WorldWideScience

Sample records for improved rejection final

  1. Improving daily workflow to improve insurance rejection handling by leveraging an existing data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Michael; Parikh, Deval; Tennant, Mark

    2008-11-06

    The Ohio State University Medical Center (OSUMC) has developed a comprehensive Information Warehouse (IW), comprising data from all aspects of the academic medical center. By leveraging this data source, OSUMC was able to create an application combining Business Intelligence (BI) reporting, advanced worklisting, and distributed data management techniques. OSUMC was able to use this application to substantially improve the throughput of rejection handling, allowing more timely resolution without an increase in staff.

  2. Analysis of the Revision Process by American Journal of Roentgenology Reviewers and Section Editors: Metrics of Rejected Manuscripts and Their Final Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metrics related to manuscripts rejected by AJR with and without review during 2014 and to determine their final disposition: no record of eventual publication, eventually published, published with modified authors and title, published with the same title but modified authors, and published with modified title but the same authors. A total of 1245 unsolicited manuscripts submitted from January to December 2014 were included in this retrospective analysis. Data were extracted from the AJR's manuscript submission system. Standard statistical analysis was used to assess the fate of a sample of 200 rejected manuscripts. Of the 200 manuscripts studied, 117 (59%) were published in other scientific journals (61 with revision, 56 without revision; Χ(2) = 0.329, p = 0.566). Thirty-two of the 61 manuscripts (52%) rejected after peer review were later published in other journals without changes in their titles or authors, 16 (26%) with changes only in authors, 10 (16%) with changes only in their titles, and three (5%) with changes in authors and titles. Twenty-six of the 56 manuscripts (46%) rejected without peer review were published without changes in their titles or authors, 17 (30%) with changes in authors, 11 (20%) with changes only in their titles, and two (4%) with changes in both authors and titles (p = 0.686). Ten articles were published in open access journals. Of the remaining articles, those that had been reviewed were published in journals with a mean impact factor ± SD of 2.37 ± 1.30, and those that had not been reviewed were published in journals with a mean impact factor of 2.04 ± 1.06. Analysis of the 25th and 75th percentiles revealed that values were also higher for the group rejected with review (Wilcoxon rank sum test: W = 1679, p = 0.1127). Out of 61 articles rejected for publication with review, 52.5% were published with changes to their abstracts, whereas the remaining 47.5% were unchanged. This analysis

  3. Improving disturbance rejection of PID controllers by means of the magnitude optimum method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancić, Damir; Strmcnik, Stanko; Kocijan, Jus; de Moura Oliveira, P B

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude optimum (MO) method provides a relatively fast and non-oscillatory closed-loop tracking response for a large class of process models frequently encountered in the process and chemical industries. However, the deficiency of the method is poor disturbance rejection performance of some processes. In this paper, disturbance rejection performance of the PID controller is improved by applying the "disturbance rejection magnitude optimum" (DRMO) optimisation method, while the tracking performance has been improved by a set-point weighting and set-point filtering PID controller structure. The DRMO tuning method requires numerical optimisation for the calculation of PID controller parameters. The method was applied to two different 2-degrees-of-freedom PID controllers and has been tested on several different representatives of process models and one laboratory set-up. A comparison with some other tuning methods has shown that the proposed tuning method, with a set-point filtering PID controller, is quite efficient in improving disturbance rejection performance, while retaining tracking performance comparable with the original MO method.

  4. Improving mid stream urine sampling: reducing labelling error and laboratory rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Adam; McCue, Eleanor; Cracknell, Alison

    2014-01-01

    A urine sample is vital in older patients with pyrexia or acute confusion, and commonly directs clinicians towards a source of infection. Not only can the organism be identified, but sensitivities to antibiotics can also guide prescribing. A high number of urine samples were not being processed on the medicine for older people wards at St. James's Hospital due to incomplete hand-written request forms not complying with trust policy. Previous attempts to re-educate staff had failed to improve acceptance rates. Rejected samples delay diagnosis, identification of organisms and subsequent sensitivities, as well as increasing staff workload. A total of 72 urine samples were audited from our wards in March 2013; 12 (17%) rejected. Clinicians were notified of rejected samples within one to four days. An electronic-requesting system was implemented in April 2013. Once implemented, a further two data collection cycles of 72 urine samples were completed from the same wards. In December 2013, 55 (76%) were electronically requested and 17 (24%) hand-written. Four (5%) samples were rejected and were all hand-written. In August 2014, 61 (85%) were electronically requested and 11 (15%) hand-written. No samples were rejected. The electronic-requesting system has effectively reduced the number of rejected urine samples. No electronically requested samples were rejected, therefore 100% sample acceptance is achievable. It is more effective than re-educating staff alone and ensures requests meet trust policy. Clinicians were notified of a samples rejection after one to four days. By this time patients may have started antibiotic therapy, decreasing the likelihood of isolating the causative organism in subsequent samples. All urine samples requested must meet a high standard and comply with trust policy in order to be processed. An electronic-requesting system removes errors of omission and ensures policy compliance, ultimately leading to improved patient care. Now our processes are

  5. Improved Excitation Light Rejection Enhances Small-Animal Fluorescent Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kildong Hwang

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-animal fluorescence-enhanced imaging involves the detection of weak fluorescent signals emanating from nanomolar to picomolar concentrations of exogenous or endogenously produced fluorophore concurrent with the rejection of an overwhelmingly large component of backscattered excitation light. The elimination of the back-reflected excitation light of the collected signal remains a major and often unrecognized challenge for further reducing the noise floor and increasing sensitivity of small-animal fluorescence imaging. Herein, we show that the combination of three-cavity interference and holographic super notch filters with appropriate imaging lenses to collimate light improves rejection of excitation light, enabling more accurate imaging. To assess excitation leakage, the “out-of-band (S(Λx” to “in-band (S(Λm–S(Λx” signal ratio from phantom studies and the target-to-background ratio (TBR from in vivo animal imaging was acquired with and without collimating optics. The addition of collimating optics resulted in a 51% to 75% reduction in the ratio of (S(Λx/(S(Λm–S(Λx for the phantom studies and an improvement of TBR from 11% to 31% and of signal-to-noise ratio from 11% to 142% for an integrin-targeting conjugate in human glioma xenografts.

  6. Improvement of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in ceramics low heat rejection engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hideo; Higashino, Akira; Sasaki, Hiroshi [Isuzu Ceramics Research Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to improve fuel consumption and eliminate the cooling system on a diesel engine having low fuel consumption, a low heat rejection (LHR) engine constructed with the thermos structure was studied. Since air temperature at the end of the compression stroke in a LHR engine are much higher than that of a water-cooled engine, the combustion of LHR engine deteriorated and the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions degraded. The combustion phenomenon in the LHR engine were observed. The reason of deterioration in combustion was insufficient air and fuel mixing. In order to improve the mixing, a new pre-combustion chamber was located in the center of the cylinder. Drilled connecting holes radiating to cylinder wall were developed. The desired characteristics at the LHR engine including fuel consumption and exhaust emissions was achieved in the LHR engine with the new precombustion chamber.

  7. Improved High-Rejection Filters and MEMS-Enabled Smart Reconfigurable Antennas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed work envisions development of high-rejection filters and smart reconfigurable antennas using MEMS switches. Adaptive feature of the proposed antenna...

  8. Improved clipped periodic optimal control for semi-active harmonic disturbance rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard, Maxime; Micheau, Philippe; Masson, Patrice

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach for harmonic disturbance rejection using semi-active vibration control. The approach is illustrated through application to the problem of maximizing the energy dissipated by a semi-active damper under harmonic excitation. In order to establish a baseline for the evaluation of the performance of the semi-active damper, the effectiveness of the optimal passive and active cases are first presented. The study then examines the ability of the clipped optimal control (or clipping control) approach to improve the energy dissipation capacity of the semi-active damper over the optimal passive damper. An approximate solution to the nonlinear dynamic problem, obtained using the method of averaging, and a time integration based numerical method indicate that this approach improves the energy dissipated by the semi-active damper over the optimal passive damper. The approach presented in this paper intends to further "improve", or "fine tune", the control parameters given by the clipped optimal control approach. This is done using an approximated solution of the problem and an appropriate optimization algorithm. Results clearly indicate that this new approach provides significant improvement on energy dissipation over the clipped optimal control approach for the semi-active damper.

  9. Improving the Social Status of Peer-Rejected Youth with Disabilities: Extending the Research on Positive Peer Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Frank E.; Jensen, Marcia E.; Cook, Clayton R.; McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Peer rejection is a common experience for youth with emotional and behavioral disabilities and it is associated with increased risk of negative short- and long-term outcomes. There is a high premium on interventions that can improve the social status and functioning of these youth. Positive Peer Reporting (PPR) is a behavior analytic intervention…

  10. Planar UWB Filter with Multiple Notched Band and Stopband with Improved Rejection Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Abu Nasar; Pal, Srikanta

    2015-05-01

    Analysis and realization of a microstrip-based planar ultra-wideband (UWB) filter with integrated multiple notch elimination property and simultaneously extended upper stopband is proposed. Initially, a UWB filter based on back-to-back microstrip-to-CPW technology is designed. Later, multiple spiral defected ground structures (DGS) are embedded to obtain multiple passband notches. Further, double equilateral U (DEU)-type DGS are used to improve upon the rejection level in upper stopband. The multiple passband notches are results of embedded spiral-shaped DGS (SDGS), while extended upper stopband is the outcome of suppressed higher-order spurious harmonics. The flexible dual-attenuation poles of DEU-shaped DGS suppress the stopband harmonics and widen the stopband. An approximate lumped equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is modelled. The filter is compact and its layout measures 25.26 mm × 11.01 mm. The measured result is in good agreement with the full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulation and circuit simulation.

  11. Transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000815.htm Transplant rejection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant ...

  12. Combined strategy of endothelial cells coating, Sertoli cells coculture and infusion improves vascularization and rejection protection of islet graft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Improving islet graft revascularization and inhibiting rejection become crucial tasks for prolonging islet graft survival. Endothelial cells (ECs are the basis of islet vascularization and Sertoli cells (SCs have the talent to provide nutritional support and exert immunosuppressive effects. We construct a combined strategy of ECs coating in the presence of nutritious and immune factors supplied by SCs in a co-culture system to investigate the effect of vascularization and rejection inhibition for islet graft. In vivo, the combined strategy improved the survival and vascularization as well as inhibited lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, we found the combinatorial strategy improved the function of islets and the effect of ECs-coating on islets. Combined strategy treated islets revealed higher levels of anti-apoptotic signal molecules (Bcl-2 and HSP-32, survival and function related molecules (PDX-1, Ki-67, ERK1/2 and Akt and demonstrated increased vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR and angiogenesis signal molecules (FAk and PLC-γ. SCs effectively inhibited the activation of lymphocyte stimulated by islets and ECs. Predominantly immunosuppressive cytokines could be detected in culture supernatants of the SCs coculture group. These results suggest that ECs-coating and Sertoli cells co-culture or infusion synergistically enhance islet survival and function after transplantation.

  13. Improved Sliding Mode Nonlinear Extended State Observer based Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Uncertain Systems with Unknown Total Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wameedh Riyadh Abdul-Adheem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new strategy for the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC of a general uncertain system with unknown bounded disturbance based on a nonlinear sliding mode extended state observer (SMESO. Firstly, a nonlinear extended state observer is synthesized using sliding mode technique for a general uncertain system assuming asymptotic stability. Then the convergence characteristics of the estimation error are analyzed by Lyapunov strategy. It revealed that the proposed SMESO is asymptotically stable and accurately estimates the states of the system in addition to estimating the total disturbance. Then, an ADRC is implemented by using a nonlinear state error feedback (NLSEF controller; that is suggested by J. Han and the proposed SMESO to control and actively reject the total disturbance of a permanent magnet DC (PMDC motor. These disturbances caused by the unknown exogenous disturbances and the matched uncertainties of the controlled model. The proposed SMESO is compared with the linear extended state observer (LESO. Through digital simulations using MATLAB / SIMULINK, the chattering phenomenon has been reduced dramatically on the control input channel compared to LESO. Finally, the closed-loop system exhibits a high immunity to torque disturbance and quite robustness to matched uncertainties in the system.

  14. Rejecting Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KERRY; BROWN

    2011-01-01

    British voters overwhelmingly reject an alternative voting system The British electorate,in only the second ever national referendum held in their history (the first was on joining the EU,over 35 years ago) rejected alterations to their voting system from the current first-past-the-post system to a form of alternative voting similar to that used

  15. Discrete Packet Analysis for Improved Atmospheric Rejection on Modulated Laser Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O& #x27; Neill, M., McKenna, I., DiBenedetto, J., Capelle, G., Trainham, R.

    2012-07-19

    This slide-show discusses how the method of discrete packet analysis improves atmospheric compensation for quasi-CW fluorescence detection methods. This is key to improving remote sensing capabilities.

  16. IVA. Improving Vocational Administration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    The Texas Improving Vocational Administration (IVA) project was conceived to improve preservice and inservice programs for vocational education administrators. Primary objectives were to (1) develop a method, including a survey, to determine existing inservice and preservice administrative training program competencies; (2) determine, using the…

  17. IVA. Improving Vocational Administration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    The Texas Improving Vocational Administration (IVA) project was conceived to improve preservice and inservice programs for vocational education administrators. Primary objectives were to (1) develop a method, including a survey, to determine existing inservice and preservice administrative training program competencies; (2) determine, using the…

  18. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  19. Tolerance and chronic rejection.

    OpenAIRE

    Womer, K. L.; Lee, R S; Madsen, J. C.; Sayegh, M H

    2001-01-01

    The most common cause of chronic allograft loss is an incompletely understood clinicopathological entity called chronic rejection (CR). Recent reports suggest an improvement in long-term renal allograft survival, although it is not clear from these data whether a true reduction of biopsy-proven CR has occurred. Although newer immunosuppressive medications have greatly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in the early post-transplantation period, the ideal therapy for both AR and CR w...

  20. Some rules to improve the energy resolution in alpha liquid scintillation with beta rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Aupiais, J; Dacheux, N

    2003-01-01

    Two common scintillating mixtures dedicated to alpha measurements by means of alpha liquid scintillation with pulse shape discrimination were tested: the di-isopropylnaphthalene - based and the toluene-based solvents containing the commercial cocktails Ultima Gold AB trademark and Alphaex trademark. We show the possibility to enhance the resolution up to 200% by using no-water miscible cocktails and by reducing the optical path. Under these conditions, the resolution of about 200 keV can be obtained either by the Tri Carb sup T sup M or by the Perals sup T sup M spectrometers. The time responses, e.g., the time required for a complete energy transfer between the initial interaction alpha particle-solvent and the final fluorescence of the organic scintillator, have been compared. Both cocktails present similar behavior. According to the Foerster theory, about 6-10 ns are required to complete the energy transfer. For both apparatus, the detection limits were determined for alpha emitters. The sensitivity of the...

  1. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  2. Towards Semi-Automatic Artifact Rejection for the Improvement of Alzheimer's Disease Screening from EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Casals, Jordi; Vialatte, François-Benoît

    2015-07-23

    A large number of studies have analyzed measurable changes that Alzheimer's disease causes on electroencephalography (EEG). Despite being easily reproducible, those markers have limited sensitivity, which reduces the interest of EEG as a screening tool for this pathology. This is for a large part due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio of EEG signals: EEG recordings are indeed usually corrupted by spurious extra-cerebral artifacts. These artifacts are responsible for a consequent degradation of the signal quality. We investigate the possibility to automatically clean a database of EEG recordings taken from patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and healthy age-matched controls. We present here an investigation of commonly used markers of EEG artifacts: kurtosis, sample entropy, zero-crossing rate and fractal dimension. We investigate the reliability of the markers, by comparison with human labeling of sources. Our results show significant differences with the sample entropy marker. We present a strategy for semi-automatic cleaning based on blind source separation, which may improve the specificity of Alzheimer screening using EEG signals.

  3. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  4. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  5. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  6. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, J; Hernando, J A; Imzaylov, A; Monrabal, F; Muñoz, J; Nygren, D; Gomez-Cadenas, J J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0nbb) decay experiments using a high pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0nbb decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0nbb decay (Qbb ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign (direction) of curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0nbb) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (s...

  7. Fabrication of Silicon Backshorts with Improved Out-of-Band Rejection for Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Erik J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Denis, Kevin L.; Eimer, Joseph; Lourie, Nathan; Marriage, Tobias; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Towner, Deborah; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a ground-based instrument that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microqave background to search for gravitational waves form a posited epoch of inflation early in the universe's history. This measurement will require integration of superconducting transition-edge sensors with microwave waveguide inputs with good conrol of systematic errors, such as unwanted coupling to stray signals at frequencies outside of a precisely defined microwave band. To address these needs we will present work on the fabrication of silicon quarter-wave backshorts for the CLASS 40GHz focal plane. The 40GHz backshort consists of three degeneratively doped silicon wafers. Two spacer wafers are micromachined with through wafer vins to provide a 2.0mm long square waveguide. The third wafer acts as the backshort cap. The three wafers are bonded at the wafer level by Au-Au thermal compression bonding then aligned and flip chip bonded to the CLASS detector at the chip level. The micromachining techniques used have been optimized to create high aspect ratio waveguides, silicon pillars, and relief trenches with the goal of providing improved out of band signal rejection. We will discuss the fabrication of integrated CLASS superconducting detectors with silicon quarter wave backshorts and present current measurement results.

  8. Use of centrifugal-gravity concentration for rejection of talc and recovery improvement in base-metal flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bern Klein; Naci Emre Altun; Hassan Ghaffari

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using a centrifugal-gravity concentrator to reject Mg-bearing minerals and minimize metal losses in the flotation of base metals was evaluated. Sample characterization, batch scoping tests, pilot-scale tests, and regrind-flotation tests were conducted on a Ni flotation tailings stream. Batch tests revealed that the Mg grade decreased dramatically in the concentrate products. Pilot-scale testing of a continuous centrifugal concentrator (Knelson CVD6) on the flotation tailings revealed that a concentrate with a low mass yield, low Mg con-tent, and high Ni upgrade ratio could be achieved. Under optimum conditions, a concentrate at 6.7%mass yield was obtained with 0.85%Ni grade at 12.9%Ni recovery and with a low Mg distribution (1.7%). Size partition curves demonstrated that the CVD also operated as a size classifier, enhancing the rejection of talc fines. Overall, the CVD was capable of rejecting Mg-bearing minerals. Moreover, an opportunity exists for the novel use of centrifugal-gravity concentration for scavenging flotation tailings and/or after comminution to minimize amount of Mg-bearing minerals reporting to flotation.

  9. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  11. Time-of-flight neutron rejection to improve prompt gamma imaging for proton range verification: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegun, Aleksandra K.; Seravalli, Enrica; Cambraia Lopes, Patrícia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Pinto, Marco; Oxley, David C.; Dendooven, Peter; Verhaegen, Frank; Parodi, Katia; Crespo, Paulo; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2012-10-01

    Therapeutic proton and heavier ion beams generate prompt gamma photons that may escape from the patient. In principle, this allows for real-time, in situ monitoring of the treatment delivery, in particular, the hadron range within the patient, by imaging the emitted prompt gamma rays. Unfortunately, the neutrons simultaneously created with the prompt photons create a background that may obscure the prompt gamma signal. To enhance the accuracy of proton dose verification by prompt gamma imaging, we therefore propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique to reject this neutron background, involving a shifting time window to account for the propagation of the protons through the patient. Time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the generation and transport of prompt gamma photons and neutrons upon irradiation of a PMMA phantom with 100, 150 and 200 MeV protons were performed using Geant4 (version 9.2.p02) and MCNPX (version 2.7.D). The influence of angular collimation and TOF selection on the prompt gamma and neutron longitudinal profiles is studied. Furthermore, the implications of the proton beam microstructure (characterized by the proton bunch width and repetition period) are investigated. The application of a shifting TOF window having a width of ΔTOFz = 1.0 ns appears to reduce the neutron background by more than 99%. Subsequent application of an energy threshold does not appear to sharpen the distal falloff of the prompt gamma profile but reduces the tail that is observed beyond the proton range. Investigations of the influence of the beam time structure show that TOF rejection of the neutron background is expected to be effective for typical therapeutic proton cyclotrons.

  12. Multiprocessor scheduling with rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartal, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Leonardi, S.; Marchetti-Spaccamela, A. [Universita di Roma (Italy); Sgall, J. [Mathematical Inst., Zitna (Czechoslovakia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We consider a version of multiprocessor scheduling with the special feature that jobs may be rejected for a certain penalty. An instance of the problem is given by m identical parallel machines and a set of n jobs, each job characterized by a processing time and a penalty. In the on-line version the jobs arrive one by one and we have to schedule or reject a job before we have any information about future jobs. The objective is to minimize the makespan of the schedule for accepted jobs plus the sum of the penalties of rejected jobs. The main result is a 1 + {phi} {approx} 2.618 competitive algorithm for the on-line version of the problem, where 0 is the golden ratio. A matching lower bound shows that this is the best possible algorithm working for all m. For fixed m we give improved bounds, in particular for m = 2 we give an optimal {phi} {approx} 1.618 competitive algorithm. For the off-line problem we present a fully polynomial approximation scheme for fixed m and an approximation algorithm which runs in time O(n log n) for arbitrary m and guarantees 2 - 1/m approximation ratio.

  13. Improved Fuzzy C-Means based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) initialization and outlier rejection with level set methods for MR brain image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhmoukh, Abdenour; Mokrani, Karim

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a new image segmentation method based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and outlier rejection combined with level set is proposed. A traditional approach to the segmentation of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. The membership function of this conventional algorithm is sensitive to the outlier and does not integrate the spatial information in the image. The algorithm is very sensitive to noise and in-homogeneities in the image, moreover, it depends on cluster centers initialization. To improve the outlier rejection and to reduce the noise sensitivity of conventional FCM clustering algorithm, a novel extended FCM algorithm for image segmentation is presented. In general, in the FCM algorithm the initial cluster centers are chosen randomly, with the help of PSO algorithm the clusters centers are chosen optimally. Our algorithm takes also into consideration the spatial neighborhood information. These a priori are used in the cost function to be optimized. For MR images, the resulting fuzzy clustering is used to set the initial level set contour. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Improving of performance system of warranty for automotive engineering abroad on the basis of data of rejections analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, I. V.; Habibullin, R. G.; Belyaev, E. I.; Safonov, A. S.; Cheremin, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Article deals with improvement possibility of warranty package fulfillment system of automobile vehicles manufacturer in the foreign markets by application of warranty complete sets preparation technique taking into account climatic features of the countries which influence reliability parameters

  15. Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

    1979-02-28

    The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

  16. Foundations for Improvements to Passive Detection Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labov, S E; Pleasance, L; Sokkappa, P; Craig, W; Chapline, G; Frank, M; Gronberg, J; Jernigan, J G; Johnson, S; Kammeraad, J; Lange, D; Meyer, A; Nelson, K; Pohl, B; Wright, D; Wurtz, R

    2004-10-07

    This project explores the scientific foundation and approach for improving passive detection systems for plutonium and highly enriched uranium in real applications. Sources of gamma-ray radiation of interest were chosen to represent a range of national security threats, naturally occurring radioactive materials, industrial and medical radiation sources, and natural background radiation. The gamma-ray flux emerging from these sources, which include unclassified criticality experiment configurations as surrogates for nuclear weapons, were modeled in detail. The performance of several types of gamma-ray imaging systems using Compton scattering were modeled and compared. A mechanism was created to model the combine sources and background emissions and have the simulated radiation ''scene'' impinge on a model of a detector. These modeling tools are now being used in various projects to optimize detector performance and model detector sensitivity in complex measuring environments. This study also developed several automated algorithms for isotope identification from gamma-ray spectra and compared these to each other and to algorithms already in use. Verification testing indicates that these alternative isotope identification algorithms produced less false positive and false negative results than the ''GADRAS'' algorithms currently in use. In addition to these algorithms that used binned spectra, a new approach to isotope identification using ''event mode'' analysis was developed. Finally, a technique using muons to detect nuclear material was explored.

