantia; Gregory, Eric B.; Korzec, Tomasz; Koutsou, Giannis; Negele, John W.; Sato, Toru; Tsapalis, Antonios

2011-01-01

We present the first calculation on the Δ axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors using lattice QCD. Two Goldberger-Treiman relations are derived and examined. A combined chiral fit is performed to the nucleon axial charge, N to Δ axial transition coupling constant and Δ axial charge.

12. Using axial magnetized permanent rings to build axial gradient magnetic field

Peng Quanling

2003-01-01

Axial field produced by an axially magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent magnet rings, if they are magnetized in the same direction, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced; if they are magnetized in opposite direction, an axial gradient field can be produced in the region between the two permanent rings, with the field strength changing from -B 0 to B 0 . A high gradient axial magnetic field has been built by using two axially magnetized permanent rings, the measured field results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. It is desirable that the field gradient can be varied to match various requirements. A method to produce the variable gradient field is presented. Axial gradient field can also be used as a beam focusing facility for linear accelerator if axial periodic field can be produced. Its magnetic field is similar to that of a solenoid, in which, large stray field will leak to the outside environment. A method for shielding the outside stray field is discussed

13. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

Schubert, F.

1996-01-01

The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies

14. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

Schubert, F.

1996-12-01

The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

15. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

Veres, Joseph P.

2009-01-01

This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

16. Diagnostic value of axial CT scan

Kiuchi, Sousuke

1983-01-01

Axial CT scan was used to investigate the radiological details of the temporal bone of 33 patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere disease, vertigo, facial spasm, and neoplasma. The axial scans showed anatomic details of the temporal bone, and at the same time clearly demonstrated the extent of the soft-tissue masses in the middle ears, as well as the destructions of the ossicles. Bone changes of the anterior walls of the epitympanum and external auditory meatus were more clearly demonstrated than by coronary CT scan. However, the axial scan had the disadvantages in demonstrating the stapes, crista transversa, and the mastoid portion of the facial canal. (author)

17. Tomography system having axial scanning

1976-01-01

An improved method and apparatus has been invented for the transaxial tomographic scanning of a patient to determine mass distribution internal to the patient. A scanning system is provided having a rotatably mounted X-ray radiation source/detector assembly which orbits and scans the patient in plane of orbit. The source provides a plurality of beams of radiation in the orbital plane. Beams pass through the patient to an array of detectors which are spaced in the plane of orbit and respectively aligned with one of the beams. Radiation intensity data is collected at predetermined orientations of each beam-detector pair as the assembly orbits about the patient

18. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

L. Drazan

2009-12-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

19. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

2003-09-01

Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

20. Axial nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Constantinou, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.

2011-01-01

We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

1. The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole

Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy

2009-01-01

We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.

2. Axial injection in Orsay superconducting cyclotron

Depauw, J.; Kugler, M.F.; Legoff, A.; Potier, J.C.; Richomme, A.; Skowron, R.; Mandrillon, P.; Schapira, J.P.

1983-01-01

The compact superconducting cyclotron currently planned at IPN at Orsay is designed for light ion acceleration together with heavy ion acceleration. From the beginning, for this reason, a central geometry able to receive an inflector (to 90deg C) allowing the axial injection of low energy ion beams given by an outer source. The present study is aimed at showing the technical feasibility of theoretical results obtained on axial injection. First experimental study has been made of spatial repartition in three dimensions of electric potential developed by a central geometry of 3 electrodes. Then, the electric study of an electrostatic mirror has been made [fr

3. «FLARES» IN AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

Sh. F. Erdes

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The clear definition of the concept of «flare in axial spondyloarthritis» is of paramount importance for clinical trials and routine practice in particular. It will be able to unify the characteristics of outcomes over a particular period of time on the one hand and to standardize therapeutic approaches on the other. On 4 February 2016, the journal Annals of Rheumatic Diseases published the on-line paper «Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative» by L. Gossec et al., which was devoted to this topic.

4. Axial Force Analysis and Roll Contour Configuration of Four-High CVC Mill

Guang-ming Liu

2018-01-01

Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of technical parameters on work roll axial force of four-high continuous variable crown (CVC mill, the deformation analyzing model with top roll system and strip was established based on influence function method. Then a CVC work roll curve designing scheme was proposed and it was carried out on some cold rolling mill considering the requirement of comprehensive work roll axial force minimization. The status of comprehensive work roll axial force is improved considering the rolling schedule that is beneficial to the roller bearing. Corresponding to the newly designed work roll contour, the backup roll end chamfer was designed considering comprehensive performance of interroll stress concentration, comprehensive work roll axial force, and strip shape control ability. The distribution of roll wear with newly designed backup roll contour is more even according to the field application data. The newly established roll configuration scheme is beneficial to four-high CVC mill.

5. A review of creep analysis and design under multi-axial stress states

Yao, H.-T.; Xuan Fuzhen; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

2007-01-01

The existence of multi-axial states of stress cannot be avoided in elevated temperature components. It is essential to understand the associated failure mechanisms and to predict the lifetime in practice. Although metal creep has been studied for about 100 years, many problems are still unsolved, in particular for those involving multi-axial stresses. In this work, a state-of-the-art review of creep analysis and engineering design is carried out, with particular emphasis on the effect of multi-axial stresses. The existing theories and creep design approaches are grouped into three categories, i.e., the classical plastic theory (CPT) based approach, the cavity growth mechanism (CGM) based approach and the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based approach. Following above arrangements, the constitutive equations and design criteria are addressed. In the end, challenges on the precise description of the multi-axial creep behavior and then improving the strength criteria in engineering design are presented

6. BPHZL-subtraction scheme and axial gauges

Kreuzer, M.; Rebhan, A.; Schweda, M.; Piguet, O.

1986-03-27

The application of the BPHZL subtraction scheme to Yang-Mills theories in axial gauges is presented. In the auxillary mass formulation we show the validity of the convergence theorems for subtracted momentum space integrals, and we give the integral formulae necessary for one-loop calculations. (orig.).

7. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

1980-01-01

Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

8. Aryabha~ and Axial Rotation of Earth

Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. Aryabhata and Axial Rotation of Earth - Naksatra Dina (the Sidereal Day). Amartya Kumar Dutta. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 56-74. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

9. Aryabhala and Axial Rotation of Earth

Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 3. Aryabhata and Axial Rotation of Earth - Khagola (The Celestial Sphere). Amartya Kumar Dutta. General Article Volume 11 Issue 3 March 2006 pp 51-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

10. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

Hudson, E.D.

1981-01-01

A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

11. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

Hudson, E.D.

1981-01-01

A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

12. The axial polarizability of nucleons and nuclei

Ericson, M.; Figureau, A.

1981-02-01

The part of the static nuclear axial polarizability arising from the nucleonic excitations is derived from the low energy expansion of the πN amplitude. It is shown that the contribution of the Δ intermediate state, though dominant, does not saturate the nucleonic response. A similar effect, though more pronounced, is known to occur for the magnetic susceptibility

13. Optimisation of efficiency of axial fans

Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Pennings, P.C.; Faasen, R.

2014-01-01

A three-stage research project has been executed to develop ducted axial-fans with increased efficiency. In the first stage a design method has been developed in which various conflicting design criteria can be incorporated. Based on this design method, an optimised design has been determined

14. Axial crystals macroscopic symmetry and tensor properties

Janovec, Václav

2017-01-01

Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : axial * polar * pseudopolar * chiral * enantiomorphism * optical activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

15. Prospective ECG-triggered axial CT at 140-kV tube voltage improves coronary in-stent restenosis visibility at a lower radiation dose compared with conventional retrospective ECG-gated helical CT

Horiguchi, Jun; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Kohno, Shingo [Hiroshima University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamamoto, Hideya; Kitagawa, Toshiro [Hiroshima University, Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Medical Science, Programs for Applied Biomedicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Ito, Katsuhide [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiology, Division of Medical Intelligence and Informatics, Programs for Applied Biomedicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan)

2009-10-15

The purpose of this study was to compare coronary 64-slice CT angiography (CTA) protocols, specifically prospective electrocardiograph (ECG)-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated CT acquisition performed using a tube voltage of 140 kV and 120 kV, regarding intracoronary stent imaging. Coronary artery stents (n=12) with artificial in-stent restenosis (50% luminal reduction, 40 HU) on a cardiac phantom were examined by CT at heart rates of 50-75 beats per minute (bpm). The subjective visibility of in-stent restenosis was evaluated with a three-point scale (1 clearly visible, 2 visible, and 3 not visible), and artificial lumen narrowing [(inner stent diameter - measured lumen diameter)/inner stent diameter], lumen attenuation increase ratio [(in-stent attenuation - coronary lumen attenuation)/coronary lumen attenuation], and signal-to-noise ratio of in-stent lumen were determined. The effective dose was estimated. The artificial lumen narrowing (mean 43%), the increase of lumen attenuation (mean 46%), and signal-to-noise ratio (mean 7.8) were not different between CT acquisitions (p=0.12-0.91). However, the visibility scores of in-stent restenosis were different (p<0.05) between ECG-gated CTA techniques: (a) 140-kV prospective (effective dose 4.6 mSv), 1.6; (b) 120-kV prospective (3.3 mSv), 1.8; (c) 140-kV retrospective (16.4-18.8 mSv), 1.9; and (d) 120-kV retrospective (11.0-13.4 mSv), 1.9. Thus, 140-kV prospective ECG-triggered CTA improves coronary in-stent restenosis visibility at a lower radiation dose compared with retrospective ECG-gated CTA. (orig.)

16. Axial oblique MR imaging of the intrinsic ligaments of the wrist: initial experience

Robinson, G.; Chung, T.; Finlay, K.; Friedman, L.

2006-01-01

To evaluate two separate MR sequences acquired in the axial oblique plane, parallel to the long axis of the scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligaments, to determine whether the addition of these sequences to the standard MR wrist examination improves visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, and the evaluation of their integrity. To our knowledge, this plane has not been described in the literature previously. In total we evaluated 26 patients with chronic wrist pain or instability, referred for MR imaging following assessment by an orthopedic surgeon or physiatrist. All patients underwent initial conventional tri-compartment wrist arthrography, which served as the reference standard. This was immediately followed by MR arthrography, in the standard coronal and true axial planes, as well as in the axial oblique plane. The SL and LT ligaments were initially assessed for the presence or absence of tear, using the standard coronal and true axial sequences, and subsequently re-evaluated with the addition of the axial oblique planes. A total of ten intrinsic ligament tears were identified with conventional arthrography: six SL and four LT tears. Five of the six SL tears were identified on the standard sequences. All six were diagnosed with the addition of the oblique sequences. There were three false-positive SL tears identified using standard MR imaging, and two false-positives with the addition of the oblique sequences. No LT tear was identified on standard sequences, whereas all four were confidently seen with the addition of oblique images. No false-positives of the LT ligament were recorded with either standard or axial oblique sequences. The study suggests that the addition of axial oblique MR sequences helps identify tears to the intrinsic ligaments of the wrist, particularly the LT ligament. In addition, the axial oblique images assist in localization of the tear. (orig.)

17. [Axial lumbar interbody fusion: prospective monocentric study].

Stulík, J; Adámek, S; Barna, M; Kaspříková, N; Polanecký, O; Kryl, J

2014-01-01

.6%), In one patient the finding was not clear. Also, posterolateral fusion was achieved in all but one patients (95.6%). A stable L5-S1 segment was found in all patients at all follow-up intervals. The improvement in both VAS and ODI values was statistically significant. In addition to indications usual in degenerative disc disease, overweight patients, those who had repeated trans- or retroperitoneal surgery in the L5-S1 region or who underwent long posterior fixation to stabilise the caudal margin of instrumentation are indicated for the AxiaLIF procedure. The clinical results of our study are in agreement with the conclusions of other studies and are similar to the outcomes of surgery using other types of fusion or dynamic stabilisation for this diagnosis. The high rate of fusion in our group is affected by use of a rigid transpedicular fixator together with posterolateral arthrodesis. On the other hand, no negative effects of only synthetic bone applied to interbody space were recorded. The percutaneous axial pre-sacral approach to the L5-S1 interbody space with application of a double-treaded screw is another option for the management of this much strained segment. The technique is useful particularly when contraindications for conventional surgical procedures are present in patients with anatomical anomalies, in overweight patients or in those who have had repeated surgery in the region. Clinical outcomes and the success rate for L5-S1 bone fusion are comparable with conventional techniques. Complications are rare but their treatment is difficult.

18. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

2000-01-01

This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ''end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified

19. On the problem of axial anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories

Kazakov, D.I.

1984-01-01

The explicit relation is found between the axial current obeying the Adler-Bardeen theorem and the supersymmetric one belonging to a supermultiplet. It is shown that the axial and superconformal anomalies are consistent in all orders of perturbation theory

20. Cross-flow filtration and axial filtration

Kraus, K.A.

1974-01-01

Two relatively novel alternative solid-liquid-separation techniques of filtration are discussed. In cross-flow filtration, the feed is pumped past the filtering surface. While in axial filtration the filter, mounted on a rotor, is moved with respect to the feed. While large-scale application of the axial filter is still in doubt, it permits with little expenditure of time and money, duplication of many hydrodynamic aspects of cross-flow filtration for fine-particle handling problems. The technique has been applied to municipal wastes, low-level radioactive waste treatment plant, lead removal from industrial wastes, removal of pulp-mill contaminants, textile-mill wastes, and pretreatment of saline waters by lime-soda process in preparation for hyperfiltration. Economics and energy requirements are also discussed

1. Ventajas de los motores de flujo axial

Alberto M Basanta Otero

2011-03-01

Full Text Available Es importante conocer sobre una familia de motores que a diferencia de los convencionales o tradicionales no presentanun flujo rotatorio radial, denominados motores de flujo axial. Dichos motores presentan altos valores de par motriz abajas velocidades, una alta eficiencia y alta densidad de potencia. Este trabajo constituye un breve análisis dealgunos motores de la referencia bibliográfica.  Is important to know about a family of motors that at difference whit the traditional, don't have a rotator radial flux,called, axial flux motors. These motors have high torque for low speed, high efficiency and high power density. Thiswork is a brief analysis of several motors of the bibliographic references.

2. Internal and external axial corner flows

Kutler, P.; Shankar, V.; Anderson, D. A.; Sorenson, R. L.

1975-01-01

The inviscid, internal, and external axial corner flows generated by two intersecting wedges traveling supersonically are obtained by use of a second-order shock-capturing, finite-difference approach. The governing equations are solved iteratively in conical coordinates to yield the complicated wave structure of the internal corner and the simple peripheral shock of the external corner. The numerical results for the internal flows compare favorably with existing experimental data.

3. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

2008-01-01

Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

4. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). KEK Theory Center; INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Prester, P.D. [Rijeka Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

2017-08-15

This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

5. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T.; Prester, P.D.; Pereira, A.D.; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi

2017-01-01

This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

6. Golimumab for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

Palazzi, Carlo; D'angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

2017-01-01

Anti-TNF drugs have represented an epochal revolution in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. In the field of axial spondyloarthritis, golimumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-TNFα administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks, has shown significant efficacy and good safety in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. More recently, it was also indicated as an effective treatment for patients suffering from non-radiographic axial spondyloarthitits. Areas covered: A systematic literature search was completed, using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), with the aim to review all data concerning the administration of golimumab in patients suffering from axial spondyloartritis. Expert opinion: In the 16-week GO-AHEAD study, golimumab was effective in patients with non-radiographic spondyloarthritis with high levels of CRP and/or positive MRI findings, but not in subjects with both negative CRP and MRI. This finding allows for the addressing the of anti-TNF treatment more specifically. Preliminary data concerning an open-label extension of the GO-AHEAD study outlined the high retention-rate of the drug at 52 weeks. The production of antibodies against golimumab is rare and it seems to exert scarce influence on the drug performances. In conclusion, golimumab appears as a very useful and well tolerated anti-TNF agent.

7. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

2006-01-01

Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

8. Bessel beam CARS of axially structured samples

Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

2015-06-01

We report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.

9. Dynamic control of knee axial deformities

E. E. Malyshev

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The authors have evaluated the clinical examination of the patients with axial malalignments in the knee by the original method and device which was named varovalgometer. The measurements were conducted by tension of the cord through the spina iliaca anterior superior and the middle of the lower pole of patella. The deviation of the center of the ankle estimated by metal ruler which was positioned perpendicular to the lower leg axis on the level of the ankle joint line. The results of comparison of our method and computer navigation in 53 patients during the TKA show no statistically significant varieties but they differ by average 5° of valgus in clinical examination in comparison with mechanical axis which was identified by computer navigation. The dynamic control of axial malalignment can be used in clinical practice for estimation of the results of treatment of pathology with axial deformities in the knee; for the control of reduction and secondary displacement of the fractures around the knee; for assessment of instability; in planning of correctional osteotomies and intraoperative control of deformity correction; for estimation of Q angle in subluxation and recurrent dislocation of patella; in planning of TKA; during the growth of child it allows to assess the progression of deformity.

10. Axial anomaly at finite temperature and finite density

Qian Zhixin; Su Rukeng; Yu, P.K.N.

1994-01-01

The U(1) axial anomaly in a hot fermion medium is investigated by using the real time Green's function method. After calculating the lowest order triangle diagrams, we find that finite temperature as well as finite fermion density does not affect the axial anomaly. The higher order corrections for the axial anomaly are discussed. (orig.)

11. Axial asymmetry for improved sensitivity in MEMS piezoresistors

Shuvra, Pranoy Deb; McNamara, Shamus; Lin, Ji-Tzuoh; Alphenaar, Bruce; Walsh, Kevin; Davidson, Jim

2016-01-01

The strain induced resistance change is compared for asymmetric, symmetric and diffused piezoresistive elements. Finite element analysis is used to simulate the performance of a T-shaped piezoresistive MEMS cantilever, including a lumped parameter model to show the effect of geometric asymmetry on the piezoresistor sensitivity. Asymmetric piezoresistors are found to be much more sensitive to applied load than the typical symmetric design producing about two orders of magnitude higher resistance change. This is shown to be due to the difference in the stress distribution in the symmetric and asymmetric geometries resulting in less resistance change cancellation in the asymmetric design. Although still less sensitive than diffused piezoresistors, asymmetric piezoresistors are sensitive enough for many applications, and are much easier to fabricate and integrate into MEMS devices. (paper)

12. Development of improved superconductive axial gradiometers for biomagnetic SQUID applications

Budnyk, M. M.; Minov, Yu. D.; Lyakhno, V. Yu.; Desnenko, V. A.; Linnik, A. S.; Shopen, O. B.

2018-03-01

SQUID magnetometers for biomagnetic measurements are equipped with superconductive gradiometers which are required to provide a high signal-to-noise ratio at low frequencies, sufficient mechanical strength and sustained performance under repeated thermal cycles, as well as a low level of intrinsic magnetic noise. This paper describes the design of a gradiometer made with a carbon-fiber reinforced composite material for magnetic cardiography measurements. The thermal coefficient of linear expansion (TCLE) of the carbon fiber composite can be precisely adjusted to match that of the superconducting detector coil wire. This is achieved thanks to the difference in the TCLE of carbon fibers in the longitudinal and transverse directions and is realized by varying the laying directions of the fiber in the composite. The data of magnetic susceptibility measurements on carbon fiber composite are reported, showing the magnetic susceptibility about six times smaller than that of graphite. The presented gradiometer design provides a high degree of balancing and is patented along side other specific techniques.

13. The deep structure of Axial Volcano

West, Michael Edwin

The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

14. An investigation of inconsistent projections and artefacts in multi-pinhole SPECT with axially aligned pinholes

Kench, P L; Meikle, S R; Lin, J; Gregoire, M C

2011-01-01

Multiple pinholes are advantageous for maximizing the use of the available field of view (FOV) of compact small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) detectors. However, when the pinholes are aligned axially to optimize imaging of extended objects, such as rodents, multiplexing of the pinhole projections can give rise to inconsistent data which leads to 'ghost point' artefacts in the reconstructed volume. A novel four pinhole collimator with a baffle was designed and implemented to eliminate these inconsistent projections. Simulation and physical phantom studies were performed to investigate artefacts from axially aligned pinholes and the efficacy of the baffle in removing inconsistent data and, thus, reducing reconstruction artefacts. SPECT was performed using a Defrise phantom to investigate the impact of collimator design on FOV utilization and axial blurring effects. Multiple pinhole SPECT acquired with a baffle had fewer artefacts and improved quantitative accuracy when compared to SPECT acquired without a baffle. The use of four pinholes positioned in a square maximized the available FOV, increased acquisition sensitivity and reduced axial blurring effects. These findings support the use of a baffle to eliminate inconsistent projection data arising from axially aligned pinholes and improve small animal SPECT reconstructions.

15. A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept

Shimazu, Yoichiro

2009-01-01

We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation

16. Axial sidelobe reduction in single-photon 4Pi microscopy by Toraldo filters

Martinex-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Caballero, M.T.

2002-01-01

Full text: The 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscope is a recently developed 3D imaging technique in which two opposing high-NA objectives are used for coherently illuminating and/or detecting the same point of the fluorescent sample. The interference process yields an intensity point spread function (PSF) with an extremely narrow axial core, but with very large axial sidelobes, which compromise the actual improvement in axial resolution. To overcome this problem we propose the use, in the illumination arm of the 4Pi-confocal microscope, of multiple-zones phase filters whose design is based on the Toraldo-design principle. Note that the Toraldo procedure allows to select at will the positions of the zeros of the PSF of an optical system. Then, what we propose here if to design a phase pupil filter such that the position of the first zero of the illumination axial PSF is close to the position of the maximum of the first axial sidelobe of the detection PSF. In the design procedure it is taken into account that: 1. The value of the parameter ε = λ exc /λ det which, in a single-photon fluorescent process, is the responsible for the different scales of the illumination and detection PSFs. 2. The Toraldo procedure was originally designed to control the position of zeros of the transverse PSF. In this case the procedure is adapted to the aim of controlling the position of zeros of the axial PSF. 3. Since 4Pi-confocal microscopes are only useful when built with high-NA objectives, the Toraldo principle is reformulated in terms of the nonparaxial diffraction theory. We show that by using Toraldo filters in the illumination part of a 4Pi-confocal microscope it is possible to obtain up to a 60% reduction of height of the axial sidelobe of the whole-system axial PSF. This fact permits to fully benefit the axial resolution from the strong narrowness of the central peak of the axial PSF, inherent to the 4Pi principle. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy

17. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

2017-02-01

The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

18. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

Koplow, Jeffrey P.

2016-02-16

Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

19. Nucleon axial form factors using Nf=2 twisted mass fermions with a physical value of the pion mass

Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Jansen, K.; Kallidonis, C.; Koutsou, G.; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, A.

2017-09-01

We present results on the nucleon axial and induced pseudoscalar form factors using an ensemble of two degenerate twisted mass clover-improved fermions with mass yielding a pion mass of mπ=130 MeV . We evaluate the isovector and the isoscalar, as well as the strange and the charm axial form factors. The disconnected contributions are evaluated using recently developed methods that include deflation of the lower eigenstates, allowing us to extract the isoscalar, strange, and charm axial form factors. We find that the disconnected quark loop contributions are nonzero and particularly large for the induced pseudoscalar form factor.

20. Recent Advances in Imaging of the Axial Skeleton in Spondyloarthritis for Diagnosis, Assessment of Treatment Effect, and Prognostication

Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Maksymowych, Walter P

2015-01-01

In the last few years, many studies have investigated the role of imaging for improved diagnosis, assessment of treatment effects, and determining prognosis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Recent research has primarily focused on the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...... developed and have provided insight into effects of treatment on structural progression and the interrelationships between different lesions visualized by MRI. This review gives an overview of the recent advances in imaging of the axial skeleton in axial SpA from a clinical perspective....

1. Inverse axial mounting stiffness design for lithographic projection lenses.

Wen-quan, Yuan; Hong-bo, Shang; Wei, Zhang

2014-09-01

In order to balance axial mounting stiffness of lithographic projection lenses and the image quality under dynamic working conditions, an easy inverse axial mounting stiffness design method is developed in this article. Imaging quality deterioration at the wafer under different axial vibration levels is analyzed. The desired image quality can be determined according to practical requirements, and axial vibrational tolerance of each lens is solved with the damped least-squares method. Based on adaptive interval adjustment, a binary search algorithm, and the finite element method, the axial mounting stiffness of each lens can be traveled in a large interval, and converges to a moderate numerical solution which makes the axial vibrational amplitude of the lens converge to its axial vibrational tolerance. Model simulation is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the method.

2. Disordered axial movement in Parkinson's disease.

Steiger, M J; Thompson, P D; Marsden, C D

1996-01-01

Axial motor impairments are a common cause of disability in patients with Parkinson's disease, become more prominent with longer disease duration, and have been said to be less responsive to levodopa replacement therapy. The ability to turn in bed while lying supine before and after dopaminergic stimulation was studied in a group of 36 patients with Parkinson's disease; 23 were in Hoehn and Yahr stages 3-5 when "off", and 13 were in stages 1-2. Turning was also compared with postural stabilit...

3. Digital enhancement of computerized axial tomograms

Roberts, E., Jr.

1978-01-01

A systematic evaluation has been conducted of certain digital image enhancement techniques performed in image space. Three types of images have been used, computer generated phantoms, tomograms of a synthetic phantom, and axial tomograms of human anatomy containing images of lesions, artificially introduced into the tomograms. Several types of smoothing, sharpening, and histogram modification have been explored. It has been concluded that the most useful enhancement techniques are a selective smoothing of singular picture elements, combined with contrast manipulation. The most useful tool in applying these techniques is the gray-scale histogram.

Abdelrhman, Ahmed M.; Tang, Eric Sang Sung; Salman Leong, M.; Al-Qrimli, Haidar F.; Rajamohan, G.

2017-07-01

In the recent years, the clearance between the rotor blades and stator/casing had been getting smaller and smaller prior improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the turbomachines as demand in the engineering field. Due to the clearance reduction between the blade tip and the rotor casing and between rotor blades and stator blades, axial and radial blade rubbing could be occurred, especially at high speed resulting into complex nonlinear vibrations. The primary aim of this study is to address the blade axial rubbing phenomenon using numerical analysis of rotor system. A comparison between rubbing caused impacts of axial and radial blade rubbing and rubbing forces are also aims of this study. Tow rotor models (rotor-stator and rotor casing models) has been designed and sketched using SOILDSWORKS software. ANSYS software has been used for the simulation and the numerical analysis. The rubbing conditions were simulated at speed range of 1000rpm, 1500rpm and 2000rpm. Analysis results for axial blade rubbing showed the appearance of blade passing frequency and its multiple frequencies (lx, 2x 3x etc.) and these frequencies will more excited with increasing the rotational speed. Also, it has been observed that when the rotating speed increased, the rubbing force and the harmonics frequencies in x, y and z-direction become higher and severe. The comparison study showed that axial blade rub is more dangerous and would generate a higher vibration impacts and higher blade rubbing force than radial blade rub.

5. A tubular hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized permanent-magnet linear machine

Yi Sui

2017-05-01

Full Text Available A single-phase tubular permanent-magnet linear machine (PMLM with hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized PM arrays is proposed for free-piston Stirling power generation system. Machine topology and operating principle are elaborately illustrated. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the free-piston Stirling engine considered, the proposed machine is designed and calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA. The main structural parameters, such as outer radius of the mover, radial length of both the axially-magnetized PMs and ferromagnetic poles, axial length of both the middle and end radially-magnetized PMs, etc., are optimized to improve both the force capability and power density. Compared with the conventional PMLMs, the proposed machine features high mass and volume power density, and has the advantages of simple control and low converter cost. The proposed machine topology is applicable to tubular PMLMs with any phases.

6. An axially and radially two-zoned large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core concept

Kamei, T.; Arie, K.; Moriki, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamaoka, M.

1985-01-01

A new core concept that has advantages over conventional homogeneous cores in neutronics characteristics such as power peaking factor, burnup reactivity loss, and reactivity response to the movement of control rods in earthquakes has been evolved. Two options of the new core concept are feasible. One is the so-called axially heterogeneous core, with the internal blanket placed at the lower part of the core. The other concept is similar to the conventional homogeneous core, but has two different plutonium-enriched zones in the axial as well as in the radial direction, so it is a hybrid type of the conventional homogeneous core and the axially heterogeneous core. The new design concept is described and the way that the core characteristics are improved by the chosen key parameters is shown

7. A tubular hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized permanent-magnet linear machine

Sui, Yi; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Luming; Liu, Jiaqi; Zheng, Ping

2017-05-01

A single-phase tubular permanent-magnet linear machine (PMLM) with hybrid Halbach/axially-magnetized PM arrays is proposed for free-piston Stirling power generation system. Machine topology and operating principle are elaborately illustrated. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the free-piston Stirling engine considered, the proposed machine is designed and calculated by finite-element analysis (FEA). The main structural parameters, such as outer radius of the mover, radial length of both the axially-magnetized PMs and ferromagnetic poles, axial length of both the middle and end radially-magnetized PMs, etc., are optimized to improve both the force capability and power density. Compared with the conventional PMLMs, the proposed machine features high mass and volume power density, and has the advantages of simple control and low converter cost. The proposed machine topology is applicable to tubular PMLMs with any phases.

8. 3D simulations of axially confined heavy ion beams in round and square pipes

Grote, D.P.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

1990-01-01

We have been using the 3d PIC code WARP6 to model the behavior of beams in a heavy ion induction accelerator; such linacs are candidates for an ICF driver. Improvements have been added to the code to model an axially confined beam using comoving axial electric fields to simulate the confining ''ears'' applied to the accelerating pulses in a real system. We have also added a facility for modeling a beam in a round pipe, applying a capacity matrix to each axial Fourier mode in turn. These additions are described along with results, such as the effect of pipe shape on the beam quality degradation from quadrupole misalignments. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

9. 3D simulations of axially confined heavy ion beams in round and square pipes

Grote, D.P.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

1991-01-01

We have been using the 3d PIC code WARP6 to model the behavior of beams in a heavy ion induction accelerator; such linacs are candidates for an ICF driver. Improvements have been added to the code to model an axially confined beam using comoving axial electric fields to simulate the confining ''ears'' applied to the accelerating pulses in a real system. We have also added a facility for modeling a beam in a round pipe, applying a capacity matrix to each axial Fourier mode in turn. These additions are described along with results, such as the effect of pipe shape on the beam quality degradation from quadrupole misalignments. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

10. Development of Evaluation Technology for Detection of Axial Crack at Eggcrate Intersection of Steam Generator Tube

Choi, Myung Sik; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Han, Jung Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Song, Myung Ho

2011-01-01

The occurrence of outer diameter (OD) axial stress corrosion crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube in operating power plant is inspected primarily by the eddy current test using bobbin coil probe. Therefore, the characteristics of the bobbin coil signal from the axial crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube should be understood for the accurate and earlier detection of the crack. In this study, the mockup assembly simulating the steam generator tube with OD axial stress corrosion crack and tube support egg crate was manufactured, and the characteristics of bobbin coil eddy current signal was examined in order to extract the improved evaluation technique for the detection of the crack

11. Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.

Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso

2014-02-01

Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow.

12. Medullary sponge kidney on axial computed tomography

Ginalski, J.-M.; Schnyder, Pierre; Portmann, Luc; Jaeger, Philippe

1991-01-01

To evaluate features of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) on computed tomography (CT), 4-mm-thick axial slices without intravenous contrast material were 1st made in 13 patients through 24 kidneys which showed images of MSK on excretory urograms. On CT, papillary calcifications were found in 11 kidneys. In 5 of these, the calcifications were not detectable on plain films. Some hyperdense papillae (attenuation value 55-70 Hounsfield units) without calcification were found in 4 other kidneys. 9 kidneys appeared normal. 10 of the 14 kidneys were reexamined by a 2nd series of 4-mm-thick axial slices, 5 min after intravenous injection of 50 ml of Urografin. Images suggesting possible ectasia of precaliceal tubules were found in only 4 kidneys. These images appear much less obvious and characteristic on CT than on excretory urogram and do nothing more than suggest the possibility of MSK. In conclusion, the sensitivity of CT in the detection of MSK is markedly lower than that of excretory urography. In the most florid cases of the disease, CT can only show images suggesting the possibility of MSK. On the other hand, CT appears much more sensitive than plain films and tomograms of excretory in the detection of papillary calcifications, the most frequent complication of MSK. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs

13. Canonical quantization of the generalized axial gauge

Haller, K.

1990-01-01

The incompatibility of the constraint A 3 =0 with canonical commutation rules is discussed. A canonical formulation is given of QED and QCD in the axial gauge with n 1 =n 2 =0, n 3 =α and n 0 =β, where α and β are arbitrary real numbers. A Hilbert space is established for the perturbative theory, and a propagator is derived by obtaining an expression for the interaction picture gauge fields, and evaluating the vacuum expectation value of its time-ordered products in the perturbative vacuum. The propagator is expressed in terms of the parameter γ=α/β and is shown to reproduce the light cone gauge propagator when γ=1, and the temporal gauge propagator when γ=0, accommodating various prescriptions for the spurious propagator pole, including the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt and principal value prescriptions. When γ→∞, the generalized axial gauge propagator leads to an expression for the propagator in the A 3 =0 gauge, though in that case the order in which the integration over k 0 is performed, and the limit γ→∞ is taken, affects the resulting expression. Another Hilbert space is established, in which the constraints that include all interactions are implemented in a time independent fashion. It is pointed out that this Hilbert space, and the Hilbert space of the perturbative theory are unitarily equivalent in QED, but that they cannot be unitarily equivalent in QCD. Implications of this fact for the nonperturbative states of QCD are discussed. (orig.)

14. The Modelling of Axially Translating Flexible Beams

Theodore, R. J.; Arakeri, J. H.; Ghosal, A.

1996-04-01

The axially translating flexible beam with a prismatic joint can be modelled by using the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation together with the convective terms. In general, the method of separation of variables cannot be applied to solve this partial differential equation. In this paper, a non-dimensional form of the Euler Bernoulli beam equation is presented, obtained by using the concept of group velocity, and also the conditions under which separation of variables and assumed modes method can be used. The use of clamped-mass boundary conditions leads to a time-dependent frequency equation for the translating flexible beam. A novel method is presented for solving this time dependent frequency equation by using a differential form of the frequency equation. The assume mode/Lagrangian formulation of dynamics is employed to derive closed form equations of motion. It is shown by using Lyapunov's first method that the dynamic responses of flexural modal variables become unstable during retraction of the flexible beam, which the dynamic response during extension of the beam is stable. Numerical simulation results are presented for the uniform axial motion induced transverse vibration for a typical flexible beam.

15. Multi-axial response of idealized cermets

Pickering, E.G.; Bele, E.; Deshpande, V.S.