  17. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  18. 'I reject your reality and substitute my own'. Why more knowledge about CO2 storage hardly improves public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.

  19. Towards Semi-Automatic Artifact Rejection for the Improvement of Alzheimer’s Disease Screening from EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Solé-Casals

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have analyzed measurable changes that Alzheimer’s disease causes on electroencephalography (EEG. Despite being easily reproducible, those markers have limited sensitivity, which reduces the interest of EEG as a screening tool for this pathology. This is for a large part due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio of EEG signals: EEG recordings are indeed usually corrupted by spurious extra-cerebral artifacts. These artifacts are responsible for a consequent degradation of the signal quality. We investigate the possibility to automatically clean a database of EEG recordings taken from patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and healthy age-matched controls. We present here an investigation of commonly used markers of EEG artifacts: kurtosis, sample entropy, zero-crossing rate and fractal dimension. We investigate the reliability of the markers, by comparison with human labeling of sources. Our results show significant differences with the sample entropy marker. We present a strategy for semi-automatic cleaning based on blind source separation, which may improve the specificity of Alzheimer screening using EEG signals.

  20. Towards Semi-Automatic Artifact Rejection for the Improvement of Alzheimer’s Disease Screening from EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Casals, Jordi; Vialatte, François-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    A large number of studies have analyzed measurable changes that Alzheimer’s disease causes on electroencephalography (EEG). Despite being easily reproducible, those markers have limited sensitivity, which reduces the interest of EEG as a screening tool for this pathology. This is for a large part due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio of EEG signals: EEG recordings are indeed usually corrupted by spurious extra-cerebral artifacts. These artifacts are responsible for a consequent degradation of the signal quality. We investigate the possibility to automatically clean a database of EEG recordings taken from patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and healthy age-matched controls. We present here an investigation of commonly used markers of EEG artifacts: kurtosis, sample entropy, zero-crossing rate and fractal dimension. We investigate the reliability of the markers, by comparison with human labeling of sources. Our results show significant differences with the sample entropy marker. We present a strategy for semi-automatic cleaning based on blind source separation, which may improve the specificity of Alzheimer screening using EEG signals. PMID:26213933

  1. Frequent Questions about the Hazardous Waste Generator Improvements Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAQs including What are the benefits of these revisions to the generator regulations? What changed in the final regulations since proposal? How and why will the hazardous waste generator regulations be reorganized? When will this rule become effective?

  2. Fact Sheet About the Hazardous Waste Generator Improvements Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    October 28, 2016, EPA finalized a rule that revises the hazardous waste generator regulations by making them easier to understand and providing greater flexibility in how hazardous waste is managed to better fit today's business operations.

  3. OKT3 Therapy in Addition to Tacrolimus Is Associated with Improved Long-Term Function in Patients with Steroid Refractory Renal Allograft Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Patschan, Daniel;Kribben, Andreas;Pietruck, Frank;Lutz, Jens;Binek, Matthias;Philipp, Thomas;Heemann, Uwe;Witzke, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term allograft salvage rates of patients with steroid refractory allograft rejection after kidney transplantation and to identify factors indicating a successful outcome. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with continuing rejection after high-dose steroids were included in the study. Baseline immunosuppression was switched from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in all patients. Twenty patients additionally received OKT3 as antirejection t...

  4. Lemhi River Habitat Improvement Study, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorratcaque, Dennis E.

    1986-02-01

    The objective was to develop methods for improving anadromous fish passage in the Lemhi River in east central Idaho. Alternatives assessed include flow concentration, fish screen improvement, groundwater augmentation, groundwater irrigation, water withdrawal reduction, return flow improvement, sprinkler irrigation, storage, and trap and haul. (ACR)

  5. Harmonic-Rejection Compact Bandpass Filter Using Defected Ground Structure for GPS Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized bandpass filter (BPF using defected ground structure (DGS resonator with the characteristic of harmonic rejection is developed in this paper. The second and third harmonics of the proposed BPF are rejected by the characteristic of stepped-impedance DGS resonator. Moreover, open stubs are established so that two adjustable transmission zeros can independently be created to extend the stopband and improve the rejection level. Finally, a second-order BPF, centered at 1.62 GHz with a stopband extended up to 5.6 GHz and a rejection level better than 20 dB, is designed and implemented for GPS application. A good agreement between simulation and measurement verifies the validity of this design methodology.

  6. OKT3 therapy in addition to tacrolimus is associated with improved long-term function in patients with steroid refractory renal allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patschan, Daniel; Kribben, Andreas; Pietruck, Frank; Lutz, Jens; Binek, Matthias; Philipp, Thomas; Heemann, Uwe; Witzke, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term allograft salvage rates of patients with steroid refractory allograft rejection after kidney transplantation and to identify factors indicating a successful outcome. Fifty patients with continuing rejection after high-dose steroids were included in the study. Baseline immunosuppression was switched from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in all patients. Twenty patients additionally received OKT3 as antirejection therapy. Patients having received a cadaveric renal transplant in 1995, excluding patients with steroid resistant rejection, were chosen as a control cohort. Patient survival rates were 96% (n = 48) and 90% (n = 45) and allograft survival rates were 66% (n = 33) and 62% (n = 31) after 5 and 7 years following steroid refractory renal allograft rejection. Graft survival within the control cohort was 73% after 5 years and 69% after 7 years. Creatinine clearance increased from 20 +/- 15 ml/min/1.73 m2 at the start of tacrolimus therapy to 37 +/- 29 ml/min/1.73 m2 and to 32 +/- 26 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 5 and 7 years. OKT3 treatment predicted successful rescue therapy (p = 0.005 and p = 0.04 after 5 and 7 years). Our data indicate a reasonable graft survival in steroid refractory renal allograft rejection using tacrolimus. OKT3 treatment in addition to tacrolimus therapy may be beneficial for long-term allograft survival. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  8. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  9. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Jeffrey A. [Rockfield Research Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Department of Energy Contract DEAC21-87MC23270, ``Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology Improvement.`` This work was conducted over a three year period and consisted of three major efforts. The first major effort was the power plant system study which reviewed the competitive requirements for a coal gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell power plant, produced a conceptual design of a CG/MCFC, and defined the technology development requirements. This effort is discussed in Section 1 of the report. The second major effort involved the design and development of a new MCFC cell configuration which reduced the material content of the cell to a level competitive with competing power plants, simplified the cell configuration to make the components more manufacturable and adaptable to continuous low cost processing techniques, and introduced new-low-pressure drop flow fields for both reactant gases. The new flow fields permitted the incorporation of recirculation systems in both reactant gas systems, permitting simplified cooling techniques and the ability to operate on both natural gas and a wide variety of gasifier fuels. This cell technology improvement is discussed in Section 2. The third major effort involved the scaleup of the new cell configuration to the full-area, 8-sq-ft size and resulted in components used for a 25-kW, 20-cell stack verification test. The verification test was completed with a run of 2200 hours, exceeding the goal of 2000 hours and verifying the new cell design. TWs test, in turn, provided the confidence to proceed to a 100-kW demonstration which is the goal of the subsequent DOE program. The scaleup and stack verification tests are discussed in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of this report.

  11. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in

  12. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  13. Improved, inexpensive solar-energy-heating heat reservoir. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-07

    The use of a salt hydrate, sodium sulfate decahydrate (glauber salt) to increase the heat storage capacity of a solar space heating system was studied. The rheological properties of the solids slurry was altered by modifying the crystal habit of glauber salt so as to form small chunky crystals and by using a viscosity modifier. Various additives to modify the crystal form habit were found; and though none were completely successful under pilot plant conditions, dodecylamine HCl and Monsanto dequest were quite effective in the laboratory. Additional screening studies are required. An alginate viscosity modifier altered the surface tension of the slurry so as to prevent plugging and maintain a pumpable slurry. The slurry was contacted with air in a direct contact heat transfer column. The efficiency of the heat transfer decreased as the viscosity of the slurry increased. However, this is not a limiting factor and air temperatures of 80 to 82/sup 0/F can be achieved. The slurry was found to be suitable for a radiant heating system and could be quite economically effective immediately. The storage capacity with a glauber salt slurry is about twice that of water with a potential of three times with improvement. A more important aspect of using the slurry is the increase in collector efficiency due to the decreased storage temperature. This could have the effect of halving the required collector area.

  14. Quantify and improve PEM fuel cell durability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahl-Madsen, L.; Odgaard, M.; Munksgaard Nielsen, R. (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Li, Q.; Jensen, Jens Oluf (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Andersen, Shuang Ma; Speder, J.; Skou, E. (Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present project is to systematically quantify and improve the durability of the PEM FC including the following three PEM FC variants: LT PEM FC, DMFC, and HT PEM FC. Different factors influencing dissolution properties of noble metal catalyst platinum and platinum-ruthenium alloy has been studied. The dissolution was found to increase by increasing the CV cycle upper potential limit, number of potential cycles, solution acidity, oxygen partial pressure, involvement of chloride, and temperature. Ruthenium was found to deteriorate ten (10) times faster than platinum catalyst; and carbon supported catalyst (Pt: 20%, Ru: up to 100%) deteriorate ten (10) times faster than non-supported catalyst (Pt: 2%, Ru: 30%) at the same condition. Loss of sulphonic acid groups and fluoride from perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane was confirmed by different techniques, which locally leads to loss of acidity, and consequently enhances dissolution of noble metal catalyst. Degradation of Nafion ionomer in the electrode was enhanced by noble metal catalyst and the thermal decomposition properties has synergetic effect with carbon degradation. Hydrophobicity of GDL and electrode on GDL were found to degrade e.g. radical attack, oxidation, and physical wear out. The very top micro surface structure turned out to be responsible for wetting property after chemical ageing. Optimal catalyst and ionomer ratio is also reflected in contact angle value, which can be understood in terms of catalyst/carbon - ionomer affinity and layered structure. Long-term tested and 'virgin' LT PEM MEAs have been characterised with respect to SEM, TEM, EDS, and XRD. Both failed and well-functioning MEAs have been characterised. The Post Mortem analysis has shown and quantified degradation mechanisms like catalyst growth and carbon corrosion. Furthermore, the effect of fuel starvation was shown by pronounced Ru-catalyst band within the membrane. The catalyst coarsening observed after

  15. 78 FR 29239 - Final Priority; Technical Assistance To Improve State Data Capacity-National Technical Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... CFR Chapter III Final Priority; Technical Assistance To Improve State Data Capacity--National Technical Assistance Center To Improve State Capacity To Accurately Collect and Report IDEA Data AGENCY... under the Technical Assistance to Improve State Data Capacity program. The Assistant Secretary may use...

  16. Design Consideration of SAW/BAW Band Reject Filters Embedded in Impedance Converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yulin; Bao, Jingfu; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses design of surface acoustic wave/bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW)-based band reject filters composed of the impedance converters, where capacitive elements are replaced with SAW/BAW resonators. First, basic properties of the unit cell are studied. It is shown how basic properties of a unit cell change with the design. It is also shown that when two notches caused by the resonators are placed in proximity, two synergy effects occur: 1) an extra matching point appears on one side of the transition band. This makes the insertion loss at the point smaller and the transition band steeper and 2) the dip level becomes deeper, and the total rejection level improves. Then, two resonators are fabricated, measured, and combined with inductors in circuit simulator to demonstrate functionality of the basic cell design. Finally, the wide rejection band filter is designed by cascading multistages, and effectiveness of the device configurations is demonstrated.

  17. Male perpetrators, the gender symmetry debate, and the rejection-abuse cycle: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jac

    2012-07-01

    This review article examined the gender symmetry debate in light of recent research relating to the feminist and family research perspectives on intimate partner violence, providing a context for rethinking perpetrator programs. The concept of coercive control is considered as an explanatory factor in an attempt to integrate the feminist and family research perspectives. The limited effectiveness of perpetrator programs is examined. Research highlighting potential factors that could improve the effectiveness of perpetrator programs is introduced, followed by a discussion of the rejection-abuse cycle, one attempt to incorporate current research into a more inclusive program. The rejection-abuse cycle identifies a pattern of perpetrator behavior, which links rejection, threat to self, defense against threat, and abuse. Finally, suggestions for changing perpetrator programs are elaborated, incorporating past research, which would make them appropriate for both male and female perpetrators. These implications are contextualized within a meta-theory to provide greater clarity for the development of future perpetrator programs.

  18. Canine DLA-79 gene: an improved typing method, identification of new alleles and its role in graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, G M; Geraghty, D; Fox, J; Graves, S S; Zellmer, E; Storer, B E; Torok-Storb, B J; Storb, R

    2013-04-01

    Developing a preclinical canine model that predicts outcomes for hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans requires a model that mimics the degree of matching between human donor and recipient major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. The polymorphic class I and class II genes in mammals are typically located in a single chromosome as part of the MHC complex. However, a divergent class I gene in dogs, designated dog leukocyte antigen-79 (DLA-79), is located on chromosome 18 while other MHC genes are on chromosome 12. This gene is not taken into account while DLA matching for transplantation. Though divergent, this gene shares significant similarity in sequence and exon-intron architecture with other class I genes, and is transcribed. Little is known about the polymorphisms of DLA-79 and their potential role in transplantation. This study was aimed at exploring the reason for high rate of rejection seen in DLA-matched dogs given reduced intensity conditioning, in particular, the possibility that DLA-79 allele mismatches may be the cause. We found that about 82% of 407 dogs typed were homozygous for a single, reference allele. Owing to the high prevalence of a single allele, 87 of the 108 dogs (∼80%) transplanted were matched for DLA-79 with their donor. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient method to type alleles of a divergent MHC gene in dogs and identified two new alleles. We did not find any statistical correlation between DLA-79 allele disparity and graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease, among our transplant dogs.

  19. Modeling rejection immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Andrea De

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft, immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician’s experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine, subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. Results The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. Conclusions The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of

  20. Modeling rejection immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Matone, Alice; Agnes, Annamaria; Palumbo, Pasquale; Ria, Francesco; Magalini, Sabina

    2012-05-20

    Transplantation is often the only way to treat a number of diseases leading to organ failure. To overcome rejection towards the transplanted organ (graft), immunosuppression therapies are used, which have considerable side-effects and expose patients to opportunistic infections. The development of a model to complement the physician's experience in specifying therapeutic regimens is therefore desirable. The present work proposes an Ordinary Differential Equations model accounting for immune cell proliferation in response to the sudden entry of graft antigens, through different activation mechanisms. The model considers the effect of a single immunosuppressive medication (e.g. cyclosporine), subject to first-order linear kinetics and acting by modifying, in a saturable concentration-dependent fashion, the proliferation coefficient. The latter has been determined experimentally. All other model parameter values have been set so as to reproduce reported state variable time-courses, and to maintain consistency with one another and with the experimentally derived proliferation coefficient. The proposed model substantially simplifies the chain of events potentially leading to organ rejection. It is however able to simulate quantitatively the time course of graft-related antigen and competent immunoreactive cell populations, showing the long-term alternative outcomes of rejection, tolerance or tolerance at a reduced functional tissue mass. In particular, the model shows that it may be difficult to attain tolerance at full tissue mass with acceptably low doses of a single immunosuppressant, in accord with clinical experience. The introduced model is mathematically consistent with known physiology and can reproduce variations in immune status and allograft survival after transplantation. The model can be adapted to represent different therapeutic schemes and may offer useful indications for the optimization of therapy protocols in the transplanted patient.

  1. Heat rejection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  2. Outlier Rejecting Multirate Model for State Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet transform was introduced to detect and eliminate outliers in time-frequency domain. The outlier rejection and multirate information extraction were initially incorporated by wavelet transform, a new outlier rejecting multirate model for state estimation was proposed. The model is applied to state estimation with interacting multiple model, as the outlier is eliminated and more reasonable multirate information is extracted, the estimation accuracy is greatly enhanced. The simulation results prove that the new model is robust to outliers and the estimation performance is significantly improved.

  3. Prevention trumps treatment of antibody-mediated transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Stuart J; Kwun, Jean; Iwakoshi, Neal

    2010-04-01

    Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years - a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation.

  4. Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT

    CERN Document Server

    Brack, Jeff; Dorofeev, Alexei; Ezeribe, Anthony; Gauvreau, Jean-Luc; Gold, Michael; Harton, John; Lafler, Randy; Lauer, Robert; Lee, Eric R; Loomba, Dinesh; Matthews, John; Miller, Eric H; Monte, Alissa; Murphy, Alex; Paling, Sean; Phan, Nguyen; Sadler, Steve; Scarff, Andrew; Snowden-Ifft, Daniel; Spooner, Neil; Telfer, Sam; Walker, Daniel; Williams, Matt; Yuriev, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m$^3$-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 \\mu m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 \\mu m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led to an in-situ, ppt-sensitive assay of alpha decay backgrounds from the central cathode. This led to further improvements in the thin-film cathode resulting in over 2 orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to the wire cathode. Finally, the addition of O$_2$ to CS$_2$ gas was found to produce multiple species of electronegative charge carriers, providing a method to determine the absolute position of nuclear recoils and reject all known remaining backgrounds while retaining a high efficiency for nuclear recoil...

  5. Handling Rejection as Failure: Aspiring Writers Getting the Rejection Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Fürst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Included in the definition of being an aspiring person is the risk of failure. Aspiring fiction writers are no exception. This article shows that the role of aspiring fiction writer involves managing three issues: the hope of being published, rejection by a publisher, and the perception of the rejection as a failure. Drawing on 47 interviews with fiction writers who have attempted to become first-time writers, the analysis shows that aspiring writers' responses to rejection are related to accepting and dismissing responsibility for having failed and admitting or dismissing the rejection as a perceived failure. Based on these findings, the article presents procedures associated with four main approaches to dealing with failure: conceding, excusing, justifying, and refusing. This conceptual framework for understanding failure contributes to a theoretical understanding of evaluation and valuation processes and their consequences and to empirical studies of rejection as career failure; it also systematizes and extends Goffmans work on cooling out strategies.

  6. Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author).

  7. Controllability measures for disturbance rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Skogestad

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Some plants have better "built-in" disturbance rejection capabilities than others, that is, their dynamic resilience (controllability with respect to disturbance rejection is better. In the paper we consider controller independent disturbance measures for six classes of problems:

  8. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.A.

    1982-10-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation.

  9. Improved Limits on $B^{0}$ Decays to Invisible $(+gamma)$ Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

    2013-11-01

    We establish improved upper limits on branching fractions for B{sup 0} decays to final states where the decay products are purely invisible (i.e., no observable final state particles) and for final states where the only visible product is a photon. Within the Standard Model, these decays have branching fractions that are below the current experimental sensitivity, but various models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict significant contributions for these channels. Using 471 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon} (4S) resonance by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, we establish upper limits at the 90% confidence level of 2.4 x 10{sup -5} for the branching fraction of B{sup 0} {yields} invisible and 1.7 x 10{sup -5} for the branching fraction of B{sup 0} {yields} invisible + {gamma}.

  10. Improved Limits on $B^{0}$ Decays to Invisible $(+gamma)$ Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

    2013-11-01

    We establish improved upper limits on branching fractions for B{sup 0} decays to final states where the decay products are purely invisible (i.e., no observable final state particles) and for final states where the only visible product is a photon. Within the Standard Model, these decays have branching fractions that are below the current experimental sensitivity, but various models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict significant contributions for these channels. Using 471 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon} (4S) resonance by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, we establish upper limits at the 90% confidence level of 2.4 x 10{sup -5} for the branching fraction of B{sup 0} {yields} invisible and 1.7 x 10{sup -5} for the branching fraction of B{sup 0} {yields} invisible + {gamma}.

  11. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  12. Initiatives to Improve Feedback Culture in the Final Year of a Veterinary Program

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of feedback in education, student satisfaction with the feedback process in medical and veterinary programs is often disappointing. We undertook various initiatives to try to improve the feedback culture in the final clinical year of the veterinary program at the University of Bristol, focusing on formative verbal feedback. The initiatives included E-mailed guidelines to staff and students, a faculty development workshop, and a reflective portfolio task for s...

  13. Corneal allograft rejection: Risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Harminder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in corneal graft technology, including donor tissue retrieval, storage and surgical techniques, have greatly improved the clinical outcome of corneal grafts. Despite these advances, immune mediated corneal graft rejection remains the single most important cause of corneal graft failure. Several host factors have been identified as conferring a "high risk" status to the host. These include: more than two quadrant vascularisation, with associated lymphatics, which augment the afferent and efferent arc of the immune response; herpes simplex keratitis; uveitis; silicone oil keratopathy; previous failed (rejected grafts; "hot eyes"; young recipient age; and multiple surgical procedures at the time of grafting. Large grafts, by virtue of being closer to the host limbus, with its complement of vessels and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells, also are more susceptible to rejection. The diagnosis of graft rejection is entirely clinical and in its early stages the clinical signs could be subtle. Graft rejection is largely mediated by the major histocompatibility antigens, minor antigens and perhaps blood group ABO antigens and some cornea-specific antigens. Just as rejection is mediated by active immune mediated events, the lack of rejection (tolerance is also sustained by active immune regulatory mechanisms. The anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID and probably, conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT induced mucosal tolerance, besides others, play an important role. Although graft rejection can lead to graft failure, most rejections can be readily controlled if appropriate management is commenced at the proper time. Topical steroids are the mainstay of graft rejection management. In the high-risk situations however, systemic steroids, and other immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus (FK506 are of proven benefit, both for treatment and prevention of rejection.

  14. Variable Heat Rejection (VHR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced technologies to enable a variable heat rejection Thermal Control System (TCS) capable of operating through a wide range of thermal environments...

  15. Improving the $t\\bar t+$jets background rejection in a search for supersymmetric particles in events with leptons and multiple jets at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, Paul Andre

    2016-01-01

    In this report, an attempt to select $b$-quark pairs from $g\\rightarrow b\\bar b$ in the $t\\bar t+$jets background simulation of a search for supersymmetric particles in events with leptons and multiple jets is presented. $b$-tagged jets are paired and selected exploiting kinematic differences between these from gluon-splitting and mainly those from top quark decays. It is found that $(33\\pm3)\\%$ of the built pairs from the background in the signal region consist of two $b$-tagged jets from gluon-splitting. No large improvement of the signal-to-background ratio can be achieved from this. The fraction of built $b$-tagged jet pairs that originate from a gluon can be increased to above $60\\%$ with a cut on a discriminating variable.

  16. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  17. Placebo for depression: we need to improve the quality of scientific information but also reject too simplistic approaches or ideological nihilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Andrea; Geddes, John R

    2014-06-25

    The placebo response plays a major role in psychiatry, particularly in depression. A new network meta-analysis investigates whether the effects of placebo vary in studies comparing fluoxetine and venlafaxine, two widely prescribed antidepressants. Even though data from this article indicate that the effects of placebos do not differ, publication bias cannot be ruled out. The authors use their finding to criticise the paradigm of evidence-based medicine, questioning whether there is anything certain in psychiatry and, more precisely, in the field of antidepressant treatment for major depression. This study stimulates the debate about validity of scientific knowledge in medicine and highlights the importance of considering things from a different perspective. However, the authors' view should be considered with caution. As clinicians, we make decisions every day, integrating individual clinical expertise and patients' preferences and values with the best, up-to-date research data. The quality of scientific information must be improved, but we still think that valid conclusions to help clinical practice can be drawn from a critical and cautious use of the best available, if flawed, evidence.

  18. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Amy, Gary

    2011-12-15

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants.

  19. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Interference Rejection Techniques in DSSS Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGXiangyang; HUGuangrui

    2003-01-01

    It is known that the narrowband interfer-ence rejection capability of a direct sequence (DS) spread spectrum (SS) system can be enhanced considerably by an interference rejection algorithm prior to correlating it with the pseudo noise (PN) sequence. For narrowband gaussian noise (NGN), the techniques in common use are transver-sal filter. It models SS signal and NGN as stationary, then utilizes temporal correlation difference between SS signal and NBL however, SS signal and NGN are cyclostation-ary (CS). CS signal has correlation in frequency domain called spectrum correlation, which can not be employed by transversal filter. In this article, SS signal and NBIare modeled as CS and FRESH filter is adopted to exploit the correlation both in time domain and frequency domain.Computer simulation shows that FRESH filter can improve the system performance considerably compared with con-ventional transversal filter.

  1. Suicide Screening for Prisoners: An Ethical Critique of Research Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, David; Burgermeister, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective review of medical records was proposed to examine mental health staff compliance with documentation of a suicide assessment tool according to institutional policy on suicide screening within a U.S. correctional facility. A shift in focus was necessary when the proposed study was rejected by the institutional review board. Reasons for the rejection included low perceived benefit versus greater risk to the correctional facility and the need for prisoner informed consent, albeit the design was a retrospective medical record review. Because of this rejection, ethical issues in the prevention of suicide in prisons were examined with implications for the forensic nurse leading quality improvement initiatives.

  2. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  3. Hypervigilance to Rejecting Stimuli in Rejection Sensitive Individuals: Behavioral and Neurocognitive Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Gerson, Sarah A; Vanderwert, Ross E; Cannon, Erin N; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-10-01

    Individuals who are high in rejection sensitivity are vigilant toward social cues that signal rejection, and they exhibit attention biases towards information that confirms expectations of rejection. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of rejection sensitivity. The present study examined whether rejection sensitivity is associated with individuals' neural responses to rejection-relevant information. Female participants, classified as high or average in rejection sensitivity, completed a modified dot-probe task in which a neutral face was paired with either another neutral face or a gaze-averted ("rejecting") face while EEG was collected and ERP components were computed. Behavioral results indicated that average rejection sensitive participants showed an attention bias away from rejecting faces, while high rejection sensitive participants were equally vigilant to neutral and rejecting faces. High rejection sensitivity was associated with ERP components signaling elevated attention and arousal to faces. These findings suggest that rejection sensitivity shapes behavioral and neurocognitive responses to faces.

  4. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Capener, H. R.; Dell& #x27; orto, S.

    1978-02-01

    The results of studies designed to evaluate the potential of rapidly improving the technology of anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues and methods of implementing it in existing agricultural operations are reported. The main objectives of this study were to: identify simple and low cost anaerobic fermentor design criteria that would be appropriate in small agricultural operations, develop high rate fermentor concepts that would enable multiple product recovery from the reactor, expand the information base particularly in the area of temperature influence on the process, and to review sociological and economic issues relating to implementation of fermentation technology. This study has identified several major anaerobic fermentation concepts which illustrate that the technology may be rapidly improved. A simple reactor design utilizing an unmixed plug flow concept was shown to be comparable to the more complex completely mixed reactor when using dairy cow residue. A high rate thermophilic reactor designed to encourage flotation of particulate solids illustrated that liquid, solid, and gaseous products can be generated within the anaerobic fermentor thus eliminating an additional dewatering unit process. A third reactor concept involved extension of the anaerobic attached microbial film expanded bed to the treatment of cow manure slurries. A high rate of methane generation was recorded. Comprehensive thermophilic fermentation studies (60/sup 0/C) indicated that the increased temperature resulted in little improvement in total quantity or the rate of yield of gas over that obtained with mesophilic fermentation with reactor retention periods greater than 10 days. Finally, other areas where preliminary date were obtained are noted.

  5. Initiatives to improve feedback culture in the final year of a veterinary program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Sheena M; Laws, Emma J; Crowther, Emma; Baillie, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of feedback in education, student satisfaction with the feedback process in medical and veterinary programs is often disappointing. We undertook various initiatives to try to improve the feedback culture in the final clinical year of the veterinary program at the University of Bristol, focusing on formative verbal feedback. The initiatives included E-mailed guidelines to staff and students, a faculty development workshop, and a reflective portfolio task for students. Following these initiatives, staff and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of formative feedback in clinical rotations, and focus groups were held to further explore issues. The amount of feedback appeared to have increased, along with improved recognition of feedback by students and increased staff confidence and competence in the process. Other themes that emerged included inconsistencies in feedback among staff and between rotations; difficulties with giving verbal feedback to students, particularly when it relates to professionalism; the consequences of feedback for both staff and students; changes and challenges in students' feedback-seeking behavior; and the difficulties in providing accurate, personal end-of-rotation assessments. This project has helped improve the feedback culture within our clinics; the importance of sustaining and further developing the feedback culture is discussed in this article.

  6. A Network-Centric Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human Swarm Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0007 Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human- swarm Interaction Mehran Mesbahi UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Final...SUBTITLE A Network-centric Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human Swarm Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0203 5b. GRANT NUMBER...proposed research is to examine fundamental structural bounds on the disturbance rejection and human- swarm interaction properties of a network of

  7. Design of active disturbance rejection controller for space optical communication coarse tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking system in space optical communication, a new control method based on active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is proposed. Firstly, based on the structure analysis of coarse tracking system, the simplified system model was obtained, and then the extended state observer was designed to calculate state variables and spot disturbance from the input and output signals. Finally, the ADRC controller of coarse tracking system is realized with the combination of nonlinear PID controller. The simulation experimental results show that compared with the PID method, this method can significantly reduce the step response overshoot and settling time. When the target angular velocity is120mrad/s, tracking error with ADRC method is 30μrad, which decreases 85% compared with the PID method. Meanwhile the disturbance rejection bandwidth is increased by 3 times with ADRC. This method can effectively improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking and disturbance rejection degree, with no need of hardware upgrade, and is of certain reference value to the wide range and high dynamic precision photoelectric tracking system.

  8. CSRA CESA Project for Incremental Improvement in Career Education. Final Report, October 1, 1978, to September 30, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Margaret T.

    This document contains the final and evaluation reports of a Central Savannah River Area Cooperative Educational Services Agency (CSRA CESA) career education project to effect incremental improvements in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools in the Columbia County School System. The final report describes these major activities:…

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for Gate 5 (Central Avenue) Interchange Improvements on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    PHONE TYPIST’S SUSPENSE DATE INITIALS Beckwith, GS -11 90 CES/CEAN 773-3667 rs SUBJECT DATE Final Environmental Assessment, Gate 5 (Central Avenue... Kirk Schaumman Air Quality Manager F. E. Warren AFB WY 82005 10 Final Environmental Assessment for Gate 5 (Central Avenue) Interchange Improvements

  10. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 2, Idaho, 1984 Final and Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hair, Don

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, and under the auspices of the Northwest Power Planning Council, the Clear-water National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement to improve anadromous fish habitat in Lolo Creek. This was to be the second and final year of instream enhancement work in Lolo Creek, a major tributary to the Clearwater River. The project was again entitled Lolo Creek Habitat Improvement (No.84-6) which was scheduled from April 1, 1984, through March 31, 1985. Project costs were not to exceed $39,109. The following report is a description of the project objectives, methodology, results, and conclusions of this year's work, based on the knowledge and experience gained through 2 years of enhancement work. The primary objective was to partially mitigate the juvenile and adult anadromous fish losses accrued through hydroelectric development in the Columbia and Snake River systems by enhancing the spawning and rearing habitats of selected Clearwater River tributaries for spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout. The enhancement was designed to ameliorate the ''limiting production factors'' by the in-stream placement of habitat structures that would positively alter the pool-riffle structure and increase the quality of over-winter habitat.

  11. 111-Indium-labelled platelets for diagnosis of acute kidney transplant rejection and monitoring of prostacyclin anti-rejection treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, C.; Pohanka, E.; Schwarz, M. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik); Sinzinger, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin); Syre, G. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Pathologisch-Anatomisches Inst.)

    1984-01-01

    33 patients were examined daily under a gamma camera after weekly injections of 111-In-labelled autologous platelets over a period of at least 4 weeks after transplantation. A group of 33 patients with long-term stable and well-functioning grafts served as controls. By means of a computerized recording technique, platelet trapping in the graft was measured and expressed as platelet-uptake index (PUI). The method worked well for the early diagnosis of acute rejection signified by an increase in PUI, accompanied by a shortening of platelet half life (t/2). 6 patients suffering from acute rejection received infusions of prostacyclin in addition to conventional high-dose methylprednisolone therapy. In 4 cases the PUI decreased again and an improvement in graft function was observed. Prostacyclin infusion treatment was applied also in 12 patients with histologically-proven chronic transplant rejection. Decreased platelet consumption by the graft and a temporary improvement in transplant function were achieved. We suggest that prostacyclin could enrich the possibilities of anti-rejection treatment by providing a tool for the suppression of platelet trapping in the graft. The platelet scan served as a useful method for the early detection of acute rejection, as well as the monitoring of prostacyclin anti-rejection treatment.

  12. Final priority; technical assistance to improve state data capacity--National Technical Assistance Center to improve state capacity to accurately collect and report IDEA data. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Technical Assistance to Improve State Data Capacity program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus attention on an identified national need to provide technical assistance (TA) to States to improve their capacity to meet the data collection and reporting requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). We intend this priority to establish a TA center to improve State capacity to accurately collect and report IDEA data (Data Center).

  13. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong

  14. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Kloeft, H.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Frandsen, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. (Author)

  15. [Reasons for rejection of articles vor publication in the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde in 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C C; Lockefeer, J H; Overbeke, A J

    1991-05-11

    To deduce recommendations for authors which decrease the rejection probability we investigated retrospectively which reasons were mentioned in 1990 by the editorial board of the 'Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde' when it rejected original articles, reviews, clinical lessons and case reports, and whether length of the article, professional status of the first author, most relevant specialism and origin of the article influenced the rejection probability. Out of 547 articles 38% (208) were rejected; case reports were rejected most often (49%), reviews least often (33%). Peer review of original articles was the most thorough, of case studies the least. The most frequent reason for rejection in all categories was 'substantial shortcomings', particularly in the original articles (80%). Rejection of clinical lessons and case studies was relatively often due to criteria concerning the clinical message. Both rejected and accepted articles on average exceeded the length limit. Professional status and specialism were associated with a difference in rejection probability (chi 2, p less than 0.05). Specialists had the lowest rejection probability (31%). Nonspecialists benefited from specialist supervision. Articles originating from non-academic institutions were more often rejected than articles from academic centres. We advise authors to judge their articles by means of the criteria mentioned. Consultation of (methodological) experts, literature data bases, and (or) the editorial board can improve their chances. Non-specialists can benefit from the experience and expertise of specialists. In general, scientific attitude and willingness to alter the article according to editorial advice appear to have beneficial results.

  16. Gender nonconformity, childhood rejection, and adult attachment: a study of gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Monica A; Bartholomew, Kim; Saffrey, Colleen; Oram, Doug; Perlman, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Several childhood factors are reported to be associated with a homosexual orientation in men, including gender nonconformity and rejection by parents and peers. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between these childhood factors and attachment anxiety (the tendency to experience anxiety regarding potential loss and rejection in close relationships) and attachment avoidance (the tendency to avoid versus seek out closeness in relationships) in gay and bisexual men. A community sample of 191 gay and bisexual men completed questionnaires and an attachment interview. Gender nonconformity was significantly associated with paternal, maternal, and peer rejection in childhood. In addition, paternal and peer rejection, but not maternal rejection, independently predicted attachment anxiety. Peer rejection and, to a lesser extent, paternal rejection mediated the association between gender nonconformity and attachment anxiety. Finally, peer rejection mediated the association between paternal rejection and attachment avoidance. Findings highlight the role of gender nonconformity in contributing to childhood rejection and the importance of peer relationships in the socialization of gay men.

  17. A single-ensemble-based hybrid approach to clutter rejection combining bilinear Hankel with regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Naizhang; Lee, Chin-Hui

    2013-04-01

    Clutter regarded as ultrasound Doppler echoes of soft tissue interferes with the primary objective of color flow imaging (CFI): measurement and display of blood flow. Multi-ensemble samples based clutter filters degrade resolution or frame rate of CFI. The prevalent single-ensemble clutter rejection filter is based on a single rejection criterion and fails to achieve a high accuracy for estimating both the low- and high-velocity blood flow components. The Bilinear Hankel-SVD achieved more exact signal decomposition than the conventional Hankel-SVD. Furthermore, the correlation between two arbitrary eigen-components obtained by the B-Hankel-SVD was demonstrated. In the hybrid approach, the input ultrasound Doppler signal first passes through a low-order regression filter, and then the output is properly decomposed into a collection of eigen-components under the framework of B-Hankel-SVD. The blood flow components are finally extracted based on a frequency threshold. In a series of simulations, the proposed B-Hankel-SVD filter reduced the estimation bias of the blood flow over the conventional Hankel-SVD filter. The hybrid algorithm was shown to be more effective than regression or Hankel-SVD filters alone in rejecting the undesirable clutter components with single-ensemble (S-E) samples. It achieved a significant improvement in blood flow frequency estimation and estimation variance over the other competing filters.

  18. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  19. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  20. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Jorge Carlos; Giusti, Sixto; Staffeld-Coit, Catherine; Bohorquez, Humberto; Cohen, Ari J.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic antibody injury is a serious threat to allograft outcomes and is therefore the center of active research. In the continuum of allograft rejection, the development of antibodies plays a critical role. In recent years, an increased recognition of molecular and histologic changes has provided a better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), as well as potential therapeutic interventions. However, several pathways are still unknown, which accounts for the lack of efficacy of some of the currently available agents that are used to treat rejection. Methods: We review the current diagnostic criteria for AMR; AMR paradigms; and desensitization, treatment, and prevention strategies. Results: Chronic antibody-mediated endothelial injury results in transplant glomerulopathy, manifested as glomerular basement membrane duplication, double contouring, or splitting. Clinical manifestations of AMR include proteinuria and a rise in serum creatinine. Current strategies for the treatment of AMR include antibody depletion with plasmapheresis (PLEX), immunoadsorption (IA), immunomodulation with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and T cell– or B cell–depleting agents. Some treatment benefits have been found in using PLEX and IA, and some small nonrandomized trials have identified some benefits in using rituximab and the proteasome inhibitor-based therapy bortezomib. More recent histologic follow-ups of patients treated with bortezomib have not shown significant benefits in terms of allograft outcomes. Furthermore, no specific treatment approaches have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Other agents used for more difficult rejections include bortezomib and eculizumab (an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody). Conclusion: AMR is a fascinating field with ample opportunities for research and progress in the future. Despite the use of advanced techniques for the detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or non-HLA donor-specific antibodies

  1. Improved final doublet designs for the ILC baseline small crossing angle scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R

    2006-01-01

    The ILC baseline consists of two interaction regions, one with a 20mrad crossing angle and the other with a 2mrad crossing angle. It is known that the outgoing beam losses in the final doublet and subsequent extraction line are larger in the 2mrad than in the 20mrad layout. In this work, we exploit NbTi and Nb$_3$Sn superconducting magnet technologies to redesign and optimise the final doublet, with the aim of providing satisfactory outgoing disrupted beam power losses in this region. We present three new final doublet layouts, specifically optimised for the 500 GeV and the 1 TeV machines.

  2. Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    pressure. However, the control of some HiDC processesis generally difficult due to the strong control loop interaction, high purity of the components and undesired disturbances. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is used in this paperto control a simulated HiDC for separating benzene......-toluene mixture. The efficiency of the ADRC technique is demonstrated by comparing with the conventional PI controller in terms of set-point trackingand external disturbance rejection capability. The results show that the ADRC gives much improved control performance than the PID control....

  3. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ..., Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) Presidio Flood Control Project (FCP), Presidio, TX AGENCY: United States... potential consequences of each action alternative in reference to flood control improvements. Following...

  4. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  5. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  6. Effect of nifedipine on renal transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, M L; Dennis, M J; Beckingham, I J; Smith, S J

    1993-10-01

    The effect of early nifedipine therapy on acute renal allograft rejection was studied in 170 adult cadaveric transplant recipients. Acute rejection occurring in the first 3 months after transplantation was diagnosed by Tru-cut biopsy and the severity of each rejection episode assessed histologically. The incidence of acute rejection was significantly lower in patients treated with nifedipine (29 of 80; 36 per cent) than in controls (52 of 90; 58 per cent) (P nifedipine exerted a significant independent effect on the incidence of early acute rejection. Other factors identified in the multivariate model as influencing rejection were human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the DR locus, blood level of cyclosporin during the first week, HLA matching at the B locus, donor age and donor sex. The 1-year graft survival rate was 88.6 per cent in patients given nifedipine and 63.8 per cent in controls (P nifedipine therapy has a useful role in human renal transplantation.

  7. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  8. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  9. An Iterative Rejection Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sherstnev, A

    2008-01-01

    In the note we consider an iterative generalisation of the rejection sampling method. In high energy physics, this sampling is frequently used for event generation, i.e. preparation of phase space points distributed according to a matrix element squared $|M|^2$ for a scattering process. In many realistic cases $|M|^2$ is a complicated multi-dimensional function, so, the standard von Neumann procedure has quite low efficiency, even if an error reducing technique, like VEGAS, is applied. As a result of that, many of the $|M|^2$ calculations go to ``waste''. The considered iterative modification of the procedure can extract more ``unweighted'' events, i.e. distributed according to $|M|^2$. In several simple examples we show practical benefits of the technique and obtain more events than the standard von Neumann method, without any extra calculations of $|M|^2$.

  10. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  11. Therapeutic strategies for xenograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S S

    2001-01-01

    The increasing demand for transplantable organs over the past several decades has stimulated the idea of using animal organs in lieu of cadaveric organs in clinical transplantation. Pigs are now considered to be the most suitable source of organs for transplantation because of their abundant availability, their appropriate size, their relatively short gestation period, and the recent development in the technology to genetically manipulate them. In the past few years, some of the seemingly complex immunologic responses in pig-to-primate transplantation have been elucidated. This progress has allowed us to focus our efforts on devising specific therapeutic strategies to overcome or prevent some of the responses that contribute to rejection of the xenograft. In this article, we review the various approaches that might allow clinical xenotransplantation to come to fruition.

  12. [Tubulointerstitial rejection of renal allografts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malušková, Jana; Honsová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tubulo-intersticial rejection represents T-cell mediated rejection of kidney allografts with the morphology of immune-mediated interstitial nephritis. Diagnosis is dependent on the histopathological evaluation of a graft biopsy sample. The key morphological features are interstitial inflammatory infiltrate and damage to tubular epithelial cell which in severe cases can result in the ruptures of the tubular basement membranes. The differential diagnosis of tubulo-interstitial rejection includes acute interstitial nephritis and viral inflammatory kidney diseases, mainly polyomavirus nephropathy.

  13. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection

  14. Asset Management Process (AMP) Improvement Project: Final Report of Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    cannibalized components could no longer be sighted due to their re-use in other systems or equipment. Solution — A Rapid Improvement Event, or Kaizen , was...Property Loss Reporting domain’s lifecycle, the Green Belt recognized the opportunity for a Rapid Improvement Event (RIE), or Kaizen . A five-day RIE was

  15. Providing the Answers Does Not Improve Performance on a College Final Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Arnold Lewis; Sinha, Neha

    2013-01-01

    In the context of an upper-level psychology course, even when students were given an opportunity to refer to text containing the answers and change their exam responses in order to improve their exam scores, their performance on these questions improved slightly or not at all. Four experiments evaluated competing explanations for the students'…

  16. Finalizing the DTAG: Implementation and Testing of Design Improvements for Reliability and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    USB Interface (integrated with electronics box)  A new USB PCB design has been design and fabricated i. Salt water testing to examine...bench, we will then move to testing at pressure. Figure 4 (A) New PCB connector and (B) Experimental setup to test performance in sea water...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Finalizing the DTAG: Implementation and Testing of Design

  17. [Lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis: two newcomers in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuil-Audenis, Valérie; Duthey, Aurélie; Patey, Natacha; Gautreau, Chantal; McGregor, Brigitte; Morelon, Emmanuel; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino; Thaunat, Olivier

    2009-04-01

    Chronic rejection is one of the main causes of late allograft failure and no therapy is currently available to prevent efficiently its development. Improving the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection is a mandatory step to propose innovative therapies that would prolong grafts' survival. Using the rat aortic interposition model of chronic vascular rejection, we have demonstrated that the intragraft inflammatory infiltrate progressively organized itself into a functional ectopic lymphoid tissue (tertiary lymphoid organ) supporting the local synthesis of alloantibody. Thus, during chronic rejection the graft is at the same time the target and the site of elaboration of the humoral allo-immune response. This hypothesis has been confirmed in the clinical setting by the analysis of human grafts (kidneys, hearts and lungs) removed for terminal failure due to chronic rejection. This lymphoid neogenesis process, previously identified in other chronic inflammatory diseases, occurs with a strikingly high frequency in chronically rejected grafts, suggesting that an additional mechanism synergizes to initiate the development of tertiary lymphoid organs during chronic rejection. We propose that the defective lymphatic drainage of chronically rejected organs triggers lymphoid neogenesis and we discuss the complex crosstalk between lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis that takes place during chronic rejection.

  18. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1986 Final and Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Amy

    1987-01-01

    This report describes activities implemented for fisheries habitat improvement work on priority drainages in the Clackamas and Hood River sub-basins. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the reports on individual projects. (ACR)

  19. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, 1984 Final and Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Rod

    1986-02-01

    This volume contains reports on habitat improvement and fisheries enhancement projects conducted in the following subbasins: (1) Clackamas River; (2) Hood River; :(3) Deschutes River; (4) John Day River; (5) Umatilla River; and (6) Grande Ronde River. (ACR)

  20. Final Report Collaborative Project: Improving the Representation of Coastal and Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Frank [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Dennis, John [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); MacCready, Parker [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Whitney, Michael M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project aimed to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving and enhancing the representation of the processes involved in the cycling of freshwater through estuaries and coastal regions. This was a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of physical oceanographers, climate model developers, and computational scientists. It specifically targeted the DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation.

  1. Final Technical Report: Improvement of Zymomonas mobilis for Commercial Use in Corn-based Biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitz, William D.