2016-01-01

The yield response of two idealized cermets comprising mono and bi-disperse steel spheres in a Sn/Pb solder matrix has been investigated for a range of axisymmetric stress states. Proportional stress path experiments are reported, from which are extracted the initial yield surfaces and their evolution with increasing plastic strain. The initial yield strength is nearly independent of the hydrostatic pressure but the strain hardening rate increases with stress triaxiality up to a critical value. For higher triaxialities, the responses are independent of hydrostatic pressure. Multi-axial measurements along with X-ray tomography were used to demonstrate that the deformation of these idealized cermets occurs by two competing mechanisms: (i) a granular flow mechanism that operates at low levels of triaxiality, where volumetric dilation occurs under compressive stress states, and (ii) a plastically incompressible mechanism that operates at high stress triaxialities. A phenomenological viscoplastic constitutive model that incorporates both deformation mechanisms is presented. While such multi-axial measurements are difficult for commercial cermets with yield strengths on the order of a few GPa, the form of their constitutive relation is expected to be similar to that of the idealized cermets presented here.

16. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

2009-06-09

The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

17. Age Group Comparisons of TENS Response Among Individuals With Chronic Axial Low Back Pain.

Simon, Corey B; Riley, Joseph L; Fillingim, Roger B; Bishop, Mark D; George, Steven Z

2015-12-01

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling musculoskeletal pain condition among older adults. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat CLBP, however response to TENS in older adults compared with younger adults is untested. In a dose-response study stratified by age, 60 participants with axial CLBP (20 young, 20 middle-aged, 20 older) received four 20-minute sessions of high-frequency high-intensity TENS over a 2- to 3-week period in a laboratory-controlled setting. Experimental measures of pain sensitivity (mechanical pressure pain detection threshold) and central pain excitability (phasic heat temporal summation and heat aftersensations) were assessed before and after TENS. Episodic or immediate axial CLBP relief was assessed after TENS via measures of resting pain, movement-evoked-pain, and self-reported disability. Cumulative or prolonged axial CLBP relief was assessed by comparing daily pain reports across sessions. Independent of age, individuals experienced episodic increase in the pressure pain detection threshold and reduction in aftersensation after TENS application. Similarly, all groups, on average, experienced episodic axial CLBP relief via improved resting pain, movement-evoked pain, and disability report. Under this design, no cumulative effect was observed as daily pain did not improve for any age group across the 4 sessions. However, older adults received higher TENS amplitude across all sessions to achieve TENS responses similar to those in younger adults. These findings suggest that older adults experience similar episodic axial CLBP relief to that of younger individuals after high-frequency, high-intensity TENS when higher dose parameters are used. This study examined age group differences in experimental and axial CLBP response to TENS, delivered under the current recommended parameters of strong, but tolerable amplitude. Older adults had comparable TENS response although at higher TENS

18. Endoscopic Transoral Resection of an Axial Chordoma: A Case Report

Taran S

2015-11-01

Full Text Available Upper cervical chordoma (UCC is rare condition and poses unique challenges to surgeons. Even though transoral approach is commonly employed, a minimally invasive technique has not been established. We report a 44-year old Malay lady who presented with a 1 month history of insidious onset of progressive neck pain without neurological symptoms. She was diagnosed to have an axial (C2 chordoma. Intralesional resection of the tumour was performed transorally using the Destandau endoscopic system (Storz, Germany. Satisfactory intralesional excision of the tumour was achieved. She had a posterior fixation of C1-C4 prior to that. Her symptoms improved postoperatively and there were no complications noted. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy to minimize local recurrence. Endoscopic excision of UCC via the transoral approach is a safe option as it provides an excellent magnified view and ease of resection while minimizing the operative morbidity.

19. Operational Experience with a Cryogenic Axial-Centrifugal Compressor

Decker, L; Löhlein, K; Purtschert, W; Ziegler, B L; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Brunovsky, I; Tucek, L

1998-01-01

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires large refrigeration capacity at 1.8 K. Compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures is therefore inevitable. Together with subcontractors, Linde Kryotechnik has developed a prototype machine. This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating at ambient temperature. Integrated in a test facility for superconducting magnets the machine has been commissioned without major problems and successfully gone through the acceptance test in autumn 1995. Subsequent steps were initiated to improve efficiency of this prototype. This paper describes operating experience gained so far and reports on measured performance prior to and after constructional modifications.

20. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs.

Dayeh, Shadi A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Gin, Aaron V.; Huang, Jian Yu; Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

2010-03-01

Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires (NWs) allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the NW, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two significant advances in the area of heterostructure NWs and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure NWs with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these NWs for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a very high current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. Prior work on the synthesis of Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures through the VLS mechanism have resulted in axial Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} NW heterostructures with x{sub max} {approx} 0.3, and more recently 100% composition modulation was achieved with a solid growth catalyst. In this latter case, the thickness of the heterostructure cannot exceed few atomic layers due to the slow axial growth rate and concurrent radial deposition on the NW sidewalls leading to a mixture of axial and radial deposition, which imposes a big challenge for fabricating useful devices form these NWs in the near future. Here, we report the VLS growth of 100% doping and composition modulated axial Ge/Si heterostructure NWs with lengths appropriate for device fabrication by devising a growth procedure that eliminates Au diffusion on the NW sidewalls and minimizes random kinking in the heterostructure NWs as deduced from detailed microscopy analysis. Fig. 1 a shows a cross-sectional SEM image of epitaxial Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures grown on a Ge(111) surface. The interface abruptness in these Ge/Si heterostructure NWs is of the order of the NW diameter. Some of these NWs develop a crystallographic kink that is {approx

1. Chiral filter, axial charges and Gamow-Teller strengths

Rho, M.

1983-09-01

The different ways that nuclear matter responds to the weak axial-vector current are interpreted in terms of modification of the ''vacuum'' in baryon-rich environments. The notion of ''chiral filter'' is introduced. Use of a ward identity is suggested. The Gamow-Teller quenching and the enhanced axial charge in O + O - transitions follow from this. I also discuss briefly possible relevance of the nucleon as a topological soliton configuration to the global property of nuclear axial response functions

2. Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes

Dain, Sergio

2012-01-01

A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)

3. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

1980-01-01

The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

4. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

1980-01-01

The principal problem in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning is the length of time required to obtain meaningful data. Patient movement and radioisotope migration during the scanning period can cause distortion of the image. The object of this invention is to reduce the scanning time without degrading the images obtained. A system is described in which a scintillation camera detector is moved to an orbit about the cranial-caudal axis relative to the patient. A collimator is used in which lead septa are arranged so as to admit gamma rays travelling perpendicular to this axis with high spatial resolution and those travelling in the direction of the axis with low spatial resolution, thus increasing the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable without sacrificing spatial resolution. (author)

5. Axial tomographic system for radiation diagnoses

Crowther, T.J.

1977-01-01

The axial tomographic scanner consists of a source of hard radiation passing a fan shaped beam through a plane layer of the body under examination, a detector, and driving systems for the sequential displacement and rotation of the radiation source and the detector. The diagnosis is made by means of a data processing system offering extensive time overlap capability of the individual system functions. The data sets from transmission or absorption are processed in three independent subsystems, i.e., the scanning system, the processing system and the display system. The systems are made up of well-known modules, e.g., Nova 1200 or Eclipse 5200. Hence, as a result of the independent design of the data system, raw data will not be lost in case of faults in some subsystem. (DG) [de

6. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-05-15

Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band.

7. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

2007-01-01

Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band

8. Axial nonimaging characteristics of imaging lenses: discussion.

Siew, Ronian

2016-05-01

At observation planes away from the image plane, an imaging lens is a nonimaging optic. We examine the variation of axial irradiance with distance in image space and highlight the following little-known observation for discussion: On a per-unit-area basis, the position of the highest concentration in image space is generally not at the focal plane. This characteristic is contrary to common experience, and it offers an additional degree of freedom for the design of detection systems. Additionally, it would also apply to lenses with negative refractive index. The position of peak concentration and its irradiance is dependent upon the location and irradiance of the image. As such, this discussion also includes a close examination of expressions for image irradiance and explains how they are related to irradiance calculations beyond the image plane. This study is restricted to rotationally symmetric refractive imaging systems with incoherent extended Lambertian sources.

9. Image reconstruction. Application to transverse axial tomography

Aubry, Florent.

1977-09-01

A method of computerized tridimensional image reconstruction from their projection, especially in the computerized transverse axial tomography is suggested. First, the different techniques actually developped and presented in the literature are analyzed. Then, the equipment used is briefly described. The reconstruction algorithm developped is presented. This algorithm is based on the convolution method, well adapted to the real conditions of exploitation. It is an extension of SHEPP and LOGAN's algorithm. A correction of the self absorption and of the detector's response is proposed. Finally, the first results obtained which are satisfactory are given. The simplicity of the method which does not need a too long computation time makes possible the implementation of the algorithm on a mini-computer [fr

10. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

R. Poul

2005-01-01

Full Text Available This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method. The skin of the blade is calculated as a laminate and the foam core as a solid. A static and dynamic analysis were made. The RTM technology is compared with other technologies and is described in detail.

11. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

2014-12-01

To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

12. Axially symmetric Lorentzian wormholes in general relativity

Schein, F.

1997-11-01

The field equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity, being local, do not fix the global structure of space-time. They admit topologically non-trivial solutions, including spatially closed universes and the amazing possibility of shortcuts for travel between distant regions in space and time - so-called Lorentzian wormholes. The aim of this thesis is to (mathematically) construct space-times which contain traversal wormholes connecting arbitrary distant regions of an asymptotically flat or asymptotically de Sitter universe. Since the wormhole mouths appear as two separate masses in the exterior space, space-time can at best be axially symmetric. We eliminate the non-staticity caused by the gravitational attraction of the mouths by anchoring them by strings held at infinity or, alternatively, by electric repulsion. The space-times are obtained by surgically grafting together well-known solutions of Einstein's equations along timelike hypersurfaces. This surgery naturally concentrates a non-zero stress-energy tensor on the boundary between the two space-times which can be investigated by using the standard thin shell formalism. It turns out that, when using charged black holes, the provided constructions are possible without violation of any of the energy conditions. In general, observers living in the axially symmetric, asymptotically flat (respectively asymptotically de Sitter) region axe able to send causal signals through the topologically non-trivial region. However, the wormhole space-times contain closed timelike curves. Because of this explicit violation of global hyperbolicity these models do not serve as counterexamples to known topological censorship theorems. (author)

13. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

Urban, Jesper

2002-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

14. Production of low axial energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

Lee, Yung -Hee Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1998-05-01

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as: ion projection lithography (IPL) and focused ion beams for the next generation lithographic tools and nuclear science experiments such as radioactive ion beam production. The axial ion energy spread for multicusp source is approximately 6 eV which is too large for IPL and radioactive ion beam applications. The addition of a magnetic filter which consists of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably. The reduction is due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. Axial ion energy spread of the filament driven ion source has been measured using three different techniques. In all cases, it was found to be less than 2 eV. Energy spread of the radio frequency (RF) driven source has also been explored, and it was found to be less than 3 eV with the proper RF-shielding. A new multicusp source configuration has been designed and constructed to further reduce the energy spread. To achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution, a cylindrical magnetic filter has been designed and constructed for a 2-cm-diameter source. This new source configuration, the co-axial source, is new in its kind. The energy spread in this source has been measured to be a record low of 0.6 eV. Because of the novelty of this device, some plasma parameters inside the source have been studied. Langmuir probe has been used to measure the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density distribution.

15. Production of low axial energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

Lee, Y.H.Y.

1998-05-01

Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as: ion projection lithography (IPL) and focused ion beams for the next generation lithographic tools and nuclear science experiments such as radioactive ion beam production. The axial ion energy spread for multicusp source is approximately 6 eV which is too large for IPL and radioactive ion beam applications. The addition of a magnetic filter which consists of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably. The reduction is due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. Axial ion energy spread of the filament driven ion source has been measured using three different techniques. In all cases, it was found to be less than 2 eV. Energy spread of the radio frequency (RF) driven source has also been explored, and it was found to be less than 3 eV with the proper RF-shielding. A new multicusp source configuration has been designed and constructed to further reduce the energy spread. To achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution, a cylindrical magnetic filter has been designed and constructed for a 2-cm-diameter source. This new source configuration, the co-axial source, is new in its kind. The energy spread in this source has been measured to be a record low of 0.6 eV. Because of the novelty of this device, some plasma parameters inside the source have been studied. Langmuir probe has been used to measure the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density distribution

16. Dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy: fluorescence axial imaging without axial scanning.

Lee, Dong-Ryoung; Kim, Young-Duk; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Yoo, Hongki

2013-07-29

We propose a new method for high-speed, three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging, which we refer to as dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy (DDCFM). In contrast to conventional beam-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, where the focal spot must be scanned either optically or mechanically over a sample volume to reconstruct a 3-D image, DDCFM can obtain the depth of a fluorescent emitter without depth scanning. DDCFM comprises two photodetectors, each with a pinhole of different size, in the confocal detection system. Axial information on fluorescent emitters can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. DDCFM can rapidly acquire a 3-D fluorescent image from a single two-dimensional scan with less phototoxicity and photobleaching than confocal fluorescence microscopy because no mechanical depth scans are needed. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by phantom studies.

17. Bifunctional organocatalysts for the asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral benzamides

Ryota Miyaji

2017-08-01

Full Text Available Bifunctional organocatalysts bearing amino and urea functional groups in a chiral molecular skeleton were applied to the enantioselective synthesis of axially chiral benzamides via aromatic electrophilic bromination. The results demonstrate the versatility of bifunctional organocatalysts for the enantioselective construction of axially chiral compounds. Moderate to good enantioselectivities were afforded with a range of benzamide substrates. Mechanistic investigations were also carried out.

18. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

Thomassen, Kristina

The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

19. Characterisation of plasmas produced by the "Torche a Injection Axiale"

Jonkers, J.; Selen, L.J.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Regt, de J.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.; Schram, D.C.

1996-01-01

Summary form only given. The Torche a Injection Axiale (TIA), i.e. torch with axial gas injection, was developed by the group of Moisan in 1993. We report on the investigations on two different kind of plasmas created by the TIA: one with helium and the other with argon as main gas. Using absolute

20. Equation of motion for the axial gravitational superfield

Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

1980-01-01

Transformation properties of the axial supergravitational field variants are investigated. The equation of motion for the axial gravitational superfield is derived by direct variation of the N = 1 supergravity action. The left-hand side of this equation is a component of the torsion tensor, and the right-hand side is the supercurrent. The question about the cosmological term in supergravity is discussed

1. Original paper Cytokine profiles in axial spondyloarthritis

2015-04-01

Full Text Available Objectives: Current studies concentrate on the cytokine network and its role in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA. In this study, we analyzed whether the serum cytokine profile (interleukins: IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-33 correlates with demographic data, clinical manifestations, disease activity and treatment outcome in a group of patients with axial spondyloarthritis. Material and methods: Forty-nine patients with an established diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (aSpA and 19 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in the study. Clinical evaluation included patient’s medical history, 44 joint count, back pain intensity and global disease activity in the preceding week (VAS, the duration of morning stiffness and blood tests. Disease activity was assessed using BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP. Serum concentration of IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-33 was determined. Results : In patients with aSpA, elevated serum concentration of IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-23 was detected. In the aSpA group we detected higher values of serum concentration of IL-23 and IL-33 in the subgroup with anterior uveitis (83.1 ±184.0 pg/ml vs. 14.0 ±17.1 pg/ml, p < 0.0001 and 45.5 ±71.9 pg/ml vs. 18.4 ±14.3 pg/ml, p < 0.0001, respectively. Additionally, in the subgroup with peripheral arthritis, elevation of serum concentration of IL-12 (249.3 ±246.9 pg/ml vs. 99.9 ±105.9 pg/ml, p = 0.0001 was detected. Patients with preradiological SpA had higher serum concentration of IL-17 than patients with established diagnosis of AS (6.37 ±8.50 pg/ml vs. 2.04 ±2.98 pg/ml, p = 0.0295. No differences in serum concentration of analyzed cytokines were found between the subgroup with low to moderate disease activity and the subgroup with high to very high disease activity. Conclusions : We report that in aSpA patients, compared to controls, elevated serum concentrations of IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-23 were observed. Some cytokines may

2. The Klinger hot gas double axial valve

Kruschik, J.; Hiltgen, H.

1984-01-01

The Klinger hot gas valve is a medium controlled double axial valve with advanced design features and safety function. It was first proposed by Klinger early in 1976 for the PNP-Project as a containment shut-off for hot helium (918 deg. C and 42 bar), because a market research has shown that such a valve is not state of present techniques. In the first stage of development a feasibility study had to be made by detailed design, calculation and by basic experiments for key components in close collaboration with Interatom/GHT. This was the basis for further design, calculation, construction and experimental work for such a valve prototype within the new development contract. The stage of knowledge to that time revealed the following key priority development areas: Finite element stress analysis for the highly stressed high temperature main components; development of an insulation layout; Detailed experimental tests of functionally important structural components or units of the valve, partly at Klingers (gasstatic bearings, flexible metallic sealing element, aerodynamic and thermohydraulic tests), partly at Interatom (actuator unit and also gasstatic bearings), partly at HRB in Juelich (flexible metallic sealing system, aerodynamic and thermohydraulic tests); Design of a test valve for experimental work in the KVK (test circuit at Interatom) for evaluation of temperature distribution and reliability of operation; Design of a prototype and extensive testing in the KVK

3. Small axial compressor technology, volume 1

Holman, F. F.; Kidwell, J. R.; Ware, T. C.

1976-01-01

A scaled single-stage, highly-loaded, axial-flow transonic compressor was tested at speeds from 70 to 110% design equivalent speed to evaluate the effects of scaling compromises and the individual and combined effects of rotor tip running clearance and rotor shroud casing treatment on the overall and blade element performance. At design speed and 1% tip clearance the stage demonstrated an efficiency of 83.2% at 96.4% design flow and a pressure ratio of 1.865. Casing treatment increased design speed surge margin 2.0 points to 12.8%. Overall performance was essentially unchanged. An increase in rotor running clearance to 2.2%, with smooth casing, reduced design speed peak efficiency 5.7 points, flow by 7.4%, pressure ratio to 1.740, and surge margin to 5.4%. Reinstalling casing treatment regained 3.5 points in design speed peak efficiency, 4.7% flow, increased pressure ratio to 1.800 and surge margin to 8.7%.

4. Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton

Maurice Balke

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (=6 or sacrum (=13 have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4% patients with sacral and 4 (66.7% with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors.

5. Axial channeling of boron ions into silicon

La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Raineri, V.; Setola, R.; Rimini, E.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

1992-01-01

Channeling boron implants were performed into (100) and (110) silicon substrates in the energy range 80-700 keV. The dose ranged between 3.5x10 11 and 1x10 15 atoms/cm 2 . The axial channeling concentration profiles of implanted B + were compared with that obtained for incidence along the random direction of the crystal and with that obtained by implantation in amorphous silicon. The electrical and chemical boron distributions were obtained by spreading resistance and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, respectively. The inelastic stopping power, S c , was extracted from the experimental maximum ranges for the [100] and [110] axis. The energy dependence of the electronic stopping power is given by S e = KE p with p [100] = 0.469±0.010 and p [110] = 0.554±0.004. Simulations obtained by the MARLOWE code, using the Oen-Robinson impact parameter dependent formula, for the electronic energy loss reproduce quite well the experimental depth profiles. (orig.)

6. Axial sheath dynamics in a plasma focus

Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.; Masoud, M.M.

1990-01-01

This paper presents the result of investigation with a 10 kJ Mather type plasma focus. It is operated in hydrogen gas at ambient pressure of 0.15--1 torr and charging voltage of 8--11 kV. Radial distribution of the current sheath density with axial distance has been estimated. Plasma rotation in the expansion chamber in the absence of external magnetic field has been detected. A plasma flare from the plasma focus region propagating in the radial direction has been observed. Streak photography shows two plasma streams flowing simultaneously out of the muzzle. The mean energy of the electron beam ejected from the pinch region of the focused plasma, was measured by retarding field analyzer to be 0.32 keV. The electron temperature of the plasma focus at peak compression was determined by measuring the X-ray intensity as a function of absorber thickness at a distance of 62 cm from the focus. The electron temperature has been found to 3 keV

7. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

Xue-Qiu Yang

2013-09-01

Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

8. Analysis of SONACO axial cooling experiments

Sigg, B.; Dury, T.V.; Hudina, M.

1994-01-01

The SONACO test rig contained a sodium-cooled, electrically heated 37-pin bundle. On this rig, a series of forced, mixed and natural convection experiments have been performed with the aim of contributing to the understanding of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and providing data for code validation for a subassembly at decay heat power level with low flow or stagnant coolant. The test section and especially the heater pins were equipped with an extensive number of chromel-alumel thermocouples. In addition, special permanent-magnet probes were used for measuring local velocities. In this paper we give a survey of results from axial cooling experiments, where heat was removed by natural convection to a cooling coil situated in the coolant channel (plenum) above the bundle. The experimental conditions led to turbulent convection with a slowly varying, large scale flow pattern. It is shown that a power tilt in the bundle reduces these fluctuations but does not eliminate them. For the uniformly heated bundle, aglebraic expressions for the average turbulent heat flux as well as for temperature and velocity fluctuations are derived from a second-moments model and compared with experimental data. Furthermore, heat transfer in the plenum and the consequences of the SONACO experiments for the coolability of reactor fuel elements under loss-of-flow conditions are discussed. ((orig.))

9. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

Silva F. M. A.

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.

10. Performance Analysis of a Fluidic Axial Oscillation Tool for Friction Reduction with the Absence of a Throttling Plate

Xinxin Zhang

2017-04-01

Full Text Available An axial oscillation tool is proved to be effective in solving problems associated with high friction and torque in the sliding drilling of a complex well. The fluidic axial oscillation tool, based on an output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator, is a type of axial oscillation tool which has become increasingly popular in recent years. The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamic flow behavior of a fluidic axial oscillation tool with the absence of a throttling plate in order to evaluate its overall performance. In particular, the differences between the original design with a throttling plate and the current default design are profoundly analyzed, and an improvement is expected to be recorded for the latter. A commercial computational fluid dynamics code, Fluent, was used to predict the pressure drop and oscillation frequency of a fluidic axial oscillation tool. The results of the numerical simulations agree well with corresponding experimental results. A sufficient pressure pulse amplitude with a low pressure drop is desired in this study. Therefore, a relative pulse amplitude of pressure drop and displacement are introduced in our study. A comparison analysis between the two designs with and without a throttling plate indicates that when the supply flow rate is relatively low or higher than a certain value, the fluidic axial oscillation tool with a throttling plate exhibits a better performance; otherwise, the fluidic axial oscillation tool without a throttling plate seems to be a preferred alternative. In most of the operating circumstances in terms of the supply flow rate and pressure drop, the fluidic axial oscillation tool performs better than the original design.

11. Optimization of axial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for BWR fuel under control rod programming, (2)

Hida, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

1992-01-01

A method has been developed for optimizing the axial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for the reload BWR fuel under control rod programming. The problem was to minimize the enrichment requirement subject to the criticality and axial power peaking constraints. The optimization technique was based on the successive linear programming method, each linear programming problem being solved by a goal programming algorithm. A rapid and practically accurate core neutronics model, named the modified one-dimensional core model, was developed to describe the batch-averaged burnup behavior of the reload fuel. A core burnup simulation algorithm, employing a burnup-power-void iteration, was also developed to calculate the rigorous equilibrium cycle performance. This method was applied to the optimization of axial two- and 24-region fuels for demonstrative purposes. The optimal solutions for both fuels have proved the optimality of what is called burnup shape optimization spectral shift. For the two-region fuel with a practical power peaking of 1.4, the enrichment distribution was nearly uniform, because a bottom-peaked burnup shape flattens the axial power shape. Optimization of the 24-region fuel has shown a potential improvement in BWR fuel cycle economics, which will guide future advancement in BWR fuel designs. (author)

12. Tuned dynamics stabilizes an idealized regenerative axial-torsional model of rotary drilling

Gupta, Sunit K.; Wahi, Pankaj

2018-01-01

We present an exact stability analysis of a dynamical system idealizing rotary drilling. This system comprises lumped parameter axial-torsional modes of the drill-string coupled via the cutting forces and torques. The kinematics of cutting is modeled through a functional description of the cut surface which evolves as per a partial differential equation (PDE). Linearization of this model is straightforward as opposed to the traditional state-dependent delay (SDDE) model and both the approaches result in the same characteristic equation. A systematic study on the key system parameters influencing the stability characteristics reveals that torsional damping is very critical and stable drilling is, in general, not possible in its absence. The stable regime increases as the natural frequency of the axial mode approaches that of the torsional mode and a 1:1 internal resonance leads to a significant improvement in the system stability. Hence, from a practical point of view, a drill-string with 1:1 internal resonance is desirable to avoid vibrations during rotary drilling. For the non-resonant case, axial damping reduces the stable range of operating parameters while for the resonant case, an optimum value of axial damping (equal to the torsional damping) results in the largest stable regime. Interestingly, the resonant (tuned) system has a significant parameter regime corresponding to stable operation even in the absence of damping.

13. Prediction of flow- induced dynamic stress in an axial pump impeller using FEM

Gao, J Y; Hou, Y S; Xi, S Z; Cai, Z H; Yao, P P; Shi, H L

2013-01-01

Axial pumps play an important role in water supply and flood control projects. Along with growing requirements for high reliability and large capacity, the dynamic stress of axial pumps has become a key problem. Unsteady flow is a significant reason which results structural dynamic stress of a pump. This paper reports on a flow-induced dynamic stress simulation in an axial pump impeller at three flow conditions by using FEM code. The pressure pulsation obtained from flow simulation using CFD code was set as the force boundary condition. The results show that the maximum stress of impeller appeared at joint between blade and root flange near trailing edge or joint between blade and root flange near leading edge. The dynamic stress of the two zones was investigated under three flow conditions (0.8Q d , 1.0Q d , 1.1Q d ) in time domain and frequency domain. The frequencies of stress at zones of maximum stress are 22.9Hz and 37.5Hz as the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. The fundamental frequencies are nearly equal to vane passing frequency (22.9 Hz) and 3 times blade passing frequency (37.5Hz). The first dominant frequency at zones of maximum stress is equal to the vane passing frequency due to rotor-stator interaction between the vane and the blade. This study would be helpful for axial pumps in reducing stress, improving structure design and fatigue life

14. Stall inception and warning in a single-stage transonic axial compressor with axial skewed slot casing treatment

Lim, Byeung Jun; Kwon, Se Jin; Park, Tae Choon

2014-01-01

Characteristic changes in the stall inception in a single-stage transonic axial compressor with an axial skewed slot casing treatment were investigated experimentally. A rotating stall occurred intermittently in a compressor with an axial skewed slot, whereas spike-type rotating stalls occurred in the case of smooth casing. The axial skewed slot suppressed stall cell growth and increased the operating range. A mild surge, the frequency of which is the Helmholtz frequency of the compressor system, occurred with the rotating stall. The irregularity in the pressure signals at the slot bottom increased decreasing flow rate. An autocorrelation-based stall warning method was applied to the measured pressure signals. Results estimate and warn against the stall margin in a compressor with an axial skewed slot.

15. Finite Element Analysis of Increasing Column Section and CFRP Reinforcement Method under Different Axial Compression Ratio

Jinghai, Zhou; Tianbei, Kang; Fengchi, Wang; Xindong, Wang

2017-11-01

Eight less stirrups in the core area frame joints are simulated by ABAQUS finite element numerical software. The composite reinforcement method is strengthened with carbon fiber and increasing column section, the axial compression ratio of reinforced specimens is 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 respectively. The results of the load-displacement curve, ductility and stiffness are analyzed, and it is found that the different axial compression ratio has great influence on the bearing capacity of increasing column section strengthening method, and has little influence on carbon fiber reinforcement method. The different strengthening schemes improve the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of frame joints in a certain extent, composite reinforcement joints strengthening method to improve the most significant, followed by increasing column section, reinforcement method of carbon fiber reinforced joints to increase the minimum.

16. Molecular design for nonpolar chiral-axial quadratic nonlinear optics

Wiggers, Gregory A.

In this thesis the hyperpolarizability of various multi-dimensional molecules is studied theoretically/computationally, with particular focus on the second-rank Kleinman-disallowed (KD) component of the hyperpolarizability. This component, which transforms as a second-rank traceless symmetric tensor, could be utilized in certain chiral-axial molecular alignment schemes to produce a bulk response. Nonpolar chiral-axial systems have been proposed in contrast to polar media, which utilize the vector component of the molecular hyperpolarizability and require parallel alignment of the molecular dipoles. Such parallel alignment of dipoles must be "frozen in" in order to overcome the natural tendency for dipoles to align anti-parallel. This limits the density of chromophores that can be loaded into a polar material. Nonpolar materials do not have such limits in theory. The two geometric classes of molecules that can most easily be incorporated into nonpolar chiral-uniaxial materials are propeller-shaped (C3 or D3 symmetry) and Λ-shaped (C2v symmetry). This work describes efforts to design molecules within these classes that would be suitable for bulk NLO materials. The sum-over-states (SOS) expression is used to model the molecular hyperpolarizability, and quantum chemical calculations, along with linear absorption data (when available) provide the necessary parameters to evaluate truncated forms of the SOS expression. A host of chemical and geometric modifications will be considered in order to elucidate important structure/function relationships. Also, the SOS model will be tested in some cases when experimental measurements (via Kleinman-disallowed hyper-Rayleigh scattering) are available. While a majority of this work focuses on multi-dimensional molecules, a small section deals with the question of optimizing the hyperpolarizability of a one-dimensional system. It is suggested that the recently-proposed idea of "modulated conjugation" as a means for improving

17. NASA Glenn's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility Upgraded

Brokopp, Richard A.

2004-01-01

NASA Glenn Research Center's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility was upgraded in fiscal year 2003 to expand and improve its research capabilities for testing high-speed fans and compressors. The old 3000-hp drive motor and gearbox were removed and replaced with a refurbished 7000-hp drive motor and gearbox, with a maximum output speed of 21,240 rpm. The higher horsepower rating permits testing of fans and compressors with higher pressure ratio or higher flow. A new inline torquemeter was installed to provide an alternate measurement of fan and compressor efficiency, along with the standard pressure and temperature measurements. A refurbished compressor bearing housing was also installed with bidirectional rotation capability, so that a variety of existing hardware could be tested. Four new lubrication modules with backup capability were installed for the motor, gearbox, torquemeter, and compressor bearing housing, so that in case the primary pump fails, the backup will prevent damage to the rotating hardware. The combustion air supply line for the facility inlet air system was activated to provide dry air for repeatable inlet conditions. New flow conditioning hardware was installed in the facility inlet plenum tank, which greatly reduced the inlet turbulence. The new inlet can also be easily modified to accommodate 20- or 22-in.-diameter fans and compressors, so a variety of existing hardware from other facilities (such as Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel) can be tested in the Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility. An exhaust line was also installed to provide bleed capability to remove the inlet boundary layer. To improve the operation and control of the facility, a new programmable logic controller (PLC) was installed to upgrade from hardwired relay logic to software logic. The PLC also enabled the usage of human-machine interface software to allow for easier operation of the facility and easier reconfiguration of the facility controls when

18. Conservative axial burnup distributions for actinide-only burnup credit

Kang, C.; Lancaster, D.

1997-11-01

Unlike the fresh fuel approach, which assumes the initial isotopic compositions for criticality analyses, any burnup credit methodology must address the proper treatment of axial burnup distributions. A straightforward way of treating a given axial burnup distribution is to segment the fuel assembly into multiple meshes and to model each burnup mesh with the corresponding isotopic compositions. Although this approach represents a significant increase in modeling efforts compared to the uniform average burnup approach, it can adequately determine the reactivity effect of the axial burnup distribution. A major consideration is what axial burnup distributions are appropriate for use in light of many possible distributions depending on core operating conditions and histories. This paper summarizes criticality analyses performed to determine conservative axial burnup distributions. The conservative axial burnup distributions presented in this paper are included in the Topical Report on Actinide-Only Burnup Credit for Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Packages, Revision 1 submitted in May 1997 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When approved by NRC, the conservative axial burnup distributions may be used to model PWR spent nuclear fuel for the purpose of gaining actinide only burnup credit

19. Axial currents and nuclear spin orientation

Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Matsuta, K.

1984-01-01

This paper discusses the symmetries in the phenomena in which weak interaction is involved are largely violated, and it is still the up-to-date fore-front to study the structure of the nuclear weak currents and to learn the limitations on the applicabilities of the various relevant conservation laws as well as the nuclear structures studied by the β-decay. In this meeting, research works on the β-decay processes for the past 10 years have focused on the recoil order experiments designed to determine the limits of validity of the conserved vector current (CVC) theory and to test the G parity conservation i.e. the search for the second class currents (SCC), as well as to study the structure of the axial currents. Concerning the SCC, after intensive studies, but with not conclusive results, on the ft values of mirror β-decays in the early seventies, the correlation-type measurements on mass A=8, 12, 19 and 20 systems have been also carried out in various laboratories from 1975. Among those, concerns have been with the mass A=12 nuclear triad, /sup 12/B-/sup 12/C-/sup 12/N, the energy diagram of which is well known. The choice of this triad is because of the test done for the strong CVC predictions using the spectrum shapes of β-rays combined with the experimental analogue γ-width in /sup 12/C as well as those relevant nuclear structures. Thus, this A=12 system provides the best testing ground for the research described above

20. Adaptive fuzzy PID control of hydraulic servo control system for large axial flow compressor

Wang, Yannian; Wu, Peizhi; Liu, Chengtao

2017-09-01

To improve the stability of the large axial compressor, an efficient and special intelligent hydraulic servo control system is designed and implemented. The adaptive fuzzy PID control algorithm is used to control the position of the hydraulic servo cylinder steadily, which overcomes the drawback that the PID parameters should be adjusted based on the different applications. The simulation and the test results show that the system has a better dynamic property and a stable state performance.

1. Axial displacements in external and internal implant-abutment connection.

Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

2014-02-01

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the axial displacement of the abutments during clinical procedures by the tightening torque and cyclic loading. Two different implant-abutment connection systems were used (external butt joint connection [EXT]; internal tapered conical connection [INT]). The master casts with two implant replicas, angulated 10° from each other, were fabricated for each implant connection system. Four types of impression copings were assembled and tightened with the corresponding implants (hex transfer impression coping, non-hex transfer impression coping, hex pick-up impression coping, non-hex pick-up impression coping). Resin splinted abutments and final prosthesis were assembled. The axial displacement was measured from the length of each assembly, which was evaluated repeatedly, after 30 Ncm torque tightening. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis for 1,000,000 cycles, additional axial displacement was recorded. The mean axial displacement was statistically analyzed (repeated measured ANOVA). There was more axial displacement in the INT group than that of the EXT group in impression copings, resin splinted abutments, and final prosthesis. Less axial displacement was found at 1-piece non-hex transfer type impression coping than other type of impression copings in the INT group. There was more axial displacement at the final prosthesis than resin splinted abutments in the INT and the EXT groups. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis, the INT group showed more axial displacement than that of the EXT group. Internal tapered conical connection demonstrated a varying amount of axial displacement with tightening torque and cyclic loading. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Anon.