    2010-12-07

    Between 2007 and 2010 DuPont conducted a program under DOE award DE-FC36-07GO17056 to develop and improve Zymomonas mobilis as an ethanologen for commercial use in biorefineries to produce cellulosic ethanol. This program followed upon an earlier DOE funded program in which DuPont, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) had developed a Zymomonas strain in conjunction with the development of an integrated cellulosic ethanol process. In the current project, we sought to maximize the utility of Zymomonas by adding the pathway to allow fermentation of the minor sugar arabinose, improve the utilization of xylose, improve tolerance to process hydrolysate and reduce the cost of producing the ethanologen. We undertook four major work streams to address these tasks, employing a range of approaches including genetic engineering, adaptation, metabolite and pathway analysis and fermentation process development. Through this project, we have developed a series of strains with improved characteristics versus the starting strain, and demonstrated robust scalability to at least the 200L scale. By a combination of improved ethanol fermentation yield and titer as well as reduced seed train costs, we have been able to reduce the capital investment and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by approximately 8.5% and 11% respectively vs. our starting point. Furthermore, the new strains we have developed, coupled with the learnings of this program, provide a platform for further strain improvements and advancement of cellulosic ethanol technology.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Capital Improvements Program (CIP) at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    controlled drones or sold to allied forces. FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Capital Improvements Program (CIP) at Davis-Monthan AFB 1-3 10 19 Tuc s on...accident. APZs follow arrival, departure, and pattern flight tracks and are based upon analysis of historical data. The CZs at Davis-Monthan AFB are...the region. Cattle ranching began after 1865, with American ranchers establishing extensive operations during the 1880s. Most settlement occurred

  3. Not all rejections are alike; competence and warmth as a fundamental distinction in social rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, P.; Lammers, J.; Beest, I. van; Bekker, M.H.J.; Vonk, R.

    2013-01-01

    Social rejection can lead to a variety of emotions. Two studies show that specific emotional reactions to social rejection can be understood by relying on the fundamental distinction between competence and warmth. Rejection that is perceived to be due to incompetence leads to anger, whereas

  4. An adaptive algorithm for noise rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, D E; Knoebel, S B

    1978-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for the rejection of noise artifact in 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings is described. The algorithm is based on increased amplitude distortion or increased frequency of fluctuations associated with an episode of noise artifact. The results of application of the noise rejection algorithm on a high noise population of test tapes are discussed.

  5. Renal allograft rejection. Unusual scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, A.G.; Park, C.H.

    1986-11-01

    During sequential renal imagining for evaluation of clinically suspected rejection, focal areas of functioning renal tissue were seen in two cases of renal transplant in the midst of severe and irreversible renal allograft rejection. A probable explanation for this histopathologically confirmed and previously unreported finding is discussed.

  6. Fuel utilization improvements in a once-through PWR fuel cycle. Final report on Task 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabby, D.

    1979-06-01

    In studying the position of the United States Department of Energy, Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program, this report determines the uranium saving associated with various improvement concepts applicable to a once-through fuel cycle of a standard four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. Increased discharged fuel burnup from 33,000 to 45,000 MWD/MTM could achieve a 12% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ saving by 1990. Improved fuel management schemes combined with coastdown to 60% power, could result in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ savings of 6%.

  7. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corren, Dean [Verdant Power, Inc.; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc.; Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc.

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  8. Family and community rejection and a Congolese led mediation intervention to reintegrate rejected survivors of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Tosha, Maphie; Ramazani, Paul; Safari, Octave; Bachunguye, Richard; Zahiga, Isaya; Iragi, Aline; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to describe the multiple and inter-related health, economic, and social reasons for rejection and to provide an example of a Congolese-led family mediation program to reintegrate survivors into their families. We conducted this study in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and included two focus group discussions and twenty-seven interviews. Rejection extends beyond physical dislocation to include economic and social aspects. Family mediation is a process requiring knowledge of traditions and norms. Understanding the context of rejection and supporting promising local reintegration efforts will likely improve health, economic, and social outcomes for the survivor, her family, and her community.

  9. Final Report: Systematic Development of a Subgrid Scaling Framework to Improve Land Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Robert Earl [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-07-11

    We carried out research to development improvements of the land component of climate models and to understand the role of land in climate variability and change. A highlight was the development of a 3D canopy radiation model. More than a dozen publications resulted.

  10. IMPER: Characterization of the wind field over a large wind turbine rotor - final report; Improved performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Wagner, R.

    2012-01-15

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remote sensing technology and simulations on a 500 kW wind turbine for the effects of wind field characterization. The objective with the present report is to give a short overview of the different experiments carried out and results obtained within the final phase of this project. (Author)

  11. Cueing Metacognition to Improve Researching and Essay Writing in a Final Year High School Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, L. N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on degrees of awareness and use of specific metacognitive strategies by 16 students in a final-year high school biology class in New Zealand. The aims of the intervention were to broaden students' thinking about bioethical issues associated with cancer and to enhance students' use of metacognition. Cues and prompts were used in this unit of work to help students use metacognitive strategies since students did not generally use metacognitive strategies spontaneously. Scaffolding was mediated through the teacher modelling, questioning, cueing or prompting students to evaluate their learning. The research reported here illustrates how teachers can cue students to be more self-directed in their learning. Three case studies illustrate how learning strategies were used differentially. Most students were aware of strategies that could help them to learn more effectively. It was found that those students who were not only aware of but also used strategies to plan, monitor and evaluate their work, produced essays of higher quality.

  12. A Critical Analysis of Rejection in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation: Clinical, cellular and molecular aspects, Current Challenges, and Novel Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim A Sarhane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in microsurgical techniques and immunomodulatory protocols have contributed to the expansion of Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA with very encouraging immunological, functional, and cosmetic results. Rejection remains however a major hurdle that portends serious threats to recipients. Rejection features in VCA have been described in a number of studies, and an international consensus on the classification of rejection was established. Unfortunately, current available diagnostic methods carry many shortcomings that, in certain cases, pose a great diagnostic challenge to physicians especially in borderline rejection cases. In this review, we revisit the features of acute skin rejection in hand and face transplantation at the clinical, cellular and molecular levels. The multiple challenges in diagnosing rejection and in defining chronic and antibody-mediated rejection in VCA are then presented, and we finish by analyzing current research directions and novel concepts aiming at improving available diagnostic measures.

  13. Finalizing the Dtag: implementation and testing of design improvements for reliability and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    PROJECT NUMBER K. Alex Shorter, University of Michigan 13039100 Tom Hurst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Se. TASK NUMBER Mark Johnson...uu 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 10 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Tom Hurst 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 508-289-2906 Standard Form 298...of design improvements for reliability and availability K. Alex Shorter, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ml481 04 Tom Hurst, Woods Hole

  14. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kellogg, L.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1990-04-01

    This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

  15. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, C; Panagiotidis, P; Koureli, R; Tzia, C

    2007-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation during the production of skim milk and whole fat set-style yogurt was continuously monitored by measuring pH. The modified Gompertz model was successfully applied to describe the pH decline and viscosity development during the fermentation process. The viscosity and incubation time data were also fitted to linear models against ln(pH). The investigation of the yogurt quality improvement practices included 2 different heat treatments (80 degrees C for 30 min and 95 degrees C for 10 min), 3 milk protein fortifying agents (skim milk powder, whey powder, and milk protein concentrate) added at 2.0%, and 4 hydrocolloids (kappa-carrageenan, xanthan, guar gum, and pectin) added at 0.01% to whole fat and skim yogurts. Heat treatment significantly affected viscosity and acetaldehyde development without influencing incubation time and acidity. The addition of whey powder shortened the incubation time but had a detrimental effect on consistency, firmness, and overall acceptance of yogurts. On the other hand, addition of skim milk powder improved the textural quality and decreased the vulnerability of yogurts to syneresis. Anionic stabilizers (kappa-carrageenan and pectin) had a poor effect on the texture and palatability of yogurts. However, neutral gums (xanthan and guar gum) improved texture and prevented the wheying-off defect. Skim milk yogurts exhibited longer incubation times and higher viscosities, whereas they were rated higher during sensory evaluation than whole fat yogurts.

  16. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  17. Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Final technical report: Project 6464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.; Ledakowicz, S.; Koranne, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [and others

    1994-02-28

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the United States will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Texas A&M University (TAMU) with sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, Center for Energy and Mineral Resources at TAMU, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., has been working on development of improved iron FT catalysts and characterization of hydrodynamic parameters in two- and three-phase bubble columns with FT derived waxes. Our previous studies have provided an improved understanding of the role of promoters (Cu and K), binders (silica) and pretreatment procedures on catalyst activity, selectivity and longevity (deactivation). The objective of the present contract was to develop improved catalysts with enhanced slurry phase activity and higher selectivity to liquid fuels and wax. This was accomplished through systematic studies of the effects of pretreatment procedures and variations in catalyst composition (promoters and binders). The major accomplishments and results in each of these two main areas of research are summarized here.

  18. Active disturbance rejection in large flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an active control law for the rejection of persistent disturbances, in large space structures is presented. The control system design approach is based on a deterministic model of the disturbances and it optimizes the magnitude of the disturbance that the structure can tolerate without violating certain predetermined constraints. In addition to closed-loop stability, the explicit treatment of state, control, and control rate constraints, such as structural displacement and control actuator effort, guarantees that the final design will exhibit desired performance characteristics. The technique is applied to a simple two-bay truss structure, and its response is compared with that obtained using a linear-quadratic-Gaussian/loop-transfer-recovery (LQG/LTR) compensator. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed control system can reject persistent disturbances of greater magnitude by utilizing most of the available control, while limiting the structural displacements to within desired tolerances.

  19. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken

    1986-10-01

    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  20. Urine immunocytology as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for acute kidney rejection: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilović, Karlo; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Ljubanović, Danica; Sabljar-Matovinović, Mirjana; Vidas, Zeljko; Knotek, Mladen

    2010-03-01

    Renal biopsy is a gold standard for establishing diagnosis of acute rejection of the renal allograft. However, being invasive, renal biopsy has potential significant complications and contraindications. Therefore, possibility to noninvasively diagnose acute rejection would improve follow-up of kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate urine immunocytology for T cells as a method for noninvasive identification of patients with acute renal allograft rejection in comparison to renal biopsy. In this prospective study a cohort of 56 kidney, or kidney-pancreas transplant recipients was included. Patients either received their transplant at the University Hospital "Merkur", or have been followed at the "Merkur" Hospital. Patients were subject to either protocol or indication kidney biopsy (a total of 70 biopsies), with simultaneous urine immunocytology (determination of CD3-positive cells in the urine sediment). Acute rejection was diagnosed in 24 biopsies. 23 episodes were T-cell mediated (6 grade IA, 5 grade IB, 1 grade IIA, 1 grade III and 10 borderline), while in 1 case acute humoral rejection was diagnosed. 46 biopsies did not demonstrate acute rejection. CD3-positive cells were found in 21% of cases with acute rejection and in 13% of cases without rejection (n.s.). A finding of CD3-positive cells in urine had a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 87% for acute rejection (including borderline), with positive predictive value of 45% and negative predictive value of 68%. Although tubulitis is a hallmark of acute T cell-mediated rejection, detection of T cells in urine sediment was insufficiently sensitive and insufficiently specific for diagnosing acute rejection in our cohort of kidney transplant recipients.

  1. Improved Advanced Actuated Hybrid Mirrors Final Report CRADA No. TC02130.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ealey, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    This was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate an improved Advanced Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AAHM) for commercial or Government purposes. The AAHM consists of a nanolaminate film replicating a precision optical surface bonded to a Silicon Carbide (SiC) substrate with active figure control capability. The goal of this project was to further the development of specific AAHM technologies. The intent of the CRADA was to combine the expertise of LLNL and NG Xinetics in the manufacture and test of a very high quality AAHM, incorporating lessons learned from earlier joint efforts.

  2. East Saint Louis and Vicinity, Illinois. Blue Waters Ditch Improvements. Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    swimmers . (1) Value does not interfere with boating. (2) Dissolved Oxygen, mg/i 6.0 > 5.0 8.0 Guideline value conducive to good, mixed fish fauna. Total...unknown. 22 IV 23 IV 24 IV 1/ In this table classifications Mississippian and WoodIand rt I Lo t imt settlement by aboriginal populations. lhe...childrei and unwary adult non- swimmers . 6.6.3.4.5 Archaeological Sites DitchI g and other proposed improvements of the EQ Plan would not affect any4 of

  3. Powerplant productivity improvement study: demonstration of the DOE/MRI methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-17

    A methodology, distributed by DOE, may be used as a potential tool for the utility industry to assess and evaluate productivity and reliability problems of existing and future units. The model can be used to assess the impact of an improvement project or corrective action on unit productivity parameters such as heat rate, capacity factor, availability, or equivalent availability. The methodology analyzes: the effect of component redundancy on unit equivalent availability; the effect of component reliability on unit equivalent availability; and a component's outage trend to project the component's future outage rate. The first purpose of this study is to illustrate for the utilities how to apply the methodology. Thus, this report contains the analysis performed by applying the methodology at three units of Illinois power plants. The units evaluated were Wood River 5, Quad Cities 1, and Quad Cities 2. A total of 8 improvement projects were evaluated and all outage data and equations used are included in order to facilitate utility reproduction of the given results. The second purpose is to evaluate the methodology as a useful tool for individual utilities; a number of modifications are suggested.

  4. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council`s capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period.

  5. Final Report Collaborative Project. Improving the Representation of Coastal and Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Frank [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); MacCready, Parker [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whitney, Michael [Univ. of Connecticut

    2015-11-20

    This project aimed to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving and enhancing the representation of the processes involved in the cycling of freshwater through estuaries and coastal regions. This was a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of physical oceanographers, climate model developers, and computational scientists. It specifically targeted the DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation. The main computational objectives were: 1. To develop computationally efficient, but physically based, parameterizations of estuary and continental shelf mixing processes for use in an Earth System Model (CESM). 2. To develop a two-way nested regional modeling framework in order to dynamically downscale the climate response of particular coastal ocean regions and to upscale the impact of the regional coastal processes to the global climate in an Earth System Model (CESM). 3. To develop computational infrastructure to enhance the efficiency of data transfer between specific sources and destinations, i.e., a point-to-point communication capability, (used in objective 1) within POP, the ocean component of CESM.

  6. Development of a new method for improving load turndown in fluidized bed combustors: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate a new concept in fluidized bed design that improves load turndown capability. This improvement is accomplished by independently controlling heat transfer and combustion in the combustor. The design consists of two fluidized beds, one central and one annular. The central bed serves as the combustion bed. The annular bed is fluidized separately from the combustion bed and its level of fluidization determine the overall heat transfer rate from the combustion bed to the surrounding water jacket. Early theoretical considerations suggested a load turndown exceeding ten was possible for this design. This research consisted of three major phases: development of a computational model to predict heat transfer in the two-bed combustor, heat transfer measurements in hot-and-cold flow models of the combustor, and combustion tests in an optimally designed combustor. The computation model was useful in selecting the design of the combustor. Annular bed width and particle sizes were chosen with the aid of the model. The heat transfer tests were performed to determine if the existing correlations for fluidized bed heat transfer coefficients were sufficiently accurate for high aspect ratio fluidized beds (such as the annular bed in the combustor). Combustion tests were performed in an optimally designed combustor. Three fuel forms were used: double screened, crushed coal, coal-water-limestone mixtures (CWLM), and coal-limestone briquettes. 18 refs., 30 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume contains appendixes on pump design, cavitation damage, performance testing, hydraulics, two-phase flow in pumps, flow stability, and rotor dynamics.

  8. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.

    1998-10-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  9. Input Shaping enhanced Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Jianwei; Lao, Dazhong; Li, Donghai; Chen, Junhui

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a composite control based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) and Input Shaping is presented for TRMS with two degrees of freedom (DOF). The control tasks consist of accurately tracking desired trajectories and obtaining disturbance rejection in both horizontal and vertical planes. Due to un-measurable states as well as uncertainties stemming from modeling uncertainty and unknown disturbance torques, ADRC is employed, and feed-forward Input Shaping is used to improve the dynamical response. In the proposed approach, because the coupling effects are maintained in controller derivation, there is no requirement to decouple the TRMS into horizontal and vertical subsystems, which is usually performed in the literature. Finally, the proposed method is implemented on the TRMS platform, and the results are compared with those of PID and ADRC in a similar structure. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The operation of the controller allows for an excellent set-point tracking behavior and disturbance rejection with system nonlinearity and complex coupling conditions.

  10. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  11. Currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology for the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Go; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-07-01

    Renal allograft dysfunction may be induced by various causes, including alloimmune rejection, viral infection, urinary tract obstruction, calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity and/or recurrent renal disease. In order to determine the underlying cause, a renal biopsy is performed and the renal transplant pathology is diagnosed using the internationally consensus Banff classification. Although a progressive understanding of allograft rejection has provided numerous immunohistochemical markers, only the C4d is regarded to be a sufficiently useful marker for antibody-mediated allograft rejection according to the Banff classification. This review summarizes currently available useful immunohistochemical markers of renal transplant pathology, including C4d, with diagnostic implications for human renal allograft rejection. In particular, we discuss immunohistochemical markers in the following three categories: immunohistochemical markers of renal pathology used to (i) analyze the mechanisms of alloimmune rejection, (ii) monitor cell injury and/or inflammation associated with rejection and (iii) identify renal components in order to improve the diagnosis of rejection. In addition, recent progress in the field of renal transplant pathology includes the development of a new method for assessing molecular pathology using OMICS analyses. As the recent findings of various studies in patients undergoing renal transplantation are very encouraging, novel immunohistochemical markers must be also developed and combined with new technologies for the diagnosis of human renal allograft rejection.

  12. Final Requirements--School Improvement Grants--Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV, Department of Education, 34 CFR Chapter II

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education adopts final requirements for the School Improvement Grants (SIG) program, authorized under section 1003(g) of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended (ESEA). These final requirements make changes to the current SIG program requirements and implement…

  13. Current perspectives on antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chad A Witt, Ramsey R Hachem Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA Abstract: The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA to human leukocyte antigens and the burden of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR in lung transplantation remain enigmatic. Over the past several years, evidence has been emerging that humoral immunity plays an important role in the development of both acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD. Multiple case reports and case series have identified lung allograft recipients with clinical findings consistent with acute AMR. However, there is currently no widely accepted definition for AMR in lung transplantation, and this has been a significant barrier to furthering our understanding of this form of rejection. Nonetheless, the development of DSA after transplantation has consistently been identified as an independent risk factor for persistent and high-grade acute cellular rejection and CLAD. This has raised the possibility that chronic AMR may be a distinct phenotype of CLAD although evidence supporting this paradigm is still lacking. Additionally, antibodies to lung-restricted self-antigens (collagen V and K-α 1 tubulin have been associated with primary graft dysfunction early and the development of CLAD late after transplantation, and emerging evidence underscores significant interactions between autoimmunity and alloimmunity after transplantation. There is currently an active International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working group that is developing an operational definition for AMR in lung transplantation. This will be critical to improve our understanding of this form of rejection and conduct clinical trials to identify optimal treatment strategies. This review will summarize the literature on DSA and AMR in lung transplantation and discuss the impact of antibodies to self-antigens on lung

  14. Obesity-associated oxidative stress: strategies finalized to improve redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Isabella; Catani, Maria Valeria; Evangelista, Daniela; Gasperi, Valeria; Avigliano, Luciana

    2013-05-21

    Obesity represents a major risk factor for a plethora of severe diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. It is often accompanied by an increased risk of mortality and, in the case of non-fatal health problems, the quality of life is impaired because of associated conditions, including sleep apnea, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, and infertility. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be the mechanistic link between obesity and related complications. In obese patients, antioxidant defenses are lower than normal weight counterparts and their levels inversely correlate with central adiposity; obesity is also characterized by enhanced levels of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. Inadequacy of antioxidant defenses probably relies on different factors: obese individuals may have a lower intake of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes; otherwise, consumption of antioxidant nutrients is normal, but obese individuals may have an increased utilization of these molecules, likewise to that reported in diabetic patients and smokers. Also inadequate physical activity may account for a decreased antioxidant state. In this review, we describe current concepts in the meaning of obesity as a state of chronic oxidative stress and the potential interventions to improve redox balance.

  15. Dragline bucket improvement survey. Final report, September 30, 1977-September 29, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilwell, T.; Kelly, H.; Rumbarger, J.; Dowling, M.

    1979-01-01

    An operating dragline bucket receives a lot of abuse. It logs about a million dig cycles every two or three years, all the while operating through abrasive overburden on a round-the-clock basis. It is to the credit of designers, operators and maintenance men alike that these buckets perform so well under such adverse conditions. Comments made in this report are for the purpose of focusing on areas in which further improvements can be made, and in no way are intended to reflect adversely on the generally high quality of bucket design, use and repair. From December 1977 to September 1978, investigators visited nine surface coal mines to review first-hand the techniques and problems associated with dragline equipment. The contractor also conducted some basic analyses regarding bucket geometry and force patterns. The report concludes that: dragline bucket and rigging designs, while traditionally satisfactory, could be bettered in some areas; the major maintenance problem associated with buckets and associated rigging is abrasive wear; the repair costs for associated rigging (primarily chains) can run in excess of 50% of the repair costs for buckets; there is no established engineering information available regarding stresses, forces, soil flow and soil resistance in relation to dragline buckets; present computer monitoring and analysis equipment could, with appropriate modifications, be utilized to yield useful engineering information.

  16. Optic flow based station-keeping and wind rejection for small flying vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Bryan

    Optic flow and Wide Field Integration (WFI) have shown potential for application to autonomous navigation of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). In this study the application of these same methods to other tasks, namely station-keeping and wind rejection, is examined. Theory surrounding optic flow, WFI and wind gust modeling is examined to provide a theoretical background. A controller based on a Hinfinity bounded formulation of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator in designed to both mitigate wind disturbances and station-keep. The performance of this controller is assessed via simulation to determine both performance and trade-offs in implementation such as the method for optic flow calculation. Furthermore, flight tests are performed to examine the real world effectiveness of the controller. Finally, conclusions about potential improvement to implementation are drawn

  17. Adaptive clutter rejection for ultrasound color Doppler imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Mo; Managuli, Ravi; Kim, Yongmin

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a new adaptive clutter rejection technique where an optimum clutter filter is dynamically selected according to the varying clutter characteristics in ultrasound color Doppler imaging. The selection criteria have been established based on the underlying clutter characteristics (i.e., the maximum instantaneous clutter velocity and the clutter power) and the properties of various candidate clutter filters (e.g., projection-initialized infinite impulse response and polynomial regression). We obtained an average improvement of 3.97 dB and 3.27 dB in flow signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR) compared to the conventional and down-mixing methods, respectively. These preliminary results indicate that the proposed adaptive clutter rejection method could improve the sensitivity and accuracy in flow velocity estimation for ultrasound color Doppler imaging. For a 192 x 256 color Doppler image with an ensemble size of 10, the proposed method takes only 57.2 ms, which is less than the acquisition time. Thus, the proposed method could be implemented in modern ultrasound systems, while providing improved clutter rejection and more accurate velocity estimation in real time.

  18. The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability; Final report, September 1987--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrevaya, H.

    1993-12-27

    Precipitated iron catalysts are expected to be used in next generation slurry reactors for large-scale production of transportation fuels from synthesis gas. These reactors are expected to operate at higher temperatures and lower H{sub 2}:CO ratios relative to the Sasol Arge reactor (Table 1A). The feasibility of using iron catalysts has been demonstrated under relatively mild Arge-type conditions but not under more severe slurry conditions. Possibly, an improvement in catalytic stability will be needed to make iron catalysts suitable for slurry operation. This program was aimed at identifying the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and use of these chemical principles in the design of more stable catalysts. A new precipitated Fe catalyst was developed in this program for slurry reactor operation. The new Fe catalyst is predicted to perform slightly below the performance targets for slurry bubble column operation. Stability targets appear to be achievable. This catalyst did not noticeably deactivate during 1,740 hours on-stream. Compared to the selectivity target, an excess of 2% C{sub 1} + C{sub 2} was formed at 265{degrees}C. Based on the initial catalyst inventory in the autoclave, the catalyst seems to be short of the activity target by a factor of 1.8 at 265{degrees}C and 1.3 at 275{degrees}C. However, actual specific activities are likely to be closer to target because of catalyst inventory loss across the filter during the run and because catalytic activities were underestimated at low conversions.

  19. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  20. Improved solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Power density, durability and modularity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund Frandsen, H.; Kiebach, W.R.; Hoeegh, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents the work performed within the project PSO2009-1-10207 during the period from 01-04-2009 - 31-06-2010. The report is divided into three parts covering the three work packages: Stack components; Stacks and durability; and Large SOFC systems: modularity and scalability. The project contains 38 milestones and all milestones in the project have been either fully or partly fulfilled. Two major achievements within this project concern the robustness towards dynamic operations and implementation of cells with more active cathodes: Within this project tools to evaluate and test SOFC stacks with respect to robustness during dynamic operations has been developed. From stack tests performed under dynamic conditions it was observed that the effect on degradation and failure seemed to be very little. The thermo-mechanical models developed in this project in combination with the dynamic stack model was used in combination to understand why. The results clearly showed that the hardest stress field applied to the cells arises from the steady state operating point rather than from the dynamic conditions. This is a very promising result concerning the fact that especially small CHP units in a commercial system will experience dynamic conditions from load cycling and thermal cycling. A new type of cell with a more active cathode has been formulated and introduced into the TOFC stacks in this project. The aim was to improve the effect of the stack by 25 %. However, compared to a standard stack with the ''old'' cells, the stack effect was increased by 44% - from a cross flow stack with standard 2G cells to a cross flow stack with 2.5G cells. The new type of cells also show an excellent stability towards moisture in the cathode feed, and a stack with 2.5G cells has been tested for 12.000 hrs with a degradation rate of 30 mOMEGAcm2/1000 hr. (Author)

  1. Self-compassion and rejection sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Saricam, Enes Ergun, Halis Sakiz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and rejection sensitivity. Design: Self-compassion and are current concepts in social psychology and positive psychology. Preliminary evidence suggests that self-compassion is related to cognitive based social personality traits such as extraversion, social connectedness, self-determination, and feeling interpersonally connected to others. Also, rejection sensitivity is very important factor for inte...

  2. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  3. Interns' Day in Surgery: improving intern performance through a simulation-based course for final year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sankar N; Page, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The transition from final year medical student into the first year of clinical practice is known to be associated with anxiety and stress that ultimately affects job performance. Studies have shown that much of this stress and anxiety results from a junior doctor's lack of confidence in performing a number of basic tasks. We investigated if implementation of a half-day simulation-based course in the final year medical students results in increased confidence in performing these tasks. Final year medical students of the University of Tasmania's School of Medicine posted at the Royal Hobart Hospital participated in a half-day simulation course, comprised of multiple simulation stations, which required students to perform the basic tasks a competent surgical intern would be expected to complete. Students completed a survey which investigated their confidence with each task before and after the course. Overall, the majority of students thought that the Interns' Day in Surgery course was useful. The most significant improvements perceived were in case presentation (57.5% to 94.6%; P = 0.02) and communication with patients and other professional colleagues (55.5% to 75.5%; P = 0.01). A follow-up survey of doctors who attended this course reinforced its benefits. Simulation-based courses in clinical practice provide good learning opportunities for final year medical students within the curriculum. This study confirms significant gains in all skills categories practised during the course with perceived benefits subsequently identified by interns. This should lead to a less stressful and more successful transition from student to doctor and ultimately, better patient care. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    life by a factor of 2. The prototype-scale bearing test apparatus was donated by one of our project partners and was relocated to the WVU airport hanger at Morgantown Municipal Airport. This test apparatus uses full-scale sleeve and bushing dimensions and is designed to more accurately mimic the galvanizing line conditions. Through the combination of corrosion, wear, and dross buildup testing, as well as material modeling and thermodynamic analysis, the research team has been able to show that an order of magnitude improvement in material performance is a realistic goal.

  5. Composite disturbance rejection control based on generalized extended state observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lu; Su, Jianbo

    2016-07-01

    Traditional extended state observer (ESO) design method does not focus on analysis of system reconstruction strategy. The prior information of the controlled system cannot be used for ESO implementation to improve the control accuracy. In this paper, composite disturbance rejection control strategy is proposed based on generalized ESO. First, the disturbance rejection performance of traditional ESO is analyzed to show the essence of the reconstruction strategy. Then, the system is reconstructed based on the equivalent disturbance model. The generalized ESO is proposed based on the reconstructed model, while convergence of the proposed ESO is analyzed along with the outer loop feedback controller. Simulation results on a second order mechanical system show that the proposed generalized ESO can deal with the external disturbance with known model successfully. Experiment of attitude tracking task on an aircraft is also carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Background rejection in NEXT using deep neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the potential of using deep learning techniques to reject background events in searches for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure xenon time projection chambers capable of detailed track reconstruction. The differences in the topological signatures of background and signal events can be learned by deep neural networks via training over many thousands of events. These networks can then be used to classify further events as signal or background, providing an additional background rejection factor at an acceptable loss of efficiency. The networks trained in this study performed better than previous methods developed based on the use of the same topological signatures by a factor of 1.2 to 1.6, and there is potential for further improvement.

  7. Background rejection in NEXT using deep neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, J; Vidal, J Muñoz; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J M; Botas, A; Ferrario, P; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Álvarez, V; Azevedo, C D R; Borges, F I G; Cárcel, S; Carrión, J V; Cebrián, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Díaz, J; Diesburg, M; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Goldschmidt, A; González-Díaz, D; Gutiérrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Henriques, C A O; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrero, V; Jones, B; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Lebrun, P; Liubarsky, I; López-March, N; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Martín-Albo, J; Martínez-Lema, G; Martínez, A; Monrabal, F; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Nebot-Guinot, M; Novella, P; Nygren, D; Para, A; Pérez, J; Querol, M; Ripoll, L; Rodríguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simón, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; White, J; Webb, R; Yahlali, N; Yepes-Ramírez, H

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of using deep learning techniques to reject background events in searches for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure xenon time projection chambers capable of detailed track reconstruction. The differences in the topological signatures of background and signal events can be learned by deep neural networks via training over many thousands of events. These networks can then be used to classify further events as signal or background, providing an additional background rejection factor at an acceptable loss of efficiency. The networks trained in this study performed 15-60% better than previous methods developed based on the use of the same topological signatures, and there is potential for further improvement.

  8. The fate of triaged and rejected manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Amodeo, Daniela; Argiles, Angel; Arici, Mustafa; D'arrigo, Graziella; Evenepoel, Pieter; Fliser, Danilo; Fox, Jonathan; Gesualdo, Loreto; Jadoul, Michel; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Mayer, Gert; Ortiz, Alberto; Sever, Mehmet; Vanholder, Raymond; Vinck, Caroline; Wanner, Christopher; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (NDT) established a more restrictive selection process for manuscripts submitted to the journal, reducing the acceptance rate from 25% (2008–2009) to currently about 12–15%. To achieve this goal, we decided to score the priority of manuscripts submitted to NDT and to reject more papers at triage than in the past. This new scoring system allows a rapid decision for the authors without external review. However, the risk of such a restrictive policy may be that the journal might fail to capture important studies that are eventually published in higher-ranked journals. To look into this problem, we analysed random samples of papers (∼10%) rejected by NDT in 2012. Of the papers rejected at triage and those rejected after regular peer review, 59 and 61%, respectively, were accepted in other journals. A detailed analysis of these papers showed that only 4 out of 104 and 7 out of 93 of the triaged and rejected papers, respectively, were published in journals with an impact factor higher than that of NDT. Furthermore, for all these papers, independent assessors confirmed the evaluation made by the original reviewers. The number of citations of these papers was similar to that typically obtained by publications in the corresponding journals. Even though the analyses seem reassuring, previous observations made by leading journals warn that the risk of ‘big misses’, resulting from selective editorial policies, remains a real possibility. We will therefore continue to maintain a high degree of alertness and will periodically track the history of manuscripts rejected by NDT, particularly papers that are rejected at triage by our journal. PMID:26597920

  9. Simulation of the transient processes of load rejection under different accident conditions in a hydroelectric generating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Peng, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-11-01

    Load rejection test is one of the essential tests that carried out before the hydroelectric generating set is put into operation formally. The test aims at inspecting the rationality of the design of the water diversion and power generation system of hydropower station, reliability of the equipment of generating set and the dynamic characteristics of hydroturbine governing system. Proceeding from different accident conditions of hydroelectric generating set, this paper presents the transient processes of load rejection corresponding to different accident conditions, and elaborates the characteristics of different types of load rejection. Then the numerical simulation method of different types of load rejection is established. An engineering project is calculated to verify the validity of the method. Finally, based on the numerical simulation results, the relationship among the different types of load rejection and their functions on the design of hydropower station and the operation of load rejection test are pointed out. The results indicate that: The load rejection caused by the accident within the hydroelectric generating set is realized by emergency distributing valve, and it is the basis of the optimization for the closing law of guide vane and the calculation of regulation and guarantee. The load rejection caused by the accident outside the hydroelectric generating set is realized by the governor. It is the most efficient measure to inspect the dynamic characteristics of hydro-turbine governing system, and its closure rate of guide vane set in the governor depends on the optimization result in the former type load rejection.

  10. Cyclostationary Model Based Multiple-Tone Interference Rejection in DSSS Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Multiple-tone interference is a kind of narrow band interference appears in Direct Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum (SS) communication system frequently that degrades the system performance. Most open literature studies on narrowband interference rejection assumed stationary SS signal and interference. SS signal and interference are modeled as cyclostationary and based on cyclostationary model, an interference rejection algorithm is proposed. Through computer simulation, it is shown that the performance of the SS system can be improved considerably after adopting this algorithm.

  11. Acute rejection episodes after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida Fethi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.

  12. 基于表贴式永磁同步电机模型改进的自抗扰控制器%Improved Active Disturbance Rejection ControIIer Based on Surface-mounted Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor ModeI Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新鹏沈天益; 赵银平

    2015-01-01

    在使用自抗扰(Active Disturbance Rejection ControI er,ADRC)控制器的表贴式永磁同步电机(Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor,SPMSM)系统中,电流环依然存在耦合现象,扩张状态观测器(Extended State Observer,ESO)对于变化较大的扰动难以保证对其的估计精度。为了提高负载的动态性能,提出了改进的自抗扰控制器设计方案。基于表贴式永磁同步电机模型,利用最小二乘算法辨识出电流环参数,对电流环模型进行补偿,实现电流环的精确解耦,减小ESO对扰动估计的压力,提高扰动估计精度。仿真结果表明,改进的自抗扰控制器提高了负载的动态性能。%In the surface-mounted permanet magnetic synchronous motor(SPMSM) system controI ed by active disturbance rejection controI er (ADRC),the current Ioop coupIed phenomenon stiI exists,it is difficuIt to ensure the estimation precision of disturbance by extended state observer (ESO)in the case of big disturbance.In order to improve the controI performance of ADRC,the improved ADRC is present in this paper.Based on SPMSM modeI identification by using Ieast square method, make compensation to decrease the pressure of estimation disturbance of ESO.

  13. A comparative study of boron and arsenic (III) rejection from brackish water by reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Teychene, Benoît

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare at lab-scale the rejection efficiency of several reverse osmosis membranes (RO) toward arsenic (III) and boron during the filtration of a synthetic brackish water. The effect of pH and operating conditions on the rejection of each RO membrane was studied. Two types of membrane were investigated: "brackish water" and "sea water" membranes. Our results showed that the metalloid rejection depends on the membrane type, pH and transmembrane pressure applied. Increasing pH above the dissociation constant (pKa) of each specie improves significantly the metalloid rejection by RO membranes, whatever the membrane type. Moreover, at identical operating conditions (pH, transmembrane pressure), results showed that the brackish water membranes have a higher water flux and exhibit lower metalloid rejection. The highest As(III) rejection value for the tested brackish water membranes was 99% obtained at pH = 9.6 and 40 bars, whereas it was found that the sea water RO membranes could highly reject As(III), more than 99%, even at low pH and low pressure (pH = 7.6 and 24 bars).Regarding Boron rejection, similar conclusions could be drawn. The sea water RO membranes exert higher removal, with a high rejection value above 96% over the tested conditions. More generally, this study showed that, whatever the operating conditions or the tested membranes, the boron and As(III) permeate concentrations are below the WHO guidelines. In addition, new data about the boron and arsenic permeability of each tested RO membrane was brought thanks to a theoretical calculation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Recollections of parental rejection, self-criticism and depression in suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rui C; Besser, Avi; Blatt, Sidney J

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether self-criticism and depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between recollections of parental rejection and suicidality. A community sample of 200 Portuguese adults completed, in counterbalanced order, a socio-demographic questionnaire, the short form of the Inventory for Assessing Memories of Parental Rearing Behaviour (EMBU), the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and reports of any suicide intention and/or ideation and suicide attempts. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that recollections of parental rejection are significantly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality. Recollections of parental rejection are indirectly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality through self-criticism. The association between self-criticism and suicidality is mediated by depressive symptoms. In addition to a significant direct association between recollections of parental rejection and suicidality, the final model indicated that recollections of parental rejection are significantly associated with self-criticism. That same self-criticism is significantly associated with depressive symptoms which, in turn, are significantly associated with suicidality. Individuals with recollections of parental rejection are at greater risk for suicide ideation and behavior, possibly because such experiences predispose them to intense self-criticism which is a risk factor for depression associated with suicidal ideation and behavior.

  15. Food rejections in children: Cognitive and social/environmental factors involved in food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafraire, Jérémie; Rioux, Camille; Giboreau, Agnès; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior are presented as the two main forms of children's food rejections which are responsible for a reduction of their dietary repertoire. We review the key factors, presented in the literature, that are involved in food rejections during childhood. We first consider a range of "cognitive factors", such as food perception, mental representations, categorization of food items, and emotions and feelings toward food. Next we focus on "social and environmental factors", as these might also significantly influence and modulate children's food rejections. We then summarize the findings to provide a comprehensive view of the factors involved in children's food rejections. Finally, we discuss the need for future studies on food rejections, regarding (i) the distinction between food neophobia and picky/fussy eating, and (ii) the potential link between food categorization abilities and children's food neophobia and pickiness.

  16. Final Report for Award DE-SC0005403. Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertz, Joshua L. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Prasad, Ajay K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-09-06

    The enclosed document provides a final report to document the research performed at the University of Delaware under Grant DE-SC0005403: Improved Electrochemical Performance of Strained Lattice Electrolytes via Modulated Doping. The ultimate goal of this project was to learn how to systematically strain the inter-atomic distance in thin ceramic films and how to use this newfound control to improve the ease by which oxygen ions can conduct through the films. Increasing the ionic conductivity of ceramics holds the promise of drastic improvements in the performance of solid oxide fuel cells, chemical sensors, gas permeation membranes, and related devices. Before this work, the experimental evidence advocating for strain-based techniques was often controversial and poorly characterized. Enabling much of this work was a new method to quickly create a very wide range of ceramic nanostructures that was established during the first phase of the project. Following this initial phase, we created a variety of promising nanostructured epitaxial films and multilayers with systematic variations in lattice mismatch and dopant content. Over the course of the work, a positive effect of tensile atomic strain on the oxygen conductivity was conclusively found using a few different forms of samples and experimental techniques. The samples were built by sputtering, an industrially scalable technique, and thus the technological implementation of these results may be economically feasible. Still, two other results consistently achieved over multiple efforts in this work give pause. The first of these results was that very specific, pristine surfaces upon which to build the nanostructures were strictly required in order to achieve measurable results. The second of these results was that compressively strained films with concomitant reductions in oxygen conductivity are much easier to obtain relative to tensile-strained films with increased conductivity.

  17. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko;

    2006-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...... streams on the performance of a WWTP is assessed in a simulation study, using the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2), that includes the processes describing sludge treatment and in this way allows for plant-wide evaluation. Comparison of performance of a WWTP without reject water with a WWTP where...... treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios...

  18. Effect of combustion chamber insulation on the performance of a low heat rejection diesel engine with exhaust heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, D.N. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompound diesel engine system is used to study the effect of combustion chamber insulation on the performance of low heat rejection system configurations with exhaust heat recovery. The analysis is carried out for zirconia coatings of various thicknesses applied on the cylinder head and piston. It is found that an intercooled turbocompound engine derives a modest thermal efficiency benefit from insulation, e.g. 4.3% improvement at a 60% reduction in heat loss. The addition of Rankine compounding can improve the thermal efficiency of the turbocompounded engine by 10-14%, depending on the level of insulation and the system configuration. Furthermore, Rankine compounding can make the otherwise inferior performance of a non-intercooled engine match the performance of an intercooled engine. Finally, use of an insulating material of low conductivity and low heat capacity can increase the thermal efficiency benefits, but at the expense of increased component thermal loading. (author).

  19. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J. (Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references.

  20. Partial interference subspace rejection in CDMA systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Affes, Sofiene; Mewelstein, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Previously presented interference subspace rejection (ISR) proposed a family of new efficient multiuser detectors for CDMA. We reconsider in this paper the modes of ISR using decision feedback (DF). DF modes share similarities with parallel interference cancellation (PIC) but attempt to cancel...

  1. Music genre recognition with risk and rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    We explore risk and rejection for music genre recognition (MGR) within the minimum risk framework of Bayesian classification. In this way, we attempt to give an MGR system knowledge that some misclassifications are worse than others, and that deferring classification to an expert may be a better...

  2. Ultrastructural basis of acute renal allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractAn attempt was made: I. to demonstrate the evolution and the time of onset of the ultrastructural morphological changes in the renal parenchyma and blood vessels, as well as the ultrastructural feature of the interstitial cellular infiltration in acute rejection of kidney allografts; 2.

  3. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  4. Double Ramp Loss Based Reject Option Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Cao et al. (Eds.): PAKDD 2015, Part I, LNAI 9077, pp. 151–163, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18038-0 12 152 N. Manwani et al. ρ is the parameter...A.: kernlab - an S4 package for kernel methods in R. Journal of Statistical Software 11(9), 1–20 ( 2004 ) Double Ramp Loss Based Reject Option

  5. To Accept or Reject? The Impact of Adolescent Rejection Sensitivity on Early Adult Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A; Spilker, Ann; Chango, Joanna; Marston, Emily S; Allen, Joseph P

    2014-03-01

    Successfully navigating entry into romantic relationships is a key task in adolescence, which sensitivity to rejection can make difficult to accomplish. This study uses multi-informant data from a community sample of 180 adolescents assessed repeatedly from age 16 to 22. Individuals with elevated levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 were less likely to have a romantic partner at age 22, reported more anxiety and avoidance when they did have relationships, and were observed to be more negative in their interactions with romantic partners. In addition, females whose rejection sensitivity increased during late adolescence were more likely to adopt a submissive pattern within adult romantic relationships, further suggesting a pattern in which rejection sensitivity forecasts difficulties.

  6. A novel robust disturbance rejection anti-windup framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Herrmann, Guido; Stoten, David P.; Tu, Jiaying; Turner, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we propose a novel anti-windup (AW) framework for coping with input saturation in the disturbance rejection problem of stable plant systems. This framework is based on the one developed by Weston and Postlethwaite (W&P) (Weston, P.F., and Postlethwaite, I. (2000), 'Linear Conditioning for Systems Containing Saturating Actuators', Automatica, 36, 1347-1354). The new AW-design improves the disturbance rejection performance over the design framework usually suggested for the coprime-factorisation based W&P-approach. Performance improvement is achieved by explicitly incorporating a transfer function, which represents the effect of the disturbance on the nonlinear loop, into the AW compensator synthesis. An extra degree of freedom is exploited for the coprime factorisation, resulting in an implicitly computed multivariable algebraic loop for the AW-implementation. Suggestions are made to overcome the algebraic loop problem via explicit computation. Furthermore, paralleling the results of former work (Turner, M.C., Herrmann, G., and Postlethwaite, I. (2007), 'Incorporating Robustness Requirements into Antiwindup Design', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 52, 1842-1855), the additive plant uncertainty is incorporated into the AW compensator synthesis, by using a novel augmentation for the disturbance rejection problem. In this new framework, it is shown that the internal model control (IMC) scheme is optimally robust, as was the case in Turner, Herrmann, and Postlethwaite (2007) and Zheng and Morari (Zheng, A., and Morari, M. (1994), 'Anti-windup using Internal Model Control', International Journal of Control, 60, 1015-1024). The new AW approach is applied to the control of dynamically substructured systems (DSS) subject to external excitation signals and actuator limits. The benefit of this approach is demonstrated in the simulations for a small-scale building mass damper DSS and a quasi-motorcycle DSS.

  7. Rejection sensitivity moderates the impact of rejection on self-concept clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayduk, Ozlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2009-11-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people's SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed.

  8. Monitoring of Acute Rejection after Orthotopic Heart Tranplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng chun ying; Huang ke li; Luo bin; Wen ding guo

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study the monitoring of rejection after orthotopic heart thansplantation.Methods From 1998 to 2005, 10 othotopic heart thansplans were performed, and acute rejection was monitored by endomyocardial biopsy as well as by clinical features, ECG, ultrasonocardiography and blood serum determination of Tropin I, and by the combination of these methods, we analysed the monitoring of acute rejection after the heart transplantation. Results With the combination of clinical features, ECG, ultrasonocardiography and blood serum test, 5 occurences of acute rejection were judged in the postoperative course, which were comfirmed by endomyocardial biopsy to be 2 acute rejections in Ⅰ b degree, 3 acute rejections in Ⅲ a degree. Endomyocardial biopsy were routinely performed 21 times postoperatively in which there were 1 acute rejection in Ⅰ a degree and 5 acute rejections in Ⅰ b degree. Conclusions Acute rejection is an important factor influencing the postoperative course of heart transplantation, so it is imperative to have an intime, effective and planned monitoring procedure for acute rejection. Endomyocardial biopsy is a sensitive and reliable method in diagnosis of acute rejection, but it is invasive and probable for some complications. The noninvasive method such as clinical features, ECG,ultrasonocardiography and blood serum test can be used as additive means in the diagnosis of acute rejection.Endomyocardial biopsy should be combined with some noninvasive methods in monitoring acute rejection after the heart transplantation.

  9. Resilience and rejection sensitivity mediate long-term outcomes of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Violetta K; Vögele, Claus

    2016-11-01

    Increasing divorce rates leave more and more children to deal with the separation of their parents. Recent research suggests that children of divorced parents more often experience psychological and physical symptoms than children of non-divorced parents. The processes that mediate the relationship between parental divorce and ill-health, however, are still elusive. This study investigated the mediating role of psychological factors such as resilience and rejection sensitivity on the long-term consequences of parental divorce in young adults. One hundred and ninety-nine participants (mean age 22.3 years) completed an online survey, including measures of mental health, childhood trauma, resilience, and rejection sensitivity. Participants with divorced parents (33 %) reported increased levels of psychological symptoms, childhood trauma, rejection sensitivity, and lower levels of resilience. The association between parental divorce and mental health was fully mediated by resilience, rejection sensitivity, and childhood trauma. The mediation model explained up to 44 % of the total variance in mental health symptoms. Resilience and rejection sensitivity are crucial factors for successful coping with the experience of parental separation. Prevention programs that help to boost children's resilience might help to reduce the long-term effects of parental divorce on their attachment style (e.g., rejection sensitivity), thereby improving their mental health on the long run. Furthermore, the results call for parental awareness and counseling to target and reduce the observed increased level of childhood trauma. Limitations concern the cross-sectional and retrospective design of the study.