1986-01-01

The proceedings of a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the IMechE are presented in this text. Complete contents: Review of parameters influencing hydraulic forces on centrifugal impellers; The effect of fluid forces at various operation conditions on the vibrations of vertical turbine pumps; A review of the pump rotor axial equilibrium problem - some case studies; Dynamic hydraulic loading on a centrifugal pump impeller; Experimental research on axial thrust loads of double suction centrifugal pumps; A comparison of pressure distribution and radial loads on centrifugal pumps; A theoretical and experimental investigation of axial thrusts within a multi-stage centrifugal pump

3. Measurement for cobalt target activity and its axial distribution

Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen.

1985-01-01

Cobalt target activity and its axial distribution are measured in process of producing radioactive isotopes 60 Co by irradiation in HFETR. Cobalt target activity is obtained with measured data at 3.60 m and 4.60 m, relative axial distribution of cobalt target activity is obtained with one at 30 cm, and axial distribution of cobalt target activity(or specific activity) is obtained with both of data. The difference between this specific activity and measured result for 60 Co teletherapy sources in the end is less than +- 5%

4. Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars

Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei

2012-01-01

The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined. It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter, the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass. Moreover, the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality. It is shown that the EURO third-generation gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star. (general)

5. Axial weak currents in the Wess-Zumino term

Fujikawa, Kazuo.

1985-03-01

The conventional axial gauging of the Wess-Zumino term leads to the results which do not necessarily agree with the expectations on the basis of quark level Ward-Takahashi identities. This discrepancy arises from the fact that the quark level anomalous identities reflect the short distance structure of QCD, whereas the gauging of the Wess-Zumino term reflects the axial symmetry in the spontaneously broken chiral phase. The low energy theorem for axial weak fields is not sharply defined, in contrast to the case of vector fields where no such complications arise. (author)

6. Pion Photo- and Electroproduction and the Partially Conserved Axial Current

Haberzettl, Helmut

2000-01-01

The relevance of the axial current for pion production processes off the nucleon with real or virtual photons is revisited. Employing the hypothesis of a partially conserved axial current (PCAC), it is shown that, when all of the relevant contributions are taken into account, PCAC does not provide any additional constraint for threshold production processes that goes beyond the Goldberger-Treiman relation. In particular, it is shown that pion electroproduction processes at threshold cannot be used to extract any information regarding the weak axial form factor. The relationships found in previous investigations are seen to be an accident of the approximations usually made in this context

7. The spin of the proton and the axial anomaly

Hatsuda, T.; Zahed, I.

1989-01-01

We show that a consistent treatment of the abelian axial anomaly in a two-phase model of the proton yields a flavor singlet axial current that is saturated by the anomaly at Q 2 =0 in the chiral limit. This result suggests that at Q 2 =0 the matrix element of the flavor singlet axial current in a polarized proton state is small while the proton spin is still one-half. Modulo the QCD evolution equation, this result is in fair agreement with the recent EMC data. (orig.)

8. Transitions in axial morphology along the Southeast Indian Ridge

Ma, Ying; Cochran, James R.

1996-07-01

Shipboard bathymetric and magnetic profiles across the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) were analyzed in order to examine the nature of along-axis variations in axial morphology at this intermediate spreading rate ridge. Three types of axial morphology are observed along the SEIR: an axial high, a shallow (200-700 m deep) axial valley and a deep (>1000 m deep) axial valley. An axial high is found to the east of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) (east of 128°E) and between 82°E and 104°E. A shallow rift valley is found from 104°E to 114°E and from 82°E westward past the Amerstdam/St. Paul hotspot (ASP) to about 30°S, 75°E. Deep rift valleys are found from 114°E to 128°E in the vicinity of the AAD and from the Indian Ocean Triple Junction (IOTJ) at 25°S, 70°E to about 30°S, 75°E. The transition near 30°S occurs in an area of constant zero-age depth and does not appear to result from an increase in mantle temperature. It could be the result of the rapid increase in spreading rate along that portion of the SEIR. The most likely cause of the other transitions in axial morphology is variations in mantle temperature. The transitions between the different types of axial morphology are well defined and occur over a limited distance. Transitions in axial morphology are accompanied by significant changes in ridge flank topographic roughness. The transitions from axial valleys to axial highs are also accompanied by changes in the amplitude of the seafloor magnetic anomalies. Our observations suggest that there are distinct modes rather than a continuum of axial morphology on the SEIR and that there appears to be a "threshold" mechanism for a rapid change between different states of axial morphology. The ASP has only a limited influence on the SEIR. The ridge axis is marked by an axial valley for the entire distance from the IOTJ up to and past the ASP. The ridge axis becomes shallower as the ASP is approached from the northwest but only by about 300 m over

9. Using Costal Chondrocytes to Engineer Articular Cartilage with Applications of Passive Axial Compression and Bioactive Stimuli.

Huwe, Le W; Sullan, Gurdeep K; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

2018-03-01

Generating neocartilage with suitable mechanical integrity from a cell source that can circumvent chondrocyte scarcity is indispensable for articular cartilage regeneration strategies. Costal chondrocytes of the rib eliminate donor site morbidity in the articular joint, but it remains unclear how neocartilage formed from these cells responds to mechanical loading, especially if the intent is to use it in a load-bearing joint. In a series of three experiments, this study sought to determine efficacious parameters of passive axial compressive stimulation that would enable costal chondrocytes to synthesize mechanically robust cartilage. Experiment 1 determined a suitable time window for stimulation by its application during either the matrix synthesis phase, the maturation phase, or during both phases of the self-assembling process. The results showed that compressive stimulation at either time was effective in increasing instantaneous moduli by 92% and 87% in the synthesis and maturation phases, respectively. Compressive stimulation during both phases did not further improve properties beyond a one-time stimulation. The magnitude of passive axial compression was examined in Experiment 2 by applying 0, 3.3, 5.0, or 6.7 kPa stresses to the neocartilage. Unlike 6.7 kPa, both 3.3 and 5.0 kPa significantly increased neocartilage compressive properties by 42% and 48% over untreated controls, respectively. Experiment 3 examined how the passive axial compression regimen developed from the previous phases interacted with a bioactive regimen (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1, chondroitinase ABC, and lysyl oxidase-like 2). Passive axial compression significantly improved the relaxation modulus compared with bioactive treatment alone. Furthermore, a combined treatment of compressive and bioactive stimulation improved the tensile properties of neocartilage 2.6-fold compared with untreated control. The ability to create robust articular cartilage from passaged costal

10. A High Torque Density Axial Flux SRM with Modular Stator

Y Ebrahimi

2015-12-01

Full Text Available A novel structure of switched reluctance motors (SRMs is proposed. The proposed structure uses the benefits of the axial flux path, short flux path, segmental rotor, and flux reversal free stator motors all together to improve the torque density of the SRMs. The main geometrical, electrical and physical specifications are presented. In addition, some features of the proposed structure are compared with those of a state-of-the-art radial flux SRM, considered as a reference motor. Then, the proposed structure is modified by employing a higher number of rotor segments than the stator modules and at the same time, reshaped stator modules tips. Achieved results reveal that, compared with the reference motor, the proposed and the modified proposed motors deliver about the same torque with 36.5% and 46.7% lower active material mass, respectively. The efficiency and torque production capability for the extended current densities are also retained. These make the proposed structures a potentially proper candidate for the electric vehicles (EVs and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs as an in-wheel motor.

11. NORMAL AXIAL ANGLES OF THE KNEE JOINT IN ADULT ...

hi-tech

2003-08-01

Aug 1, 2003 ... Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated comparative variations in means and ranges of normal axial angles .... population was significantly different from the mean ... case, however, the angle also exhibits racial variations.

12. The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors

Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.

1975-01-01

The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...

13. Effect of axial heat flux distribution on CHF

Park, Cheol

2000-10-01

Previous investigations for the effect of axial heat flux distributions on CHF and the prediction methods are reviewed and summarized. A total of 856 CHF data in a tube with a non-uniform axial heat flux distribution has been compiled from the articles and analyzed using the 1995 Groeneveld look-up table. The results showed that two representative correction factors, K5 of the look-up table and Tongs F factor, can be applied to describe the axial heat flux distribution effect on CHF. However, they overpredict slightly the measured CHF, depending on the quality and flux peak shape. Hence, a corrected K5 factor, which accounts for the axial heat flux distribution effect is suggested to correct these trends. It predicted the CHF power for the compiled data with an average error of 1.5% and a standard deviation of 10.3%, and also provides a reasonable prediction of CHF locations.

14. The relation between anomalous magnetic moment and axial anomaly

Teryaev, O.V.

1990-12-01

The conservation of total angular momentum of spinor particle leads to a simple relation between the famous Schwinger and Adler coefficients determining axial anomaly and anomalous magnetic moment, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

15. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar ...

retical arguments together with some numerical evidence. The evolution of the orbits is studied, as mass is transported from the disk to the nucleus. ... galaxies and non-axially symmetric quasar models (see Papadopoulos & Caranicolas.

16. Axial clamp for nuclear reactor head penetration conoseal joints

Hackley, T.A.

1986-01-01

A method for forming a sealed coupling between two bodies each body presenting an abutment surface, the bodies being arranged so that their respective abutment surfaces are axially adjacent one another and define a space therebetween in which a deformable gasket is disposed. An axial external force is applied to the bodies for compressing the abutment surfaces together against the gasket to form a seal between the bodies and the bodies are immobilized relative to one another while the external force is being applied to the bodies so that sufficient compression will be maintained by the abutment surfaces to preserve the integrity of the seal when the external axial force is withdrawn. The external axial force is then withdrawn, leaving the two bodies coupled together via the seal. (author)

17. first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric

HOD

governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.

18. Cladding axial elongation models for FRAP-T6

Shah, V.N.; Carlson, E.R.; Berna, G.A.

1983-01-01

This paper presents a description of the cladding axial elongation models developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for use by the FRAP-T6 computer code in analyzing the response of fuel rods during reactor transients in light water reactors (LWR). The FRAP-T6 code contains models (FRACAS-II subcode) that analyze the structural response of a fuel rod including pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (PCMI). Recently, four models were incorporated into FRACAS-II to calculate cladding axial deformation: (a) axial PCMI, (b) trapped fuel stack, (c) fuel relocation, and (d) effective fuel thermal expansion. Comparisons of cladding axial elongation measurements from two experiments with the corresponding FRAP-T6 calculations are presented

19. Uniform Decay for Solutions of an Axially Moving Viscoelastic Beam

Kelleche, Abdelkarim, E-mail: kellecheabdelkarim@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Mathématiques (Algeria); Tatar, Nasser-eddine, E-mail: tatarn@Kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Saudi Arabia)

2017-06-15

The paper deals with an axially moving viscoelastic structure modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The aim is to suppress the transversal displacement (transversal vibrations) that occur during the axial motion of the beam. It is assumed that the beam is moving with a constant axial speed and it is subject to a nonlinear force at the right boundary. We prove that when the axial speed of the beam is smaller than a critical value, the dissipation produced by the viscoelastic material is sufficient to suppress the transversal vibrations. It is shown that the rate of decay of the energy depends on the kernel which arise in the viscoelastic term. We consider a general kernel and notice that solutions cannot decay faster than the kernel.

20. Axially modulated arch resonator for logic and memory applications

Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Tella, Sherif Adekunle; Alcheikh, Nouha; Fariborzi, Hossein; Younis, Mohammad I.

2018-01-01

We demonstrate reconfigurable logic and random access memory devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device is electrostatically actuated and the motional signal is capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency

1. Quasi-renormalization of the axial vector model

Schweda, M.

1979-01-01

Using the regulator-free BPHZL renormalization scheme the problem of anomalies in a massive axial vector meson model is reinvestigated. The Adler-Bardeen-Bell-Jackiw anomaly introduces some impressive modifications: the nontrivial self-energy and the counterterm of the longitudinal part of the axial vector field depend on the anomaly via the anomalous Ward identity. The investigations are based on a Fermi-type gauge. (author)

2. ABOUT MODELING COMPLEX ASSEMBLIES IN SOLIDWORKS – LARGE AXIAL BEARING

Cătălin IANCU

2017-12-01

Full Text Available In this paperwork is presented the modeling strategy used in SOLIDWORKS for modeling special items as large axial bearing and the steps to be taken in order to obtain a better design. In the paper are presented the features that are used for modeling parts, and then the steps that must be taken in order to obtain the 3D model of a large axial bearing used for bucket-wheel equipment for charcoal moving.

3. The research on flow pulsation characteristics of axial piston pump

Wang, Bingchao; Wang, Yulin

2017-01-01

The flow pulsation is an important factor influencing the axial piston pump performance. In this paper we implement modeling and simulation of the axial piston pump with AMESim software to explore the flow pulsation characteristics under various factors . Theory analysis shows the loading pressure, angular speed, piston numbers and the accumulator impose evident influence on the flow pulsation characteristics. This simulation and analysis can be used for reducing the flow pulsation rate via properly setting the related factors.

4. Development of vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution

Ito, Kei; Ezure, Toshiki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

A vortex is considered as one of significant phenomena which may cause gas entrainment (GE) and/or vortex cavitation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In our past studies, the vortex is assumed to be approximated by the well-known Burgers vortex model. However, the Burgers vortex model has a simple but unreal assumption that the axial velocity component is horizontally constant, while in real the free surface vortex has the axial velocity distribution which shows large gradient in radial direction near the vortex center. In this study, a new vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution is proposed. This model is derived from the steady axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation as well as the Burgers vortex model, but the realistic axial velocity distribution in radial direction is considered, which is defined to be zero at the vortex center and to approach asymptotically to zero at infinity. As the verification, the new vortex model is applied to the evaluation of a simple vortex experiment, and shows good agreements with the experimental data in terms of the circumferential velocity distribution and the free surface shape. In addition, it is confirmed that the Burgers vortex model fails to calculate accurate velocity distribution with the assumption of uniform axial velocity. However, the calculation accuracy of the Burgers vortex model can be enhanced close to that of the new vortex model in consideration of the effective axial velocity which is calculated as the average value only in the vicinity of the vortex center. (author)

5. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

2014-10-01

Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

6. Chiral lattice fermions, minimal doubling, and the axial anomaly

Tiburzi, B. C.

2010-01-01

Exact chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing would preclude the axial anomaly. In order to describe a continuum quantum field theory of Dirac fermions, lattice actions with purported exact chiral symmetry must break the flavor-singlet axial symmetry. We demonstrate that this is indeed the case by using a minimally doubled fermion action. For simplicity, we consider the Abelian axial anomaly in two dimensions. At finite lattice spacing and with gauge interactions, the axial anomaly arises from nonconservation of the flavor-singlet current. Similar nonconservation also leads to the axial anomaly in the case of the naieve lattice action. For minimally doubled actions, however, fine-tuning of the action and axial current is necessary to arrive at the anomaly. Conservation of the flavor nonsinglet vector current additionally requires the current to be fine-tuned. Finally, we determine that the chiral projection of a minimally doubled fermion action can be used to arrive at a lattice theory with an undoubled Dirac fermion possessing the correct anomaly in the continuum limit.

7. Axial Myopia and its Influence on Diabetic Retinopathy

Tayyab, H.; Haider, M. A.; Bukhari, S. A. H.

2014-01-01

Objective: To evaluate the correlation between axial myopia and diabetic retinopathy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore General Hospital, from August 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: A total of 258 participants suffering from type-2 diabetic retinopathy were included. Axial length was measured by two optometrists using contact type ultrasound biometer. Colored retinal photographs, red free retinal photographs and Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) were performed on all patients using standard fundus camera. All fundus photographs and angiograms were independently reviewed and graded by two qualified vitreoretinal fellows. Results: Out of 258 patients, 163 were males (63.2%) and 95 (36.8%) were females. Average age of patients was 56.30 +- 7.57 years. Average axial length of right and left eyes were 23.16 mm and 23.15 mm respectively. There was statistically significant negative correlation between axial length and severity of diabetic retinopathy in the right eye, (Spearman correlation = -0.511, p = 0.0001) as well as the left eye (Spearman correlation = -0.522, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: There is a protective influence of longer axial length of globe on the stage and severity of diabetic retinopathy. This study may help in modifying the screening protocol for diabetic retinopathy amongst patients of differing axial lengths. (author)

8. Craniectomy-associated Progressive Extra-Axial Collections with Treated Hydrocephalus (CAPECTH): redefining a common complication of decompressive craniectomy.

Nalbach, Stephen V; Ropper, Alexander E; Dunn, Ian F; Gormley, William B

2012-09-01

Extra-axial fluid collections following decompressive craniectomy have been observed in a variety of patient populations. These collections have traditionally been thought to represent extra-axial signs of hydrocephalus, but they often occur even in settings where hydrocephalus has been optimally treated. This study aims to elucidate the phenomenon of extra-axial fluid collections after decompressive craniectomy in patients with treated hydrocephalus, in order to improve identification, classification, prevention and treatment. We retrospectively reviewed all patients at a single institution undergoing decompressive craniectomy for refractory intracranial pressure elevations from June 2007 through December 2009. We identified 39 patients by reviewing clinical reports and imaging. Any patient who died on or prior to the third post-operative day (POD) was excluded. The analysis focused on patients with extra-axial collections and treated hydrocephalus. Twenty-one of 34 (62%) patients developed extra-axial collections and 18 of these developed collections despite ventricular drainage. Subgroup analysis revealed that seven of seven patients (100%) with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 11 of 14 (79%) with traumatic brain injury developed collections. Extra-axial collections may develop after decompressive craniectomy despite aggressive treatment of communicating hydrocephalus. In these patients, the term "external hydrocephalus" does not appropriately capture the relevant pathophysiology. Instead, we define a new phenomenon, "Craniectomy-associated Progressive Extra-Axial Collections with Treated Hydrocephalus" (CAPECTH), as progressive collections despite aggressive cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) drainage. Our data indicate that early cranioplasty can help prevent the formation and worsening of this condition, presumably by returning normal CSF dynamics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

9. Independent modification on water lubrication loop of radial-axial bearing of Russian reactor coolant pump

Gu Yingbin

2012-01-01

Water lubrication was used for radial-axial bearings of 1391M reactor coolant pumps at both units of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I Project, which was the first trial on large commercial pressurized water reactors in the world. As a prototype, there were inherent deficiencies leading to a series of operational events. Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation conducted the independent innovative technical modification to cope with the defects, and succeeded in reducing heat removal rate of the radial-axial bearings of the reactor coolant pumps, mitigating or preventing the cavitation abrasion of the bearings and improving the cooling effects. This paper illustrates the reasons of the innovative modification, the design and implementation preparation of modification program, the implementation process and evaluation of modification effect, including detailed follow-up work program. (author)

10. A numerical investigation on the unstable flow in a single stage of an axial compressors

Farhanieh, B; Ghorbanian, K

2003-01-01

An unsteady two-dimensional finite-volume solver was developed based on Van Leer's flux splitting algorithm in conjunction with sup M onotonic Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws sup l imiters to improve the order of accuracy and the two-layer Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model was also implemented. Two test cases were prepared to validate the solver. The computed results were compared with the experimental data and a good agreement validated the solver. Finally, the solver was used for the flow through a multi-blade stage of an axial compressor in its off-design condition. The computed results showed a rotating stall-like instability with a periodic behavior. To investigate the flow properties during the instability condition, the flow pattern, vortex properties and the axial velocity were studied. It was concluded that the instability vortices in the multi-blade cascade do not have the same generation history of the separated vortices over a single body.

11. Prediction of Axial and Radial Creep in CANDU 6 Pressure Tubes

2013-01-01

Status and proposals: 1. A review of literature concerning on the in-reactor deformation of PTs has been carried ouţ. 2. A model based on MFNN has been proposed to assess the radial and axial creep of CANDU 6 PTs. 3. Preliminary discussion with Cernavoda NPP (Romania) has been lunched, and now the preparation of official documents (collaboration in providing the inspection data from fuel channel in Unit 1 and 2) are in progress. 4. Further activities: • Improvement MFNN to accommodate complex data base (eventually with many variables) for radial and axial in-reactor deformation PT, and to satisfy the requirements from NPP Cernavoda and hopefully from present CRP database; • To build-up a database by running the creep equations (if the creep constants are provided by AECL); training of MFNN on them and to qualify it as a tool for PT in-reactor deformation prediction

12. Influence of an axial magnetic field on the density profile of capillary plasma channels

Ivanov, V V; Toma, E S; Bijkerk, F

2003-01-01

A narrow capillary plasma channel, with a sizeable depletion of the electron density on the channel axis, has been proposed to guide a laser pulse over a length of several to several tens of centimetres. We discuss the possibility to significantly improve the wave-guiding properties of such a channel by applying an axial magnetic field. Our analytical and numerical studies show that a pulsed axial magnetic field of 10 T in a hydrogen capillary plasma at a pressure of 50 Torr will reduce the on-axis plasma density by a factor of three, and the full width at half maximum of the density profile by a factor of two. The resulting parabolic plasma density profile is expected to be more efficient in guiding laser pulses.

13. Fast globally optimal segmentation of 3D prostate MRI with axial symmetry prior.

Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Ukwatta, Eranga; Sun, Yue; Rajchl, Martin; Fenster, Aaron

2013-01-01

We propose a novel global optimization approach to segmenting a given 3D prostate T2w magnetic resonance (MR) image, which enforces the inherent axial symmetry of the prostate shape and simultaneously performs a sequence of 2D axial slice-wise segmentations with a global 3D coherence prior. We show that the proposed challenging combinatorial optimization problem can be solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation. With this regard, we introduce a novel coupled continuous max-flow model, which is dual to the studied convex relaxed optimization formulation and leads to an efficient multiplier augmented algorithm based on the modern convex optimization theory. Moreover, the new continuous max-flow based algorithm was implemented on GPUs to achieve a substantial improvement in computation. Experimental results using public and in-house datasets demonstrate great advantages of the proposed method in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

14. Techniques for computing reactivity changes caused by fuel axial expansion in LMR's

Khalil, H.

1988-01-01

An evaluation is made of the accuracy of methods used to compute reactivity changes caused by axial fuel relocation in fast reactors. Results are presented to demonstrate the validity of assumptions commonly made such as linearity of reactivity with fuel elongation, additivity of local reactivity contributions, and the adequacy of standard perturbation techniques. Accurate prediction of the reactivity loss caused by axial swelling of metallic fuel is shown to require proper representation of the burnup dependence of the expansion reactivity. Some accuracy limitations in the methods used in transient analyses, which are based on the use of fuel worth tables, are identified, and efficient ways to improve accuracy are described. Implementation of these corrections produced expansion reactivity estimates within 5% of higher-order method for a metal-fueled FFTF core representation. 18 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

15. Dai Omega, a large solid angle axial focusing superconducting surface muon channel

Miyadera, H.; Nagamine, K.; Shimomura, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tanaka, H.; Fukuchi, K.; Makimura, S.; Ishida, K.

2003-01-01

An axial focusing surface muon channel, Dai Omega, was installed at KEK-MSL in the summer of 2001. Large aperture superconducting coils are utilized instead of quadrupole magnets. Dai Omega adopts an axial focusing beam path using symmetric magnetic fields from four coils. Computer simulations were performed on constructing Dai Omega, and the calculated solid angle acceptance of Dai Omega was larger than 1 sr at the optimum momentum. The momentum acceptance of Dai Omega was 6% FWHM. Dai Omega improved the solid angle acceptance by almost 20 times, in comparison with conventional muon channels. Beam tuning tests of Dai Omega have been carried out, and a beam intensity of 10 6 μ + /s was achieved at KEK-NML (500 MeV, 5 μA), which was almost comparable with that of RAL (800 MeV, 200 μA)

16. Optimization of inverse model identification for multi-axial test rig control

Müller Tino

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Laboratory testing of multi-axial fatigue situations improves repeatability and allows a time condensing of tests which can be carried out until component failure, compared to field testing. To achieve realistic and convincing durability results, precise load data reconstruction is necessary. Cross-talk and a high number of degrees of freedom negatively affect the control accuracy. Therefore a multiple input/multiple output (MIMO model of the system, capturing all inherent cross-couplings is identified. In a first step the model order is estimated based on the physical fundamentals of a one channel hydraulic-servo system. Subsequently, the structure of the MIMO model is optimized using correlation of the outputs, to increase control stability and reduce complexity of the parameter optimization. The identification process is successfully applied to the iterative control of a multi-axial suspension rig. The results show accurate control, with increased stability compared to control without structure optimization.

17. High Precision Axial Coordinate Readout for an Axial 3-D PET Detector Module using a Wave Length Shifter Strip Matrix

Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Lustermann, W; Schinzel, D; Johnson, I; Renker, D; Albrecht, S

2007-01-01

We describe a novel method to extract the axial coordinate from a matrix of long axially oriented crystals, which is based on wavelength shifting plastic strips. The method allows building compact 3-D axial gamma detector modules for PET scanners with excellent 3-dimensional spatial, timing and energy resolution while keeping the number of readout channels reasonably low. A voxel resolution of about 10 mm3 is expected. We assess the performance of the method in two independent ways, using classical PMTs and G-APDs to read out the LYSO (LSO) scintillation crystals and the wavelength shifting strips. We observe yields in excess of 35 photoelectrons from the strips for a 511 keV gamma and reconstruct the axial coordinate with a precision of about 2.5 mm (FWHM).

18. Case report: Physical therapy management of axial dystonia.

Voos, Mariana Callil; Oliveira, Tatiana de Paula; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Barbosa, Egberto Reis

2014-01-01

Few studies have described physical therapy approaches to provide functional independence and reduce pain in individuals with dystonia. This report describes the physical therapy treatment of a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with idiopathic segmental axial dystonia. For two years, the patient was treated with kinesiotherapy (active and resisted movements and stretching of neck and trunk muscles), abdominal taping (kinesiotaping techniques), functional training, and sensory tricks. She was assessed with parts I, II and III of Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-I, TWSTRS-II and TWSTRS-III), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Six-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT), and the motor domain of Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor) before and after the two-year treatment and after the one year follow-up. Postural control and symmetry improved (TWSTRS-I: from 30 to 18), functional independence increased (TWSTRS-II: from 27 to 15; BBS: from 36 to 46; 6-MWT: from 0 to 480 meters (m); FIM-motor: from 59 to 81), and the pain diminished (TWSTRS-III: from 12 to 5). The functional improvement was retained after one year (TWSTRS-I: 14/35; TWRTRS-II: 12/30; TWRTRS-III: 5/20; BBS: 48/56; 6-MWT: 450 m; FIM-motor: 81/91). This program showed efficacy on providing a better control of the dystonic muscles and thus the doses of botulinum toxin needed to treat them could be reduced. Outcomes support the therapeutic strategies used to deal with this type of dystonia.

19. Synthesis of Axial Power Distribution Using 5-Level Ex-core Detector in a Core Protection System

Koo, Bon-Seung; Lee, Chung-Chan; Zee, Sung-Quun

2007-01-01

In ABB-CE digital plants, Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) is used for a core protection based on several online measured system parameters including 3- level safety grade ex-core detector signals. The CPCS provides four independent channels for the departure from a nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) and local power density (LPD) trip signals to the reactor protection system. Each channel consists of a core protection calculator (CPC) and a control element assembly calculator (CEAC). The cubic spline synthesis technique has been used in online calculations of the core axial power distributions using 3-level ex-core detector signals in CPC. The pre-determined cubic spline function sets are used depending on the characteristics of the ex-core detector responses. But this method shows large power distribution errors for the extremely skewed axial shapes due to restrictive function sets and an incorrect SAM value. Especially thus situation is worse at a higher burnup. To solve these problems, the cubic spline function sets are improved and it is demonstrated that the axial power shapes can be synthesized more accurately with the new function sets than those of a conventional CPC. In this paper, synthesis of an axial power distribution using a 5-level ex-core detector is described and the axial power distributions are compared between 3-level and 5-level ex-core detector systems

20. Finite element modelling of reinforced large-opening on the web of steel beam considering axial forces

2017-11-01

Experimental and analytical researches on the effect of web opening in steel beams have been repeatedly reported in literature because of the advantages gain from the many function of the opening. Most of the research on this area, however, did not consider deformation and stress in the beam due to axial force. In seismic design of steel structure, the axial force in the beam could be significantly high and therefore worth considering. In this study a beam extracted from a braced frame structure was analyzed using finite element models to investigate the effect of combined bending and axial forces on the deformation and stresses in the vicinity of the opening. Large size of square, rectangular, and circular openings of the same depth were reinforced and placed in pair, symmetrical to the concentrated load at mid span of the beam. Four types of reinforcement were used, all around (AA), short horizontal (SH), long horizontal (LH), and doubler plate (DP). The effect of axial load was also investigated using rigid frame model loaded vertically and laterally. Validation of the modelling technique was done prior to the parametric study. It was revealed that the axial force significantly contributes to the stress concentration near the hole. Stiffener of circular shape was effective to improve the stress distribution around the circular opening. For square and rectangular openings, however, the horizontal stiffener, extended beyond the edge of opening, performed better than the other type of stiffeners.

1. SCLERAL AND CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN SECONDARY HIGH AXIAL MYOPIA.

Shen, Ling; You, Qi Sheng; Xu, Xiaolin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Zhibao; Li, Bin; Jonas, Jost B

2016-08-01

To assess differences in scleral and choroidal thickness between eyes with secondary high axial myopia caused by congenital glaucoma, eyes with primary high axial myopia, and nonhighly myopic eyes. The study consisted of 301 Chinese individuals with a mean age of 23.9 ± 22.6 years and mean axial length of 24.8 ± 4.2 mm. It included the "secondary highly myopic group" (SHMG) because of congenital glaucoma (n = 20 eyes; axial length >26.0 mm), the "primary highly myopic group" (PHMG) (n = 73; axial length >26.0 mm), and the remaining nonhighly myopic group (NHMG). The secondary highly myopic group versus the primary highly myopic group had significantly thinner sclera in the pars plana region (343 ± 71 μm versus 398 ± 83 μm; P = 0.006), whereas scleral thickness in other regions did not differ significantly between both highly myopic groups and was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG. Mean total scleral volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.20) between any group (SHMG: 659 ± 106 μm; PHMG: 667 ± 128 μm; NHMG: 626 ± 135 μm). Choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG, with no significant differences between both highly myopic groups. Choroidal volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.40) between any of the groups (SHMG: 43 ± 12 μm; PHMG: 43 ± 13 μm; NHMG: 46 ± 17 μm). In secondary high axial myopia, the sclera gets thinner anterior and posterior to the equator; whereas in primary high axial myopia, scleral thinning is predominantly found posterior to the equator. Because volume of sclera and choroid did not differ between any group, scleral and choroidal thinning in myopia may be due to a rearrangement of tissue and not due to the new formation of tissue.

2. Investigation of axial power gradients near a control rod tip

Loberg, John, E-mail: John.Loberg@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Osterlund, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Osterlund@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan, E-mail: Klaes-Hakan.Bejmer@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Blomgren@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Kierkegaard, Jesper, E-mail: Jesper.Kierkegaar@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden)

2011-07-15

Highlights: > Pin power gradients near BWR control rod tips have been investigated. > A control rod tip is modeled in MCNP and compared to simplified 2D/3D geometry. > Small nodes increases pin power gradients; standard nodes underestimates gradients. > The MCNP results are validated against axial gamma scan of a controlled fuel pin. - Abstract: Control rod withdrawal in BWRs induces large power steps in the adjacent fuel assemblies. This paper investigates how well a 2D/3D method, e.g., CASMO5/SIMULATE5 computes axial pin power gradients adjacent to an asymmetrical control-rod tip in a BWR. The ability to predict pin power gradients accurately is important for safety considerations whereas large powers steps induced by control rod withdrawal can cause Pellet Cladding Interaction. The computation of axial pin power gradients axially around a control rod tip is a challenging task for any nodal code. On top of that, asymmetrical control rod handles are present in some BWR designs. The lattice code CASMO requires diagonal symmetry of all control rod parts. This introduces an error in computed pin power gradients that has been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The results show that CASMO5/SIMULATE5, despite the asymmetrical control rod handle, is able to predict the axial pin power gradient within 1%/cm for axial nodal sizes of 15-3.68 cm. However, a nodal size of 3.68 cm still causes underestimations of pin power gradients compared with 1 cm nodes. Furthermore, if conventional node sizes are used, {approx}15 cm, pin power gradients can be underestimated by over 50% compared with 1 cm nodes. The detailed axial pin power profiles from MCNP are corroborated by measured gamma scan data on fuel rods irradiated adjacent to control rods.

3. Investigation of axial power gradients near a control rod tip

Loberg, John; Osterlund, Michael; Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan; Blomgren, Jan; Kierkegaard, Jesper

2011-01-01

Highlights: → Pin power gradients near BWR control rod tips have been investigated. → A control rod tip is modeled in MCNP and compared to simplified 2D/3D geometry. → Small nodes increases pin power gradients; standard nodes underestimates gradients. → The MCNP results are validated against axial gamma scan of a controlled fuel pin. - Abstract: Control rod withdrawal in BWRs induces large power steps in the adjacent fuel assemblies. This paper investigates how well a 2D/3D method, e.g., CASMO5/SIMULATE5 computes axial pin power gradients adjacent to an asymmetrical control-rod tip in a BWR. The ability to predict pin power gradients accurately is important for safety considerations whereas large powers steps induced by control rod withdrawal can cause Pellet Cladding Interaction. The computation of axial pin power gradients axially around a control rod tip is a challenging task for any nodal code. On top of that, asymmetrical control rod handles are present in some BWR designs. The lattice code CASMO requires diagonal symmetry of all control rod parts. This introduces an error in computed pin power gradients that has been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The results show that CASMO5/SIMULATE5, despite the asymmetrical control rod handle, is able to predict the axial pin power gradient within 1%/cm for axial nodal sizes of 15-3.68 cm. However, a nodal size of 3.68 cm still causes underestimations of pin power gradients compared with 1 cm nodes. Furthermore, if conventional node sizes are used, ∼15 cm, pin power gradients can be underestimated by over 50% compared with 1 cm nodes. The detailed axial pin power profiles from MCNP are corroborated by measured gamma scan data on fuel rods irradiated adjacent to control rods.