  10. The Rejectability of Karl Popper: Why Popper's Ideas Have Had So Little Influence on Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tyrrell; Swann, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the question of why Karl Popper's work has been disregarded or rejected for educational improvement and suggests a series of impediments to an acceptance of Popper's ideas. Outlines a set of principle which if adopted as a basis for practice could lead to significant improvement. (EV)

  11. Optimization of a photon rejecter to separate electronic noise in a photon-counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seung-Wan; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Photon-counting-based X-ray imaging technology provides the capability to count individual photons and to characterize photon energies. The cadmium telluride (CdTe)-based photon-counting detector is limited in capability, however, under a high X-ray flux. A photon rejecter composed of aluminum, for example, can reduce this limitation by modulating the incident number of photons. In addition to this function, the optimal photon rejecter can separate electronic noise, which degrades image quality. The aim of this work was to optimize a photon rejecter for high-quality image acquisition by removing electronic noise from the actual pulse signal. The images and spectra were acquired using a micro-focus X-ray source with a CdTe-based photon-counting detector. We acquired data with various types of photon-rejecter materials composed of aluminum (Al) and iodine at three different tube voltages (50, 70, and 90 kVp). A phantom composed of high-atomic-number materials was imaged to evaluate the efficiency of the photon rejecter. Photon rejecters composed of 1-mm Al, 10-mm Al, and a combination of 10-mm Al and iodine provided optimum capability at 50, 70, and 90 kVp, respectively. Each optimal combination of photon-rejecter material and voltage effectively separated electronic noise from the actual pulse signal and gave the highest contrast-to-noise ratio for materials on the image. These optimized types of photon rejecters can effectively discriminate electronic noise and improve image quality at different tube voltages.

  12. Fetal cardiac cine imaging using highly accelerated dynamic MRI with retrospective motion correction and outlier rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerom, Joshua F P; Lloyd, David F A; Price, Anthony N; Kuklisova Murgasova, Maria; Aljabar, Paul; Malik, Shaihan J; Lohezic, Maelene; Rutherford, Mary A; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Razavi, Reza; Hajnal, Joseph V

    2017-04-03

    Development of a MRI acquisition and reconstruction strategy to depict fetal cardiac anatomy in the presence of maternal and fetal motion. The proposed strategy involves i) acquisition and reconstruction of highly accelerated dynamic MRI, followed by image-based ii) cardiac synchronization, iii) motion correction, iv) outlier rejection, and finally v) cardiac cine reconstruction. Postprocessing entirely was automated, aside from a user-defined region of interest delineating the fetal heart. The method was evaluated in 30 mid- to late gestational age singleton pregnancies scanned without maternal breath-hold. The combination of complementary acquisition/reconstruction and correction/rejection steps in the pipeline served to improve the quality of the reconstructed 2D cine images, resulting in increased visibility of small, dynamic anatomical features. Artifact-free cine images successfully were produced in 36 of 39 acquired data sets; prolonged general fetal movements precluded processing of the remaining three data sets. The proposed method shows promise as a motion-tolerant framework to enable further detail in MRI studies of the fetal heart and great vessels. Processing data in image-space allowed for spatial and temporal operations to be applied to the fetal heart in isolation, separate from extraneous changes elsewhere in the field of view. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Active disturbance rejection controller of fine tracking system for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinglin; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Free space optical communication is one of the best approaches in future communications. Laser beam's acquisition, pointing and tracking are crucial technologies of free space optical communication. Fine tracking system is important component of APT (acquisition, pointing and tracking) system. It cooperates with the coarse pointing system in executing the APT mission. Satellite platform vibration and disturbance, which reduce received optical power, increase bit error rate and affect seriously the natural performance of laser communication. For the characteristic of satellite platform, an active disturbance rejection controller was designed to reduce the vibration and disturbance. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the effects of vibration on the inter satellite optical communications were analyzed, and the reasons and characters of vibration of the satellite platform were summarized. The amplitude-frequency response of a filter was designed according to the power spectral density of platform vibration of SILEX (Semiconductor Inter-satellite Laser Experiment), and then the signals of platform vibration were generated by filtering white Gaussian noise using the filter. Secondly, the fast steering mirror is a key component of the fine tracking system for optical communication. The mechanical design and model analysis was made to the tip/tilt mirror driven by the piezoelectric actuator and transmitted by the flexure hinge. The transfer function of the fast steering mirror, camera, D/A data acquisition card was established, and the theory model of transfer function of this system was further obtained. Finally, an active disturbance rejection control method is developed, multiple parallel extended state observers were designed for estimation of unknown dynamics and external disturbance, and the estimated states were used for nonlinear feedback control and compensation to improve system performance. The simulation results show that the designed

  14. Chronic Kidney Isograft and Allograft Rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严群; 张鹏; 杨传永

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In this study antigen-independent factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection of organ transplants was examined. Kidney isografts and allografts were transplanted orthotopically into bilaterally nephroectomized rat recipients and studied functionally, morphologically and immunohistologically, at serial intervals up to 52 weeks after transplantation. Allograft recipients developed progressive proteinuria after 12 weeks, with gradual renal failure ultimately leading to death. At the same time, morphological changes, including progressive arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, developed. Immunohistologically, macrophages infiltrated glomeruli during this period and cytokines became unregulated. Our resuits showed that antigen-independent functional and morphological changes occurred in long-term kidney isografts and mimicked those appearing much earlier in allografts that reject chronically.Initial injury and extent of functioning renal mass is suggested to be important factor for such late changes.

  15. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism.

  16. Internal Model Based Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jinwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The basic active disturbance rejection control (BADRC) algorithm with only one order higher extended state observer (ESO) proves to be robust to both internal and external disturbances. An advantage of BADRC is that in many applications it can achieve high disturbance attenuation level without requiring a detailed model of the plant or disturbance. However, this can be regarded as a disadvantage when the disturbance characteristic is known since the BADRC algorithm cannot exploit such informa...

  17. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  18. Scheduling Simple Linear Deteriorating Jobs with Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problems of scheduling deteriorating jobs with release dates on a single machine (parallel machines and jobs can be rejected by paying penalties. The processing time of a job is a simple linear increasing function of its starting time. For a single machine model, the objective is to minimize the maximum lateness of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. We show that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense and presents a fully polynomial time approximation scheme to solve it when all jobs have agreeable release dates and due dates. For parallel-machine model, the objective is to minimize the maximum delivery completion time of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. When the jobs have identical release dates, we first propose a fully polynomial time approximation scheme to solve it. Then, we present a heuristic algorithm for the case where all jobs have to be accepted and evaluate its efficiency by computational experiments.

  19. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I., E-mail: roxana.both@aut.utcluj.ro [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Eculizumab for the Treatment of Severe Antibody-Mediated Rejection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In renal transplantation, treatment options for antibody-mediated rejection are limited. Here, we report a case of severe AMR treated with eculizumab. A 50-year-old woman known for end stage kidney disease secondary to IgA nephropathy received a kidney transplant from a 50-year-old deceased donor. At 5 months after transplantation, she presented with acute graft dysfunction and biopsy showed a severe antibody-mediated rejection associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. Despite an aggressive conventional immunosuppressive regimen, signs of rejection persisted and the patient was treated with 3 doses of eculizumab. Following the therapy, markers of TMA improved and graft function stabilized. However, ongoing signs of rejection remained in the repeated biopsy. In kidney transplantation, eculizumab is an expensive treatment and its role in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection remains to be determined.

  1. Socio-economic implications of bovine liver rejection in a major abattoir in south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Adeshupo Ibironke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the common causes of liver rejection in an abattoir in Nigeria. It was estimated and compared mathematically the lead causes of rejection of bovine liver. Fascioliasis was the main cause of liver condemnation and its social and economic implications were studied. A total of Nigerian Naira 15,772,200 [US$134,000] was lost directly due to this disease condition in a three-year period and in a single abattoir. Finally, advice was proffered to minimize the problems associated with liver rejection in Nigeria and to improve public health and animal welfare.Este estudo avaliou as causas mais comuns de rejeição do fígado num matadouro na Nigéria. Foram estimadas e comparadas matematicamente as causa principais de rejeição de fígado de bovinos. A fasciolíase foi a causa principal da reprovação do fígado e foram estudadas as suas implicações sociais e económicas. Apurou-se ter sido perdido um total de 15,772,200 nairas nigerianas (US$ 134,000 directamente devido a esta doença, num período de três anos, num único matadouro. Finalmente, foram definidos e aconselhados procedimentos para minimizar os problemas associados à rejeição de fígado na Nigéria e para melhorar a saúde pública e o bem-estar dos animais.

  2. THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER BIOPSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shkalova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed histological examination of 80 liver allograft biopsies, the diagnosis of acute rejection was proved in 34 cases. Histological changes in liver biopsies in different grades of acute rejection were estimated according to Banff classification 1995, 1997 and were compared with current literature data. The article deals with the question of morphological value of grading acute rejection on early and late, also we analyze changes in treat- ment tactics after morphological verification of liver allograft acute rejection

  3. When Is Peer Rejection Justifiable? Children's Understanding across Two Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjung; Killen, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how Korean (N = 397) and U.S. (N = 333) children and adolescents (10 and 13 years of age) evaluated personality (aggression, shyness) and group (gender, nationality) characteristics as a basis for peer rejection in three contexts (friendship rejection, group exclusion, victimization). Overall, peer rejection based on…

  4. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Theory and the Phylogenetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Ronald P.

    Guided by specific theoretical and methodological points of view--the phylogenetic perspective and the universalistic approach respectively--this paper reports on a worldwide study of the antecedents and effects of parental acceptance and rejection. Parental acceptance-rejection theory postulates that rejected children throughout our species share…

  5. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Pathogenesis, Prevention, Treatment, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia R. Blume

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is a major cause of late kidney transplant failure. It is important to have an understanding of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA typing including well-designed studies to determine anti-MHC-class-I-related chain A (MICA and antibody rejection pathogenesis. This can allow for more specific diagnosis and treatment which may improve long-term graft function. HLA-specific antibody detection prior to transplantation allows one to help determine the risk for AMR while detection of DSA along with a biopsy confirms it. It is now appreciated that biopsy for AMR does not have to include diffuse C4d, but does require a closer look at peritubular capillary microvasculature. Although plasmapheresis (PP is effective in removing alloantibodies (DSAs from the circulation, rebound synthesis of alloantibodies can occur. Splenectomy is used in desensitization protocols for ABO incompatible transplants as well as being found to treat AMR refractory to conventional treatment. Also used are agents targeted for plasma cells, B cells, and the complement cascade which are bortezomib rituximab and eculizumab, respectively.

  6. Dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity: The critical role of nonjudgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smart, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    The pain of rejection is a crucial component of normal social functioning; however, heightened sensitivity to rejection can be impairing in numerous ways. Mindfulness-based interventions have been effective with several populations characterized by elevated sensitivity to rejection; however, the relationship between mindfulness and rejection sensitivity has been largely unstudied. The present study examines associations between rejection sensitivity and multiple dimensions of dispositional mindfulness, with the hypothesis that a nonjudgmental orientation to inner experiences would be both associated with decreased rejection sensitivity and attenuate the impact of sensitivity to rejection on general negative affect. A cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (n = 451) completed self-report measures of rejection sensitivity, dispositional mindfulness, and trait-level negative affect. Significant zero-order correlations and independent effects were observed between most facets of dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity, with nonjudging demonstrating the largest effects. As predicted, rejection sensitivity was associated with negative affectivity for people low in nonjudging (β = .27, t = 5.12, p < .001) but not for people high in nonjudging (β = .06, t = .99, p = .324). These findings provide preliminary support for mindfulness, specifically the nonjudging dimension, as a protective factor against rejection sensitivity and its effects on affect.

  7. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  8. Why Goethe rejected Newton's theory of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, M

    1996-01-01

    Observations that he himself had made persuaded Goethe to reject Newton's theory of light and to put forward an alternative theory of the colour phenomena seen with a prism. Duck has argued that Goethe's attack on Newton's theory rested on valid experimental observations that appeared to present a difficulty for Newton's theory but to support his own views on colour. Duck has also proposed that these observations may be accounted for as an instance of the Bezold-Brücke phenomenon. It is argued here that this explanation is invalid and that two other features of colour processing can explain Goethe's observations.

  9. USA: California rejects mandatory GMO labelling

    OpenAIRE

    PAULL, JOHN

    2012-01-01

    Buying organic remains the best strategy for US consumers to avoid eating GM food. The voters of California have rejected the proposal to label GMO food. The proposition was narrowly lost, 47% to 53% (4,326,770 ‘Yes’ votes vs. 4,884,961 ‘No’ votes). Proposition 47 was supported by the organic sector but opposed by a coalition of GMO companies and US multinational food companies. Californians were invited to vote into law ‘The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act’. Section ...

  10. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  11. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity.

  12. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thane A Militz

    Full Text Available A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886 was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%, Chaetodontidae (26.3%, and Acanthuridae (18.2% and lowest for Labridae (6.6% and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%. The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases, undersized fish (21.8%, and fish deemed too thin (11.1%. Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15 with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%. These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity.

  13. Fish Rejections in the Marine Aquarium Trade: An Initial Case Study Raises Concern for Village-Based Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Foale, Simon; Southgate, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A major difficulty in managing wildlife trade is the reliance on trade data (rather than capture data) to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Collected organisms that die or are rejected before a point of sale often go unreported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying the loss of collected fish from rejection, prior to export, is a first step in assessing true collection levels. This study takes a detailed look at fish rejections by buyers before export using the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium fishery as a case study. Utilizing collection invoices detailing the species and quantity of fish (Actinopteri and Elasmobranchii) accepted or rejected by the exporting company it was determined that, over a six month period, 24.2% of the total fish catch reported (n = 13,886) was rejected. Of the ten most collected fish families, rejection frequency was highest for the Apogonidae (54.2%), Chaetodontidae (26.3%), and Acanthuridae (18.2%) and lowest for Labridae (6.6%) and Hemiscylliidae (0.7%). The most frequently cited reasons for rejection were fin damage (45.6% of cases), undersized fish (21.8%), and fish deemed too thin (11.1%). Despite fishers receiving feedback on invoices explaining rejections, there was no improvement in rejection frequencies over time (r = -0.33, P = 0.15) with weekly rejection frequencies being highly inconsistent (range: 2.8% to 79.4%; s = 16.3%). These findings suggest that export/import statistics can greatly underestimate collection for the marine aquarium trade as additional factors such as fisher discards, escapees, post-collection mortalities, and unregulated domestic trade would further contribute to this disparity. PMID:26963259

  14. Rejection of emerging organic micropollutants in nanofiltration-reverse osmosis membrane applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Drewes, Jörg E; Bellona, Christopher; Amy, Gary; Kim, Tae-Uk; Adam, Marc; Heberer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The rejection of emerging trace organics by a variety of commercial reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and ultra-low-pressure RO (ULPRO) membranes was investigated using TFC-HR, NF-90, NF-200, TFC-SR2, and XLE spiral membrane elements (Koch Membrane Systems, Wilmington, Massachusetts) to simulate operational conditions for drinking-water treatment and wastewater reclamation. In general, the presence of effluent organic matter (EfOM) improved the rejection of ionic organics by tight NF and RO membranes, as compared to a type-II water matrix (adjusted by ionic strength and hardness), likely as a result of a decreased negatively charged membrane surface. Rejection of ionic pharmaceutical residues and pesticides exceeded 95% by NF-90, XLE, and TFC-HR membranes and was above 89% for the NF-200 membrane. Hydrophobic nonionic compounds, such as bromoform and chloroform, exhibited a high initial rejection, as a result of both hydrophobic-hydrophobic solute-membrane interactions and steric exclusion, but rejection decreased significantly after 10 hours of operation because of partitioning of solutes through the membranes. This resulted in a partial removal of disinfection byproducts by the RO membrane TFC-HR. In a type-II water matrix, the effect of increasing feed water recoveries on rejection of hydrophilic ionic and nonionic compounds was compound-dependent and not consistent for different membranes. The presence of EfOM, however, could neutralize the effect of hydrodynamic operating condition on rejection performance. The ULPRO and tight NF membranes were operated at lower feed pressure, as compared to the TFC-HR, and provided a product water quality similar to a conventional RO membrane, regarding trace organics of interest.

  15. Uremic escape of renal allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Schilfgaarde, R. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); van Breda Vriesman, P.J.C. (Rijksuniversiteit Limburg Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Immunopathology)

    1981-10-01

    It is demonstrated in rats that, in the presence of early postoperative severe but transient uremia, the survival of first set Brown-Norway (BN) renal allografts in Lewis (LEW) recipients is at least three times prolonged when compared to non-uremic controls. This phenomenon is called 'uremic escape of renal allograft rejection'. By means of lethal X-irradiation of donors of BN kidneys transplanted into transiently uremic and non-uremic LEW recipients, the presence of passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence is demonstrated to be obilgatory for this phenomenon to occur. As a result of mobile passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence, a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction is elicited in the spleens of LEW recipients of BN kidneys which amplifies the host response. The splenomegaly observed in LEW recipients of BN kidneys is caused not only by this GVH reaction, which is shown to be exquisitely sensitive to even mild uremia. It is also contributed to by a proliferative response of the host against the graft (which latter response is equated with an in vivo equivalent of a unilateral mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR)), since the reduction in spleen weights caused by abrogation of mobile passenger lymphocyte immunocompetence brought about by lethal donor X-irradiation is increased significantly by early postoperative severe but transient uremia. It is concluded that in uremic escape of renal allograft rejection both reactions are suppressed by uremia during the early post-operative period.

  16. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives : Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), an

  17. Cooperation on Lidar for Improved Wind Turbine Performance. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-521

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Research into the use of lidar for improved wind turbine performance is an area of considerable interest. Lidars have been proposed to analyze and improve wind turbine pitch control performance, yaw alignment and control performance, as well as to improve power curve assessments. In this CRADA, NREL, NRG Systems, Inc. (“NRG”) and Avent Lidar Technology SAS (“Avent”) will collaborate on testing these concepts.

  18. The heartbrake of social rejection: heart rate deceleration in response to unexpected peer rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunther Moor, B.; Crone, E.A.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Social relationships are vitally important in human life. Social rejection in particular has been conceptualized as a potent social cue resulting in feelings of hurt. Our study investigated the psychophysiological manifestation of hurt feelings by examining the beat-by-beat heart rate response

  19. Chronic Renal Transplant Rejection and Possible Anti-Proliferative Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Usman, Muhammad

    2015-11-06

    The global prevalence of renal transplants is increasing with time, and renal transplantation is the only definite treatment for end-stage renal disease. We have limited the acute and late acute rejection of kidney allografts, but the long-term survival of renal tissues still remains a difficult and unanswered question as most of the renal transplants undergo failure within a decade of their transplantation. Among various histopathological changes that signify chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), tubular atrophy, fibrous thickening of the arteries, fibrosis of the kidney interstitium, and glomerulosclerosis are the most important. Moreover, these structural changes are followed by a decline in the kidney function as well. The underlying mechanism that triggers the long-term rejection of renal transplants involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. T cells, with their related cytokines, cause tissue damage. In addition, CD 20+ B cells and their antibodies play an important role in the long-term graft rejection. Other risk factors that predispose a recipient to long-term graft rejection include HLA-mismatching, acute episodes of graft rejection, mismatch in donor-recipient age, and smoking. The purpose of this review article is the analyze current literature and find different anti-proliferative agents that can suppress the immune system and can thus contribute to the long-term survival of renal transplants. The findings of this review paper can be helpful in understanding the long-term survival of renal transplants and various ways to improve it.

  20. Mycophenolate Mofetil with Low Dose CsA for Chronic Rejection in Primary Cadaveric Renal Recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil(MMF) with low dose CsA for chronic rejection in primary cadaveric renal recipients. Methods A total of 8 renal recipients who were clinically diagnosed as chronic rejection were given triimmunosuppressive agents: MMF 1.5~2.0 g/d+ CsA 2 to 3 mg/kg*d-1 and pred 10 mg/d.Results Blood creatinine reduced to normal level and urine protein disappeared in five cases, blood creatinine and urine protein decreased obviously in two cases, and kidney function deteriorated in another patient 4 to 9 weeks after this strategy. No acute rejection episodes or liver damage occurred among these patients during treatment. White blood cells reduced in one case, but it improved after therapy. Conclusion  MMF combined with low dose CsA can bring a considerable efficacy in reversing chronic rejection of renal recipients. This immunosuppressive strategy may be a useful routine in the treatment of chronic rejection.

  1. CD28 Family and Chronic Rejection: “To Belatacept...and Beyond!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos V. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidneys are one of the most frequently transplanted human organs. Immunosuppressive agents may prevent or reverse most acute rejection episodes; however, the graft may still succumb to chronic rejection. The immunological response involved in the chronic rejection process depends on both innate and adaptive immune response. T lymphocytes have a pivotal role in chronic rejection in adaptive immune response. Meanwhile, we aim to present a general overview on the state-of-the-art knowledge of the strategies used for manipulating the lymphocyte activation mechanisms involved in allografts, with emphasis on T-lymphocyte costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules of the B7-CD28 superfamily. A deeper understanding of the structure and function of these molecules improves both the knowledge of the immune system itself and their potential action as rejection inducers or tolerance promoters. In this context, the central role played by CD28 family, especially the relationship between CD28 and CTLA-4, becomes an interesting target for the development of immune-based therapies aiming to increase the survival rate of allografts and to decrease autoimmune phenomena. Good results obtained by the recent development of abatacept and belatacept with potential clinical use aroused better expectations concerning the outcome of transplanted patients.

  2. The role of CD8+ T cells during allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation can be considered as replacement therapy for patients with end-stage organ failure. The percent of one-year allograft survival has increased due, among other factors, to a better understanding of the rejection process and new immunosuppressive drugs. Immunosuppressive therapy used in transplantation prevents activation and proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes, although not fully preventing chronic rejection. Recognition by recipient T cells of alloantigens expressed by donor tissues initiates immune destruction of allogeneic transplants. However, there is controversy concerning the relative contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to allograft rejection. Some animal models indicate that there is an absolute requirement for CD4+ T cells in allogeneic rejection, whereas in others CD4-depleted mice reject certain types of allografts. Moreover, there is evidence that CD8+ T cells are more resistant to immunotherapy and tolerance induction protocols. An intense focal infiltration of mainly CD8+CTLA4+ T lymphocytes during kidney rejection has been described in patients. This suggests that CD8+ T cells could escape from immunosuppression and participate in the rejection process. Our group is primarily interested in the immune mechanisms involved in allograft rejection. Thus, we believe that a better understanding of the role of CD8+ T cells in allograft rejection could indicate new targets for immunotherapy in transplantation. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to focus on the role of the CD8+ T cell population in the rejection of allogeneic tissue.