4. Optimization of axial enrichment distribution for BWR fuels using scoping libraries and block coordinate descent method

Tung, Wu-Hsiung, E-mail: wstong@iner.gov.tw; Lee, Tien-Tso; Kuo, Weng-Sheng; Yaur, Shung-Jung

2017-03-15

Highlights: • An optimization method for axial enrichment distribution in a BWR fuel was developed. • Block coordinate descent method is employed to search for optimal solution. • Scoping libraries are used to reduce computational effort. • Optimization search space consists of enrichment difference parameters. • Capability of the method to find optimal solution is demonstrated. - Abstract: An optimization method has been developed to search for the optimal axial enrichment distribution in a fuel assembly for a boiling water reactor core. The optimization method features: (1) employing the block coordinate descent method to find the optimal solution in the space of enrichment difference parameters, (2) using scoping libraries to reduce the amount of CASMO-4 calculation, and (3) integrating a core critical constraint into the objective function that is used to quantify the quality of an axial enrichment design. The objective function consists of the weighted sum of core parameters such as shutdown margin and critical power ratio. The core parameters are evaluated by using SIMULATE-3, and the cross section data required for the SIMULATE-3 calculation are generated by using CASMO-4 and scoping libraries. The application of the method to a 4-segment fuel design (with the highest allowable segment enrichment relaxed to 5%) demonstrated that the method can obtain an axial enrichment design with improved thermal limit ratios and objective function value while satisfying the core design constraints and core critical requirement through the use of an objective function. The use of scoping libraries effectively reduced the number of CASMO-4 calculation, from 85 to 24, in the 4-segment optimization case. An exhausted search was performed to examine the capability of the method in finding the optimal solution for a 4-segment fuel design. The results show that the method found a solution very close to the optimum obtained by the exhausted search. The number of

5. Limb flexion-induced axial compression and bending in human femoropopliteal artery segments.

Poulson, William; Kamenskiy, Alexey; Seas, Andreas; Deegan, Paul; Lomneth, Carol; MacTaggart, Jason

2018-02-01

High failure rates of femoropopliteal artery (FPA) interventions are often attributed in part to severe mechanical deformations that occur with limb movement. Axial compression and bending of the FPA likely play significant roles in FPA disease development and reconstruction failure, but these deformations are poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to quantify axial compression and bending of human FPAs that are placed in positions commonly assumed during the normal course of daily activities. Retrievable nitinol markers were deployed using a custom-made catheter system into 28 in situ FPAs of 14 human cadavers. Contrast-enhanced, thin-section computed tomography images were acquired with each limb in the standing (180 degrees), walking (110 degrees), sitting (90 degrees), and gardening (60 degrees) postures. Image segmentation and analysis allowed relative comparison of spatial locations of each intra-arterial marker to determine axial compression and bending using the arterial centerlines. Axial compression in the popliteal artery (PA) was greater than in the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) or the adductor hiatus (AH) segments in all postures (P = .02). Average compression in the SFA, AH, and PA ranged from 9% to 15%, 11% to 19%, and 13% to 25%, respectively. The FPA experienced significantly more acute bending in the AH and PA segments compared with the proximal SFA (P < .05) in all postures. In the walking, sitting, and gardening postures, average sphere radii in the SFA, AH, and PA ranged from 21 to 27 mm, 10 to 18 mm, and 8 to 19 mm, whereas bending angles ranged from 150 to 157 degrees, 136 to 147 degrees, and 137 to 148 degrees, respectively. The FPA experiences significant axial compression and bending during limb flexion that occur at even modest limb angles. Moreover, different segments of the FPA appear to undergo significantly different degrees of deformation. Understanding the effects of limb flexion on axial compression and

6. Fluoroscopic lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain

Manchikanti L

2012-08-01

Full Text Available Laxmaiah Manchikanti,1,2 Kimberly A Cash,1 Carla D McManus,1 Vidyasagar Pampati,1 Ramsin Benyamin3,41Pain Management Center of Paducah, Paducah, KY; 2University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; 3Millennium Pain Center, Bloomington, IL; 4University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USAAbstract: Among the multiple causes of chronic low back pain, axial and discogenic pain are common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing discogenic and axial low back pain including epidural injections. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. In an interventional pain management practice in the US, a randomized, double-blind, active control trial was conducted. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain of discogenic origin. However, disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joint pain, or sacroiliac joint pain were excluded. Two groups of patients were studied, with 60 patients in each group receiving either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measures included the pain relief-assessed by numeric rating scale of pain and functional status assessed by the, Oswestry Disability Index, Secondary outcome measurements included employment status, and opioid intake. Significant improvement or success was defined as at least a 50% decrease in pain and disability. Significant improvement was seen in 77% of the patients in Group I and 67% of the patients in Group II. In the successful groups (those with at least 3 weeks of relief with the first two procedures, the improvement was 84% in Group I and 71% in Group II. For those with chronic function-limiting low back pain refractory to conservative management

7. Analysis of axial compressive loaded beam under random support excitations

Xiao, Wensheng; Wang, Fengde; Liu, Jian

2017-12-01

An analytical procedure to investigate the response spectrum of a uniform Bernoulli-Euler beam with axial compressive load subjected to random support excitations is implemented based on the Mindlin-Goodman method and the mode superposition method in the frequency domain. The random response spectrum of the simply supported beam subjected to white noise excitation and to Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum excitation is investigated, and the characteristics of the response spectrum are further explored. Moreover, the effect of axial compressive load is studied and a method to determine the axial load is proposed. The research results show that the response spectrum mainly consists of the beam's additional displacement response spectrum when the excitation is white noise; however, the quasi-static displacement response spectrum is the main component when the excitation is the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. Under white noise excitation, the amplitude of the power spectral density function decreased as the axial compressive load increased, while the frequency band of the vibration response spectrum increased with the increase of axial compressive load.

8. Continuous millennial decrease of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole

Poletti, Wilbor; Biggin, Andrew J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Terra-Nova, Filipe

2018-01-01

Since the establishment of direct estimations of the Earth's magnetic field intensity in the first half of the nineteenth century, a continuous decay of the axial dipole component has been observed and variously speculated to be linked to an imminent reversal of the geomagnetic field. Furthermore, indirect estimations from anthropologically made materials and volcanic derivatives suggest that this decrease began significantly earlier than direct measurements have been available. Here, we carefully reassess the available archaeointensity dataset for the last two millennia, and show a good correspondence between direct (observatory/satellite) and indirect (archaeomagnetic) estimates of the axial dipole moment creating, in effect, a proxy to expand our analysis back in time. Our results suggest a continuous linear decay as the most parsimonious long-term description of the axial dipole variation for the last millennium. We thus suggest that a break in the symmetry of axial dipole moment advective sources occurred approximately 1100 years earlier than previously described. In addition, based on the observed dipole secular variation timescale, we speculate that the weakening of the axial dipole may end soon.

9. Axial clamp for nuclear reactor head penetration conoseal joints

Hackley, T.A.

1987-01-01

A method is described for forming a sealed coupling between two bodies, each body presenting an annular abutment surface. The respective bodies are arranged so that their respective annular abutment surfaces are axially adjacent one another, defining a space therebetween, wherein a deformable gasket is disposed within the space. The method comprises: providing one of the bodies with an annular projection; providing the other body with threads for receiving an annular locknut which can be tightened to bear against the annular projection of the one body; applying an external axial forced to the bodies for compressing the abutment surfaces together against the gasket to form a seal between the bodies; immobilizing the bodies relative to one another while the external force is being applied to the bodies by hand-tightening an annular locknut via the threads of the other body until the locknut abuts the annular projection of the one body, substantially preventing relative axial movement between the bodies when the external axial force is withdrawn; and withdrawing the external axial force applied to the bodies, leaving the two bodies coupled together via the seal

10. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

2011-01-01

The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

11. Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia

Wen Jun Jiang

2017-03-01

Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.

12. MRI diagnosis of ACL bundle tears: value of oblique axial imaging

Ng, Alex W.H.; Griffith, James F.; Hung, Esther H.Y. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China); Law, Kan Yip; Yung, Patrick S.H. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China)

2013-02-15

To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of oblique axial intermediate weighting MR imaging in detecting partial thickness anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) bundle tears. The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Sixty-one subjects (43 male, 18 female; mean age 27.4 years; range 9 to 57 years) with clinically suspected ACL tear or meniscal tear between September 2009 and January 2011 were studied with MRI and arthroscopy. Detection of partial tear for the ACL as a whole and for each ACL bundle by protocol A (standard orthogonal sequences) and protocol B (standard orthogonal sequences plus oblique axial intermediate weighted imaging) was compared in a blinded fashion. Performance characteristics for protocol A and protocol B were compared using sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and ROC curves. A two-tailed p value of <0.05 indicated statistical significance. Fifteen (24.6%) normal, 15 (24.6%) partial and 31 complete tears were diagnosed by arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of protocol A for the diagnosis of partial tear of the ACL was 33%, 87% and 74%, while for protocol B the values were 87%, 87% and 87% respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) for the diagnosis of partial ACL tear and individual bundle tear was higher for protocol B, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). The addition of oblique axial imaging to standard MR imaging improves diagnostic accuracy for detecting partial tears of the ACL as well as individual bundle tears of the ACL. (orig.)

13. The influence of stiffeners on axial crushing of glass-fabric-reinforced epoxy composite shells

A. Vasanthanathan

2017-01-01

Full Text Available A generic static and impact experimental procedure has been developed in this work aimed at improving the stability of glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell structures by bonding with axial stiffeners. Crashworthy structures fabricated from composite laminate with stiffeners would offer energy absorption superior to metallic structures under compressive loading situations. An experimental material characterisation of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite under uni-axial tension has been carried out in this study. This work provides a numerical simulation procedure to describe the static and dynamic response of unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (without stiffeners and stiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (with axial stiffeners under static and impact loading using the Finite Element Method. The finite element calculation for the present study was made with ANSYS®-LS-DYNA® software. Based upon the experimental and numerical investigations, it has been asserted that glass fabric reinforced epoxy shells stiffened with GFRP stiffeners are better than unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell and glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell stiffened with aluminium stiffeners. The failure surfaces of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell structures tested under impact were examined by SEM.

14. SPECT: Theoretical aspecte and evolution of emission computed axial tomography

Brunol, J.; Nuta, V.

1981-01-01

We have detailed certain of the elements of 3-D image reconstruction from axial projections. Two of the aspects specific to nuclear medicine have been analysed namely self-absorption and statistics. In our view, the development of ECAT in the months to come must hence proceed in two essential directions: - application to dynamic cardiac imagery (multigated). Results of this type have been obtained over 8 months in the Radioisotope Service of Cochin Hospital in Paris. It must be stressed here that the number of images to be processed then becomes considerable (multiplication by the gate factor yielding more than 100 images), the more the statistics are reduced due to the fact of the temporal separation. The obtaining of good image quality requires sophisticated quadri-dimensional processing. It follows that the computing times, with all the mini-computers available in nuclear medicine, then become much too great to envisage really application in hospital routine (several hours of computing). This is the reason why we connected an array processor with the IMAC system. This very powerful system (several tens of times the power of a mini-computer) will reduce the time of such computing to less than 10 minutes. New elements can be introduced into the reconstruction algorithm (static case opposite the foregoing one). These important elements of improvement are to the detriment of space and hence of computing time. Here again, the use of an array processor appears indispensable. It is to recall that the ECAT is today a currently used method, the theoretical analyses that it has necessitated have opened the way to new effective methods of tomography by 'Slanted Hole'. (orig.) [de

15. Impact of axial burnup profile on criticality safety of ANPP spent fuel cask

Bznuni, S.

2006-01-01

Criticality safety assessment for WWER-440 NUHOMS cask with spent nuclear fuel from Armenian NPP has been performed. The cask was designed in such way that the neutron multiplication factor k eff must be below 0,95 for all operational modes and accident conditions. Usually for criticality analysis, fresh fuel approach with the highest enrichment is taken as conservative assumption as it was done for ANPP. NRSC ANRA in order to improve future fuel storage efficiency initiated research with taking into account burn up credit in the criticality safety assessment. Axial burn up profile (end effect) has essential impact on criticality safety justification analysis. However this phenomenon was not taken into account in the Safety Analysis Report of NUHOMS spent fuel storage constructed on the site of ANPP. Although ANRA does not yet accept burn up credit approach for ANPP spent fuel storage, assessment of impact of axial burnup profile on criticality of spent fuel assemblies has important value for future activities of ANRA. This paper presents results of criticality calculations of spent fuel assemblies with axial burn up profile. Horizontal burn up profile isn't taken account since influence of the horizontal variation of the burn up is much less than the axial variation. The actinides and actinides + fission products approach are discussed. The calculations were carried out with STARBUCS module of SCALE 5.0 code package developed at Oak Ridge National laboratory. SCALE5.0 sequence CSAS26 (KENO-VI) was used for evaluation the k eff for 3-D problems. Obtained results showed that criticality of ANPP spent fuel cask is very sensitive to the end effect

16. Bifurcation and chaos of an axially accelerating viscoelastic beam

Yang Xiaodong; Chen Liqun

2005-01-01

This paper investigates bifurcation and chaos of an axially accelerating viscoelastic beam. The Kelvin-Voigt model is adopted to constitute the material of the beam. Lagrangian strain is used to account for the beam's geometric nonlinearity. The nonlinear partial-differential equation governing transverse motion of the beam is derived from the Newton second law. The Galerkin method is applied to truncate the governing equation into a set of ordinary differential equations. By use of the Poincare map, the dynamical behavior is identified based on the numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The bifurcation diagrams are presented in the case that the mean axial speed, the amplitude of speed fluctuation and the dynamic viscoelasticity is respectively varied while other parameters are fixed. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated to identify chaos. From numerical simulations, it is indicated that the periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions occur in the transverse vibrations of the axially accelerating viscoelastic beam

17. Plasma sheath axial phase dynamics in coaxial device

Soliman, H.M. (Plasma Physics Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)); Masoud, M.M. (Plasma Physics Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt))

1994-10-01

The study of the plasma sheath dynamics in the axial phase has been carried out in a 3 kJ coaxial system of Mather type for two different inner electrode (IE) lengths, 20 cm and 31.5 cm. For both lengths, measurements showed that the plasma sheath is splitted into two layers at the breech, which is referred to as a shock front and its magnetic piston. It has been found that the two layers of the plasma current sheath rotate around the inner electrode. At the muzzle the back layer reverse its rotation direction due to the magnetic field structure of the system. Results showed that the axial velocity of the first layer is greater than the second one all over the axial phase within the range between 1.4 and 1.7. (orig.).

18. Plasma sheath axial phase dynamics in coaxial device

Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.

1994-01-01

The study of the plasma sheath dynamics in the axial phase has been carried out in a 3 kJ coaxial system of Mather type for two different inner electrode (IE) lengths, 20 cm and 31.5 cm. For both lengths, measurements showed that the plasma sheath is splitted into two layers at the breech, which is referred to as a shock front and its magnetic piston. It has been found that the two layers of the plasma current sheath rotate around the inner electrode. At the muzzle the back layer reverse its rotation direction due to the magnetic field structure of the system. Results showed that the axial velocity of the first layer is greater than the second one all over the axial phase within the range between 1.4 and 1.7. (orig.)

19. Thermocapillary Convection in Floating Zone with Axial Magnetic Fields

Liang, Ruquan; Yang, Shuo; Li, Jizhao

2014-02-01

Numerical simulations on the effects of axial magnetic fields on the thermocapillary convection in a liquid bridge of silicone-oil-based ferrofluid under zero gravity have been conducted. The Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy conservation equation are solved on a staggered grid, and the mass conserving level set approach is used to capture the free surface deformation of the liquid bridge. The obvious effects of the magnetic fields on the flow pattern as well as the velocity and temperature distributions in the liquid bridge can be detected. The axial magnetic fields suppress the thermocapillary convection and a stagnant flow zone is formed between the circulating flow and the symmetric axis as the magnetic fields increase. The axial magnetic fields affect not only the velocity level inside the liquid bridge but also the velocity level on the free surface. The temperature contours near the free surface illustrates conduction-type temperature profiles at moderate strength fields.

20. Anisotropic yield surfaces in bi-axial cyclic plasticity

Rider, R.J.; Harvey, S.J.; Breckell, T.H.

1985-01-01

Some aspects of the behaviour of yield surfaces and work-hardening surfaces occurring in biaxial cyclic plasticity have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work consisted of subjecting thin-walled tubular steel specimens to cyclic plastic torsion in the presence of sustained axial loads of various magnitudes. The experimental results show that considerable anisotropy is induced when the cyclic shear strains are dominant. Although the true shapes of yield and work-hardening surfaces can be very complex, a mathematical model is presented which includes both anisotropy and Bauschinger effects. The model is able to qualitatively predict the deformation patterns during a cycle of applied plastic shear strain for a range of sustained axial stresses and also indicate the material response to changes in axial stress. (orig.)