  3. REDUCING THE REJECTION RATE OF ENGINES MANUFACTURING DUE TO INJECTION TIMING VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. P.SIVASHANKARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The white paper is on HINO 6 cylinder engine and the aim is to reduce the rejection rate of engines during testing due to the problems occur in valve timing and injection timing. The concept of Six Sigma is mainly practiced as a design to eliminate the production defects by improving the process of manufacturing. In the observation, the injection timing mark (spill mark is not perfectly done and also the imperfection in flywheel marking machine locator pin increases engine rejection. The aim is to eliminate the engines getting rejected during engine test due to problems arising in the injection timing and valve timing. As there are a lot of problems arising in the test bed where the engine is tested, few of which are related to injection timing and valve timing. These problems mainly arise due to changes in the valve and injection timing variation.

  4. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.

    1992-01-01

    performance. Two types of optical image rejection receivers are investigated: a novel, all-optical configuration and the conventional, microwave-based configuration. The analysis shows that local oscillator-spontaneous emission beat noise (LO-SP), signal-spontaneous emission beat noise (S-SP), and spontaneous......A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system......-spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained...

  5. Design of 12-phase, 2-stage Harmonic Rejection Mixer for TV Tuners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage 12-phase harmonic rejection mixer (HRM for TV tuners is proposed in order to reject the local oscillator (LO harmonics up to the ninth order. The proposed weighing scheme for 12-phase, 2-stage harmonic mixing can reduce the harmonic rejection (HR sensitivity to the amplitude error caused by irrational numbers such as . To verify this HR, the 2-stage HR circuit is designed with baseband gm weighting in order to save power and improve the HR ratios without calibration. The proposed HRM achieves the third to ninth worst HR ratios, more than 55 dB, according to Monte Carlo simulations. It consumes 6.5 mA under a 2.5 V supply voltage.

  6. Fine Needle Aspiration Using Improved Agar Microbiopsy is Highly Concordant With Renal Mass Final Diagnosis and Subclassification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schieven, Louise W.; Smedts, Frank; Hopman, Anton H.; van der Wijk, Jan; Nijman, Rien J.; de Jong, Igle J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Computerized tomography and ultrasound are usually sufficient for preoperative evaluation of renal masses greater than 5 cm. For renal masses less than 5 cm additional histological evaluation could improve diagnosis and treatment decisions. We investigated the concordance between an improve

  7. Fine Needle Aspiration Using Improved Agar Microbiopsy is Highly Concordant With Renal Mass Final Diagnosis and Subclassification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schieven, Louise W.; Smedts, Frank; Hopman, Anton H.; van der Wijk, Jan; Nijman, Rien J.; de Jong, Igle J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Computerized tomography and ultrasound are usually sufficient for preoperative evaluation of renal masses greater than 5 cm. For renal masses less than 5 cm additional histological evaluation could improve diagnosis and treatment decisions. We investigated the concordance between an improve

  8. Improved protein kinase C affinity through final step diversification of a simplified salicylate-derived bryostatin analog scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Paul A; Staveness, Daryl

    2014-10-03

    Bryostatin 1, in clinical trials or preclinical development for cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and a first-of-its-kind strategy for HIV/AIDS eradication, is neither readily available nor optimally suited for clinical use. In preceding work, we disclosed a new class of simplified bryostatin analogs designed for ease of access and tunable activity. Here we describe a final step diversification strategy that provides, in only 25 synthetic steps, simplified and tunable analogs with bryostatin-like PKC modulatory activities.

  9. Final Report: Rational Design of Anode Surface Chemistry in Microbial Fuel Cells for Improved Exoelectrogen Attachment and Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    surface of Shewanella oneidnesis. Using the same set of conjugated gold nanoparticles we employ (conjugations include amine, methyl and carboxylic...than platinum (Pt) during screening in “clean” conditions (PBS) (Figure 12), and no degradation in performance during the operation in wastewater...Figure 13. Voltage trend of MFCs over 16 days period of Fe-AAPyr (black), Pt ( blue ) and AC (red) cathode catalysts. Final report W911NF-12

  10. The Complement System and Antibody-Mediated Transplant Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Erik; Le Quintrec, Moglie; Thurman, Joshua M

    2015-12-15

    Complement activation is an important cause of tissue injury in patients with Ab-mediated rejection (AMR) of transplanted organs. Complement activation triggers a strong inflammatory response, and it also generates tissue-bound and soluble fragments that are clinically useful markers of inflammation. The detection of complement proteins deposited within transplanted tissues has become an indispensible biomarker of AMR, and several assays have recently been developed to measure complement activation by Abs reactive to specific donor HLA expressed within the transplant. Complement inhibitors have entered clinical use and have shown efficacy for the treatment of AMR. New methods of detecting complement activation within transplanted organs will improve our ability to diagnose and monitor AMR, and they will also help guide the use of complement inhibitory drugs.

  11. Drugs in development for prophylaxis of rejection in kidney-transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders ML

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marion Lee Sanders,1 Anthony James Langone2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Transplantation is the preferred treatment option for individuals with end-stage renal disease. Individuals who undergo transplantation must chronically be maintained on an immunosuppression regimen for rejection prophylaxis to help ensure graft survival. Current rejection prophylaxis consists of using a combination of calcineurin inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, antimetabolite agents, and/or corticosteroids. These agents have collectively improved the short-term outcomes of renal transplantation, but improvements in late/chronic graft loss and recipient survival have lagged significantly behind challenging the field of transplantation to develop novel prophylactic agents. There have been several clinical trials conducted within the last 5 years in an attempt to bring such novel agents to the commercial market. These trials have resulted in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of extended-release tacrolimus, as well as belatacept, which has the potential to replace calcineurin inhibitors for rejection prophylaxis. Other trials have focused on the development of novel calcineurin inhibitors (voclosporin, costimulation blockade (ASKP1240 and alefacept, kinase inhibitors (tofacitinib and sotrastaurin, and inhibitors of leukocyte migration (efalizumab. While these later agents have not been FDA-approved for use in transplantation, they remain noteworthy, as these agents explore pathways not previously targeted for allograft-rejection prophylaxis. The purpose of this review was to consolidate available clinical trial data with regard to the recent developments in rejection prophylaxis in kidney transplantation. Keywords: rejection, prophylaxis, immunosuppression

  12. Cogging force rejection method of linear motor based on internal model principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Zhenyu; Yang, Tianbo

    2015-02-01

    The cogging force disturbance of linear motor is one of the main factors affecting the positioning accuracy of ultraprecision moving platform. And this drawback could not be completely overcome by improving the design of motor body, such as location modification of permanent magnet array, or optimization design of the shape of teeth-slot. So the active compensation algorithms become prevalent in cogging force rejection area. This paper proposed a control structure based on internal mode principle to attenuate the cogging force of linear motor which deteriorated the accuracy of position, and this structure could make tracking and anti-disturbing performance of close-loop designed respectively. In the first place, the cogging force was seen as the intrinsic property of linear motor and its model constituting controlled object with motor ontology model was obtained by data driven recursive identification method. Then, a control structure was designed to accommodate tracking and anti-interference ability separately by using internal model principle. Finally, the proposed method was verified in a long stroke moving platform driven by linear motor. The experiment results show that, by employing this control strategy, the positioning error caused by cogging force was decreased by 70%.

  13. IMC based robust PID controller tuning for disturbance rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shamsuzzoha

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that the IMC-PID controller tuning gives fast and improved set point response but slow disturbance rejection. A modification has been proposed in IMC-PID tuning rule for the improved disturbance rejection. For the modified IMC-PID tuning rule, a method has been developed to obtain the IMC-PID setting in closed-loop mode without acquiring detailed information of the process. The proposed method is based on the closed-loop step set point experiment using a proportional only controller with gainKc0. It is the direct approach to find the PID controller setting similar to classical Ziegler-Nichols closed-loop method. Based on simulations of a wide range of first-order with delay processes, a simple correlation has been derived to obtain the modified IMC-PID controller settings from closed-loop experiment. In this method, controller gain is a function of the overshoot obtained in the closed loop set point experiment. The integral and derivative time is mainly a function of the time to reach the first peak (overshoot). Simulation has been conducted for the broad class of processes and the controllers were tuned to have the same degree of robustness by measuring the maximum sensitivity, Ms, in order to obtain a reasonable comparison. The PID controller settings obtained in the proposed tuning method show better performance and robustness with other two-step tuning methods for the broad class of processes. It has also been applied to temperature control loop in distillation column model. The result has been compared to the open loop tuning method where it gives robust and fast response.

  14. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

  15. Multivisceral transplantation in pigs: a clinicopathological analysis of tissue rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuoka,Shintaro

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we established the surgical procedure and postoperative care of multivisceral transplantation (MVTX in pigs, and examined the functional changes and rejection pattern of transplanted organs in MVTX. Twenty-two MVTXs were performed without immunosuppression, and nine cases (41% that survived for 5 days or more after MVTX were used for evaluation. Rejection in grafts including the liver, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract were assessed histopathologically. On day 5 after transplantation, the duodenum and small bowel already showed signs of mild rejection. On the other hand, in the liver, pancreas and stomach, rejection occurred later and was still mild on day 16. Hepatic rejection in MVTX appeared to occur later than in simple liver transplantation (LTX. These results showed that the susceptibility to rejection of individual visceral organs varies.

  16. The relations between secrecy, rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; Van Assen, Marcel A L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two attachment-related variables on secrecy: rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity is positively associated with secrecy, and autonomy-connectedness negatively with rejection sensitivity and secrecy. These hypotheses were generally corroborated in a sample of 303 university students. Moreover, we found that autonomy-connectedness at least partly explained the association between rejection sensitivity and secrecy. Self-awareness was negatively related to secrecy, suggesting that being aware of what one needs and thinks and being able to realize one's needs in social interactions reduce the tendency to keep secrets. In addition, interesting gender effects were found suggesting that men have a higher tendency to have secrets than women after controlling for the effects of autonomy-connectedness and rejection sensitivity. Our findings deepen the insight into possible reasons behind established associations between rejection sensitivity and secrecy, and may have clinical implications.

  17. The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Kathy R; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Coifman, Karin G; Paquin, Nina Leventhal

    2011-08-01

    Though long-standing clinical observation reflected in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared with healthy controls. Despite the differences in these 2 assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they both produced were elevated in the BPD group and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  18. Linear quadratic output tracking and disturbance rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Ghartemani, Masoud; Khajehoddin, S. Ali; Jain, Praveen; Bakhshai, Alireza

    2011-08-01

    This article introduces the problem of linear quadratic tracking (LQT) where the objective is to design a closed-loop control scheme such that the output signal of the system optimally tracks a given reference signal and rejects a given disturbance. Different performance indices that have been used to address the tracking problem are discussed and an appropriate new form is introduced. It is shown that a solution to the proposed optimality index exists under very mild conditions of stabilisability and detectability of the plant state-space equations. The solution is formulated based on converting the LQT problem to a standard linear quadratic regulation problem. The method is applied to two examples, a first-order plant and a third-order plant, and their simulation results are presented and discussed.

  19. Support vector machines with a reject option

    CERN Document Server

    Wegkamp, Marten; 10.3150/10-BEJ320

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies $\\ell_1$ regularization with high-dimensional features for support vector machines with a built-in reject option (meaning that the decision of classifying an observation can be withheld at a cost lower than that of misclassification). The procedure can be conveniently implemented as a linear program and computed using standard software. We prove that the minimizer of the penalized population risk favors sparse solutions and show that the behavior of the empirical risk minimizer mimics that of the population risk minimizer. We also introduce a notion of classification complexity and prove that our minimizers adapt to the unknown complexity. Using a novel oracle inequality for the excess risk, we identify situations where fast rates of convergence occur.

  20. Cytomegalovirus and chronic allograft rejection in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Hui Gao; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most frequent viral infections and the most common cause of death after liver transplantation (LT). Chronic allograft liver rejection remains the major obstacle to long-term allograft survival and CMV infection is one of the suggested risk factors for chronic allograft rejection. The precise relationship between cytomegalovirus and chronic rejection remains uncertain.This review addresses the morbidity of cytomegalovirus infection and the risk factors associated with it, the relationship between cytomegalovirus and chronic allograft liver rejection and the potential mechanisms of it.

  1. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma

    2016-01-21

    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

  2. Graft rejection after hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masmas, T.N.; Petersen, S.L.; Madsen, H.O.;

    2008-01-01

    -dose fludarabine and total body irradiation (TBI). The association of pretransplantation risk factors with rejection and the effect of chimerism and graft-versus-host disease on rejection were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared between patients with and without...... rejection. Retransplantation was performed with increased TBI conditioning for all patients, and with increased mycophenolate mofetil doses for recipients with HLA-identical sibling donors. No known pretransplantation risk factors were confirmed in this study. Rejection episodes were unevenly distributed...

  3. Factors Related to Rejection of Care and Behaviors Directed towards Others: A Longitudinal Study in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Galindo-Garre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze factors related to rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others in nursing home residents with dementia. Methods: The relationship of lack of understanding, depression, psychosis and pain with rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others was explored using four assessments from the Minimum Data Set (MDS within a period of 15 months on 1,101 residents with dementia in Dutch nursing homes. Presence of depressive symptoms was ascertained using a validated MDS scale, and presence of lack of understanding, rejection of care, psychosis and pain through the individual MDS items. A structural equation modeling approach and latent growth models were used to investigate the longitudinal relationship between changes in rejection of care and physical or verbal behaviors directed towards others, and changes in lack of understanding, pain, depression and psychotic symptoms. Results: Changes in lack of understanding predicted changes in rejection of care, and there was also a relationship between changes in depression and rejection of care. Changes of behaviors directed towards others were related to changes in lack of understanding and depression. Pain and behaviors directed towards others were unrelated, and psychosis was rather stable throughout. A mediation model suggested that the relationship of lack of understanding with behaviors directed towards others was mediated by rejection of care. Conclusion: These results indicate that lack of understanding and depression are important factors in development of rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others. The relationship between lack of understanding and behaviors directed towards others is mediated by rejection of care. Improvement in communication between residents and caregivers, and perhaps also effective treatment of depression may prevent or ameliorate these behaviors directed towards others.

  4. Hydrogen Compressor Reliability Investigation and Improvement. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-514

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terlip, Danny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Diaphragm compressors have become the primary source of on-site hydrogen compression for hydrogen fueling stations around the world. NREL and PDC have undertaken two studies aimed at improving hydrogen compressor operation and reducing the cost contribution to dispensed fuel. The first study identified the failure mechanisms associated with mechanical compression to reduce the maintenance and down-time. The second study will investigate novel station configurations to maximize hydrogen usage and compressor lifetime. This partnership will allow for the simulation of operations in the field and a thorough analysis of the component failure to improve the reliability of diaphragm compression.

  5. Evaluation of improved materials for stationary diesel engines operating on residual and coal based fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results to date from an on-going research program on improved materials for stationary diesel engines using residual or coal-based fuels are presented with little discussion of conclusions about these results. Information is included on ring and liner wear, fuel oil qualities, ceramic materials, coatings, test procedures and equipment, and tribology test results. (LCL)

  6. Improvement of melt crystallization's efficiency for industrial applications. Final report 01-08-1990 - 31-03-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkenbout, G.J.; Goede, R. de; Nienoord, M.; Verdoes, D.; Berg, E.P.G. van den; Geertman, R.; Bennema, P.; Neumann, M.; Ulrich, J.; Wellinghoff, G.; Kind, M.

    1994-01-01

    A research project was carried out by the University of Nijmegen, the University of Bremen, BASF and TNO to improve melt crystallization's efficienry in industrial applications. Both process options of growing crystal layers on the cooled wall of a heat exchanger and of growing crystals in suspensio

  7. Incremental Improvement of a K-12 Career Education Program. Final Report, July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    A project was designed to promote innovation in instructional procedures, curriculum development, collaborative community involvement, and staff development for incremental improvements in a comprehensive K-12 career education program. The fifteen project components focused on (1) applications of basic skills (reading, writing, and math) in…

  8. Treatment of steroid-resistant acute renal allograft rejection with alemtuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoogen, M W F; Hesselink, D A; van Son, W J; Weimar, W; Hilbrands, L B

    2013-01-01

    Steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections are commonly treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG), but alemtuzumab could be an effective, safe and more convenient alternative. Adult patients with steroid-resistant renal allograft rejection treated with alemtuzumab (15-30 mg s.c. on 2 subsequent days) from 2008 to 2012 (n = 11) were compared to patients treated with RATG (2.5-4.0 mg/kg bodyweight i.v. for 10-14 days; n = 20). We assessed treatment-failure (graft loss, lack of improvement of graft function or need for additional anti-rejection treatment), infections during the first 3 months after treatment and infusion-related side effects. In both groups, the median time-interval between rejection and transplantation was 2 weeks, and approximately 75% of rejections were classified as Banff-IIA or higher. Three alemtuzumab-treated patients (27%) experienced treatment failure, compared to eight RATG treated patients (40%, p = 0.70). There was no difference in the incidence of infections. There were mild infusion-related side-effects in three alemtuzumab-treated patients (27%), and more severe infusion-related side effects in 17 RATG-treated patients (85%, p = 0.013). Drug related costs of alemtuzumab-treatment were lower than of RATG-treatment (€1050 vs. €2024; p Alemtuzumab might be an effective therapy for steroid-resistant renal allograft rejections. In contrast to RATG, alemtuzumab is nearly devoid of infusion-related side-effects. These data warrant a prospective trial.

  9. Changing Paradigms in the Management of Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mirela; Takano, Tomoko; Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine’s relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. Sources of information: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine. The electronic database search was expanded further on particular subject headings. Findings: Available histocompatibility methods exemplify current applications of the predictive and preventive domains of P4 medicine in kidney transplant recipients’ care. Pharmacogenomics are discussed as means to facilitate personalized immunosuppression regimens and promotion of active patient participation as a means to improve adherence. Limitations: For simplicity, this review focuses on rejection. P4 medicine, however, should more broadly address health concerns in kidney transplant recipients, including competing outcomes such as infections, malignancies, and cardiovascular disease. This review highlights how biomarkers to evaluate these competing outcomes warrant validation and standardization prior to their incorporation into clinical practice. Implications: Consideration of all 4 domains of the P4 medicine framework when caring for and/or studying kidney transplant recipients has the potential of increasing therapeutic efficiency, minimizing adverse effects, decreasing health care costs, and maximizing wellness. Technologies to gauge immune competency, immunosuppression requirements, and early/reversible immune-mediated injuries are required to optimize kidney transplant care. PMID:28270929

  10. Diagnosing rejection in renal transplants: a comparison of molecular- and histopathology-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J; Einecke, G; Mengel, M; Sis, B; Kayser, N; Kaplan, B; Halloran, P F

    2009-08-01

    The transcriptome has considerable potential for improving biopsy diagnoses. However, to realize this potential the relationship between the molecular phenotype of disease and histopathology must be established. We assessed 186 consecutive clinically indicated kidney transplant biopsies using microarrays, and built a classifier to distinguish rejection from nonrejection using predictive analysis of microarrays (PAM). Most genes selected by PAM were interferon-gamma-inducible or cytotoxic T-cell associated, for example, CXCL9, CXCL11, GBP1 and INDO. We then compared the PAM diagnoses to those from histopathology, which are based on the Banff diagnostic criteria. Disagreement occurred in approximately 20% of diagnoses, principally because of idiosyncratic limitations in the histopathology scoring system. The problematic diagnosis of 'borderline rejection' was resolved by PAM into two distinct classes, rejection and nonrejection. The diagnostic discrepancies between Banff and PAM in these cases were largely due to the Banff system's requirement for a tubulitis threshold in defining rejection. By examining the discrepancies between gene expression and histopathology, we provide external validation of the main features of the histopathology diagnostic criteria (the Banff consensus system), recommend improvements and outline a pathway for introducing molecular measurements.

  11. Tc-99m DTPA scans in renal allograft rejection and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedroyc, W.; Taube, D.; Fogleman, I.; Neild, G.; Cameron, S.; Maisey, M.

    1986-11-01

    Renal allograft dysfunction arising from rejection or cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity can currently only be distinguished reliably by allograft biopsy. We have assessed Technetium (Tc)-99m diethylamine pentacetic acid (DTPA) scanning in 30 CsA-treated patients with allograft dysfunction. Scintigrams were performed during 20 biopsy-proved episodes of rejection and during 14 episodes of CsA nephrotoxicity. These results were compared with the scintigrams of 15 allografts showing stable function. Quantitative indices expressing allograft perfusion (flow index) and function (uptake index) derived from the DTPA scintigrams showed no significant differences between the groups of patients with rejection, CsA nephrotoxicity, or stable or improving function. Similarly, the flow and uptake indices of individual allografts obtained during periods of stable or improving function and then during episodes of dysfunction due to rejection or CsA nephrotoxicity did not significantly change. We conclude that Tc-99m DTPA scintigrams are of limited value in the management of allograft dysfunction in patients immunosuppressed with CsA.

  12. Study on rejection characteristic of current loop to the base disturbance of optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao; Deng, Chao; Liu, Qiong; Cao, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    As laser has narrow transmitting beam and small divergence angle, the LOS (Line of Sight) stabilization of optical communication system is a primary precondition of laser communication links. Compound axis control is usually adopted in LOS stabilization of optical communication system, in which coarse tracking and fine tracking are included. Rejection against high frequency disturbance mainly depends on fine tracking LOS stabilization platform. Limited by different factors such as mechanical characteristic of the stabilization platform and bandwidth/noise of the sensor, the control bandwidth of LOS stabilization platform is restricted so that effective rejection of high frequency disturbance cannot be achieved as it mainly depends on the isolation characteristic of the platform itself. It is proposed by this paper that current loop may reject the effect of back-EMF. By adopting the method of electric control, high frequency isolation characteristic of the platform can be improved. The improvement effect is similar to increasing passive vibration reduction devices. Adopting the double closed loop control structure of velocity and current with the combining of the rejection effect of back-EMF caused by current loop is equivalent to reducing back-EMF coefficient, which can enhance the isolation ability of the LOS stabilization platform to high frequency disturbance.

  13. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Norman, Bourassa; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshfumi; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

    2008-04-04

    An improved HVAC system for portable classrooms was specified to address key problems in existing units. These included low energy efficiency, poor control of and provision for adequate ventilation, and excessive acoustic noise. Working with industry, a prototype improved heat pump air conditioner was developed to meet the specification. A one-year measurement-intensive field-test of ten of these IHPAC systems was conducted in occupied classrooms in two distinct California climates. These measurements are compared to those made in parallel in side by side portable classrooms equipped with standard 10 SEER heat pump air conditioner equipment. The IHPAC units were found to work as designed, providing predicted annual energy efficiency improvements of about 36 percent to 42 percent across California's climate zones, relative to 10 SEER units. Classroom ventilation was vastly improved as evidenced by far lower indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations. TheIHPAC units were found to provide ventilation that meets both California State energy and occupational codes and the ASHRAE minimum ventilation requirements; the classrooms equipped with the 10 SEER equipment universally did not meet these targets. The IHPAC system provided a major improvement in indoor acoustic conditions. HVAC system generated background noise was reduced in fan-only and fan and compressor modes, reducing the nose levels to better than the design objective of 45 dB(A), and acceptable for additional design points by the Collaborative on High Performance Schools. The IHPAC provided superior ventilation, with indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations that showed that the Title 24 minimum ventilation requirement of 15 CFM per occupant was nearly always being met. The opposite was found in the classrooms utilizing the 10 SEER system, where the indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations frequently exceeded levels that reflect inadequate ventilation. Improved ventilation conditions in the IHPAC lead to

  14. New improved polymer electrolyte membrane for PEM fuel cell. Final Report, 1. Documentation synthesis and test of proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Peter B.; Dimitrov, I. (IRD A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Jankova, K.; Hvilsted, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Chemical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Juul Larsen, M.; Skou, E. (Univ. of Southern Denmark. Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-15

    A novel concept for preparation of sulfonate containing fluorinated block co-polystyrenes have been developed based on initial ATRP of fluorinated styrene monomers. The strategy depends on well defined macroinitiatiors that after conversion to block copolymers can be post functionalized in two steps with propyl sulfonate groups in different ratios. Thermal investigations have demonstrated that addition of a PFS block to the sulfonate containing block improves the materials' thermal stability. (Author)

  15. 基因表达谱监测心脏移植排斥反应%Gene expression profile to monitor cardiac allograft rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 于伟勇; 程韵枫

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Despite improved immunosuppression, rejection still accounts for significant morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation[1].Any method that improves early detection and hence treatment of rejection is likely to lead to improved long-term survival.Serial surveillance endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) following cardiac transplantation have become an integral component of post-transplant management.However, EMB is invasive, expensive, variable[2] and causes low but definitemorbidity[3].