1. Axial blanket enrichment optimization of the NPP Krsko fuel

Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

2001-01-01

In this paper optimal axial blanket enrichment of the NPP Krsko fuel is investigated. Since the optimization is dictated by economic categories that can significantly vary in time, two step approach is applied. In the first step simple relationship between the equivalent change in enrichment of axial blankets and central fuel region is established. The relationship is afterwards processed with economic criteria and constraints to obtain optimal axial blanket enrichment. In the analysis realistic NPP Krsko conditions are considered. Except for the fuel enrichment all other fuel characteristics are the same as in the fuel used in the few most recent cycles. A typical reload cycle after the plant power uprate is examined. Analysis has shown that the current blanket enrichment is close to the optimal. Blanket enrichment reduction results in an approximately 100 000 USsavings per fuel cycle.(author) 2. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor) 2016-01-01 An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance. 3. Axially modulated arch resonator for logic and memory applications Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al 2018-01-17 We demonstrate reconfigurable logic and random access memory devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device is electrostatically actuated and the motional signal is capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency is modulated through an axial electrostatic force from the guided side of the microbeam. A multi-physics finite element model is used to verify the effectiveness of the axial modulation. We present two case studies: first, a reconfigurable two-input logic gate based on the linear resonance frequency modulation, and second, a memory element based on the hysteretic frequency response of the resonator working in the nonlinear regime. The energy consumptions of the device for both logic and memory operations are in the range of picojoules, promising for energy efficient alternative computing paradigm. 4. Linear optical response of carbon nanotubes under axial magnetic field Moradian, Rostam; Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh 2010-04-01 We considered single walled carbon naotubes (SWCNTs) as real three dimensional (3D) systems in a cylindrical coordinate. The optical matrix elements and linear susceptibility, χ(ω), in the tight binding approximation in terms of one-dimensional wave vector, kz and subband index, l are calculated. In an external axial magnetic field optical frequency dependence of linear susceptibility are investigated. We found that axial magnetic field has two effects on the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. The first effect is broadening and the second, splitting. Also we found that for all metallic zigzag and armchair SWCNTs, the axial magnetic field leads to the creation of a peak with energy less than 1.5 eV, contrary to what is observed in the absence of a magnetic field. 5. [Myopia: frequency of lattice degeneration and axial length]. Martín Sánchez, M D; Roldán Pallarés, M 2001-05-01 To evaluate the relationship between lattice retinal degeneration and axial length of the eye in different grades of myopia. A sample of 200 eyes from 124 myopic patients was collected by chance. The average age was 34.8 years (20-50 years) and the myopia was between 0.5 and 20 diopters (D). The eyes were grouped according to the degree of refraction defect, the mean axial length of each group (Scan A) and the frequency of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship between these variables was studied. The possible influence of age on our results was also considered. For the statistical analysis, the SAS 6.07 program with the variance analysis for quantitative variables, and chi(2) test for qualitative variables with a 5% significance were used. A multivariable linear regression model was also adjusted. The highest frequency of lattice retinal degeneration occurred in those myopia patients having more than 15 D, and also in the group of myopia patients between 3 and 6 D, but this did not show statistical significance when compared with the other myopic groups. If the axial length is assessed, a greater frequency of lattice retinal degeneration is also found when the axial length is 25-27 mm and 29-30 mm, which correspond, respectively, to myopias between 3-10 D and more than 15 D. When the multivariable linear regression model was adjusted, the axial length showed the existence of lattice retinal degeneration (beta 0.41 mm; p=0.08) adjusted by the number of diopters (beta 0.38 mm; plattice retinal degeneration was found for myopias with axial eye length between 29-30 mm (more than 15 D), and 25-27 mm (between 3-10 D). 6. Spectral analysis in thin tubes with axial heterogeneities Ferreira, Rita; Mascarenhas, M. Luí sa; Piatnitski, Andrey 2015-01-01 In this paper, we present the 3D-1D asymptotic analysis of the Dirichlet spectral problem associated with an elliptic operator with axial periodic heterogeneities. We extend to the 3D-1D case previous 3D-2D results (see [10]) and we analyze the special case where the scale of thickness is much smaller than the scale of the heterogeneities and the planar coefficient has a unique global minimum in the periodic cell. These results are of great relevance in the comprehension of the wave propagation in nanowires showing axial heterogeneities (see [17]). 7. Manufacture of axially insulated large-area diodes Ma Weiyi; Zhou Kungang; Wang Youtian; Zhang Dong; Shan Yusheng; Wang Naiyan 1999-01-01 The author describes the design and construction of the axially insulated large-area diodes used in the 'Heaven-1'. The four axially insulated large-area diodes are connected to the 10 ohm pulse transmission lines via the vacuum feed through tubes. The experimental results with the diodes are given. The diodes can steadily work at the voltage of 650 kV, and the diode current density is about 80 A per cm 2 with a pulse width of 220 ns. The electron beams with a total energy of 25 kJ are obtained 8. Study on Predicting Axial Load Capacity of CFST Columns Ravi Kumar, H.; Muthu, K. U.; Kumar, N. S. 2017-11-01 This work presents an analytical study and experimental study on the behaviour and ultimate load carrying capacity of axially compressed self-compacting concrete-filled steel tubular columns. Results of tests conducted by various researchers on 213 samples concrete-filled steel tubular columns are reported and present authors experimental data are reported. Two theoretical equations were derived for the prediction of the ultimate axial load strength of concrete-filled steel tubular columns. The results from prediction were compared with the experimental data. Validation to the experimental results was made. 9. Light-front view of the axial anomaly Ji, C.; Rey, S. 1996-01-01 Motivated by an apparent puzzle of the light-front vacua incompatible with the axial anomaly, we have considered the two-dimensional massless Schwinger model for an arbitrary interpolating angle of Hornbostel close-quote s interpolating quantization surface. By examining spectral deformation of the Dirac sea under an external electric field semiclassically, we have found that the axial anomaly is quantization angle independent. This indicates an intricate nontrivial vacuum structure present even in the light-front limit. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society 10. Study of different aerodynamics modifications for small axial flow fan Bin Abdul Jalil, Anas 2017-01-01 En este proyecto, se investigaron los efectos de los álabes en el comportamiento aerodinámico de pequeños ventiladores axiales para disminuir la turbulencia del flujo en su superficie y generalmente para mejorar el rendimiento aerodinámico. Se estudiaron mediante simulación dos modificaciones en la superficie de los alabes de un pequeño ventilador axial (modelo 1, prototipo): la situación de un “winglet” en el extremo del álabe (modelo 2) y el diseño denominado de “aleta de tiburón” (modelo 3... 11. Dispersive approach to the axial anomaly and nonrenormalization theorem Pasechnik, R.S.; Teryaev, O.V. 2006-01-01 Anomalous triangle graphs for the divergence of the axial-vector current are studied using the dispersive approach generalized for the case of higher orders of perturbation theory. The validity of this procedure is proved up to the two-loop level. By direct calculation in the framework of dispersive approach we have obtained that the two-loop axial-vector-vector (AVV) amplitude is equal to zero. According to the Vainshtein's theorem, the transversal part of the anomalous triangle is not renormalized in the chiral limit. We generalize this theorem for the case of finite fermion mass in the triangle loop 12. Asymptotic freedom in the axial and Coulomb gauges Frenkel, J.; Taylor, J.C. 1976-01-01 The sources of the negative contribution to the charge renormalization factor gsup(B)/g-1 in Yang-Mills theories are investigated in the axial and Coulomb gauges. In the axial gauge, a Kaellen dispersion relation exists but the spectral function is not positive definite because of the prescription that is used to integrate the singular polarization vectors. In the Coulomb gauge, the negative contributions are (to the lowest order) isolated in the Coulomb self-energy corrections to the Coulomb field. (Auth.) 13. Rotating stall simulation for axial and centrifugal compressors Halawa, Taher; Gadala, Mohamed S. 2017-05-01 This study presents a numerical simulation of the rotating stall phenomenon in axial and centrifugal compressors with detailed descriptions of stall precursors and its development with time. Results showed that the vaneless region of the centrifugal compressor is the most critical location affected by stall. It was found that the tip leakage flow and the back flow impingement are the main cause of the stall development at the impeller exit area for centrifugal compressors. The results of the axial compressor simulations indicated that the early separated flow combined with the tip leakage flow can block the impeller passages during stall. 14. Study on Axial Compressive Capacity of FRP-Confined Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes and Its Comparisons with Other Composite Structural Systems Jun Deng 2017-01-01 Full Text Available Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST columns have been widely used for constructions in recent decades because of their high axial strength. In CFSTs, however, steel tubes are susceptible to degradation due to corrosion, which results in the decrease of axial strength of CFSTs. To further improve the axial strength of CFST columns, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP sheets and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP sheets are applied to warp the CFSTs. This paper presents an experimental study on the axial compressive capacity of CFRP-confined CFSTs and BFRP-confined CFSTs, which verified the analytical model with considering the effect of concrete self-stressing. CFSTs wrapped with FRP exhibited a higher ductile behavior. Wrapping with CFRP and BFRP improves the axial compressive capacity of CFSTs by 61.4% and 17.7%, respectively. Compared with the previous composite structural systems of concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs and double-skin tubular columns (DSTCs, FRP-confined CFSTs were convenient in reinforcing existing structures because of softness of the FRP sheets. Moreover, axial compressive capacity of CFSTs wrapped with CFRP sheets was higher than CFFTs and DSTCs, while the compressive strength of DSTCs was higher than the retrofitted CFSTs. 15. Foot strike pattern differently affects the axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation in downhill trail running. Giandolini, Marlene; Horvais, Nicolas; Rossi, Jérémy; Millet, Guillaume Y; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoît 2016-06-14 Trail runners are exposed to a high number of shocks, including high-intensity shocks on downhill sections leading to greater risk of osseous overuse injury. The type of foot strike pattern (FSP) is known to influence impact severity and lower-limb kinematics. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of FSP on axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation during an intense downhill trail run (DTR). Twenty-three trail runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264m of negative elevation change) as fast as possible. Four tri-axial accelerometers were attached to the heel, metatarsals, tibia and sacrum. Accelerations were continuously recorded at 1344Hz and analyzed over six sections (~400 steps per subject). Heel and metatarsal accelerations were used to identify the FSP. Axial, transverse and resultant peak accelerations, median frequencies and shock attenuation within the impact-related frequency range (12-20Hz) were assessed between tibia and sacrum. Multiple linear regressions showed that anterior (i.e. forefoot) FSPs were associated with higher peak axial acceleration and median frequency at the tibia, lower transverse median frequencies at the tibia and sacrum, and lower transverse peak acceleration at the sacrum. For resultant acceleration, higher tibial median frequency but lower sacral peak acceleration were reported with forefoot striking. FSP therefore differently affects the components of impact shock acceleration. Although a forefoot strike reduces impact severity and impact frequency content along the transverse axis, a rearfoot strike decreases them in the axial direction. Globally, the attenuation of axial and resultant impact-related vibrations was improved using anterior FSPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 16. Evaluation of physiotherapy in a prospective cohort of early axial spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR cohort. Escalas, Cécile; Dalichampt, Marie; Dougados, Maxime; Poiraudeau, Serge 2016-03-01 To evaluate the effect of physiotherapy on functional limitation in an observational cohort of early axial spondyloarthritis. prospective population-based cohort study. 708 patients with early axial spondyloarthritis between 2007 and 2010 naive of TNF blockers. early physiotherapy defined by at least eight supervised sessions of physical therapy during the first six months. the primary outcome was functional improvement defined by a relative improvement of at least 20% in BASFI at six months. Secondary outcomes were improvement in BASFI at one and two years and ASAS20 response criteria at six months. a propensity score of having physiotherapy was developed and multivariate analysis using propensity score weighting were used to assess the effect of physiotherapy on outcome. Overall, 166 (24%) patients had physiotherapy during the first six months. After using propensity score weighting, there was no functional improvement on the primary outcome in patients treated with early physical therapy (relative risk [IC95%]: 1.15 [0.91-1.45]). No differences were observed on secondary outcomes (relative risk [IC95%]: 0.94 [0.80-1.11]). It seems there is no functional benefit for patients with early spondyloarthritis to be treated early by physiotherapy in daily practice, even though the efficacy of physiotherapy has been shown in several randomized controlled studies. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. 17. Optimization on cooperative feed strategy for radial–axial ring rolling process of Inco718 alloy by RSM and FEM Zhu Xinglin 2016-06-01 Full Text Available During radial–axial ring rolling process, cooperative strategy of the radial–axial feed is critical for dimensional accuracy and thermo mechanical parameters distribution of the formed ring. In order to improve the comprehensive quality of the ring parts, response surface method (RSM is employed for the first time to optimize the cooperative feed strategy for radial–axial ring rolling process by combining it with an improved and verified 3D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model. The feed trajectory is put forward to describe cooperative relationship of the radial–axial feed and three variables are designed based on the feed trajectory. In order to achieve multi-objective optimization, four responses including thermo mechanical parameters distribution and rolling force are proposed. Based on the FEM results, RSM is used to establish a response model to depict the function relationship between the objective response and design variables. Through this approximate model, effects of different variables on ring rolling process are analyzed connectedly and optimal feed strategy is obtained by resorting to the optimal chart specific to a constraint condition. 18. Redesigning axial-axial (biaxial) cruciform specimens for very high cycle fatigue ultrasonic testing machines. Montalvão, Diogo; Wren, Andrew 2017-11-01 The necessity to increase performances in terms of lifetime and security in mechanical components or structures is the motivation for intense research in fatigue. Applications range from aeronautics to medical devices. With the development of new materials, there is no longer a fatigue limit in the classical sense, where it was accepted that the fatigue limit is the stress level such that there is no fracture up to 1E7 cycles. The recent development of ultrasonic testing machines where frequencies can go as high as 20 kHz or over enabled tests to be extended to ranges larger than 1E9 in just a few days. This area of studies is now known as Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF). On the other hand, most of the existing test equipment in the market for both classical and VHCF are uniaxial test machines. However, critical components used in Engineering applications are usually subjected to complex multi-axial loading conditions. In this paper, it is presented the methodology to redesigning existing cruciform test specimens that can be used to create an in-plane biaxial state of stress when used in 'uniaxial' VHCF ultrasonic testing machines (in this case, the term 'uniaxial' is used not because of the state of stress created at the centre of the specimen, but because of the direction at which the load is applied). The methodology is explained in such a way that it can be expanded to other existing designs, namely cruciform designs, that are not yet used in VHCF. Also, although the approach is presented in simple and logical terms, it may not be that obvious for those who have a more focused approach on fatigue rather than on modal analysis. It is expected that by contributing to bridging the gap between the sciences of modal analysis and fatigue, this research will help and encourage others exploiting new capabilities in VHCF. 19. Collimator trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera Jaszczak, Ronald J. 1979-01-01 An improved collimator is provided for a scintillation camera system that employs a detector head for transaxial tomographic scanning. One object of this invention is to significantly reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Another is to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a radiation source of known strength without sacrificing spatial resolution. A further object is to reduce the necessary scanning time without degrading the images obtained. The collimator described has apertures defined by septa of different radiation transparency. The septa are aligned to provide greater radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and less radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within other planes. Septa may also define apertures such that the collimator provides high spatial resolution of gamma rays traveling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and directed at the detector and high radiation sensitivity to gamma radiation travelling other planes and indicated at the detector. (LL) 20. Baryon axial charges and momentum fractions with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical fermions Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others) 2011-02-15 We report on recent results of the QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration on investigations of baryon structure using configurations generated with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. With the strange quark mass as an additional dynamical degree of freedom in our simulations we avoid the need for a partially quenched approximation when investigating the properties of particles containing a strange quark, e.g. the hyperons. In particular, we focus on the nucleon and hyperon axial coupling constants and quark momentum fractions. (orig.) 1. Potential of axial fuel management strategies in thorium-fuelled CANDU's Milgram, M.S. 1978-06-01 Three axial fuel management strategies are compared for use in a CANDU-PHW reactor operating on a self-sufficient, equilibrium thorium cycle. Two of these strategies are familiar ones for uranium reactors, and the third seeks to take advantage of the nuclear characteristics of the Th 232 → U 233 transmutation chain to improve the economics of the fuel cycle by periodically removing the fuel from the reactor. This results in an approximately 50% increase in burnup and an approximately 15% decrease in heavy element fuel inventory at a channel power of 6 MW, relative to the other strategies. (author) 2. The influence of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices Idris, A; Pullen, K 2013-01-01 The effects of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices are presented in this paper. Both experimental and CFD results show that chamfering and corner radiusing improve the discharge coefficient of rotating orifices. For non-inclined rotating orifices, the discharge coefficient reduces with increasing speed, but chamfered and radiused orifices manage to have higher discharge coefficient (C d ) than the straight edge orifices. Comparing between chamfering and corner radiusing, the radiused corner orifice has the highest C d at every rotational speed. This is because the inlet radius helps guiding the flow into the orifice and avoiding flow separation at the inlet. 3. Osteoesclerosant axial. Proposal for a new diagnostic approach Toro, Carlos Enrique; Quintana Duque, Mario Andres; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Quintana, Gerardo; Rondon, Federico; Sanchez, Alvaro; Cons Molina, Fidencio; Gamarra, Antonio Iglesias 2007-01-01 Osteosclerosant diseases with axial involvement are a rare group of disorders characterized by a high bone mineral density secondary to impairment in the endochondral and membranous bone formation process. In this article we analyzed the current classification of these diseases and propose a new and simple approach. In addition, we describe the main radiologic, laboratory and clinical keys to arrive to the differential diagnosis 4. On aspects of vibration of axially moving continua Hageraats-Ponomareva, S. 2009-01-01 In axially moving structures like conveyor belt systems, magnetic tapes, and so on, vibrations occur due to the presence of different kinds of imperfections in the systems. For these structures internal resonances can lead to severe vibrations. Resonance free conveyor belt systems can be constructed 5. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs for Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Cochrane Review Kroon, Féline P. B.; van der Burg, Lennart R. A.; Ramiro, Sofia; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Falzon, Louise; van der Heijde, Désirée 2016-01-01 To determine the benefits and harms of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Systematic review using Cochrane Collaboration methodology. randomized controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-RCT (to June 2014), investigating NSAID versus any control for axSpA, and 6. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer (R807) 1980-01-01 In this view of the Axial Field Spectrometer at I8, the vertical uranium/scintillator hadron calorimeter (just left of centre) is retracted to give access to the cylindrical central drift chamber. The yellow iron structure served as a filter to identify muons, with MWPCs and the array of Cherenkov counters to the right. 7. Supersymmetric axial anomalies and the Wess-Zumino action Harada, K.; Shizuya, K. 1988-01-01 We derive, by an algebraic method, a manifestly supersymmetric extension of Bardeen's minimal form of axial anomalies, which obeys the Wess-Zumino consistency condition. The left-right symmetric form of the anomalies is also obtained by a reduction procedure. We construct the supersymmetric Wess-Zumino effective action and study its low-energy features. (orig.) 8. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in axial spondyloarthritis Krabbe, Simon; Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris 2018-01-01 Objective. To investigate whether adalimumab (ADA) reduces whole-body (WB-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices for inflammation in the entheses, peripheral joints, sacroiliac joints, spine, and the entire body in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Methods. An investigator-initia... 9. Fission gas retention and axial expansion of irradiated metallic fuel Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W. 1986-05-01 Out-of-reactor experiments utilizing direct electrical heating and infrared heating techniques were performed on irradiated metallic fuel. The results indicate accelerated expansion can occur during thermal transients and that the accelerated expansion is driven by retained fission gases. The results also demonstrate gas retention and, hence, expansion behavior is a function of axial position within the pin 10. Elevated temperature axial and torsional fatigue behavior of Haynes 188 Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh 1992-06-01 The results of high-temperature axial and torsional low-cycle fatigue experiments performed on Haynes 188, a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, are reported. Fatigue tests were performed at 760 C in air on thin-walled tubular specimens at various ranges under strain control. Data are also presented for coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, and shear modulus at various temperatures from room to 1000 C, and monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves in tension and in shear at 760 C. The data set is used to evaluate several multiaxial fatigue life models (most were originally developed for room temperature multiaxial life prediction) including von Mises equivalent strain range (ASME boiler and pressure vessel code), Manson-Halford, Modified Multiaxiality Factor (proposed here), Modified Smith-Watson-Topper, and Fatemi-Socie-Kurath. At von Mises equivalent strain ranges (the torsional strain range divided by the square root of 3, taking the Poisson's ratio to be 0.5), torsionally strained specimens lasted, on average, factors of 2 to 3 times longer than axially strained specimens. The Modified Multiaxiality Factor approach shows promise as a useful method of estimating torsional fatigue life from axial fatigue data at high temperatures. Several difficulties arose with the specimen geometry and extensometry used in these experiments. Cracking at extensometer probe indentations was a problem at smaller strain ranges. Also, as the largest axial and torsional strain range fatigue tests neared completion, a small amount of specimen buckling was observed. 11. Axial and focal-plane diffraction catastrophe integrals Berry, M V; Howls, C J 2010-01-01 Exact expressions in terms of Bessel functions are found for some of the diffraction catastrophe integrals that decorate caustics in optics and mechanics. These are the axial and focal-plane sections of the elliptic and hyperbolic umbilic diffraction catastrophes, and symmetric elliptic and hyperbolic unfoldings of the X 9 diffraction catastrophes. These representations reveal unexpected relations between the integrals. 12. Evaluation of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of multi-axial ... 2016-08-26 Aug 26, 2016 ... ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Evaluation of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of multi-axial fabrics and their reinforced PES composites. RAMAZAN ERDEM. Volume 39 Issue 4 August 2016 pp 963-970 ... 13. Employing a tri-axial accelerometer for estimating energy ... The Tritrac-R3D, a portable tri-axial accelerometer, was assessed for its ability to estimate energy expenditure during simulated load carrying activities. The Tritrac data were compared to metabolic data collected simultaneously by a MetaMax ergospirometry system while ten, healthy male subjects (aged 20.7 ±1.4 years) ... 14. On the axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma Lehnert, B. 1975-01-01 The axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma is reconsidered, with the special purpose of studying high-beta schemes with a purely poloidal magnetic field. A number of special solutions of the pressure and magnetic flux functions are shown to exist, the obtained results may form starting-points in a further analysis of physically relevant configurations. (Auth.) 15. Developmental ossification sequences of the appendicular and axial ... A pre-hatch developmental study on ossification sequences of axial and appendicular skeletal system in Kuttanad duck embryos was undertaken using 78 viable embryos. From day 3 to day 7 of incubation no ossification densities were seen both by alizarin red staining and computerized radiography. The first indication of ... 16. Is a charmed axial-vector meson already found Matsuda, S. 1976-12-01 A calculation is presented of the production rate via e + e - annihilation for a charmed p-wave meson of Jsup(P) = 1 + , based on a non-relativistic quark model of charmed hadrons. The results strongly suggest that the charmed axial-vector meson should be found copiously in association with a ground-state charmed meson. (author) 17. Solution of the gauge identities in the axial gauge Delbourgo, R. 1981-01-01 Starting from the spectral representation of the two-point functions in the axial gauge, the gauge identities are solved so as to express the higher-point Green functions linearly in terms of the two-point spectral function. The four-point functions are an important input for investigations of scalar electrodynamics and vector chromodynamics based on the gauge technique. (author) 18. A cylindrical drift chamber with azimuthal and axial position readout Bar-Yam, Z.; Cummings, J.P.; Dowd, J.P.; Eugenio, P.; Hayek, M.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Shenhav, N.; Chung, S.U.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Olchanski, C.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.; Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Gunter, J.; Lindenbusch, R.; Rust, D.R.; Scott, E.; Smith, P.T.; Sulanke, T.; Teige, S.; Denisov, S.; Dushkin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.; Shein, I.; Soldatov, A.; Anoshina, E.V.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Kodolova, O.L.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Kostin, M.A.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sinev, N.B.; Vardanyan, I.N.; Yershov, A.A.; Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; Sanjari, A.H.; LoSecco, J.M.; Manak, J.J.; Shephard, W.D.; Stienike, D.L.; Taegar, S.A.; Thompson, D.R.; Brown, D.S.; Pedlar, T.; Seth, K.K.; Wise, J.; Zhao, D.; Adams, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, M. 1997-01-01 A cylindrical multiwire drift chamber with axial charge-division has been constructed and used in experiment E852 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It serves as a trigger element and as a tracking device for recoil protons in π - p interactions. We describe the chamber's design considerations, details of its construction, electronics, and performance characteristics. (orig.) 19. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ... 2017-12-05 Dec 5, 2017 ... variously described as determined by the ocular biometric variables. There have been many studies on the relationship between refractive error and ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth, corneal radius of curvature (CR), keratometric readings as well as other ocular biometric variables such as ... 20. Effects of axial coordination on immobilized Mn(salen) catalysts. Teixeira, Filipe; Mosquera, Ricardo A; Melo, André; Freire, Cristina; Cordeiro, M Natália D S 2014-11-13 The consequences of anchoring Mn(salen) catalysts onto a supporting material using one of the vacant positions of the metal center are tackled by studying several Mn(salen) complexes with different axial ligands attached. This is accomplished using Density Functional Theory at the X3LYP/Triple-ζ level of theory and the Atom In Molecules formalism. The results suggest that both Mn(salen) complexes and their oxo derivatives should lie in a triplet ground state. Also, the choice of the axial ligand bears a moderate effect on the energy involved in the oxidation of the former to oxo-Mn(salen) complexes, as well as in the stability of such complexes toward ligand removal by HCl. AIM analysis further suggests that the salen ligand acts as a "charge reservoir" for the metal center, with strong correlations being obtained between the charge of salen and the electron population donated by the axial ligand to the metal center. Moreover, the results suggest that the Mn atom in Mn(salen) complexes holds different hybridization of its valence orbitals depending on the type of axial ligand present in the system. 1. Evaluation of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of multi-axial ... The usage of electrical and electronic equipments has been increasing in daily life, which has a potential hazardous impact on humans and other living organisms. In this paper, multi-axial fabrics containing steel yarns and carbon filaments, and their polyester (PES) resin-reinforced composites have been prepared for ... 2. Probability analysis of dynamical effects of axial piston hydraulic motor Sapietova Alzbeta; Dekys Vladimír; Sapieta Milan; Sulka Peter; Gajdos Lukas; Rojek Izabela 2018-01-01 The paper presents an analysis of impact force on stopper screw in axial piston hydraulic motor. The solution contains probabilistic description of input variables. If the output parameters of probabilistic solution are compared with arbitrary values and values acquired by analytical solution, the probability of proper operation of the device can be evaluated. 3. Characterisation of plasmas produced by the "torche à injection axiale" Jonkers, J.; Selen, L.J.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Fauchais, P. 1997-01-01 Two different kinds of plasmas created by the microwave driven Torche a' Injection Axiale (TIA) are investigated: one with helium and the other with argon as the main gas. By using abs. line intensity measurements, the densities of the excited states are detd. Applying the ideal gas law gives the 4. Axial Torsion of Gangrenous Meckel's Diverticulum Causing Small ... dividing the band. Resection and anastomosis of the small bowel including the MD was performed. We hereby report a rare and unusual complication of a MD. Although treatment outcome is generally good, pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. Key words: Axial torsion, Meckel's diverticulum, small bowel obstruction. 5. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R. 1985-01-01 We present the calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2 n/2 (n:number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (author) [pt 6. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A. 1985-01-01 We present a calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2sup(π/2) (n: number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (orig.) 7. Spin energy levels in axial symmetry: spin 4 de Biasi, R S; Portella, P D [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais 1979-01-01 The spin energy levels in axial symmetry are presented, in graphical and tabular form, for a spin 4. The levels are calculated for five different angles between the applied field and the symmetry axis 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, 60 and 90/sup 0/. 8. Spin energy levels in axial symmetry: spin 3/2 de Biasi, R S; Portella, P D [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais 1977-01-01 The spin energy levels in axial symmetry are presented, in graphical and tabular form, for a spin 3/2. The levels are calculated for five different angles between the applied field and the symmetry axis: 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/. 9. Axial heterogeneous core concept applied for super phoenix reactor Batista, J.L.; Renke, C.A.C.; Waintraub, M.; Santos Bastos, W. dos; Brito Aghina, L.O. de. 1991-11-01 Always maintaining the current design rules, this paper presents a parametric study on the type of axial heterogeneous core concept (CHA), utilizing a core of fast reactor Super Phenix type, reaching a maximum thermal burnup rate of 150000 M W d/t and being managed in single batch. (author) 10. Boundary layer flow past a circular cylinder in axial flow Sawchuk, S.P.; Zamir, M.; Camiletti, S.E. 1985-01-01 This paper discusses a study of the laminar boundary layer on a semi-infinite circular cylinder in axial incompressible flow. Unlike previous studies, the present study investigates a full range of this boundary layer problem to determine skin friction, heat transfer and other integral properties of the boundary layer 11. Axial SPN and radial MOC coupled whole core transport calculation Cho, Jin-Young; Kim, Kang-Seog; Lee, Chung-Chan; Zee, Sung-Quun; Joo, Han-Gyu 2007-01-01 The Simplified P N (SP N ) method is applied to the axial solution of the two-dimensional (2-D) method of characteristics (MOC) solution based whole core transport calculation. A sub-plane scheme and the nodal expansion method (NEM) are employed for the solution of the one-dimensional (1-D) SP N equations involving a radial transverse leakage. The SP N solver replaces the axial diffusion solver of the DeCART direct whole core transport code to provide more accurate, transport theory based axial solutions. In the sub-plane scheme, the radial equivalent homogenization parameters generated by the local MOC for a thick plane are assigned to the multiple finer planes in the subsequent global three-dimensional (3-D) coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) calculation in which the NEM is employed for the axial solution. The sub-plane scheme induces a much less nodal error while having little impact on the axial leakage representation of the radial MOC calculation. The performance of the sub-plane scheme and SP N nodal transport solver is examined by solving a set of demonstrative problems and the C5G7MOX 3-D extension benchmark problems. It is shown in the demonstrative problems that the nodal error reaching upto 1,400 pcm in a rodded case is reduced to 10 pcm by introducing 10 sub-planes per MOC plane and the transport error is reduced from about 150 pcm to 10 pcm by using SP 3 . Also it is observed, in the C5G7MOX rodded configuration B problem, that the eigenvalues and pin power errors of 180 pcm and 2.2% of the 10 sub-planes diffusion case are reduced to 40 pcm and 1.4%, respectively, for SP 3 with only about a 15% increase in the computing time. It is shown that the SP 5 case gives very similar results to the SP 3 case. (author) 12. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries Mammoto Takeo 2012-05-01 Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. 13. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries 2012-01-01 Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840 14. Two-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of an axially moving viscoelastic beam with time-dependent axial speed Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco; Farokhi, Hamed 2013-01-01 In the present study, the coupled nonlinear dynamics of an axially moving viscoelastic beam with time-dependent axial speed is investigated employing a numerical technique. The equations of motion for both the transverse and longitudinal motions are obtained using Newton’s second law of motion and the constitutive relations. A two-parameter rheological model of the Kelvin–Voigt energy dissipation mechanism is employed in the modelling of the viscoelastic beam material, in which the material time derivative is used in the viscoelastic constitutive relation. The Galerkin method is then applied to the coupled nonlinear equations, which are in the form of partial differential equations, resulting in a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with time-dependent coefficients due to the axial acceleration. A change of variables is then introduced to this set of ODEs to transform them into a set of first-order ordinary differential equations. A variable step-size modified Rosenbrock method is used to conduct direct time integration upon this new set of first-order nonlinear ODEs. The mean axial speed and the amplitude of the speed variations, which are taken as bifurcation parameters, are varied, resulting in the bifurcation diagrams of Poincaré maps of the system. The dynamical characteristics of the system are examined more precisely via plotting time histories, phase-plane portraits, Poincaré sections, and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) 15. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis) Kroon, Feline P. B.; van der Burg, Lennart R. A.; Ramiro, Sofia; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Falzon, Louise; van der Heijde, Désirée 2015-01-01 Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) comprises ankylosing spondylitis (radiographic axSpA) and non-radiographic (nr-)axSpA and is associated with psoriasis, uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended as first-line drug treatment. To determine 16. Investigation on the radial micro-motion about piston of axial piston pump Xu, Bing; Zhang, Junhui; Yang, Huayong; Zhang, Bin 2013-03-01 The limit working parameters and service life of axial piston pump are determined by the carrying ability and lubrication characteristic of its key friction pairs. Therefore, the design and optimization of the key friction pairs are always a key and difficult problem in the research on axial piston pump. In the traditional research on piston/cylinder pair, the assembly relationship of piston and cylinder bore is simplified into ideal cylindrical pair, which can not be used to analyze the influences of radial micro-motion of piston on the distribution characteristics of oil-film thickness and pressure in details. In this paper, based on the lubrication theory of the oil film, a numerical simulation model is built, taking the influences of roughness, elastic deformation of piston and pressure-viscosity effect into consideration. With the simulation model, the dynamic characteristics of the radial micro-motion and pressure distribution are analyzed, and the relationships between radial micro-motion and carrying ability, lubrication condition, and abrasion are discussed. Furthermore, a model pump for pressure distribution measurement of oil film between piston and cylinder bore is designed. The comparison of simulation and experimental results of pressure distribution shows that the simulation model has high accuracy. The experiment and simulation results demonstrate that the pressure distribution has peak values that are much higher than the boundary pressure in the piston chamber due to the radial micro-motion, and the abrasion of piston takes place mainly on the hand close to piston ball. In addition, improvement of manufacturing roundness and straightness of piston and cylinder bore is helpful to improve the carrying ability of piston/cylinder pair. The proposed research provides references for designing piston/cylinder pair, and helps to prolong the service life of axial piston pump. 17. Micro-/nanosized cantilever beams and mass sensors under applied axial tensile/compressive force vibrating in vacuum and viscous fluid Ivo Stachiv 2015-11-01 Full Text Available Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions. 18. Three-Dimensional Temperature Field Calculation and Analysis of an Axial-Radial Flux-Type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Dong Li 2018-05-01 Full Text Available This article concentrates on the steady-state thermal characteristics of the Axial-Radial Flux-Type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (ARFTPMSM. Firstly, the three-dimensional mathematical models for electromagnetic calculation and analyses are established, and the machine loss, including the stator loss, armature winding loss, rotor loss, and axial structure loss is calculated by using time-step Finite Element Method (FEM. Then, the loss distribution is assigned as the heat source for the thermal calculation. Secondly, the mathematical model for thermal calculation is also established. The assumptions and the boundary conditions are proposed to simplify the calculation and to improve convergence. Thirdly, the three-dimensional electromagnetic and thermal calculations of the machine, of which the armature winding and axial field winding are developed by using copper wires, are solved, from which the temperature distributions of the machine components are obtained. The experiments are carried out on the prototype with copper wires to validate the accuracy of the established models. Then, the temperature distributions of machine components under different Axial Magnetic Motive Force (AMMF are investigated. Since the machine is finally developing by using HTS wires, the temperature distributions of machine developed by utilizing High Temperature Superconducting (HTS wires, are also studied. The temperature distribution differences of the machine developed by using copper wires and HTS wires are drawn. All of these above will provide a helpful reference for the thermal calculation of the ARFTPMSM, as well as the design of the HTS coils and the cryogenic cooling system. 19. Generation of parasitic axial flow by drift wave turbulence with broken symmetry: Theory and experiment Hong, R.; Li, J. C.; Hajjar, R.; Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R. 2018-05-01 Detailed measurements of intrinsic axial flow generation parallel to the magnetic field in the controlled shear decorrelation experiment linear plasma device with no axial momentum input are presented and compared to theory. The results show a causal link from the density gradient to drift-wave turbulence with broken spectral symmetry and development of the axial mean parallel flow. As the density gradient steepens, the axial and azimuthal Reynolds stresses increase and radially sheared azimuthal and axial mean flows develop. A turbulent axial momentum balance analysis shows that the axial Reynolds stress drives the radially sheared axial mean flow. The turbulent drive (Reynolds power) for the azimuthal flow is an order of magnitude greater than that for axial flow, suggesting that the turbulence fluctuation levels are set by azimuthal flow shear regulation. The direct energy exchange between axial and azimuthal mean flows is shown to be insignificant. Therefore, the axial flow is parasitic to the turbulence-zonal flow system and is driven primarily by the axial turbulent stress generated by that system. The non-diffusive, residual part of the axial Reynolds stress is found to be proportional to the density gradient and is formed due to dynamical asymmetry in the drift-wave turbulence. 20. Modelling larval transport in a axial convergence front Robins, P. 2010-12-01 Marine larvae exhibit different vertical swimming behaviours, synchronised by factors such as tidal currents and daylight, in order to aid retention near the parent populations and hence promote production, avoid predation, or to stimulate digestion. This paper explores two types of larval migration in an estuarine axial convergent front which is an important circulatory mechanism in many coastal regions where larvae are concentrated. A parallelised, three-dimensional, ocean model was applied to an idealised estuarine channel which was parameterised from observations of an axial convergent front which occurs in the Conwy Estuary, U.K. (Nunes and Simpson, 1985). The model successfully simulates the bilateral cross-sectional recirculation of an axial convergent front, which has been attributed to lateral density gradients established by the interaction of the lateral shear of the longitudinal currents with the axial salinity gradients. On the flood tide, there is surface axial convergence whereas on the ebb tide, there is (weaker) surface divergence. Further simulations with increased/decreased tidal velocities and with stronger/weaker axial salinity gradients are planned so that the effects of a changing climate on the secondary flow can be understood. Three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Models (PTMs) have been developed which use the simulated velocity fields to track larvae in the estuarine channel. The PTMs take into account the vertical migrations of two shellfish species that are commonly found in the Conwy Estuary: (i) tidal migration of the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and (ii), diel (daily) migration of the Great scallop (Pecten maximus). These migration behaviours are perhaps the most widespread amongst shellfish larvae and have been compared with passive (drifting) particles in order to assess their relative importance in terms of larval transport. Preliminary results suggest that the net along-estuary dispersal over a typical larval 1. Acute and early outcomes of focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM)-guided rotors-only ablation in patients with nonparoxysmal atrial fibrillation. Gianni, Carola; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Di Biase, Luigi; Metz, Tamara; Trivedi, Chintan; Gökoğlan, Yalçın; Güneş, Mahmut F; Bai, Rong; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Burkhardt, J David; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Horton, Rodney P; Hranitzky, Patrick M; Sanchez, Javier E; Halbfaß, Phillipp; Müller, Patrick; Schade, Anja; Deneke, Thomas; Tomassoni, Gery F; Natale, Andrea 2016-04-01 Focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM)-guided ablation targets sites that are thought to sustain atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and mid-term outcomes of FIRM-guided only ablation in patients with nonparoxysmal AF. We prospectively enrolled patients with persistent and long-standing persistent (LSP) AF at three centers to undergo FIRM-guided only ablation. We evaluated acute procedural success (defined as AF termination, organization, or ≥10% slowing), safety (incidence of periprocedural complications), and long-term success (single-procedure freedom from atrial tachycardia [AT]/AF off antiarrhythmic drugs [AAD] after a 2-month blanking period). Twenty-nine patients with persistent (N = 20) and LSP (N = 9) AF underwent FIRM mapping. Rotors were presents in all patients, with a mean of 4 ± 1.2 per patient (62% were left atrial); 1 focal impulse was identified. All sources were successfully ablated, and overall acute success rate was 41% (0 AF termination, 2 AF slowing, 10 AF organization). There were no major procedure-related adverse events. After a mean 5.7 months of follow-up, single-procedure freedom from AT/AF without AADs was 17%. In nonparoxysmal AF patients, targeted ablation of FIRM-identified rotors is not effective in obtaining AF termination, organization, or slowing during the procedure. After mid-term follow-up, the strategy of ablating FIRM-identified rotors alone did not prevent recurrence from AT/AF. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2. Automatic efficiency optimization of an axial compressor with adjustable inlet guide vanes Li, Jichao; Lin, Feng; Nie, Chaoqun; Chen, Jingyi 2012-04-01 The inlet attack angle of rotor blade reasonably can be adjusted with the change of the stagger angle of inlet guide vane (IGV); so the efficiency of each condition will be affected. For the purpose to improve the efficiency, the DSP (Digital Signal Processor) controller is designed to adjust the stagger angle of IGV automatically in order to optimize the efficiency at any operating condition. The A/D signal collection includes inlet static pressure, outlet static pressure, outlet total pressure, rotor speed and torque signal, the efficiency can be calculated in the DSP, and the angle signal for the stepping motor which control the IGV will be sent out from the D/A. Experimental investigations are performed in a three-stage, low-speed axial compressor with variable inlet guide vanes. It is demonstrated that the DSP designed can well adjust the stagger angle of IGV online, the efficiency under different conditions can be optimized. This establishment of DSP online adjustment scheme may provide a practical solution for improving performance of multi-stage axial flow compressor when its operating condition is varied. 3. Aerothermal optimization of partially shrouded axial turbines[Dissertation 17138 Porreca, L. 2007-07-01 This work presents the results of an aerodynamic and thermal study of three different shrouded axial turbine configurations (turbomachinery). The blade geometry of the turbine stages and the tip clearances of the test cases under investigation are identical although the shroud design is different. The first test case (RRD) is representative of a full shroud geometry while the second (CPS) and third (EPS) test cases adopt different partial shroud arrangements. In the EPS case, a shroud platform is added to cover the blade throat. Partial shrouds are sometimes used in industrial application in order to benefit from the aerodynamic advantage of shrouded configuration as well as reducing thermal load and mechanical stress on the blade root. However, the optimal compromise between mechanical issues and aerodynamic performances is still an open issue due to the resulting highly 3-dimensional unsteady flow field, difficulty of achieve an optimal cooling and severe heat load on the shroud sealing fins. An experimental investigation is carried out in order to quantify the effect of the shroud geometry on the aerodynamic performances and to study the resultant flow field in all test cases. The analysis has been conducted in an experimental low-speed axial turbine facility at the Turbomachinery Laboratory at ETH Zurich. Steady and fast response aerodynamic probe technology (FRAP) has been used to characterize the flow field. Moreover, a stereoscopic PIV technique has been design and applied in this experimental facility for the first time. The flow field analysis shows that the effect of the shroud geometry is significant from 60% blade height span to the tip. Tip leakage vortex in the first rotor is originated in the partial shroud test cases while the full shroud case present only a weak indigenous tip passage vortex. Secondary flows development in the following second stator resulted to be greatly affected by the leakage/main flow interaction of the first rotor. The 4. Plasticity around an Axial Surface Crack in a Cylindrical Shell Krenk, Steen 1979-01-01 of the yield zone. The model is used to analyse published test data on surface cracked pressurised pipes. The analysis consists in COD evaluation and estimate of failure as a consequence of plastic instability. A method is proposed which deals with the problem by simultaneous analysis of a number of cracks......This paper presents a plasticity model for deep axial surface cracks in pressurised pipes. The model is used in an investigation of the relative merits of fracture criteria based on COD and plastic instability. Recent investigations have shown that the inconsistency of the singular bending stress...... on the bending stresses is considerable. In the case of surface cracks moments are induced due to the eccentricity of the crack and transverse shear effects should therefore be included. A plasticity model for a rectangular axial surface crack is developed. Like a previous surface crack model by Erdogen... 5. Axial offset anomalies and local pH Tarin, F.; Montes, M.; Izquierdo, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, J. 2001-01-01 Small radial and axial offset anomalies (AOA) in some Spanish PWR-type NPP's, in addition to the knowledge of the existence of similar anomalies in U.S. PWR's, led us in 1993 to study this problem. Important parameters were correlated for a database of plant operating data consisting of six cycles of five different PWR plants (all of them of the Westinghouse 3-loop, 12 ft., 17 x 17 fuel design). One of these cycles (the oldest one) followed the standard constant pH 308 = 7.0, and the remaining ones followed a modified elevated pH control strategy (the pH at EOC is typically 7.4). Only for the oldest cycle that used the standard pH control was the in-core and ex-core axial offset values found to be in good agreement with the predictions, and an anomalous soluble boron curve behavior not observed. (author) 6. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs Picraux, Sanuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daych, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory 2010-01-01 The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires allows doping and composition modulation along their axis and the realization of axial 1 D heterostructures. This provides additional flexibility in energy band-edge engineering along the transport direction which is difficult to attain by planar materials growth and processing techniques. We report here on the design, growth, fabrication, and characterization of asymmetric heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFETs) based on 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial NWs for high on-current operation and low ambipolar transport behavior. We discuss the optimization of band-offsets and Schottky barrier heights for high performance HTFETs and issues surrounding their experimental realization. Our HTFET devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a measured current drive exceeding 100 {mu}A/{mu}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. 7. Tests of a new axial sputtering technique in an ECRIS Scott, R.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R. 2012-01-01 Axial and radial sputtering techniques have been used over the years to create beams from an ECRIS at multiple accelerator facilities. Operational experience has shown greater beam production when using the radial sputtering method versus axial sputtering. At Argonne National Laboratory, previous work with radial sputtering has demonstrated that the position of the sputter sample relative to the plasma chamber wall influences sample drain current, beam production and charge state distribution. The possibility of the chamber wall acting as a ground plane which influences the sputtering of material has been considered, and an attempt has been made to mimic this possible ground plane effect with a coaxial sample introduced from the injection end. Results of these tests will be shown as well as comparisons of outputs using the two methods. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors) 8. Axial force in a superconductor magnet journal bearing Postrekhin, E.; Chong, Wang; Ki Bui, Ma; Chen, Quark; Chu, Wei-Kan Using superconductors and magnets, a journal bearing could be made from a permanent magnet cylinder in a superconductor ring. We have assembled a prototype superconductor magnet journal bearing of this configuration, and investigated the behavior of the axial force that it can provide. We have put together a numerical model of the interaction between the permanent magnet and the superconductor that is capable of describing these experimental results semi-quantitatively. Combining direct experimental measurements and using the numerical models proposed, we have achieved a qualitative understanding of the behavior of the axial force and its relationship of to the dimensions of the magnet and material quality such as the homogeneity of the superconductor that constitute the bearing. 9. An Axial Sliding Test for machine elements surfaces Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran 2012-01-01 are necessary: a press to provide the normal pressure and a tensile machine to perform the axial movements. The test is calibrated so that the correspondence between the normal pressure and the container advancement is found. Finally, preliminary tests are carried out involving a multifunctional and a fine......Throughout the years, it has become more and more important to find new methods for reducing friction and wear occurrence in machine elements. A possible solution is found in texturing the surfaces under tribological contact, hence the development and spread of plateau-honed surface for cylinder...... liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed Axial Sliding Test. It presents four major components: a rod, a sleeve... 10. Computerized axial tomography : the tool in osseointegrated dental implants Fernandez-Lopez, Otton 2002-01-01 Failure rates in rehabilitations with osseointegrated implants are handled through appropriate radiographic preoperative planning. The appropriate length of the implant without running the risk of a perforation of vital structures, has been determined by a radiographic diagnosis. Computerized and conventional axial tomography have proved to be invaluable elements for pre-surgical evaluation. A radiologic guidance is elaborated to perform a computerized axial tomography (CT) of maxillary bones in totally edentulous patients. Surgical guides are constructed from a wax-up emanated from the information of the CT. The CT has proven to be an radiographic indispensable element to achieve the surgical-prosthetic success in osseointegrated dental implants. The CT has allowed the realization of a precise wax-up for making of surgical guide and a precise temporary prostheses in positioning of osseointegrated implants, with the consequent saving time and money for the rehabilitator and patient [es 11. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard 2017-01-01 This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results.... 12. Impaired bed mobility: quantitative torque analysis with axial inertial sensors. Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Thanawattano, Chusak 2017-08-01 Difficulty in turning in bed is rated as the most troublesome night-time symptom among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. To develop a practical objective method for home assessment of a patient's ability to turn in bed. Nocturnal parameters and torque of self-turning in bed from 17 PD couples were assessed and compared using a wearable axial sensor for two nights in their homes. The torque of axial rotation which indicates the ability of PD patients to turn in bed was significantly less than their spouses (p turning in bed and total unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.71; p = 0.001), and total Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp score (r = 0.634; p = 0.006). Our study confirms a decreased ability in turning in PD. 13. Periodicity effects of axial waves in elastic compound rods Nielsen, R. B.; Sorokin, S. V. 2015-01-01 Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase-closure Prin......Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase......-closure Principle, and their correspondence with stop band formation is shown. Steady-state and transient dynamics of a periodic rod of finite length are analysed numerically and the difference in structural response when excitation is done in either stop- or pass bands is demonstrated. A physical interpretation... 14. One-loop calculations in QED in axial gauge Boos, E.E.; Kurannoy, S.S. 1983-01-01 The present paper pursued the aim to test at the simple example of the calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment in quantum electrodynamics the methods of calculating one-loop integrals in the axial gauge, using the dimensional regularization, and to investigate the independence of the results on the choice of the recipe of how to treat the poles in the denominators (k eta) -1 . It is shown that the techniques developed in another paper, as well as in the present paper, can be successfully applied in such calculations, in spite of the peculiarities of the axial gauge that have been discussed previously. The results of the two different ways of treating singularities (k eta) -1 (the principal value and 't Hooft's prescription) turn out to be equal. At the same time it was verified that the Green functions obtained by these calculations near the mass shell in the one-loop approximation satisfy the ward identity 15. Multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the axial atmospheric angular momentum Leonid Zotov 2017-11-01 Full Text Available Earth's variable rotation is mainly produced by the variability of the AAM (atmospheric angular momentum. In particular, the axial AAM component χ3, which undergoes especially strong variations, induces changes in the Earth's rotation rate. In this study we analysed maps of regional input into the effective axial AAM from 1948 through 2011 from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Global zonal circulation patterns related to the LOD (length of day were described. We applied MSSA (Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis jointly to the mass and motion components of AAM, which allowed us to extract annual, semiannual, 4-month, quasi-biennial, 5-year, and low-frequency oscillations. PCs (Principal components strongly related to ENSO (El Nino southern oscillation were released. They can be used to study ENSO-induced changes in pressure and wind fields and their coupling to LOD. The PCs describing the trends have captured slow atmospheric circulation changes possibly related to climate variability. 16. Ultraviolet and infrared aspects of the axial anomaly. I Horejsi, J. 1992-01-01 The paper is the first part of a brief review of some perturbative aspects of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw axial anomaly, described in terms of ultraviolet and infrared behavior of the famous VVA triangle graph. Apart from a general overview of the diversified role played by the anomaly in quantum field theory and particle physics, an elementary introduction is presented to the subject of the anomaly, comprehensible to an uninitiated reader with only a basic background in quantum field theory. The ultraviolet aspects of the anomaly are stressed and the topics covered are the following: vector and axial-vector Ward identities for the VVA triangle graph; the anomaly and several ways to derive it, namely the symmetric momentum cut-off and shifting the integration variables in linearly divergent integrals; the Adler-Rosenberg argument; the Pauli-Villars method; and dimensional regularization. (author) 2 figs., 34 refs 17. Axial positrons emission tomography: from mouse to human brain imaging Brard, Emmanuel 2013-01-01 Positrons emission tomography is a nuclear imaging technics using nuclear decays. It is used both in clinical and preclinical studies. The later requires the use of small animals such as the mouse. The objective is to obtain the best signal with the best spatial resolution. Yet, a weight ratio between humans and mice indicates the need of a sub-millimeter resolution. A conventional scanner is based on detection modules surrounding the object to image and arranged perpendicularly. This implies a strong relationship between efficiency and spatial resolution. This work focuses on the axial geometry in which detection modules are arranged parallel to the object. This limits the relationship between the figures of merit, leading to both high spatial resolution and efficiency. The simulations of prototypes showed great perspectives in term of sub-millimeter resolution with efficiencies of 15 or 40% according to the scanner's axial extension. These results indicate great perspectives for both clinical and preclinical imaging. (author) 18. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging]. Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J 2017-03-01 The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences. 19. Buckling localization in a cylindrical panel under axial compression Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A. 2000-01-01 Localization of an initially periodic buckling pattern is investigated for an axially compressed elastic-plastic cylindrical panel of the type occurring between axial stiffeners on cylindrical shells. The phenomenon of buckling localization and its analogy with plastic flow localization in tensile...... test specimens is discussed in general. For the cylindrical panel, it is shown that buckling localization develops shortly after a maximum load has been attained, and this occurs for a purely elastic panel as well as for elastic-plastic panels. In a case where localization occurs after a load maximum......, but where subsequently the load starts to increase again, it is found that near the local load minimum, the buckling pattern switches back to a periodic type of pattern. The inelastic material behavior of the panel is described in terms of J(2) corner theory, which avoids the sometimes unrealistically high... 20. Classical theory of the Kumakhov radiation in axial channeling Khokonov, M.K.; Komarov, F.F.; Telegin, V.I. 1984-01-01 The paper considers radiation of ultrarelativistic electrons in axial channeling initially predicted by Kumakhov. The consideration is based on the results of solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The spectral-angular characteristics of the Kumakhov radiation in thick single crystals are calculated. It is shown that in heavy single crystals the energy losses on radiation can amount to a considerable portion of the initial beam energy. The possibility of a sharp increase of radiation due to a decrease of crystal temperature is discussed. It is shown that radiation intensity in axial channeling is weakly dependent on the initial angle of the electron entrance into the channel if this angle changes within the limits of a critical one. (author) 1. High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations Cyrus, Vaclav [AHT Energetika s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic); Koci, Petr [ZVVZ Milevsko a.s. (Czech Republic) 2008-07-01 Brown coal fired power stations, located in Northern Bohemia, have mostly older boiler blocks with an output of 110 and 200 MWe. Flue gases are cleaned by the desulphurization plants installed between 1993 and 1997. Usually, each boiler block has two air fans and one to three flue gas fans. Flue gas fans operate in severe conditions; fan blades should be resistant to the flue gases containing sulphur and acid drops with the operating temperature at 170 C to 190 C. Additionally, flue gas also often contains ash particles. Currently, some boiler blocks are gradually being refurbished. New blocks with an electrical power output of 600 to 700 MWe are at the design stage. Submitted paper shows our design study of one stage axial flow fan for the new blocks. Results from the new aerodynamic research of the axial flow stages were used in the fan design. (orig.) 2. Axial weak currents in the Wess-Zumino term Fujikawa, Kazuo 1986-01-01 In a simplified model lagrangian of 3 quarks with an SU(2)sub(L) gauging of chiral SU(3)sub(L)xSU(3)sub(R) to introduce W-boson, we analyse certain complications associated with the low-energy theorem including axial weak fields. We first show that the low-energy amplitude is independent of the form of the quark-level anomalous identity, whether in the covariant form or the consistent form. However, the interplay of the short-distance dynamics (anomalous identity) and the long-distance dynamics (low-energy theorem) becomes involved in the presence of axial fields. We then discuss what kinds of conditions single out the gauged Wess-Zumino term as a low-energy effective action. The connection of the low-energy theorem with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition is also discussed. (orig.) 3. Robust feedback-linearization control for axial power distribution in pressurized water reactors during load-following operation M. Zaidabadi nejad; G.R. Ansarifar 2018-01-01 Improved load-following capability is one of the most important technical tasks of a pressurized water reactor. Controlling the nuclear reactor core during load-following operation leads to some difficulties. These difficulties mainly arise from nuclear reactor core limitations in local power peaking: the core is subjected to sharp and large variation of local power density during transients. Axial offset (AO) is the parameter usually used to represent the core power peaking. One of the impor... 4. Colonic surveillance by CT colonography using axial images only Bruzzi, John F.; Brennan, Darren D.; Fenlon, Helen M.; Moss, Alan C.; MacMathuna, Padraic 2004-01-01 Patients at increased risk of colon cancer require strict colon surveillance. Our objective was to establish the efficacy of 2D axial CT colonography as a surveillance test when performed in routine clinical practice. Eighty-two patients at increased risk of colon cancer underwent CT colonography followed by conventional colonoscopy on the same morning. CT colonography studies were performed on a four-ring multidetector CT scanner (100 mAs, 120 kVp, 4 x 2.5 collimation) and were interpreted by two radiologists using 2D axial images only. Results were correlated with findings at colonoscopy. Note was made of subsequent histology reports from polypectomy specimens. A total of 52 polyps were detected at colonoscopy. Using 2D axial images alone, with no recourse to 2D multiplanar or 3D views, the sensitivity of CT colonography was 100, 33 and 19% for polyps larger than 9, 6-9 and smaller than 6 mm, respectively. Per-patient specificities were 98.8, 96 and 81.5%, respectively. Twenty-nine percent of polyps smaller than 1 cm were adenomatous and there were no histological features of severe dysplasia. CT colonography is a useful colon surveillance tool for patients at increased risk of colon cancer. It has a high specificity for identifying patients who should proceed to colonoscopy and polypectomy, while allowing further colon examination to be deferred in patients with normal studies. Using 2D axial images only, CT colonography can be performed as part of the daily CT workload, with a very low rate of referral for unnecessary colonoscopy. (orig.) 5. Overview of the Axial Field Spectrometer in the ISR tunnel 1980-01-01 A view of the Axial Field Spectrometer – the last large experiment at the ISR. The horizontal top and vertical outer arrays of the uranium-scintillator hadron calorimeter are clear to be seen, with the blue cylindrical pole piece of the magnet just visible. The pipes that are visible in front of the pole piece are cryogenic feed pipes for the superconducting low-beta quadrupoles. 6. Axial anomaly and mixing: From real to highly virtual photons Klopot, Yaroslav N.; Teryaev, Oleg V.; Oganesian, Armen G. 2011-01-01 The relation for transition form factors of η and η ' is obtained by combining the exact nonperturbative QCD sum rule, following from the dispersive representation of axial anomaly, and quark-hadron duality. It is valid at all virtual photon momenta and allows one to express the transition form factors entirely in terms of meson decay constants. This relation is in a good agreement with experimental data. 7. Channel of Axial Injection of DC-60 Cyclotron Gikal, B N; Bogomolov, S L; Borisenko, A N; Borisov, O N; Gulbekyan, G G; Ivanenko, I A; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Khabarov, M V; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N; Paschenko, S V; Tikhomirov, A V 2006-01-01 The design study and realization of the axial injection beam line of DC-60 cyclotron constructed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are given. The channel allows one to transport and to inject into the cyclotron ions with mass-to-charge ratioA/Z$being within interval A/Z=6-12 and kinetic energy up to 17$Z/A\$ keV/m.u.

8. Static axially symmetric gravitational fields with shell sources

McCrea, J.D.

1976-01-01

Israel's (Israel, W., 1966, Nuovo Cim., vol.44, 1-14) method for treating surface layers in general relativity is applied to construct shell sources for exterior static axially symmetric gravitational fields. Consideration is restricted to cases in which the 3-cylinder representing the history of the shell is an equipotential surface of the exterior field and consequently the space-time inside this 3-cylinder is flat. (author)

9. Radiation of electrons in an electromagnetic axial trap

Toropova, A.I.

1998-01-01

The version of a trap. wherein particles move in a homogeneous constant magnetic field and electrostatic field, formed by two equipotential planes and rotation axial surface, is proposed. The solution of canonic equations is found. It is shown that interaction of electrons with the radiation field leads to damping parametric resonance. The trap model, accounting for the finite conductivity of the resonator walls and losses by collisions with gas, is studied

10. Investigation on a procedure for optimal axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

2005-01-01

On the basis of a previously developed procedure for control of axial depth of cut in high accuracy micromilling operations, this paper presents an investigation on the estimation of the uncertainty of the set axial depth of cut.......On the basis of a previously developed procedure for control of axial depth of cut in high accuracy micromilling operations, this paper presents an investigation on the estimation of the uncertainty of the set axial depth of cut....

11. Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in zircaloy cladding

Chung, H. M.

2000-01-01

Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in irradiated Zircaloy cladding have been investigated by microstructural characterization and analytical modeling, with emphasis on application of the results to understand high-burnup fuel failure under RIA situations. Optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM were conducted on BWR and PWR fuel cladding tubes that were irradiated to fluence levels of 3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 to 5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) and tested in hot cell at 292--325 C in Ar. The morphology, distribution, and habit planes of macroscopic and microscopic hydrides in as-irradiated and posttest cladding were determined by stereo-TEM. The type and magnitude of the residual stress produced in association with oxide-layer growth and dense hydride precipitation, and several synergistic factors that strongly influence axial-splitting behavior were analyzed. The results of the microstructural characterization and stress analyses were then correlated with axial-splitting behavior of high-burnup PWR cladding reported for simulated-RIA conditions. The effects of key test procedures and their implications for the interpretation of RIA test results are discussed

12. Accretion mode of oceanic ridges governed by axial mechanical strength

Sibrant, A. L. R.; Mittelstaedt, E.; Davaille, A.; Pauchard, L.; Aubertin, A.; Auffray, L.; Pidoux, R.

2018-04-01

Oceanic spreading ridges exhibit structural changes as a function of spreading rate, mantle temperature and the balance of tectonic and magmatic accretion. The role that these or other processes have in governing the overall shape of oceanic ridges is unclear. Here, we use laboratory experiments to simulate ridge spreading in colloidal aqueous dispersions whose rheology evolves from purely viscous to elastic and brittle when placed in contact with a saline water solution. We find that ridge shape becomes increasingly linear with spreading rate until reaching a minimum tortuosity. This behaviour is predicted by the axial failure parameter ΠF, a dimensionless number describing the balance of brittle and plastic failure of axial lithosphere. Slow-spreading, fault-dominated and fast-spreading, fluid intrusion-dominated ridges on Earth and in the laboratory are separated by the same critical ΠF value, suggesting that the axial failure mode governs ridge geometry. Values of ΠF can also be calculated for different mantle temperatures and applied to other planets or the early Earth. For higher mantle temperatures during the Archaean, our results preclude the predicted formation of large tectonic plates at high spreading velocity.

13. Taming axial dispersion in hydrodynamic chromatography columns through wall patterning

Adrover, Alessandra; Cerbelli, Stefano; Giona, Massimiliano

2018-04-01

A well-known limitation of hydrodynamic chromatography arises from the synergistic interaction between transverse diffusion and streamwise convection, which enhances axial dispersion through the Taylor-Aris mechanism. We show that a periodic sequence of slip/no-slip conditions at the channel walls (e.g., representing wall indentations hosting stable air pockets) can significantly reduce axial dispersion, thus enhancing separation performance. The theoretical/numerical analysis is based on a generalization of Brenner's macrotransport approach to solute transport, here modified to account for the finite-size of the suspended particles. The most effective dispersion-taming outcome is observed when the alternating sequence of slip/no-slip conditions yields non-vanishing cross-sectional flow components. The combination of these components with the hindering interaction between the channel boundaries and the finite-sized particles gives rise to a non-trivial solution of Brenner's problem on the unit periodic cell, where the cross-sectional particle number density departs from the spatially homogeneous condition. In turn, this effect impacts upon the solution of the so-called b-field defining the large-scale dispersion tensor, with an overall decremental effect on the axial dispersion coefficient and on the Height Equivalent of a Theoretical Plate.

14. Axial power monitoring uncertainty in the Savannah River Reactors

Losey, D.C.; Revolinski, S.M.

1990-01-01

The results of this analysis quantified the uncertainty associated with monitoring the Axial Power Shape (APS) in the Savannah River Reactors. Thermocouples at each assembly flow exit map the radial power distribution and are the primary means of monitoring power in these reactors. The remaining uncertainty in power monitoring is associated with the relative axial power distribution. The APS is monitored by seven sensors that respond to power on each of nine vertical Axial Power Monitor (APM) rods. Computation of the APS uncertainty, for the reactor power limits analysis, started with a large database of APM rod measurements spanning several years of reactor operation. A computer algorithm was used to randomly select a sample of APSs which were input to a code. This code modeled the thermal-hydraulic performance of a single fuel assembly during a design basis Loss-of Coolant Accident. The assembly power limit at Onset of Significant Voiding was computed for each APS. The output was a distribution of expected assembly power limits that was adjusted to account for the biases caused by instrumentation error and by measuring 7 points rather than a continuous APS. Statistical analysis of the final assembly power limit distribution showed that reducing reactor power by approximately 3% was sufficient to account for APS variation. This data confirmed expectations that the assembly exit thermocouples provide all information needed for monitoring core power. The computational analysis results also quantified the contribution to power limits of the various uncertainties such as instrumentation error

15. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

Joram, Christian

2013-01-01

We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the held of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The Fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations ( <2 mm FWHM in all three coordinates over the complete held of view) and also demonstrated the ability to include Compton interactions (inter-cr...

16. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

Joram, Christian

2013-12-01

We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the field of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations (PET concept making use of the novel digital SiPM detectors by Philips. After reproducing comparable energy and spatial resolution on a small digital AX-PET set-up with 100 mm long crystals, we demonstrated a coincidence resolving time of about 210 ps FWHM.

17. Multi technical analysis of wear mechanisms in axial piston pumps

Schuhler, G.; Jourani, A.; Bouvier, S.; Perrochat, J.-M.

2017-05-01

Axial piston pumps convert a motor rotation motion into hydraulic or pneumatic power. Their compactness and efficiency of approximately 0.9 make them suitable for actuation applications especially in aeronautics. However, they suffer a limited life due to the wear of their components. In the literature, studies of axial piston pumps deal with contact between its different elements under lubrication conditions. Nevertheless, they are more focused on analytic or numerical approaches. This study consists in an experimental analysis of worn pump components to highlight and understand wear mechanisms. Piston shoes are central components in the axial piston pump since they are involved in three tribological contacts. These three contacts are thereby studied: piston shoes/swashplate, piston shoes/pistons and piston shoes/shoes hold down plate (SHDP). To perform this analysis, helicopter hydraulic pumps after different operating times have been studied. The wear damage mechanisms and wear debris are analysed using SEM observations. 3D surface roughness measurements are then used to characterize worn surfaces. The observations reveal that in the contact between shoes and swashplate, the main wear mechanism is three-body abrasive wear due to coarse carbides removal. Between shoes and pistons, wear occurs in a less severe way and is mainly due to the debris generated in the first contact and conveyed by the lubricating fluid. In the third contact, the debris are also the prime cause of the abrasive wear and the generation of deep craters in the piston shoes.

18. A mini axial and a permanent maglev radial heart pump.

Qian, Kun-Xi; Ru, Wei-Min; Wang, Hao; Jing, Teng

2007-05-31

The implantability and durability have been for decades the focus of artificial heart R&D. A mini axial and a maglev radial pump have been developed to meet with such requirements.The mini axial pump weighing 27g (incl.5g rotor) has an outer diameter of 21mm and a length of 10mm in its largest point, but can produce a maximal blood flow of 6l/min with 50mmHg pressure increase. Therefore, it is suitable for the patients of 40-60kg body weight. For other patients of 60-80kg or 80-100kg body weight, the mini axial pumps of 23mm and 25mm outer diameter had been developed before, these devices were acknowledged to be the world smallest LVADs by Guinness World Record Center in 2004.The permanent maglev radial pump weighing 150g is a shaft-less centrifugal pump with permanent magnetic bearings developed by the author. It needs no second coil for suspension of the rotor except the motor coil, different from all other maglev pumps developed in USA, Japan, European, etc. Thus no detecting and controlling systems as well as no additional power supply for maglev are necessary. The pump can produce a blood flow up to as large as 10l/min against 100mmHg pressure.An implantable and durable blood pump will be a viable alternative to natural donor heart for transplantation.

19. Axial temperatures and fuel management models for a HTR system

Hansen, U

1971-11-12

In the HTR system, there is a large difference in temperature between different parts of the reactor core. The softer neutron spectrum in the upper colder core regions tends to shift the power productions in the fresh fuel upwards. As uranium 235 depletes and plutonium with its higher cross sections in the lower hot regions is built-up, an axial power flattening takes place. These effects have been studied in detail for a single column in an equilibrium environment. The aim of this paper is to relate these findings to a whole reactor core and to investigate the influence of axial temperatures on the overall performance and in particular, the fuel management scheme chosen for the reference design. A further objective has been to calculate the reactivity requirements for different part load conditions and for various daily and weekly load diagrams. As the xenon cross section changes significantly with temperature these investigations are performed for an equilibrium core with due representation of axial temperature zones.

20. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds’ law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

1. Notchless is required for axial skeleton formation in mice.

Sarah Beck-Cormier

Full Text Available Maintenance of cell survival is essential for proper embryonic development. In the mouse, Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila (Nle1 is instrumental for survival of cells of the inner cell mass upon implantation. Here, we analyze the function of Nle1 after implantation using the Meox2(tm1(creSor mouse that expresses the Cre recombinase specifically in the epiblast at E5.5. First, we find that NLE1 function is required in epiblast cells, as Nle1-deficient cells are rapidly eliminated. In this report, we also show that the Meox2(Cre transgene is active in specific tissues during organogenesis. In particular, we detect high Cre expression in the vertebral column, ribs, limbs and tailbud. We took advantage of this dynamic expression profile to analyze the effects of inducing mosaic deletion of Nle1 in the embryo. We show that Nle1 deletion in this context, results in severe developmental anomalies leading to lethality at birth. Mutant embryos display multiple developmental defects in particular during axial skeletal formation. We also provide evidence that axial defects are due to an increase in apoptotic cell death in the somite at E9.5. These data demonstrate an essential role for Nle1 during organogenesis and in particular during axial development.

2. Notchless is required for axial skeleton formation in mice.

Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Escande, Marie; Souilhol, Céline; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

2014-01-01

Maintenance of cell survival is essential for proper embryonic development. In the mouse, Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila) (Nle1) is instrumental for survival of cells of the inner cell mass upon implantation. Here, we analyze the function of Nle1 after implantation using the Meox2(tm1(cre)Sor) mouse that expresses the Cre recombinase specifically in the epiblast at E5.5. First, we find that NLE1 function is required in epiblast cells, as Nle1-deficient cells are rapidly eliminated. In this report, we also show that the Meox2(Cre) transgene is active in specific tissues during organogenesis. In particular, we detect high Cre expression in the vertebral column, ribs, limbs and tailbud. We took advantage of this dynamic expression profile to analyze the effects of inducing mosaic deletion of Nle1 in the embryo. We show that Nle1 deletion in this context, results in severe developmental anomalies leading to lethality at birth. Mutant embryos display multiple developmental defects in particular during axial skeletal formation. We also provide evidence that axial defects are due to an increase in apoptotic cell death in the somite at E9.5. These data demonstrate an essential role for Nle1 during organogenesis and in particular during axial development.

3. An appraisal of golimumab in the treatment of severe, active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis

Paccou J

2016-07-01

Full Text Available Julien Paccou, René-Marc Flipo Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Lille, France Abstract: Golimumab (Simponi® is a fully human tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor (TNFi antibody administered subcutaneously. In the European Union, golimumab is indicated for the treatment of adults with severe, active axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA, which includes both ankylosing spondylitis (AS and nonradiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA. In the US, it is indicated for the treatment of adults with active AS only. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of golimumab in nr-axSpA patients compared to other TNFi agents (adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept, and certolizumab pegol. In one ongoing, well-designed controlled study (GO-AHEAD, data at 16 weeks showed that treatment with golimumab (50 mg every 4 weeks was effective in improving the clinical signs and symptoms of disease in nr-axSpA patients. In addition, 16 weeks of treatment with golimumab reduced inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in patients with nr-axSpA. Moreover, objective evidence of active inflammation at baseline, such as a positive magnetic resonance imaging scan and/or an elevated CRP level, was a good predictor of treatment response to golimumab. Golimumab was generally well tolerated in this study, with a tolerability profile consistent with that seen in previous clinical trials for other indications. Although additional long-term data are needed, current evidence indicates that golimumab is an effective option for the treatment of nr-axSpA. However, in the absence of comparative head-to-head trials, there is no recommended hierarchy for the first prescription of a TNFi agent for the treatment of either nr-axSpA or AS. Keywords: axial spondyloarthritis, nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, golimumab, tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor, therapy

4. Design of off-axial Gregory telescope design with freeform mirror corrector

Bazhanov, Yu.; Vlakhko, V.

2017-08-01

In this paper a well-known approach is used for calculation of off-axis three-mirror telescope. It includes usage of conic cross-sections properties, each of the sections forming a stigmatic image. To create a compact optical system, a flat mirror aberration corrector is introduced, which is at later stage transformed into a free-form surface in order to compensate field aberrations. Similarly, one can introduce such a corrector in finalized layout for its further optimization and getting a suitable form, including the conversion of multimirrors axial optical system into decentered one. As an example, off-axial Gregory telescope embodiment is used for infrared waveband region, due to the fact that, unlike the Cassegrain telescope, it provides a real exit pupil, and usage of the mirror corrector brings several advantages. Firstly, this feature may be used to include cold stop or adaptive mirror in the exit pupil, wherein corrector is introduced into a converging beam before the focus of the first mirror. Secondly, when placing corrector in the exit pupil of the optical system it is possible to eliminate high and low order aberrations of center point, which in turn improves optical system f-number, and minimize field aberrations. As another example, off-axial Ritchey-Chretien telescope embodiment is used as a good fit for visible region systems. Analysis and calculation results of optical systems with free-form correctors with surfaces, defined by Power polynomial series are presented in this paper. Advantages of different freeform surfaces usage depends on optical system layouts specifics.

5. Observed Incidence of Uveitis Following Certolizumab Pegol Treatment in Patients With Axial Spondyloarthritis

Rudwaleit, M.; Rosenbaum, J. T.; Landewé, R.; Marzo-Ortega, H.; Sieper, J.; van der Heijde, D.; Davies, O.; Bartz, H.; Hoepken, B.; Nurminen, T.; Deodhar, A.

2016-01-01

Axial spondyloarthritis (axial SpA) is characterized by inflammation of the spine and sacroiliac joints and can also affect extraarticular sites, with the most common manifestation being uveitis. Here we report the incidence of uveitis flares in axial SpA patients from the RAPID-axSpA trial,

6. Experimental Study of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members

Apriani, Widya; Lubis, Fadrizal; Angraini, Muthia

2017-12-01

Experimental testing is commonly used as one of the steps to determine the cause of the collapse of a building structure. The collapse of structures can be due to low quality materials. Although material samples have passed laboratory tests and the existing technical specifications have been met but there may be undetected defects and known material after failure. In this paper will be presented Experimental Testing of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members to determine the cause of the collapse of a building roof truss x in Pekanbaru. Test of tensile strength material cold formed channel sections was performed to obtain the main characteristics of Cold Formed steel material, namely ultimate tensile strength loads that can be held by members and the yield stress possessed by channel sections used in construction. Analysis of axially tension cold formed steel channel section presents in this paper was conducted through experimental study based on specificationsAnnualBook of ASTM Standards: Metal Test methods and Analitical Procedures, Section 3 (1991). The result of capacity loads experimental test was compared with design based on SNI 03-7971-2013standard of Indonesia for the design of cold formed steel structural members. The results of the yield stress of the material will be seen against the minimum allowable allowable stress range. After the test, the percentace of ultimate axial tension capacity theory has a result that is 16.46% larger than the ultimate axial tension capacity experimental. When compared with the load that must be borne 5.673 kN/m it can be concluded that 2 specimens do not meet. Yield stress of member has fulfilled requirement that wass bigger than 550 MPa. Based on the curve obtained ultimate axial tension capacity theory, results greater than experimental. The greatest voltage value (fu) is achieved under the same conditions as its yield stress. For this specimen with a melting voltage value fy = 571.5068 MPa has fulfilled the

7. Design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel for BWR reactors

Garcia V, M.A.

2006-01-01

In the present thesis, the modifications made to the axial optimization system based on Tabu Search (BT) for the axial design of BWR fuel type are presented, developed previously in the Nuclear Engineering Group of the UNAM Engineering Faculty. With the modifications what is mainly looked is to consider the particular characteristics of the mechanical design of the GE12 fuel type, used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV) and that it considers the fuel bars of partial longitude. The information obtained in this thesis will allow to plan nuclear fuel reloads with the best conditions to operate in a certain cycle guaranteeing a better yield and use in the fuel burnt, additionally people in charge in the reload planning will be favored with the changes carried out to the system for the design and axial optimization of nuclear fuel, which facilitate their handling and it reduces their execution time. This thesis this developed in five chapters that are understood in the following way in general: Chapter 1: It approaches the basic concepts of the nuclear energy, it describes the physical and chemical composition of the atoms as well as that of the uranium isotopes, the handling of the uranium isotope by means of the nuclear fission until arriving to the operation of the nuclear reactors. Chapter 2: The nuclear fuel cycle is described, the methods for its extraction, its conversion and its enrichment to arrive to the stages of the nuclear fuel management used in the reactors are described. Beginning by the radial design, the axial design and the core design of the nuclear reactor related with the fuel assemblies design. Chapter 3: the optimization methods of nuclear fuel previously used are exposed among those that are: the genetic algorithms method, the search methods based on heuristic rules and the application of the tabu search method, which was used for the development of this thesis. Chapter 4: In this part the used methodology to the

8. Experimental Studies on Strength Behaviour of Notched Glass/Epoxy Laminated Composites under Uni-axial and Bi-axial Loading

Guptha, V. L. Jagannatha; Sharma, Ramesh S.

2017-11-01

The use of FRP composite materials in aerospace, aviation, marine, automotive and civil engineering industry has increased rapidly in recent years due to their high specific strength and stiffness properties. The structural members contrived from such composite materials are generally subjected to complex loading conditions and leads to multi-axial stress conditions at critical surface localities. Presence of notches, much required for joining process of composites, makes it further significant. The current practice of using uni-axial test data alone to validate proposed material models is inadequate leading to evaluation and consideration of bi-axial test data. In order to correlate the bi-axial strengths with the uni-axial strengths of GFRP composite laminates in the presence of a circular notch, bi-axial tests using four servo-hydraulic actuators with four load cells were carried out. To determine the in-plane strength parameters, bi-axial cruciform test specimen model was considered. Three different fibre orientations, namely, 0°, 45°, and 90° are considered with a central circular notch of 10 mm diameter in the present investigation. From the results obtained, it is observed that there is a reduction in strength of 5.36, 2.41 and 13.92% in 0°, 45°, and 90° fibre orientation, respectively, under bi-axial loading condition as compared to that of uni-axial loading in laminated composite.

9. Multi-disciplinary design optimization and performance evaluation of a single stage transonic axial compressor

Lee, Sae Il; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Kyu Hong; Park, Tae Choon; Lim, Byeung Jun; Kang, Young Seok

2013-01-01

The multidisciplinary design optimization method, which integrates aerodynamic performance and structural stability, was utilized in the development of a single-stage transonic axial compressor. An approximation model was created using artificial neural network for global optimization within given ranges of variables and several design constraints. The genetic algorithm was used for the exploration of the Pareto front to find the maximum objective function value. The final design was chosen after a second stage gradient-based optimization process to improve the accuracy of the optimization. To validate the design procedure, numerical simulations and compressor tests were carried out to evaluate the aerodynamic performance and safety factor of the optimized compressor. Comparison between numerical optimal results and experimental data are well matched. The optimum shape of the compressor blade is obtained and compared to the baseline design. The proposed optimization framework improves the aerodynamic efficiency and the safety factor.

10. Improvements in or relating to radiography

Lemay, C.A.G.; Randall, R.P.

1980-01-01

Improvements to x-ray tubes used in radiographic systems, in particular in computerised axial tomography, are described. Electron emission from the cathode is controlled and monitored in order to increase the life of the cathode. (UK)

11. Research on axial thrust of the waterjet pump based on CFD under cavitation conditions

Shen, Z. H.; Pan, Z. Y.

2015-01-01

Based on RANS equations, performance of a contra-rotating axial-flow waterjet pump without hydrodynamic cavitation state had been obtained combined with shear stress transport turbulence model. Its cavitation hydrodynamic performance was calculated and analysed with mixture homogeneous flow cavitation model based on Rayleigh-Plesset equations. The results shows that the cavitation causes axial thrust of waterjet pump to drop. Furthermore, axial thrust and head cavitation characteristic curve is similar. However, the drop point of the axial thrust is postponed by 5.1% comparing with one of head, and the critical point of the axial thrust is postponed by 2.6%.

12. Research on axial thrust of the waterjet pump based on CFD under cavitation conditions

Shen, Z H; Pan, Z Y

2015-01-01

Based on RANS equations, performance of a contra-rotating axial-flow waterjet pump without hydrodynamic cavitation state had been obtained combined with shear stress transport turbulence model. Its cavitation hydrodynamic performance was calculated and analysed with mixture homogeneous flow cavitation model based on Rayleigh-Plesset equations. The results shows that the cavitation causes axial thrust of waterjet pump to drop. Furthermore, axial thrust and head cavitation characteristic curve is similar. However, the drop point of the axial thrust is postponed by 5.1% comparing with one of head, and the critical point of the axial thrust is postponed by 2.6%

13. Axial compression behaviour of reinforced wallettes fabricated using wood-wool cement panel

Noh, M. S. Md; Kamarudin, A. F.; Mokhatar, S. N.; Jaudin, A. R.; Ahmad, Z.; Ibrahim, A.; Muhamad, A. A.

2018-04-01

Wood-wool cement composite panel (WWCP) is one of wood based composite material that produced in a stable panel form and suitable to be used as building wall system to replace non-ecofriendly material such as brick and other masonry element. Heavy construction material such as brick requires more manpower and consume a lot of time to build the wall panel. WWCP is a lightweight material with a density range from 300 kg/m3 to 500 kg/m3 and also capable to support an imposed load from the building. This study reported on the axial compression behaviour of prefabricated reinforced wallettes constructed with wood-wool cement panel. A total of six specimens were fabricated using two layers of cross laminated WWCP bonded with normal mortar paste (Portland cement) at a mix ratio of 1:3 (cement : sand). As part of lifting mechanism, the wallettes were equipped with three steel reinforcement (T12) that embedded inside the core of wallettes. Three replicates of wallettes specimens with dimension 600 mm width and 600 mm length were fabricated without surface plaster and with 16 mm thickness of surface plaster. The wallettes were tested under axial compression load after 28 days of fabrication until failure. The result indicated that, the application of surface plaster significantly increases the loading capacity about 35 % and different orientation of the panels improve the bonding strength of the wall.

14. Electromagnetic and axial-vector form factors of the quarks and nucleon

Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika

2017-11-01

In light of the improved precision of the experimental measurements and enormous theoretical progress, the nucleon form factors have been evaluated with an aim to understand how the static properties and dynamical behavior of nucleons emerge from the theory of strong interactions between quarks. We have analyzed the vector and axial-vector nucleon form factors (GE,Mp,n(Q2) and GAp,n(Q2)) using the spin observables in the chiral constituent quark model (χCQM) which has made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon in the nonperturbative regime. We have also presented a comprehensive analysis of the flavor decomposition of the form factors (GEq(Q2), GMq(Q2) and GAq(Q2) for q = u,d,s) within the framework of χCQM with emphasis on the extraction of the strangeness form factors which are fundamental to determine the spin structure and test the chiral symmetry breaking effects in the nucleon. The Q2 dependence of the vector and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon has been studied using the conventional dipole form of parametrization. The results are in agreement with the available experimental data.

15. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part II - multi-objective constrained optimization method

Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

2002-06-01

This paper is concerned with the design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner blade geometry. In order to obtain a better design plan with good performance, a new comprehensive performance optimization procedure has been presented by combining a multi-variable multi-objective constrained optimization model with a Q3D inverse computation and a performance prediction procedure. With careful analysis of the inverse design of axial hydraulic turbine runner, the total hydraulic loss and the cavitation coefficient are taken as optimization objectives and a comprehensive objective function is defined using the weight factors. Parameters of a newly proposed blade bound circulation distribution function and parameters describing positions of blade leading and training edges in the meridional flow passage are taken as optimization variables.The optimization procedure has been applied to the design optimization of a Kaplan runner with specific speed of 440 kW. Numerical results show that the performance of designed runner is successfully improved through optimization computation. The optimization model is found to be validated and it has the feature of good convergence. With the multi-objective optimization model, it is possible to control the performance of designed runner by adjusting the value of weight factors defining the comprehensive objective function. Copyright

16. Strangeness Vector and Axial-Vector Form Factors of the Nucleon

Pate Stephen

2014-03-01

Full Text Available A revised global fit of electroweak ep and vp elastic scattering data has been performed, with the goal of determining the strange quark contribution to the vector and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon in the momentum-transfer range 0 < Q2 < 1 GeV2. The two vector (electric and magnetic form factors GsE(Q2 and GsM(Q2 are strongly constrained by ep elastic scattering data, while the major source of information on the axial-vector form factor GsA(Q2 is vp scattering data. Combining the two kinds of data into a single global fit makes possible additional precision in the determination of these form factors, and provides a unique way to determine the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔS , independently of leptonic deep-inelastic scattering. The fit makes use of data from the BNL-E734, SAMPLE, HAPPEx, G0, and PVA4 experiments; we will also compare the result of the fit with recent data from MiniBooNE, and anticipate how this fit can be improved when new data from MicroBooNE become available.

17. Hydrogen activated axial inter-conversion in SiC nanowires

Ruemmeli, Mark H.; Adebimpe, David B.; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa; Gemming, Thomas; Ayala, Paola; Ioannides, Nicholas; Pichler, Thomas; Huczko, Andrzej; Cudzilo, Stanislaw; Knupfer, Martin; Buechner, Bernd

2009-01-01

A facile low pressure annealing route using NH 3 as a hydrogen source for the structural and chemical modification of SiC nanowires (SiCNWs) is presented. The developed route transforms SiCNWs into tubular SiC nanostructures while coaxial SiO 2 /SiCNWs reverse their sheath/core structure. Our findings suggest a decomposition process induced via the preferential substitution of silicon by hydrogen and via the difference in diffusion rates of available atomic species, which leads to axial structural rearrangement. In addition to these effects, the procedure improves the crystallinity of the samples. The process could be exploited as a viable route to manipulate a variety of nanostructures and films for doping and etching and structural manipulation. - Graphical abstract: SiC and SiO 2 /SiCNWs are shown to be structurally modified through a hydrogen activated replacement route which can even lead to the axial inter-conversion of species. The process could be exploited as a viable route to manipulate a variety of nanostructures and films for doping and etching and structural manipulation

18. Behavior of concrete cylinders confined by a ferro-geopolymer jacket in axial compression

Kothay Heng

2017-06-01

Full Text Available It is beneficial to utilize geopolymers for their potential properties to rehabilitate concrete structures. These properties include high adhesion to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC concrete even at low degrees of interfacial roughness, high durability and good fire resistance. This paper introduces use of a ferro-geopolymer jacket to strengthen concrete columns. It is a kind of jacket constructed with a geopolymer mortar reinforced with a wire mesh. This study was conducted to investigate the behavior of concrete cylinders confined with a ferro-geopolymer jacket in axial compression. OPC concrete cylinders with 100 mm diameter and 200 mm height were fabricated. High calcium fly ash-based geopolymer mortar, activated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, cured at a temperature of 25 ºC was used. Ferro-geopolymer jackets with a25 mm thickness, were reinforced with 1, 2 and 3 layers of expanded metal mesh and cast around concrete cylinders. The study results revealed that the compressive load carrying capacity and axial stiffness of concrete cylinders were improved. A monolithic failure mode was obtained as a result of a strong adhesion between the geopolymer and the concrete core. Enhancement of compressive load carrying capacity of the jacketed concrete cylinders was caused by a combination of a confinement effect and the compressive load resistance of the jacket transferred from concrete core through bonding.

19. Axial asymmetry of excited heavy nuclei as essential feature for the prediction of level densities

Grosse, Eckart [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Junghans, Arnd R. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Massarczyk, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico (United States)

2016-07-01

In previous studies a considerable improvement of predictions for neutron resonance spacings by a modified back-shifted Fermi-gas model (BSFM) was found. The modifications closely follow the basic principles for a gas of weakly bound Fermions as given in text books of statistical physics: (1) Phase transition at a temperature defined by theory, (2) pairing condensation independent of A, and (3) proportionality of entropy to temperature (and thus the level density parameter) fixed by the Fermi energy. For finite nuclei we add: (4) the back-shift energy is defined by shell correction and (5) the collective enhancement is enlarged by allowing the axial symmetry to be broken. Nearly no parameter fitting is needed to arrive at a good reproduction of level density information obtained by various methods for a number of nuclei in a wide range of A and E. To that end the modified BSFM is complemented by a constant temperature approximation below the phase transition point. The axial symmetry breaking (5), which is an evidently essential feature, will also be regarded with respect to other observables for heavy nuclei.

20. An Efficient Estimation Method for Reducing the Axial Intensity Drop in Circular Cone-Beam CT

Lei Zhu

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Reconstruction algorithms for circular cone-beam (CB scans have been extensively studied in the literature. Since insufficient data are measured, an exact reconstruction is impossible for such a geometry. If the reconstruction algorithm assumes zeros for the missing data, such as the standard FDK algorithm, a major type of resulting CB artifacts is the intensity drop along the axial direction. Many algorithms have been proposed to improve image quality when faced with this problem of data missing; however, development of an effective and computationally efficient algorithm remains a major challenge. In this work, we propose a novel method for estimating the unmeasured data and reducing the intensity drop artifacts. Each CB projection is analyzed in the Radon space via Grangeat's first derivative. Assuming the CB projection is taken from a parallel beam geometry, we extract those data that reside in the unmeasured region of the Radon space. These data are then used as in a parallel beam geometry to calculate a correction term, which is added together with Hu’s correction term to the FDK result to form a final reconstruction. More approximations are then made on the calculation of the additional term, and the final formula is implemented very efficiently. The algorithm performance is evaluated using computer simulations on analytical phantoms. The reconstruction comparison with results using other existing algorithms shows that the proposed algorithm achieves a superior performance on the reduction of axial intensity drop artifacts with a high computation efficiency.

1. Bi axially textured YBCO coated tape prepared using dynamic magnetic grain alignment

Genoud, Jean-Yves; Quinton, William

1999-01-01

A new magnetic grain alignment technique has been applied to produce bi axially aligned YBCO coated tapes. A bi axially aligned dispersion of orthorhombic Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15 (Y-247) powder was settled on un textured silver substrates. The Y-247 tapes were then melt processed to achieve high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (Y-123) tapes with CuO as a secondary phase. The biaxial alignment is preserved after the densification process and a clear enhancement of J c relative to identically prepared un textured or uniaxially textured samples is obtained. Critical current densities of up to 5000 A cm -2 at 77 K in self-field and 1500 A cm -2 in 0.5 T magnetic field at 65 K were obtained in films from 20 to 40 μm thick. Problems were experienced in achieving fully densified thick films while retaining biaxial texture. The initial grain size distribution was found to have a major influence on the final microstructure. Provided significant improvements in J c can be obtained this method offers an alternative to coated tape processes based on epitaxial growth which has the advantage that it does not require textured substrates. The biaxial alignment technique described here intrinsically acts on the bulk material rather than at surfaces. This offers the possibility of texturing without thickness limitations. (author)

2. Vibration Characteristics of Axially Moving Titanium- Polymer Nanocomposite Faced Sandwich Plate Under Initial Tension

Ali Ghorbanpour Arani

2017-07-01

Full Text Available In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving sandwich plate made of soft core and composite face sheets under initial tension is investigated. Single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs are selected as a reinforcement of composite face sheets inside Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA matrix. Higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Based on extended rule of mixture, the structural properties of composite face sheets are taken into consideration. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton’s principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, volume fraction of CNTs, pre-tension, thickness and aspect ratio of sandwich plate on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving sandwich plate is strongly dependent on the volume fraction of CNTs. Therefore, the critical speed of moving sandwich plate can be improved by adding appropriate values of CNTs. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels and aircrafts.

3. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong

2017-01-01

In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

4. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2017-01-15

In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

5. Axial coupling constant of the nucleon for two flavours of dynamical quarks in finite and infinite volume

Khan, A.A.; Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.

2006-03-01

We present data for the axial coupling constant g A of the nucleon obtained in lattice QCD with two degenerate flavours of dynamical non-perturbatively improved Wilson quarks. The renormalisation is also performed non-perturbatively. For the analysis we give a chiral extrapolation formula for g A based on the small scale expansion scheme of chiral effective field theory for two degenerate quark flavours. Applying this formalism in a finite volume we derive a formula that allows us to extrapolate our data simultaneously to the infinite volume and to the chiral limit. Using the additional lattice data in finite volume we are able to determine the axial coupling of the nucleon in the chiral limit without imposing the known value at the physical point. (Orig.)

6. Axial coupling constant of the nucleon for two flavours of dynamical quarks in finite and infinite volume

Khan, A.A.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Physik-Department, Theoretische Physik] (and others)

2006-03-15

We present data for the axial coupling constant g{sub A} of the nucleon obtained in lattice QCD with two degenerate flavours of dynamical non-perturbatively improved Wilson quarks. The renormalisation is also performed non-perturbatively. For the analysis we give a chiral extrapolation formula for g{sub A} based on the small scale expansion scheme of chiral effective field theory for two degenerate quark flavours. Applying this formalism in a finite volume we derive a formula that allows us to extrapolate our data simultaneously to the infinite volume and to the chiral limit. Using the additional lattice data in finite volume we are able to determine the axial coupling of the nucleon in the chiral limit without imposing the known value at the physical point. (Orig.)

7. Renormalization of the axial-vector current in QCD

Chiu, C.B.; Pasupathy, J.; Wilson, S.L.

1985-01-01

Following the method of Ioffe and Smilga, the propagation of the baryon current in an external constant axial-vector field is considered. The close similarity of the operator-product expansion with and without an external field is shown to arise from the chiral invariance of gauge interactions in perturbation theory. Several sum rules corresponding to various invariants both for the nucleon and the hyperons are derived. The analysis of the sum rules is carried out by two independent methods, one called the ratio method and the other called the continuum method, paying special attention to the nondiagonal transitions induced by the external field between the ground state and excited states. Up to operators of dimension six, two new external-field-induced vacuum expectation values enter the calculations. Previous work determining these expectation values from PCAC (partial conservation of axial-vector current) are utilized. Our determination from the sum rules of the nucleon axial-vector renormalization constant G/sub A/, as well as the Cabibbo coupling constants in the SU 3 -symmetric limit (m/sub s/ = 0), is in reasonable accord with the experimental values. Uncertainties in the analysis are pointed out. The case of broken flavor SU 3 symmetry is also considered. While in the ratio method, the results are stable for variation of the fiducial interval of the Borel mass parameter over which the left-hand side and the right-hand side of the sum rules are matched, in the continuum method the results are less stable. Another set of sum rules determines the value of the linear combination 7F-5D to be roughly-equal0, or D/(F+D)roughly-equal(7/12). .AE

8. Predictors of Persistent Axial Neck Pain After Cervical Laminoplasty.

Kimura, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Hirokazu; Endo, Teruaki; Takeshita, Katsushi

2018-01-01

Retrospective analysis of prospective data. The aim of this study was to reveal baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain. Axial neck pain is one of the most common complications after cervical laminoplasty; however, baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain are unclear. We analyzed data from 156 patients who completed a 2-year follow-up after double-door laminoplasty for degenerative cervical myelopathy. Patients rated the average intensity of axial neck pain in the last month using an 11-point numerical rating scale preoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up. The dependent variable was the presence of moderate-to-severe neck pain (numerical rating scale ≥4) at the 2-year follow-up. The independent variables included patient characteristics, baseline radiological parameters, surgical variables, baseline axial neck pain intensity, and baseline functions, which were measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score and the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain after laminoplasty. At the 2-year follow-up, 51 patients (32%) had moderate-to-severe neck pain, and 106 patients (68%) had no or mild pain. Univariate analysis revealed that the ratio of cervical anterolisthesis, ratio of current smoking, baseline neck pain intensity, and baseline SF-36 Mental Component Summary differed significantly between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain at the 2-year follow-up include the presence of anterolisthesis, current smoking, moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain, and lower SF-36 Mental Component Summary. The presence of anterolisthesis and moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain were also associated with significantly poorer physical function after surgery. The presence of anterolisthesis was associated not only with the highest odds ratio of

9. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

Thomassen, Kristina

The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

10. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

E. E. Gubar

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Objective: to study bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. Seventy-three patients aged 18–45 years with inflammatory back pain lasting at least 3 months and not more than 5 years were examined. Axial SpA was diagnosed according to the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP values were used to estimate disease activity; BASFI was employed to evaluate functional status. The examination encompassed determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their injuries, densitometry of LS (LI-IV and FN. By taking into account the young age of patients, the Z-score was applied to measure BMD. The latter is considered lower if the Z-score is 1–2 standard deviations (SD in at least one of the segments under study.Results. The median Z-score was -0.7 (-1.3; -0.3 SD for FN and 0.9 (-1.6; -0.5 SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at least one of the segments under study was detected in 13 (17.8% patients: that in LS and FN in 11 (15.1% and 5 (6.8% patients, respectively. Lower BMD was observed in two segments in 3 (4.1% patients. No association was found between lower BMD and age, gender, disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS, and laboratory inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and CRP. A relationship was established between inflammatory changes according to the data of MRI of LS (MRI spondylitis and reduced BMD in the same segment. MRI spondylitis was detected in 8 patients. Five and 3 patients with spondylitis of LS were found to have lower and normal BMD in this segment, respectively. Six out of 65 patients without MRI spondylitis in LS had its reduced BMD and the remaining (n=59 patients had its normal BMD (p=0.0014.Conclusion. There was an

11. Axial gap formation in P.W.R. fuel pins

Roberts, G.; Jones, K.W.

1978-07-01

The potential mechanisms of axial gap formation in PWR fuel pins are examined analytically and also using evidence from post-irradiation examination (p.i.e.) investigation. It is concluded that fuel and cladding cannot remain in contact during densification and so the settling of of the fuel stack, which forms the gaps, must be prevented by such things as asperities in the cladding, fuel chips or tilted pellets. Examples from the p.i.e. examination programme are used to support this conclusion. (author)

12. Momentum distribution at great depths when electron axial channeling

Khokonov, M.Kh.; Tuguz, F.K.

1989-01-01

The electron distribution in momenta during axial channeling in thick monocrystals in great depths is estimated. The estimate was carried out with respect to the fact that due to diffusion the angular momentum of the electron can change only in a limited region of phase space and that multiple scattering only takes place on thermal oscillations of nuclei of the crystal lattice. It is shown that in thick monocrystals the distribution in momenta can be considered uniform on the greater part of the way of channeled electrons which can simplity the qualitative consideration of spectral-angular characteristics forming during this radiation

13. Evaluation of axial fission gas transport in power ramping experiments

Kinoshita, Motoyasu

1986-01-01

The LINUS code calculates advective and diffusional transport of fission gas towards an upper plenum through the pellet-cladding gap. The basic equations were modified for analyzing a multi-component gas mixture in the gap and also for dealing with opening and/or closing of the gap, which induces additional axial gas flow. Analysis of the Petten ramp experiment shows that helium pressurization is effective in suppressing an ascending rate of fission gas concentration. After the maximum concentration is achieved through power ramping, the gas concentration could be described by a steady state analytical solution which does not depend on the filling gas pressure. (author)

14. Axial Permanent Magnet Generator for Wearable Energy Harvesting

Högberg, Stig; Sødahl, Jakob Wagner; Mijatovic, Nenad

2016-01-01

An increasing demand for battery-free electronics is evident by the rapid increase of wearable devices, and the design of wearable energy harvesters follows accordingly. An axial permanent magnet generator was designed to harvest energy from human body motion and supplying it to a wearable......W, respectively) with an iron yoke is subject to losses that exceed the realistic input power, and was therefore deemed infeasible. A generator without the iron yoke was concluded to perform well as a wearable energy harvester. An experimental investigation of a prototype revealed an output power of almost 1 m...

15. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

2005-01-01

Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

16. Axial gravitational waves in FLRW cosmology and memory effects

Kulczycki, Wojciech; Malec, Edward

2017-09-01

We show initial data for gravitational axial waves that are twice differentiable but that are not C2. They generate wave pulses that interact with matter in the radiation cosmological era. This forces the radiation matter to rotate. This rotation is permanent—it persists after the passage of the gravitational pulse. The observed inhomogeneities of the cosmic microwave background radiation put a bound onto discontinuities of superhorizon metric perturbations. We explicitly show that a class of smooth initial metrics that are at least C2 gives rise to gravitational wave pulses that do not interact with the background during the radiation epoch.

17. Axially symmetric reconstruction of plasma emission and absorption coefficients

Yang Lixin; Jia Hui; Yang Jiankun; Li Xiujian; Chen Shaorong; Liu Xishun

2013-01-01

A layered structure imaging model is developed in order to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients simultaneously, in laser fusion core plasma diagnostics. A novel axially symmetric reconstruction method that utilizes the LM (Levenberg-Marquardt) nonlinear least squares minimization algorithm is proposed based on the layered structure. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to reconstruct emission coefficients and absorption coefficients, and when the standard deviation of noise is 0.01, the errors of emission coefficients and absorption coefficients are 0.17, 0.22, respectively. Furthermore, this method could perform much better on reconstruction effect compared with traditional inverse Abel transform algorithms. (authors)

18. On the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models

Souza Dutra, A. de.

1991-01-01

We show the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models, in the sense that all Green's functions of one model can be obtained from those of the other, and that both models have the same effective Lagrangian density (and so they have equal partition functions associated with them). In particular, we show that the two models have the same chiral anomaly. Finally it is demonstrated that the Schwinger model can keep gauge invariance for an arbitrary mass, dispensing with an additional gauge group integration. (author)

19. Axial and Radial Gas Holdup in Bubble Column Reactor

Wagh, Sameer M.; Ansari, Mohashin E Alan; Kene, Pragati T.

2014-01-01

Bubble column reactors are considered the reactor of choice for numerous applications including oxidation, hydrogenation, waste water treatment, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. They are widely used in a variety of industrial applications for carrying out gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reactions. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used for predicting the gas holdup and its distribution along radial and axial direction are presented. Gas holdup increases linearly with increase in gas velocity. Gas bubbles tends to concentrate more towards the center of the column and follows a wavy path

20. Axial dispersion via shear-enhanced diffusion in colloidal suspensions

Griffiths, I. M.

2012-03-01

The familiar example of Taylor dispersion of molecular solutes is extended to describe colloidal suspensions, where the fluctuations that contribute to dispersion arise from hydrodynamic interactions. The generic scheme is illustrated for a suspension of particles in a pressure-driven pipe flow, with a concentration-dependent diffusivity that captures both the shear-induced and Brownian contributions. The effect of the cross-stream migration via shear-induced diffusion is shown to dramatically reduce the axial dispersion predicted by classical Taylor dispersion for a molecular solute. Analytic and numerical solutions are presented that illustrate the effect of the concentration dependence of this nonlinear hydrodynamic mechanism. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

1. Characteristics of axial splits in failed BWR fuel rods

Lysell, G.; Grigoriev, V.

2000-01-01

Secondary cladding defects in BWR fuel sometimes have the shape of long axial cracks or ''splits''. Due to the large open UO 2 surfaces exposed to the water, fission product and UO 2 release to the coolant can reach excessive levels leading to forced shut downs to remove the failed fuel rods. A number of such fuel rods have been examined in Studsvik over the last 10 years. The paper describes observations from the PIE of long cracks and discusses the driving force of the cracks. Details such as starting cracks, macroscopic and microscopic fracture surface appearance, cross sections of cracks, hydride precipitates, location and degree of plastic deformation are given. (author)

2. 3.0T MR imaging of the ankle: Axial traction for morphological cartilage evaluation, quantitative T2 mapping and cartilage diffusion imaging-A preliminary study.

Jungmann, Pia M; Baum, Thomas; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Sauerschnig, Martin; Brucker, Peter U; Mann, Alexander; Ganter, Carl; Bieri, Oliver; Rummeny, Ernst J; Woertler, Klaus; Bauer, Jan S

2015-08-01

To determine the impact of axial traction during high resolution 3.0T MR imaging of the ankle on morphological assessment of articular cartilage and quantitative cartilage imaging parameters. MR images of n=25 asymptomatic ankles were acquired with and without axial traction (6kg). Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted (w) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences with a driven equilibrium pulse and sagittal fat-saturated intermediate-w (IMfs) TSE sequences were acquired for morphological evaluation on a four-point scale (1=best, 4=worst). For quantitative assessment of cartilage degradation segmentation was performed on 2D multislice-multiecho (MSME) SE T2, steady-state free-precession (SSFP; n=8) T2 and SSFP diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; n=8) images. Wilcoxon-tests and paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. With axial traction, joint space width increased significantly and delineation of cartilage surfaces was rated superior (Pevaluation were smaller. Subchondral bone evaluation, motion artifacts and image quality were not significantly different between the acquisition methods (P>0.05). T2 values were lower at the tibia than at the talus (P<0.001). Reproducibility was better for images with axial traction. Axial traction increased the joint space width, allowed for better visualization of cartilage surfaces and improved compartment discrimination and reproducibility of quantitative cartilage parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. Numerical simulation of the tip clearance flow in axial turbomachinery; Numerische Simulation der Stroemung im radialen Schaufelspalt axialer Turbomaschinen

Melake, A [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

1997-12-31

A computer program has been developed to calculate the three-dimensional tip leakage flow in axial turbomachinery based on the Navier-Stokes equation. This program has been applied to investigate the leakage flow within the gap between the blade fip and casing in an annular compressor cascade. A block structured computational mesh has been used in order to resolve the flow details within the gap and the passage flow. Flow characteristics like boundary layer separation, vortex genesis and interaction of the leakage flow with the secondary flow have been investigated and compared with existing experimental data. By varying the incidence angle and the tip gap the above mentioned flow phenomena have been analysed in an annular compressor cascade and a shrouded propfan rotor respectively. Furthermore, the relationship between the total pressure loss, the axial velocity deficit and the divergence of the tip leakage vortex has been investigated. Streamlines, limited streamlines and the critical point theory have been used extensively to analyse the boundary layer separation on the casing and its roll up to form the tip clearance vortex. (orig.). 59 figs., 3 tabs., 110 refs. [Deutsch] Es wurde ein Rechenprogramm zur Berechnung der dreidimensionalen Spaltstroemung im radialen Schaufelspalt axialer Turbomaschinen auf der Basis der Navier-Stokesschen Gleichungen entwickelt und angewendet. Um die Stroemung innerhalb des Spaltes und der Schaufelpassage besser aufloesen zu koennen, wurde eine blockstrukturierte Netztopologie verwendet. Stroemungseigenschaften wie Grenzschichtabloesung, Entstehung des Spaltwirbels, Interaktion der Spaltstroemung mit der Sekundaerstroemung werden untersucht und mit vorhandenen experimentellen Daten verglichen. Im weiteren werden durch Variation der Inzidenz und der Spaltweite die oben genannten Stroemungsphaenomene an einem axialen Verdichterringgitter und an einem ummantelten Propfan analysiert. Ferner werden die Korrelation zwischen

4. Flow measurements using noise signals of axially displaced thermocouples

Kozma, R.; Hoogenboom, J.E. (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands))

1990-01-01

Determination of the flow rate of the coolant in the cooling channels of nuclear reactors is an important aspect of core monitoring. It is usually impossible to measure the flow by flowmeters in the individual channels due to the lack of space and safety reasons. An alternative method is based on the analysis of noise signals of the available in-core detectors. In such a noise method, a transit time which characterises the propagation of thermohydraulic fluctuations (density or temperature fluctuations) in the coolant is determined from the correlation between the noise signals of axially displaced detectors. In this paper, the results of flow measurements using axially displaced thermocouples in the channel wall will be presented. The experiments have been performed in a simulated MRT-type fuel assembly located in the research reactor HOR of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft. It was found that the velocities obtained via temperature noise correlation methods are significantly larger than the area-averaged velocity in the single-phase coolant flow. Model calculations show that the observed phenomenon can be explained by effects due to the radial velocity distribution in the channel. (author).

5. Axial design of fuel for BWRs using neural networks

Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R.

2007-01-01

In this work a new system of axial optimization of fuel is presented based on a recurrent multi state neural net called RENODC. They are described with detail the main characteristics of this type of neural net (architecture, energy function and actualization of neural states) and like was adapted to the assemble design of nuclear fuel. The fuel design is proven by means of a fuel recharge and pre determined control rod patterns. By this way a good axial fuel design one has, when the thermal limits are fulfilled along the cycle, the reactor stays critic and at least the wanted longitude of the cycle is reached; also the margin of in cold turned off is verified. The assemble of fuel created with RENODC it is substituted by a recharge assemble and it is sought to verify that the energy requirements and aspects of safety are completed. The used cycle corresponds to a balance cycle of 18 months that it can be applied to the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the system to reach satisfactory results in times of CPU of around 4 hours. This way, it could be proven that the design proposed with a lightly superior enrichment to that of the substituted design, fulfills the energy requirements. In later stages of this project this system will be coupled to the other optimization modules that are already had. (Author)

6. Competition between modes with different axial structures in gyrotrons

Khutoryan, Eduard M.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.

2014-01-01

This study was motivated by some experiments in which it was found that during the voltage rise, instead of expected excitation of a high-frequency parasitic mode, the excitation of a lower-frequency parasitic mode takes place in a certain range of voltages. For explaining this fact, the dependence of start currents of possible competing modes on the beam voltage was carried out in the cold-cavity approximation and by using the self-consistent approach. It was found that in the case of cavities, which consist of the combination of a section of constant radius waveguide and a slightly uptapered waveguide, these two approaches yield completely different results. Thus, experimentally observed excitation of the low-frequency parasitic mode can be explained by the self-consistent modification of the axial profile of the excited field, which has strong influence on the diffractive quality factor of competing modes. This modification is especially pronounced in the case of excitation of modes with many axial variations which can be excited in the region of beam interaction with the backward-wave component of such modes

7. Axial and parity anomalies and vacuum charge: A direct approach

Boyanovsky, D.; Blankenbecler, R.

1985-01-01

We study the axial and parity anomalies in Abelian gauge theories using the direct yet intuitive approach of counting the relative number of states of one chirality with respect to the other. A fundamental gauge-invariant quantity, the determinantal ratio, is introduced for this purpose. We find that the number of states is conserved and that the gauge fields differentially phase shift states of opposite chirality at infinite energies. This implies a relative flow of states at very large energies which must be compensated by a rearrangement of the density of states at finite energies. We then derive a sum rule which yields two alternative formulas for the index of a Dirac operator. One expresses the index in terms of its high-energy behavior, and the other in terms of the low-energy properties; these are the ''zero modes'' of definite chirality. Two examples are worked out in detail to clarify our general result. The physics of the axial anomaly is shown to translate into that of the parity anomaly in 2+1 dimensions, in which parity and chirality have interchanged roles. We also analyze the vacuum charge in regard to its high- and low-energy origin. The possibility of spectral flow is formulated and briefly discussed. In short, we provide a physical interpretation of certain mathematical indices, relate them to an extended version of Levinson's theorem of potential scattering, and simplify their evaluation

8. Axial U(1) current in Grabowska and Kaplan's formulation

2017-06-01

Recently, Grabowska and Kaplan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 211602 (2016); Phys. Rev. D 94, 114504 (2016)] suggested a nonperturbative formulation of a chiral gauge theory, which consists of the conventional domain-wall fermion and a gauge field that evolves by gradient flow from one domain wall to the other. We introduce two sets of domain-wall fermions belonging to complex conjugate representations so that the effective theory is a 4D vector-like gauge theory. Then, as a natural definition of the axial-vector current, we consider a current that generates simultaneous phase transformations for the massless modes in 4 dimensions. However, this current is exactly conserved and does not reproduce the correct anomaly. In order to investigate this point precisely, we consider the mechanism of the conservation. We find that this current includes not only the axial current on the domain wall but also a contribution from the bulk, which is nonlocal in the sense of 4D fields. Therefore, the local current is obtained by subtracting the bulk contribution from it.

9. Pit above the lesser tuberosity in axial view radiography.

Cho, Jae-Ho; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Chung, Nam-Su; Park, Do Young

2015-02-01

This study examined the relationship between the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiographs and rotator cuff tears and compared the demographic data between groups according to the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity. The hypothesis of this study was that the radiographic finding of a pit above the lesser tuberosity is related to rotator cuff tears. For 112 patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, plain radiographs of the symptomatic shoulder (tear side radiographs) and plain radiographs of the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder (no-tear side radiographs) were assessed. Seventeen radiological findings, including a pit above the lesser tuberosity, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and sclerosis, were recorded by one blinded observer. Demographic data such as age, duration of symptoms, sex, arm dominance, smoking history, trauma history, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and involved tendon were collected. A pit above the lesser tuberosity was noted on tear side radiographs of 40 patients (35.7 %) and on the no-tear side radiographs of 27 patients (24.1 %), representing a significant difference (P = 0.040). A pit associated with a rotator cuff tear was observed more often in the dominant arm (P = 0.040) and more often in patients with less previous trauma (P = 0.024). A pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiography was associated with a rotator cuff tear and occurred more often in the dominant arm of patients who had no trauma history. Prognostic study, Level III.

10. Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions

Fonseca Junior, C.A.L. da.

1985-02-01

Some aspects of topological influence on gauge field theory are analysed, considering the geometry and differential topology methods. A review of concepts of differential forms, fibered spaces, connection and curvature, showing an interpretation of gauge theory in this context, is presented. The question of fermions, analysing in details the Dirac-Kaehler which fermionic particle is considered a general differential form, is studied. It is shown how the explicit expressions in function of the Dirac spinor components vary with the Dirac matrix representation. The Dirac-Kahler equation contains 4 times (in 4 dimensions) the Dirac equation, each particle being associated an ideal at left of the algebra of general differential forms. These ideals and the SU(4) symmetry among them are also studied on the point of view of spinors and, the group of reduction to one of the ideals is identified as the Cartan subalgebra of this SU(4). Finally, the axial anomaly is calculated through the functional determinant given by the Dirac-Kaehler operator. The regularization method is the Seeley's coefficients. From that results a comparison of the index theorems for the twisted complexes of signature and spin, which proportionality is given by the number of the algebra ideals contained in the Dirac-Kaehler equation and which also manifests in the respective axial anomaly equations. (L.C.) [pt

11. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki; Amemiya, Tsugio

2002-01-01

We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

12. Vibration mechanism of fuel rod in axial flow

Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam

1998-08-01

This is a review on the previous researches for the vibration of fuel rod induced by axial flow. The analysis methods are classified into three categories accordingly as the researchers postulate the vibration to be self-excited, forced and parametric; the self-excited mechanism by Burgreen and Quinn, the forced one by Reavis, Gorman, kanazawa, and S. Chen, and the parametric one by Y. Chen. Quinn supposed that the centrifugal force by flow exaggerated the natural bow in the cylinder, and the flexural force by it diminished the bow by turns; this interactive motion leaded cylinder to vibration. The supporters to the forced mechanism considered the forces arising from pressure perturbation within the boundary layers as vibrating sources. Y. Chen insisted that the cylinder could only be excited to vibration in resonance by the small oscillation of mean flow velocity. The previous studies were based on the simple boundary conditions such as hinged-hinged or fixed-fixed single span. Therefore, for the more accurate prediction of the fuel rod vibration in reactor, the further studies need to reflect the actual boundary conditions of the fuel rod like axial force and continuous supports by grids. (author). 25 refs

13. The effects of initial rise and axial loads on MEMS arches

2017-04-07

Arch microbeams have been utilized and proposed for many uses over the past few years due to their large tunability and bistability. However, recent experimental data have shown different mechanical behavior of arches when subjected to axial loads. This paper aims to investigate in depth the influence of the competing effects of initial rise and axial loads on the mechanical behavior of micromachined arches; mainly their static deflection and resonant frequencies. Based on analytical solutions, the static response and eigenvalue problems are analyzed for various values of initial rises and axial loads. Universal curves showing the variation of the first three resonance frequencies of the arch are generated for various values of initial rise under both tensile and compressive axial loads. This study shows that increasing the tensile or compressive axial loads for different values of initial rise may lead to either increase in the stiffness of the beam or initial decrease in the stiffness, which later increases as the axial load is increased depending on the dominant effect of the initial rise of the arch and the axial load. The obtained universal curves represent useful design tools to predict the tunability of arches under axial loads for various values of initial rises. The use of the universal curves is demonstrated with an experimental case study. Analytical formulation is developed to predict the point of minimum where the trend of the resonance frequency versus axial loads changes qualitatively due to the competing effects of axial loads and initial curvature.

14. Effect of axial magnetic field on a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet ECR ion source.

Nakamura, T; Wada, H; Asaji, T; Furuse, M

2016-02-01

Herein, we conduct a fundamental study to improve the generation efficiency of a multi-charged ion source using argon. A magnetic field of our electron cyclotron resonance ion source is composed of a permanent magnet and a solenoid coil. Thereby, the axial magnetic field in the chamber can be tuned. Using the solenoid coil, we varied the magnetic field strength in the plasma chamber and measured the ion beam current extracted at the electrode. We observed an approximately three times increase in the Ar(4+) ion beam current when the magnetic field on the extractor-electrode side of the chamber was weakened. From our results, we can confirm that the multi-charged ion beam current changes depending on magnetic field intensity in the plasma chamber.

15. Effect of axial magnetic field on a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet ECR ion source

Nakamura, T., E-mail: tsubasa@oshima-k.ac.jp; Wada, H.; Furuse, M. [National Institute of Technology, Oshima College, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suouoshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Asaji, T. [National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 13 Hongo, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan)

2016-02-15

Herein, we conduct a fundamental study to improve the generation efficiency of a multi-charged ion source using argon. A magnetic field of our electron cyclotron resonance ion source is composed of a permanent magnet and a solenoid coil. Thereby, the axial magnetic field in the chamber can be tuned. Using the solenoid coil, we varied the magnetic field strength in the plasma chamber and measured the ion beam current extracted at the electrode. We observed an approximately three times increase in the Ar{sup 4+} ion beam current when the magnetic field on the extractor-electrode side of the chamber was weakened. From our results, we can confirm that the multi-charged ion beam current changes depending on magnetic field intensity in the plasma chamber.

16. Coexistence of axial spondyloarthritis and thromboangiitis obliterans in a young woman

G. Lopalco

2015-06-01

Full Text Available A peculiar coexistence of axial spondyloarthritis and ischemia of the feet and the fourth finger of the left hand in a young woman, who was a heavy smoker, is discussed in this report. This picture was considered within the context of thromboangiitis obliterans. Positivity of anti-nuclear antibodies and mild elevation of inflammatory parameters were noted. Computed tomography angiograms of upper and lower limbs showed luminal narrowing and occlusion of the left humeral, left anterior/posterior tibial and right anterior tibial arteries. Daily iloprost perfusions were started, and smoking cessation was strongly recommended. Coldness and rest pain in the distal extremities improved within a few weeks. The possibility that spondyloarthritis might precede the clinical picture of thromboangiitis obliterans should be considered in heavy smokers.

17. Tensile properties of a dual-axial forged Ti–Fe–Cu alloy containing boron

Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., E-mail: zadorozhnyyvlad@gmail.com [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shchetinin, I.V.; Chirikov, N.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2014-09-22

In the present work we introduce a micro/nano-structured α+β Ti-based low-alloy produced by the tilt-casting method and subjected to subsequent thermo-mechanical treatment. After hot dual-axial forging at 900 °C, subsequent heating at 700 °C and water quenching a Ti{sub 94}Fe{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}+1000 ppm of boron alloy, containing inexpensive alloying elements, showed an ultimate tensile strength value of about 950 MPa and percentage elongation of about 5.2%. It is shown that the intensive forging treatment and subsequent heat treatment are leading to significantly improved mechanical properties of such an alloy compared to the as-cast state.

18. Development of leak-rupture criteria for axially through-wall cracked pipelines

Zhu, X.K.; Leis, B.N. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

2009-07-01

In this study, J-integral based fracture mechanics were used to characterize the fracture behaviour of a pipeline from crack initiation and stable growth to tearing instability. The aim of the study was to develop an effective leak-rupture criterion for pipelines with axial through-wall cracks (TWC). The J driving force for cracked plates and pipes was estimated using a plastic influence function method. The EPRI estimation scheme and R6 method were used to obtain a general estimate of the J-integral of the pipe. The failure pressures of a TWC pipe at fracture initiation and instability were then modelled in order to define a leak-rupture boundary. Fracture initiation and instability analyses for the TWC pipeline were illustrated. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to improve the accuracy of J driving force estimation and the leak-rupture criterion for pipeline applications. 20 refs., 5 figs.

19. Tyre contact length on dry and wet road surfaces measured by three-axial accelerometer

Matilainen, Mika; Tuononen, Ari

2015-02-01

We determined the tyre contact length on dry and wet roads by measuring the accelerations of the inner liner with a three-axial accelerometer. The influence of the tyre pressure, driving velocity, and tread depth on the contact length was studied in both types of road surface conditions. On dry asphalt the contact length was almost constant, regardless of the driving velocity. On wet asphalt the presence of water could be detected even at low driving velocities (e.g. 20 km/h for a worn tyre) as the contact length began to decrease from that found in the dry asphalt situation. In addition to improving the performance of active safety systems and driver warning systems, the contact length information could be beneficial for classifying and studying the aquaplaning behaviour of tyres.

20. Probability of a steam generator tube rupture due to the presence of axial through wall cracks

Mavko, B.; Cizelj, L.

1991-01-01

Using the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) approach to define tube plugging criteria a possibility to operate with through wall crack(s) in steam generator tubes may be considered. This fact may imply an increase in tube rupture probability. Improved examination techniques (in addition to the 100% tube examination) have been developed and introduced to counterbalance the associated risk. However no estimates of the amount of total increase or decrease of risk due to the introduction of LBB have been made. A scheme to predict this change of risk is proposed in the paper, based on probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of axial cracks combined with available data of steam generator tube nondestructive examination reliability. (author)

1. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density

Xiaofeng Ding

2015-06-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous design and optimization of an axial flux microelectromechanical systems (MEMS brushless dc (BLDC micromotor with dual rotor improving both efficiency and power density with an external diameter of only around 10 mm. The stator is made of two layers of windings by MEMS technology. The rotor is developed by film permanent magnets assembled over the rotor yoke. The characteristics of the MEMS micromotor are analyzed and modeled through a 3-D magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC taking the leakage flux and fringing effect into account. Such a model yields a relatively accurate prediction of the flux in the air gap, back electromotive force (EMF and electromagnetic torque, whilst being computationally efficient. Based on 3-D MEC model the multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA is developed for the optimal design of this special machine. Both 3-D finite element (FE simulation and experiments are employed to validate the MEC model and MOFA optimization design.

2. An investigation of axial xenon stability in WWER-1000 reactor designs

Doshi, P.K.; Miller, R.W.

1993-01-01

The nuclear power plants of the WWER-1000 design have experienced frequent xenon oscillation control problems. In most PWRs, xenon oscillations are largely a problem in the axial direction. An one dimensional core model representative of the WWER-1000 design was set up to examine the controllability of the current design. An investigation of possible improvements to this design was made. There was no indication that xenon oscillations were an inherent problem in WWER-1000 core design. Simple changes to the control rod system coupled with a sound power distribution control strategy that has been proven to be an effective but simple procedure to follow, eliminate xenon control problems. The changes proposed can be implemented in a very cost effective manner. There are no equipment changes needed, existing control rods can be used. Only software changes are required. (Z.S.) 1 tab., 2 figs., 7 refs

3. Rare location of spondylitis tuberculosis;atlanto-axial, sacral and cervico-thoracic junction

Victorio; Nasution, M. D.; Ibrahim, S.; Dharmajaya, R.

2018-03-01

Three cases of rare location spondylitis tuberculosis are reported, each in atlantoaxial, cervico-thoracic junction,and sacral. The complaints were aweakness of motoric strength and local back pain. Patients’thoracal x-ray was normal, there was no complaint of acough, PCR forTB was early diagnostic and positive in all three cases, HIV negative, intraoperative tissue samplings were sent for histopathology examination and the results showed thespecific inflammatory process. Lesions were evaluated with computer tomography and/or MRI imaging.Preoperative TB regimens therapy were given for 2 weeks and continued for nine months. The surgical procedurewas done in all cases with excellent improvement of symptoms and motoric strength. In our institution,25 cases of total TB spondylitis were performed in 2 years, only 1 case eachwas found in atlanto-axial, cervico-thoracic and sacral.

4. Quantum regime of a plasma-wave-pumped free-electron laser in the presence of an axial magnetic field.

Shirvani, H; Jafari, S

2018-03-01

The quantum regime of a plasma-whistler-wave-pumped free-electron laser (FEL) in the presence of an axial-guide magnetic field is presented. By quantizing both the plasma whistler field and axial magnetic field, an N-particle three-dimensional Hamiltonian of quantum-FEL (QFEL) has been derived. Employing Heisenberg evolution equations and introducing a new collective operator which controls the vertical motion of electrons, a quantum dispersion relation of the plasma whistler wiggler has been obtained analytically. Numerical results indicate that, by increasing the intrinsic quantum momentum spread and/or increasing the axial magnetic field strength, the bunching and the radiation fields grow exponentially. In addition, a spiking behavior of the spectrum was observed with increasing cyclotron frequency which provides an enormous improvement in the coherence of QFEL radiation even in a limit close-to-classical regime, where an overlapping of these spikes is observed. Also, an upper limit of the intrinsic quantum momentum spread which depends on the value of the cyclotron frequency was found.

5. Numerical investigation of the flow in axial water turbines and marine propellers with scale-resolving simulations

Morgut, Mitja; Jošt, Dragica; Nobile, Enrico; Škerlavaj, Aljaž

2015-11-01

The accurate prediction of the performances of axial water turbines and naval propellers is a challenging task, of great practical relevance. In this paper a numerical prediction strategy, based on the combination of a trusted CFD solver and a calibrated mass transfer model, is applied to the turbulent flow in axial turbines and around a model scale naval propeller, under non-cavitating and cavitating conditions. Some selected results for axial water turbines and a marine propeller, and in particular the advantages, in terms of accuracy and fidelity, of ScaleResolving Simulations (SRS), like SAS (Scale Adaptive Simulation) and Zonal-LES (ZLES) compared to standard RANS approaches, are presented. Efficiency prediction for a Kaplan and a bulb turbine was significantly improved by use of the SAS SST model in combination with the ZLES in the draft tube. Size of cavitation cavity and sigma break curve for Kaplan turbine were successfully predicted with SAS model in combination with robust high resolution scheme, while for mass transfer the Zwart model with calibrated constants were used. The results obtained for a marine propeller in non-uniform inflow, under cavitating conditions, compare well with available experimental measurements, and proved that a mass transfer model, previously calibrated for RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes), can be successfully applied also within the SRS approaches.

6. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

2017-06-01

Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

7. Thermal isocreep curves obtained during multi-axial creep tests on recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™ alloy

Rautenberg, M.; Poquillon, D.; Pilvin, P.; Grosjean, C.; Cloué, J.M.; Feaugas, X.

2014-01-01

Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Several components, such as cladding or guide tubes, undergo strong mechanical loading during and after their use inside the pressurized water reactors. The current requirements on higher fuel performances lead to the developing on new Zr based alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties. In this framework, creep behaviors of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 and M5™, have been investigated and then compared. In order to give a better understanding of the thermal creep anisotropy of Zr-based alloys, multi-axial creep tests have been carried out at 673 K. Using a specific device, creep conditions have been set using different values of β = σ zz /σ θθ , σ zz and σ θθ being respectively the axial and hoop creep stresses. Both axial and hoop strains are measured during each test which is carried out until stationary creep is stabilized. The steady-state strain rates are then used to build isocreep curves. Considering the isocreep curves, the M5™ alloy shows a largely improved creep resistance compared to the recrystallized Zircaloy-4, especially for tubes under high hoop loadings (0 < β < 1). The isocreep curves are then compared with simulations performed using two different mechanical models. Model 1 uses a von Mises yield criterion, the model 2 is based on a Hill yield criterion. For both models, a coefficient derived from Norton law is used to assess the stress dependence

8. Axial charge of the weak nucleon current extracted from the β decays of spin aligned 12B and 12N

Yamaguchi, Takayuki

1998-01-01

The alignment correlation terms in the β-ray angular distributions of the 12 B and 12 N mirror nuclei have been precisely measured, in order to investigate the mesonic effect in the axial charge matrix element. The spin alignments were created with the spin manipulation technique in the β-NMR method, which has been improved based on the recent studies of hyperfine interactions of 12 B and 12 N in a Mg crystal. From the sum of the alignment correlation terms, the ratio of the axial charge to the Gamow-Teller term was determined to be y = 4.66 ± 0.06(stat) ± 0.13(syst). The present result gives clear evidence of the mesonic effect in the axial charge and even more shows 16 ± 6% enhancement over the full calculation which includes the meson exchange effect and the core polarization effect. A possible mass renormalization for the decaying nucleon in a finite nucleon density explains this enhancement. (author)

9. Interconnection between several eye biomechanical and biometric parameters in children with axial and refractive mild myopia

T. Ye. Tsybulskaya

2016-08-01

Full Text Available Aim – to study the relationship of biometric and biomechanical indicators of corneoscleral capsule of the eye in children with axial and refractive mild myopia. Materials and methods. Axial myopia was diagnosed in 32 children (64 eyes, refractive myopia – 18 (36 eyes. The control group – 16 children without ophthalmic diseases (32 eyes. Eye examination: visometry, automated refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, determination of the axial length of the eyeball and corneal hysteresis. Results. Significant differences were determined in the indicators of dioptric power of the cornea: 42.2 dpt in patients with axial and 44.7 dpt with refractive myopia (p<0.05, and also difference between patients with refractive myopia and the control group, in which the diopter power of cornea was 42.6 (p<0.05. There are also significant differences in the indicators of the axial length of eyes between axial and refractive myopia – 24.5±0.64 mm and 23.1±0.43 mm (p<0.05. Significant difference with the control group in the axial length marked only in eyes with axial myopia 22.7±0.33 mm and 24.5±0.64 mm, respectively (p<0.05. Corneal hysteresis determined significantly reduced on eyes with both the axial and refractive myopia, which was significantly lower than in the indicators of emmetropic eyes of the control group 13.7 (p<0.05. Corneal hysteresis is inversely related to the axial length of the eyeball: in patients with axial myopia r -0.32, p<0.05; with refractive myopia r -0.36, p<0.05. Сorrelation between diopter power of cornea and axial length of the eyeball: r -0.53, р<0.05 in eyes with axial myopia and r -0.42, p<0.05 refractive myopia. Comparative analysis showed no significant differences between the corneal hysteresis, the axial length of the eye and the spherical component of myopia. Conclusions. In patients with axial and refractive mild myopia corneal hysteresis is reduced on average in 1.2 and 1.1 times, in comparison with

10. Axial design of fuel for BWRs using neural networks; Diseno axial de combustible para BWRs usando redes neuronales

Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx

2007-07-01

In this work a new system of axial optimization of fuel is presented based on a recurrent multi state neural net called RENODC. They are described with detail the main characteristics of this type of neural net (architecture, energy function and actualization of neural states) and like was adapted to the assemble design of nuclear fuel. The fuel design is proven by means of a fuel recharge and pre determined control rod patterns. By this way a good axial fuel design one has, when the thermal limits are fulfilled along the cycle, the reactor stays critic and at least the wanted longitude of the cycle is reached; also the margin of in cold turned off is verified. The assemble of fuel created with RENODC it is substituted by a recharge assemble and it is sought to verify that the energy requirements and aspects of safety are completed. The used cycle corresponds to a balance cycle of 18 months that it can be applied to the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the system to reach satisfactory results in times of CPU of around 4 hours. This way, it could be proven that the design proposed with a lightly superior enrichment to that of the substituted design, fulfills the energy requirements. In later stages of this project this system will be coupled to the other optimization modules that are already had. (Author)

11. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

Alatawneh, Natheer, E-mail: natheer80@yahoo.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada); Chromik, Richard [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada)

2017-06-15

Highlights: • Develop a toroidal tester for magnetic measurements under compressive axial stress. • The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. • The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out. • Physical explanations for the core loss trend due to stress are provided. - Abstract: Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

12. Axial design of nuclear fuel using path relinking

Castillo, A.; Torres, M.; Ortiz, J. J.; Perusquia, R.; Hernandez, J. L.; Montes, J. L.

2008-01-01

In the present work the preliminary results were obtained with the zoctli system whose purpose is the axial design of assembly of nuclear fuel under certain considerations. For the mentioned design well-know cells were already used and that they have been proven in diverse cycles of operation in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The design contemplates fuels assemblies of 10x10 and with 2 water channels. The assembly was distributed in 6 axial zones according to its structure. In order to take to end the optimization is was used the well-known technique like Path relinking and to find the group of previous solutions required by this technique uses the technical Taboo search. In order to work with Path relinking, 5 trajectories was taken in to account from a set of 5 previous solutions generated with theTaboo search, the update of the group of solutions is carried out in dynamic form. In the case of the Taboo search it was used a list of variable size, it was implement an aspiration approach, it was used the vector of frequencies and due to the cost of the evaluation of the objective function, only it was review 5% of the vicinity. For the objective function was considered the limit thermal, the axial profile of power, the effective multiplication factor and the margin of having turned off in cold. In order to prove the design system, it was used a balance cycle with a value of reference of 0.9928 for the effective multiplication factor that is equivalent to a produced energy of 10896 MWd/TU at the end of operation to full power. The designed assemblies were placed both in one of lots different from fresh assemblies on which it counts the referred cycle. At the end one a comparison with the results obtained with other techniques and under similar conditions is made. The results obtained until the moment show an appropriate performance of the system. It is possible to indicate that a small inconvenient is the amount of consumed resources of calculation during

13. Three-dimensional S-wave tomography under Axial Seamount

Baillard, C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Arnulf, A. F.; Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.

2017-12-01

Axial Seamount is a submarine volcano located at the intersection of the Juande Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg hotspot 500 km off the coast of thenorthwestern United States. The seamount, which rises 1 km above the seafloor, ischaracterized by a shallow caldera that is elongated in the N-S direction, measure 8km by 3 km and sits on top of a 14 km by 3 km magma reservoir. Two eruptive eventsin 1998 and 2011 motivated the deployment in 2014 of a real time cabled observatorywithin the Axial caldera, as part of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI).Theobservatory includes a network of seven seismometers that span the southern half ofthe caldera. Five months after the observatory came on-line in November 2014, thevolcano erupted on April 24, 2015. Well over 100,000 events were located in thevicinity of the caldera, delineating an outward dipping ring fault that extends fromnear the surface to the magma body at 2 km depth and which accommodatesinflation and deflation of the volcano.The initial earthquake locations have beenobtained with a one-dimensional velocity model but the travel time residuals suggeststrong heterogeneities. A three-dimensional P-wave velocity model, obtained bycombining multichannel and ocean bottom seismometer refraction data, is being usedto refine locations but the three-dimensional S-wave structure is presently unknown.In most mid-ocean ridge settings, the distribution of earthquakes is not conducive forjoint inversions for S-wave velocity and hypocentral parameters because there are fewcrossing ray paths but at Axial the presence of a ring fault that is seismically active atall depths on both the east and west side of the caldera, provides a reasonablegeometry for such efforts. We will present the results of joint inversions that assumethe existing three-dimensional P wave velocity model and solve for VP/VS structure andhypocentral parameters using LOTOS, an algorithm that solves the forward problemusing ray bending.The resulting model

14. Axial to transverse energy mixing dynamics in octupole-based magnetostatic antihydrogen traps

Zhong, M.; Fajans, J.; Zukor, A. F.

2018-05-01

The nature of the trajectories of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole minimum-B trap is of great importance for upcoming spectroscopy, cooling, and gravity experiments. Of particular interest is the mixing time between the axial and transverse energies for the antiatoms. Here, using computer simulations, we establish that almost all trajectories are chaotic, and then quantify the characteristic mixing time between the axial and transverse energies. We find that there are two classes of trajectories: for trajectories whose axial energy is higher than about 20% of the total energy, the axial energy substantially mixes within about 10 s, whereas for trajectories whose axial energy is lower than about 10% of the total energy, the axial energy remains nearly constant for 1000 s or longer.

15. Axial power deviation control strategy and computer simulation for Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

Liao Yehong; Zhou Xiaoling, Xiao Min

2004-01-01

Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has very tight operation diagram especially at its right side. Therefore the successful control of axial power deviation for PWR is crucial to nuclear safety. After analyzing various core characters' effect on axial power distribution, several axial power deviation control strategies has been proposed to comply with different power varying operation scenario. Application and computer simulation of the strategies has shown that our prediction of axial power deviation evolution are comparable to the measurement values, and that our control strategies are effective. Engineering experience shows that the application of our methodology can predict accurately the transient of axial power deviation, and therefore has become a useful tool for reactor operation and safety control. This paper presents the axial power control characteristics, reactor operation strategy research, computer simulation, and comparison to measurement results in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. (author)

16. Second harmonic generation of off axial vortex beam in the case of walk-off effect

Chen, Shunyi; Ding, Panfeng; Pu, Jixiong

2016-07-01

Process of off axial vortex beam propagating in negative uniaxial crystal is investigated in this work. Firstly, we get the formulae of the normalized electric field and calculate the location of vortices for second harmonic beam in two type of phase matching. Then, numerical analysis verifies that the intensity distribution and location of vortices of the first order original vortex beam depend on the walk-off angle and off axial magnitude. It is shown that, in type I phase matching, the distribution of vortices is symmetrical about the horizontal axis, the separation distance increases as the off axial magnitude increases or the off axial magnitude deceases. However, in type II phase matching, the vortices are symmetrical along with some vertical axis, and increase of the walk-off angle or off axial magnitude leads to larger separation distance. Finally, the case of high order original off axial vortex beam is also investigated.

17. Study of Fuel Rods Axial Enrichment Distribution Effect on the Neutronic Parameters of the Reactor Core

Pazirandeh, A.; Nasiri, S. H.

2012-01-01

Optimization of the fuel burn up is an important issue in nuclear reactor fuel management and technology. Radial enrichment distribution in the reactor core is a conventional method and axial enrichment is constant along the fuel rod. In this article, the effects of axial enrichment distribution variation on neutronic parameters of PWR core are studied. The axial length of the core is divided into ten sections, considering axial enrichment variation and leaving the existing radial enrichment distribution intact. This study shows that the radial and axial power peaking factors are decreased as compared with the typical conventional core. In addition, the first core lifetime lasts 30 days longer than normal PWR core. Moreover, at the same time boric acid density is 0.2 g/kg at the beginning of the cycle. The flux shape is also flat at the beginning of the cycle for the proposed configuration of the axially enrichment distribution.

18. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

2014-01-01

Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

19. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for the management of axial neck pain in the absence of radiculopathy or myelopathy

Riew, K Daniel; Ecker, Erika; Dettori, Joseph R.

2010-01-01

Study design: Systematic review Study rationale: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a proven, effective treatment for relieving neck pain due to degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. Since most patients also present with radiculopathy or myelopathy, little is known as to the effectiveness of ACDF to relieve pain and improve function in patients without radicular or myelopathic symptoms. Objective: To examine the clinical outcome in patients undergoing (ACDF) for axial neck pain without radicular or myelopathic symptoms. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published up to March 2010. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating ACDF for the treatment of axial neck pain only. Radiculopathy and myelopathy, patients who suffered severe trauma, or with tumor/metastatic disease or infection were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: No comparative studies were identified. Three case series met our inclusion criteria and were evaluated. All studies showed a mean improvement of pain of at least 50% approximately 4-years following surgery. Functional outcomes improved between 32% and 52% from baseline. Most patients reported satisfaction with surgery, 56% in one study and 79% in another. Complications varied among studies ranging from 1% to 10% and included pseudoarthrosis (9%), nonunion and revision (3%) and screw removal (1%). Conclusion: There is low evidence suggesting that patients with axial neck pain without radicular or myelopathic symptoms may receive some improvement in pain and function following ACDF. However, whether this benefit is greater than nontreatment or other treatments cannot be determined with the present literature. PMID:22956927

20. Design, Test, and Evaluation of a Transonic Axial Compressor Rotor with Splitter Blades

2013-09-01

INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION Over the course of turbomachinery history splitter vanes have been used extensively in centrifugal compressors . Axial...TEST, AND EVALUATION OF A TRANSONIC AXIAL COMPRESSOR ROTOR WITH SPLITTER BLADES by Scott Drayton September 2013 Dissertation Co...AXIAL COMPRESSOR ROTOR WITH SPLITTER BLADES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott Drayton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

1. Metamorphosis of helical magnetorotational instability in the presence axial electric current

Priede, Jānis

2014-01-01

This paper presents numerical linear stability analysis of a cylindrical Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal carrying axial electric current in a generally helical external magnetic field. Axially symmetric disturbances are considered in the inductionless approximation corresponding to zero magnetic Prandtl number. Axial symmetry allows us to reveal an entirely new electromagnetic instability. First, we show that the electric current passing through the liquid can extend the range of helical ...

2. Precautions against axial fan stall in reactor building to Tianwan NPP

Liu Chunlong; Pei Junmin

2011-01-01

The paper introduces the mechanism and harm of rotating stall of axial fans, analyzes the necessity for prevention against axial fan stall in reactor building of Tianwan NPP, introduces the precautions, and then makes an assessment on anti-stall effect of flow separators. It can provide reference for model-selection or reconstruction of similar fans in power stations, and for operation and maintenance of axial fans. (authors)

3. Atlanto-axial Subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis: description of a case

Medina, Yimy F; Martinez V, Jose B; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Rondon H, Federico; Iglesias G, Antonio

2004-01-01

The damage of the spine by rheumatoid arthritis is multiple and a variety of affectations have been described at cervical level, being the anterior atlanto-axial subluxation and vertical subluxation the more common. However the posterior atlanto-axial subluxation has been rarely described. In this paper, we describe the case of a patient with posterior atlanto-axial subluxaction in addition to its infrequent manifestation of alteration of the lower cranial nerves as a manifestation of myelopathy

4. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

2018-01-01

Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

5. Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan

Li, M X; Zhang, C H; Liu, Y; Zheng, S Y

2013-01-01

Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%

6. 3.0 T MR imaging of the ankle: Axial traction for morphological cartilage evaluation, quantitative T2 mapping and cartilage diffusion imaging—A preliminary study

Jungmann, Pia M., E-mail: pia.jungmann@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.baum@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Schaeffeler, Christoph, E-mail: schaeffeler@me.com [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Musculoskeletal Imaging, Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Loestrasse 170, CH-7000 Chur (Switzerland); Sauerschnig, Martin, E-mail: martin.sauerschnig@mri.tum.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Brucker, Peter U., E-mail: peter.brucker@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Mann, Alexander, E-mail: abmann@onlinemed.de [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Ganter, Carl, E-mail: cganter@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Bieri, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.bieri@unibas.ch [Division of Radiological Physics, Department of Radiology, University of Basel Hospital, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); and others

2015-08-15

Highlights: • Axial traction is applicable during high resolution MR imaging of the ankle. • Axial traction during MR imaging oft the ankle improves cartilage surface delineation of the individual tibial and talar cartilage layer for better morphological evaluation without the need of intraarticular contrast agent application. • Coronal T1-weighted MR images with a driven equilibrium pulse performed best. • Axial traction during MR imaging of the ankle facilitates compartment discrimination for segmentation purposes resulting in better reproducibility. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the impact of axial traction during high resolution 3.0 T MR imaging of the ankle on morphological assessment of articular cartilage and quantitative cartilage imaging parameters. Materials and Methods: MR images of n = 25 asymptomatic ankles were acquired with and without axial traction (6 kg). Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted (w) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences with a driven equilibrium pulse and sagittal fat-saturated intermediate-w (IMfs) TSE sequences were acquired for morphological evaluation on a four-point scale (1 = best, 4 = worst). For quantitative assessment of cartilage degradation segmentation was performed on 2D multislice-multiecho (MSME) SE T2, steady-state free-precession (SSFP; n = 8) T2 and SSFP diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; n = 8) images. Wilcoxon-tests and paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: With axial traction, joint space width increased significantly and delineation of cartilage surfaces was rated superior (P < 0.05). Cartilage surfaces were best visualized on coronal T1-w images (P < 0.05). Differences for cartilage matrix evaluation were smaller. Subchondral bone evaluation, motion artifacts and image quality were not significantly different between the acquisition methods (P > 0.05). T2 values were lower at the tibia than at the talus (P < 0.001). Reproducibility was better for images with axial traction. Conclusion

7. 3.0 T MR imaging of the ankle: Axial traction for morphological cartilage evaluation, quantitative T2 mapping and cartilage diffusion imaging—A preliminary study

Jungmann, Pia M.; Baum, Thomas; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Sauerschnig, Martin; Brucker, Peter U.; Mann, Alexander; Ganter, Carl; Bieri, Oliver

2015-01-01

Highlights: • Axial traction is applicable during high resolution MR imaging of the ankle. • Axial traction during MR imaging oft the ankle improves cartilage surface delineation of the individual tibial and talar cartilage layer for better morphological evaluation without the need of intraarticular contrast agent application. • Coronal T1-weighted MR images with a driven equilibrium pulse performed best. • Axial traction during MR imaging of the ankle facilitates compartment discrimination for segmentation purposes resulting in better reproducibility. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the impact of axial traction during high resolution 3.0 T MR imaging of the ankle on morphological assessment of articular cartilage and quantitative cartilage imaging parameters. Materials and Methods: MR images of n = 25 asymptomatic ankles were acquired with and without axial traction (6 kg). Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted (w) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences with a driven equilibrium pulse and sagittal fat-saturated intermediate-w (IMfs) TSE sequences were acquired for morphological evaluation on a four-point scale (1 = best, 4 = worst). For quantitative assessment of cartilage degradation segmentation was performed on 2D multislice-multiecho (MSME) SE T2, steady-state free-precession (SSFP; n = 8) T2 and SSFP diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; n = 8) images. Wilcoxon-tests and paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: With axial traction, joint space width increased significantly and delineation of cartilage surfaces was rated superior (P < 0.05). Cartilage surfaces were best visualized on coronal T1-w images (P < 0.05). Differences for cartilage matrix evaluation were smaller. Subchondral bone evaluation, motion artifacts and image quality were not significantly different between the acquisition methods (P > 0.05). T2 values were lower at the tibia than at the talus (P < 0.001). Reproducibility was better for images with axial traction. Conclusion

8. On the mechanism of zircaloy cladding axial splits

Grigoriev, V.; Josefsson, B.

1998-01-01

The macroscopically brittle axial splitting is treated as a process entirely accomplished by a plastic mechanism operating on a microscopic scale and is discussed in terms of the degree of plasticity and localisation of plasticity. The suggested mechanism involves hydrogen assisted localised shear (HALS) as a main factor of material deterioration. The reason and the driving force for the HALS is an in-plane shear (as for mode II loading) existing at the tip of a crack loaded in mode I (Opening). The HALS mechanism does not require brittle fracture of the hydrides and is only operable under certain combination of material strength, applied stresses, and temperature, needed for the local yielding at the crack tip. If the combination of those parameters results in the bulk yielding, the in-plane shear component is diminished and the delayed cracking is suppressed. (orig.)

9. Stress Analysis of Fuel Rod under Axial Coolant Flow

Jin, Hai Lan; Lee, Young Shin; Lee, Hyun Seung [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Num Kyu; Jeon, Kyung Rok [Kerea Nuclear Fuel., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

A pressurized water reactor(PWR) fuel assembly, is a typical bundle structure, which uses light water as a coolant in most commercial nuclear power plants. Fuel rods that have a very slender and long clad are supported by fuel assembly which consists of several spacer grids. A coolant is a fluid which flows through device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. But at the same time, the coolant flow will bring out the fluid induced vibration(FIV) of fuel rods and even damaged the fuel rod. This study has been conducted to investigate the flow characteristics and nuclear reactor fuel rod stress under effect of coolant. Fluid structure interaction(FSI) analysis on nuclear reactor fuel rod was performed. Fluid analysis of the coolant which flow along the axial direction and structural analysis under effect of flow velocity were carried out under different output flow velocity conditions

10. Active surge control for variable speed axial compressors.

Lin, Shu; Yang, Chunjie; Wu, Ping; Song, Zhihuan

2014-09-01

This paper discusses active surge control in variable speed axial compressors. A compression system equipped with a variable area throttle is investigated. Based on a given compressor model, a fuzzy logic controller is designed for surge control and a proportional speed controller is used for speed control. The fuzzy controller uses measurements of the change of pressure rise as well as the change of mass flow to determine the throttle opening. The presented approach does not require the knowledge of system equilibrium or the surge line. Numerical simulations show promising results. The proposed fuzzy logic controller performs better than a backstepping controller and is capable to suppress surge at different operating points. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. Computerized axial tomography and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

Paulo R.M. Bittencourt

1983-06-01

Full Text Available Computed axial tomography (C.T. findings are illustrated in 3 patients who presented with C.T. changes suggesting respectively chronic M.S., acute M.S., and an appearance simulating a malignant tumour. Review of the literature shows that the chronic form with cerebral atrophy and low density lesions in the hemispheres is common in patients with a long history and is unlikely to cause diagnostic difficulty. The acute presentation is less common and could be confused with a variety of causes of multiple low density enhancing lesions. The C.T. diagnosis of M.S. is more difficult in rare cases in which plaques cause mass effect and show ring enhancement; all 3 such cases in the literature were subjected to cerebral biopsy.

12. Structures of water molecular nanotube induced by axial tensile strains

Li, H. [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structures and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University (China)], E-mail: lihuilmy@hotmail.com; Zhang, X.Q. [Physics Department, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Liew, K.M. [Department of Building and Constructions, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu, X.F. [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structures and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University (China)

2008-10-06

Five well-ordered nano-ice structures embedded in carbon nanotubes are obtained in this study. These five nano-ice phases all exhibit single walled tubular morphologies, including the pentagon, hexagon ice nanotubes whose structures are quite different from bulk ice. Our simulation results indicate that water molecules tend to rearrange into surface ring structures to reduce the number of free OH groups. The structural behavior of these ice nanotubes inside CNTs subject to axial stress is also investigated. The ice nanotubes tend to be drawn to ice nanorings or ice nanospring during the mechanical stretching. The distribution function exhibits typical order-to-disorder transition of the water network confined in carbon nanotube during the stretching. By analysis, we suggest that it is unlikely that additional water molecules will enter the tubes because of the increased volume available if the tubes are stretched at contact with a water reservoir.

13. Axial shape index calculation for the 3-level excore detector

Kim, Han Gon; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Byung Sop; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Sung Jae [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-31

A new method based on the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm is developed to calculate axial shape index (ASI) for the 3-level excore detector. The ACE algorithm, a type of nonparametric regression algorithms, yields an optimal relationship between a dependent variable and multiple independent variables. In this study, the simple correlation between ASI and excore detector signals is developed using the Younggwang nuclear power plant unit 3 (YGN-3) data without any preprocessing on the relationships between independent variables and dependent variable. The numerical results show that simple correlations exist between the three excore signals and ASI of the core. The accuracy of the new method is much better than those of the current CPC and COLSS algorithms. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

14. A review of X-ray computed axial tomography

Schmidt, M.

1989-01-01

A review of Computed axial tomography (CAT) scanning literature outlining the theoretical and practical aspects of this technique with application in both medical diagnosis and industrial non-destructive inspection (NDI) is presented. Practical aspects of CAT scanning discussed include : radiation sources, currently available spatial and contrast resolution limits and the evolution of the computerized tomography (CT) system. It was found that monochromatic gamma rays are preferred to X-rays, especially for very high density materials, and that in medical CAT scanning, the special resolution is only, 0.5 mm while spatial resolutions of less than 50μm have been achieved in NDI. An increased number of scientific and industrial applications are anticipated (e.g. for studying sintering reactions), as the capital cost of CAT scanning decreased. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

15. Development of throughflow calculation code for axial flow compressors

Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Min; No, Hee Cheon

2005-01-01

The power conversion systems of the current HTGRs are based on closed Brayton cycle and major concern is thermodynamic performance of the axial flow helium gas turbines. Particularly, the helium compressor has some unique design challenges compared to the air-breathing compressor such as high hub-to-tip ratios throughout the machine and a large number of stages due to the physical property of the helium and thermodynamic cycle. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a design and analysis code for helium compressor that can estimate the design point and off-design performance accurately. KAIST nuclear system laboratory has developed a compressor design and analysis code by means of throughflow calculation and several loss models. This paper presents the outline of the development of a throughflow calculation code and its verification results

16. Predicting the Coupling Properties of Axially-Textured Materials

María E. Fuentes-Montero

2013-10-01

Full Text Available A description of methods and computer programs for the prediction of “coupling properties” in axially-textured polycrystals is presented. Starting data are the single-crystal properties, texture and stereography. The validity and proper protocols for applying the Voigt, Reuss and Hill approximations to estimate coupling properties effective values is analyzed. Working algorithms for predicting mentioned averages are given. Bunge’s symmetrized spherical harmonics expansion of orientation distribution functions, inverse pole figures and (single and polycrystals physical properties is applied in all stages of the proposed methodology. The established mathematical route has been systematized in a working computer program. The discussion of piezoelectricity in a representative textured ferro-piezoelectric ceramic illustrates the application of the proposed methodology. Polycrystal coupling properties, predicted by the suggested route, are fairly close to experimentally measured ones.

17. Predicting the Coupling Properties of Axially-Textured Materials

Fuentes-Cobas, Luis E.; Muñoz-Romero, Alejandro; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Fuentes-Montero, Luis; Fuentes-Montero, María E.

2013-01-01

A description of methods and computer programs for the prediction of “coupling properties” in axially-textured polycrystals is presented. Starting data are the single-crystal properties, texture and stereography. The validity and proper protocols for applying the Voigt, Reuss and Hill approximations to estimate coupling properties effective values is analyzed. Working algorithms for predicting mentioned averages are given. Bunge’s symmetrized spherical harmonics expansion of orientation distribution functions, inverse pole figures and (single and polycrystals) physical properties is applied in all stages of the proposed methodology. The established mathematical route has been systematized in a working computer program. The discussion of piezoelectricity in a representative textured ferro-piezoelectric ceramic illustrates the application of the proposed methodology. Polycrystal coupling properties, predicted by the suggested route, are fairly close to experimentally measured ones. PMID:28788370

18. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...... friction to be analyzed at a given soil horizon while increasing the vertical effective stress in the sand. Test results obtained by this approach can be analyzed as single t-z curves and compared to predictions of unit shaft friction from current design methods for offshore foundations. The test results...... showed best agreement with the traditional design method given in the American Petroleum Institute (API) design code. When t-z curves obtained from the test results were compared to t-z curve formulations found in the literature, the Zhang formulation gave good predictions of the initial and post...

19. Axial shape index calculation for the 3-level excore detector

Kim, Han Gon; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Byung Sop; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Sung Jae [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1998-12-31

A new method based on the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm is developed to calculate axial shape index (ASI) for the 3-level excore detector. The ACE algorithm, a type of nonparametric regression algorithms, yields an optimal relationship between a dependent variable and multiple independent variables. In this study, the simple correlation between ASI and excore detector signals is developed using the Younggwang nuclear power plant unit 3 (YGN-3) data without any preprocessing on the relationships between independent variables and dependent variable. The numerical results show that simple correlations exist between the three excore signals and ASI of the core. The accuracy of the new method is much better than those of the current CPC and COLSS algorithms. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

20. On the axial anomalies in external tensor fields

Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Mkrtchyan, R.L.; Zurabyan, L.A.

1985-01-01

Computation of the axial anomaly for Dirac fermions in external tensor fields is studied. The sequence of the supersymmetric one-dimensional models is presented. Their supercharges are equal, after quantization, to Dirac operators in external tensor fields, and the density of Witten's partition function gives the anomaly. It is shown that action in the corresponding path integral differs from the classical one. Gaussian approximation gives the anomaly only in the case of third-rank tensor with zero exterior derivative and in that case anomaly is calculated in all dimensions. The interpretation of that field as the torsion of gravitational field and also connection with the results of Witten and Alvarez-Gaume and Atiyah-Singer index theorem are discussed