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  17. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected...

  18. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  19. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the SBA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 2919.505 Section 2919.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  20. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the CO's... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  1. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 219.505 Section 219.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  2. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a recommendation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 19.505 Section 19.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  3. Improved enzymatic conversion of cellulose by ethylene treatment. Final report of innovative research program subtask, December 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, J C; Murphy, V G

    1978-10-01

    The stimulating effect of ethylene upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated to determine the mechanism of the stimulatory action. The mechanism was not determined; however, it was tentatively concluded that prolonged ethylene treatment unmasks the cellulose by dissolving contaminating materials such as lignin, hemicellulose, pectin, or ash. The presence of ethylene during the enzymatic hydrolysis appears to involve enzyme-substrate interactions in many cases. The evidence supports the opinion that a 20 to 40% improvement in the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose may be obtained by the use of ethylene in the enzyme reactor. (JSR)

  4. Non-clairvoyant weighted flow time scheduling with rejection penalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2012-01-01

    is defined as the weighted flow time of the job plus the penalty if it is rejected before completion. Previous work on minimizing the total user cost focused on the clairvoyant single-processor setting [BBC+03,CLL11] and has produced O(1)-competitive online algorithm for jobs with arbitrary weights...... algorithm has to decide job rejection and determine the order and speed of job execution. It is interesting to study the tradeoff between the above-mentioned user cost and energy. This paper gives two O(1)-competitive non-clairvoyant algorithms for minimizing the user cost plus energy on a single processor......This paper initiates the study of online scheduling with rejection penalty in the non-clairvoyant setting, i.e., the size (processing time) of a job is not assumed to be known at its release time. In the rejection penalty model, jobs can be rejected with a penalty, and the user cost of a job...

  5. Quantum Communication Using Coherent Rejection Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu, Anurag; Devabathini, Vamsi Krishna; Jain, Rahul

    2017-09-01

    Compression of a message up to the information it carries is key to many tasks involved in classical and quantum information theory. Schumacher [B. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2738 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevA.51.2738] provided one of the first quantum compression schemes and several more general schemes have been developed ever since [M. Horodecki, J. Oppenheim, and A. Winter, Commun. Math. Phys. 269, 107 (2007); , 10.1007/s00220-006-0118-xI. Devetak and J. Yard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230501 (2008); , 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230501A. Abeyesinghe, I. Devetak, P. Hayden, and A. Winter, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 2537 (2009), 10.1098/rspa.2009.0202]. However, the one-shot characterization of these quantum tasks is still under development, and often lacks a direct connection with analogous classical tasks. Here we show a new technique for the compression of quantum messages with the aid of entanglement. We devise a new tool that we call the convex split lemma, which is a coherent quantum analogue of the widely used rejection sampling procedure in classical communication protocols. As a consequence, we exhibit new explicit protocols with tight communication cost for quantum state merging, quantum state splitting, and quantum state redistribution (up to a certain optimization in the latter case). We also present a port-based teleportation scheme which uses a fewer number of ports in the presence of information about input.

  6. Acute Rejection after Human Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roussoulières

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in acute rejection (AR after organ transplantation remain to be further elucidated. In a previous work we have demonstrated the under-expression of VE-Cadherin by endothelial cells (EC in AR following murine and human heart transplantation. Serial sections from 15 human kidney Banff-graded transplant biopsies were examined for the presence of VE-Cadherin and CD34 staining by immunohistochemistry (no AR (n=5, AR grade IA (n=5, or AR grade IIA (n=5. Quantification of peritubular EC staining were evaluated and results were expressed by the percentage of stained cells per surface analysed. There was no difference in CD34 staining between the 3 groups. VE-Cadherin expression was significantly reduced in AR Grade IIA when compared to no AR (P=.01 and to AR grade IA (P=.02. This study demonstrates a reduced VE-Cadherin expression by EC in AR after renal transplantation. The down-regulation of VE-Cadherin may strongly participate in human AR.

  7. How rejection of essences expresses despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, C T

    1999-07-01

    The Self and the ego in Jung's psychology are an instance of what Edmund Husserl called a 'double intentionality': one tending toward meaning is distinct from another tending toward meaning, yet they are reciprocally inseparable from each other. As perception in a present moment and memory of a past are impossible without each other, so an intending of ego and that of Self are impossible without each other. Accompanying the ego (mostly in the background) during each moment of time is a tending towards a particular Idea or essence. This reciprocity is expressed in a unique way over a lifetime and is like the relation of mother and child, and so it is important for all of us born of women to retain a sense of essences and the fullness of Self. 'Constructivism', however, is a current belief held by some feminists, and it influences both theorizing and practice in analytical psychology. It involves a rejection of essences, a revision of Jung's Idea of Self, and an attempt to conduct analysis without reference to an intentional subjective Self. Such constructivist revision expresses a despair both about essences as Ideas and about Self as intentional and subjective. It is despair over Self in a Kierkegaardian sense.

  8. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  9. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Rane; V M S Verenkar; P Y Sawant

    2001-06-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical formulas of iron-oxyhydroxides as -FeOOH.0.3H2O; -FeOOH.0.2H2O and amorphous FeOOH. The thermal products of all these were -Fe2O3 excepting that of -FeOOH.0.3H2O which gave mainly -Fe2O3 and some admixture of -Fe2O3. The hydrazinated iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, on the other hand, decomposed autocatalytically to mainly -Fe2O3. Hydrazine method modifies the thermal decomposition path of the hydroxides. The saturation magnetization, s, values were found to be in the range 60–71 emu g–1 which are close to the reported values for -Fe2O3. Mechanism of the -Fe2O3 formation by hydrazine method is discussed.

  10. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  11. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-06-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

  12. Improved oil production using economical biopolymer-surfactant blends for profile modification and mobility control. Final report, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, J. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States); Barrufet, M.A.; Burnett, D.B. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-12-01

    In the past, starch hydrocolloids have not been effective alternates to partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, copolymers, and xanthan gum polymers as water shutoff agents in fractures and in matrix flow configurations. Poor injectivity and questionable stability have usually prevented their use in profile control applications. However, in recent years, the demands of the oil and gas drilling industry have led to the development of new drilling, drill-in, and completion fluids with improved functionality. New types of modified starches have contributed to these new drill in fluid (DIF) products. It was felt that the properties of the new products would lend themselves to applications in improved recovery. The objective of this project has been to evaluate the use of agricultural starch biopolymers for gelled and polymer applications in oil recovery processes. The authors believe that there is great potential for finding new functional starch products because of their chemical and structural flexibility, low cost, and wide availability. The goals of this project have been, therefore, to systematically investigate how the physical properties and chemical composition of relatively inexpensive agricultural starch products will influence their use as effective selective permeability control agents or as gels for water shut-off.

  13. Immunocompetent cells requisite for graft rejection in Lineus (Invertebrata, Nemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, C; Bierne, J

    1984-01-01

    Antecerebral ends from donors of one Lineus species (L. sanguineus) were grafted onto bispecific recipients previously constructed from two other Lineus species (denoted L. ruber----L. lacteus because the anterior component of chimeras was from L. ruber and the posterior component was from L. lacteus) and onto monospecific controls. Histological examination of areas where the tissues from L. sanguineus and L. ruber had been brought into contact by grafting always showed, at early stages, (6 to 20 days postgrafting), a great deal of difference depending upon whether the recipients were monospecific L. ruber or bispecific L. ruber----L. lacteus: only in grafts onto the former was there lysis of gland cells, connective tissue, muscular fibers, and finally epidermis. We attribute this lytic process to a strongly and rapidly cytotoxic action of lymphocyte-like cells from the L. ruber intestinal segment and the absence of lysis during the same stage in grafts onto composite recipients and monospecific L. lacteus to weak, delayed actions of immunocytes from the L. lacteus intestinal segment. Subsequent phagocytosis of material from lysed cell of grafts in the process of being rejected was effected by wandering amebocytes usually involved in destruction of degenerating "self" components, as in oosorption and resorptive processes after fasting. This work supports the existence of immunocytes at an early phylogenetic level.

  14. Network of participants in European research: accepted versus rejected proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouchnika, Maria; Argyrakis, Panos

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the network formed by the collaboration of researchers seeking funding by the European Commission by submitting research proposals. Institutions are network nodes and collaborations are links between the nodes. We constructed one network for the accepted proposals and one for the rejected ones, in order to look for any structural differences between them. To this end, first, we compare the size of the largest connected components and the resulting degree distributions. The latter show notable difference only in the region of relatively small degrees. We calculate the assortative mixing by participant type, i.e. a property which indicates whether the participant is a university/research institute, a company (non-profit included), or undefined. By aggregating the data of both networks into three geographical scales (city, region, country), we compare the degree assortativity and average node weight, in all scales. With respect to these two features the networks display similar behaviour. Finally, we compare a series of centrality measures and the Minimum Spanning Trees, at the country scale, to assess the relative performance of the countries. We find that five countries, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy, play a central role in both networks, however, their relative significance is not the same.

  15. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fujita, Yoshiko [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  16. Advanced Direct-Drive Generator for Improved Availability of Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Power Generation Systems Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englebretson, Steven [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ouyang, Wen [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Tschida, Colin [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Carr, Joseph [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ramanan, V.R. [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Johnson, Matthew [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gardner, Matthew [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Toliyat, Hamid [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Staby, Bill [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Chertok, Allan [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Hazra, Samir [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Bhattacharya, Subhashish [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States)

    2017-05-13

    This report summarizes the activities conducted under the DOE-EERE funded project DE-EE0006400, where ABB Inc. (ABB), in collaboration with Texas A&M’s Advanced Electric Machines & Power Electronics (EMPE) Lab and Resolute Marine Energy (RME) designed, derisked, developed, and demonstrated a novel magnetically geared electrical generator for direct-drive, low-speed, high torque MHK applications The project objective was to investigate a novel and compact direct-drive electric generator and its system aspects that would enable elimination of hydraulic components in the Power Take-Off (PTO) of a Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) system with an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC), thereby improving the availability of the MHK system. The scope of this project was limited to the development and dry lab demonstration of a low speed generator to enable future direct drive MHK systems.

  17. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  18. The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Saša Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.

  19. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River: Recommendations for Fisheries Enhancement: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1992-03-01

    This report recommends resident fish substitution projects to partially replace anadromous fish losses caused by construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. These recommendations involve enhancing the resident fishery in the Pend Oreille River as a substitute for anadromous fish losses. In developing these recommendations we have intentionally attempted to minimize the impact upon the hydroelectric system and anadromous fish recovery plans. In this report we are recommending that the Northwest Power Planning Council direct Bonneville Power Administration to fund the proposed enhancement measures as resident fish substitution projects under the NPPC's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The Pend Oreille River, located in northeast Washington, was historically a free flowing river which supported anadromous steelhead trout and chinook salmon, and large resident cutthroat trout and bull trout. In 1939, Grand Coulee Dam eliminated the anadromous species from the river. In 1955, Box Canyon Dam was constructed, inundating resident trout habitat in the river and creating many back water and slough areas. By the late 1950's the fishery in the reservoir had changed from a quality trout fishery to a warm water fishery, supporting largemouth bass, yellow perch and rough fish (tenth, suckers, squawfish). The object of this study was to examine the existing fishery, identify fishery improvement opportunities and recommend fishery enhancement projects. Three years of baseline data were collected from the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreille River to assess population dynamics, growth rates, feeding habits, behavior patterns and factors limiting the fishery. Fishery improvement opportunities were identified based on the results of these data. Relative abundance surveys in the reservoir resulted in the capture of 47,415 fish during the study. The most abundant species in the reservoir were yellow perch, composing 44% of the fish captured. The perch

  20. Manuscript rejection: how to submit a revision and tips on being a good peer reviewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-04-01

    Many instructional guides have been published on how to write scientific papers. Likewise, many published articles have focused on the reasons why submitted manuscripts are rejected. However, fewer publications have been presented to guide authors on how to address reviewers' comments in a manuscript revision. Even fewer counsel authors on how to deal with a rejection decision. In this article, the authors present a literature review on the strategies to get a manuscript accepted, despite an initial unfavorable review. The authors share their experience with addressing reviewers' comments to get a manuscript accepted and published. Finally, the authors discuss the process of peer review and offer tips on how to be an effective peer reviewer.

  1. Noise-Coupled Image Rejection Architecture of Complex Bandpass ΔΣAD Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Hao; Kobayashi, Haruo

    This paper proposes a new realization technique of image rejection function by noise-coupling architecture, which is used for a complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator. The complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator processes just input I and Q signals, not image signals, and the AD conversion can be realized with low power dissipation. It realizes an asymmetric noise-shaped spectra, which is desirable for such low-IF receiver applications. However, the performance of the complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator suffers from the mismatch between internal analog I and Q paths. I/Q path mismatch causes an image signal, and the quantization noise of the mirror image band aliases into the desired signal band, which degrades the SQNDR (Signal to Quantization Noise and Distortion Ratio) of the modulator. In our proposed modulator architecture, an extra notch for image rejection is realized by noise-coupled topology. We just add some passive capacitors and switches to the modulator; the additional integrator circuit composed of an operational amplifier in the conventional image rejection realization is not necessary. Therefore, the performance of the complex modulator can be effectively raised without additional power dissipation. We have performed simulation with MATLAB to confirm the validity of the proposed architecture. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture can achieve the realization of image-rejection effectively, and improve the SQNDR of the complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator.

  2. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes.

  3. Predictive active disturbance rejection control for processes with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qinling; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective tool in dealing with real world problems of dynamic uncertainties, disturbances, nonlinearities, etc. This paper addresses its existing limitations with plants that have a large transport delay. In particular, to overcome the delay, the extended state observer (ESO) in ADRC is modified to form a predictive ADRC, leading to significant improvements in the transient response and stability characteristics, as shown in extensive simulation studies and hardware-in-the-loop tests, as well as in the frequency response analysis. In this research, it is assumed that the amount of delay is approximately known, as is the approximated model of the plant. Even with such uncharacteristic assumptions for ADRC, the proposed method still exhibits significant improvements in both performance and robustness over the existing methods such as the dead-time compensator based on disturbance observer and the Filtered Smith Predictor, in the context of some well-known problems of chemical reactor and boiler control problems.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF CLOUDS AND RADIATION USING ARM DATA, FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

    2013-06-28

    During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at http://cloudsgate2.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/site/showdoc?docid=4&cmd=field-experiment-homepage&exp=ARM and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

  5. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Final Report: Improved Site Characterization And Storage Prediction Through Stochastic Inversion Of Time-Lapse Geophysical And Geochemical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Mcnab, W; Hao, Y; White, D; Johnson, J

    2011-04-14

    During the last months of this project, our project activities have concentrated on four areas: (1) performing a stochastic inversion of pattern 16 seismic data to deduce reservoir bulk/shear moduli and density; the need for this inversion was not anticipated in the original scope of work, (2) performing a stochastic inversion of pattern 16 seismic data to deduce reservoir porosity and permeability, (3) complete the software needed to perform geochemical inversions and (4) use the software to perform stochastic inversion of aqueous chemistry data to deduce mineral volume fractions. This report builds on work described in progress reports previously submitted (Ramirez et al., 2009, 2010, 2011 - reports fulfilled the requirements of deliverables D1-D4) and fulfills deliverable D5: Field-based single-pattern simulations work product. The main challenge with our stochastic inversion approach is its large computational expense, even for single reservoir patterns. We dedicated a significant level of effort to improve computational efficiency but inversions involving multiple patterns were still intractable by project's end. As a result, we were unable to fulfill Deliverable D6: Field-based multi-pattern simulations work product.

  7. Final Report: Improving the understanding of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic behavior of consolidating granular salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormont, John [University of New Mexico; Lampe, Brandon [University of New Mexico; Mills, Melissa [University of New Mexico; Paneru, Laxmi [University of New Mexico; Lynn, Timothy [University of New Mexico; Piya, Aayush [University of New Mexico

    2017-09-09

    The goal of this project is to improve the understanding of key aspects of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic response of granular (or crushed) salt used as a seal material for shafts, drifts, and boreholes in mined repositories in salt. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish this goal: laboratory measurements of granular salt consolidation (Task 1), microstructural observations on consolidated samples (Task 2), and constitutive model development and evaluation (Task 3). Task 1 involves laboratory measurements of salt consolidation along with thermal properties and permeability measurements conducted under a range of temperatures and stresses expected for potential mined repositories in salt. Testing focused on the role of moisture, temperature and stress state on the hydrologic (permeability) and thermal properties of consolidating granular salt at high fractional densities. Task 2 consists of microstructural observations made on samples after they have been consolidated to interpret deformation mechanisms and evaluate the ability of the constitutive model to predict operative mechanisms under different conditions. Task 3 concerns the development of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic constitutive model for granular salt consolidation. The measurements and observations in Tasks 1 and 2 were used to develop a thermal-mechanical constitutive model. Accomplishments and status from each of these efforts is reported in subsequent sections of this report

  8. Improved removal of sticky and light contaminants from wastepaper. Final report, April 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, P.; Kelly, A.

    1998-03-01

    Work under this two-year cooperative agreement addresses improved removal of light and sticky contaminants from waste paper. Such contaminants occur in ever-increasing amounts, resulting from glues, labels, book bindings, packaging tapes, etc., all associated with the waste paper stream. Despite various cleaning steps in the paper mill recycling systems, residual contamination remains, causing big problems with the product quality and with paper machine and converting operations. Some grades cannot be recycled at all. Stickies are truly a barrier against increased paper recycling. The stickies problem was attacked in four project segments--three of those have yielded tangible results. One segment has been outstanding in its success; namely, the development of a centrifugal reverse cleaning system consisting of primary and secondary stages, which have unparalleled high efficiency in the removal of light and sticky contaminants. This cleaning system, consists of primary XTREME and secondary XX-Clone units. Another segment of this work, washing wax contaminated old corrugated wastepaper (OCC), also has resulted in the new Xtrax process which was released for sale.

  9. Genetic improvement and evaluation of black cottonwood for short- rotation biomass production. Final report, 1987--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, R.F.; Hinckley, T.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Forest Resources; Heilman, P.E. [Washington State Univ., Puyallup, WA (United States). Research and Extension Center; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1993-04-30

    This project was initiated in 1978 to serve three objectives: (1) develop genetically improved poplar cultivars offering increased productivity under short-rotation culture; (2) identify the major components of productivity in poplar and determine ways in which they can be manipulated, genetically and culturally; and (3) engage in technology transfer to regional industry and agencies so as to make poplar culture in the Pacific Northwest economically feasible. The project is aimed at capturing natural variation in the native black cottonwood. Populus trichocarpa T & G, and enhancing it through selective breeding. Major emphasis has been placed on hybridization of black cottonwood with P deltoides and P maximowiczii, more recently with p nigra. First-generation (F{sub 1}) hybrids have consistently outperformed black cottonwood by a factor of 1.5.-2. The high yields of woody biomass obtained from these clonally propagated hybrids, in rotations of 4-7 years, have fostered the establishment of large-scale plantations by the pulp and paper industry in the region. Physiological studies have helped to elucidate hybrid superiority and several of the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Analysis of PG&E`s residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts -- final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.H.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes findings from a unique project to improve the end-use electricity load shape and peak demand forecasts made by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and the California Energy Commission (CEC). First, the direct incorporation of end-use metered data into electricity demand forecasting models is a new approach that has only been made possible by recent end-use metering projects. Second, and perhaps more importantly, the joint-sponsorship of this analysis has led to the development of consistent sets of forecasting model inputs. That is, the ability to use a common data base and similar data treatment conventions for some of the forecasting inputs frees forecasters to concentrate on those differences (between their competing forecasts) that stem from real differences of opinion, rather than differences that can be readily resolved with better data. The focus of the analysis is residential space cooling, which represents a large and growing demand in the PG&E service territory. Using five years of end-use metered, central air conditioner data collected by PG&E from over 300 residences, we developed consistent sets of new inputs for both PG&E`s and CEC`s end-use load shape forecasting models. We compared the performance of the new inputs both to the inputs previously used by PG&E and CEC, and to a second set of new inputs developed to take advantage of a recently added modeling option to the forecasting model. The testing criteria included ability to forecast total daily energy use, daily peak demand, and demand at 4 P.M. (the most frequent hour of PG&E`s system peak demand). We also tested the new inputs with the weather data used by PG&E and CEC in preparing their forecasts.

  11. New adaptive clutter rejection for ultrasound color Doppler imaging: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Mo; Kim, Yongmin

    2010-03-01

    Clutter rejection is essential for accurate flow estimation in ultrasound color Doppler imaging. In this article, we present a new adaptive clutter rejection (ACR) technique where an optimum filter is dynamically selected depending upon the underlying clutter characteristics (e.g., tissue acceleration and power). We compared the performance of the ACR method with other adaptive methods, i.e., down-mixing (DM) and adaptive clutter filtering (ACF), using in vivo data acquired from the kidney, liver and common carotid artery. With the kidney data, the ACR method provided an average improvement of 3.05 dB and 1.7 dB in flow signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) compared with DM and ACF, respectively. With the liver data, SCR was improved by 2.75 dB and 1.8 dB over DM and ACF while no significant improvement with ACR was found in the common carotid artery data. Thus, the proposed adaptive method could provide more accurate flow estimation by improving clutter rejection in abdominal ultrasound color Doppler imaging pending validation.

  12. Separate neural representations for physical pain and social rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Lindquist, Martin A; Banich, Marie T; Ruzic, Luka; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Wager, Tor D

    2014-11-17

    Current theories suggest that physical pain and social rejection share common neural mechanisms, largely by virtue of overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity. Here we challenge this notion by identifying distinct multivariate fMRI patterns unique to pain and rejection. Sixty participants experience painful heat and warmth and view photos of ex-partners and friends on separate trials. FMRI pattern classifiers discriminate pain and rejection from their respective control conditions in out-of-sample individuals with 92% and 80% accuracy. The rejection classifier performs at chance on pain, and vice versa. Pain- and rejection-related representations are uncorrelated within regions thought to encode pain affect (for example, dorsal anterior cingulate) and show distinct functional connectivity with other regions in a separate resting-state data set (N = 91). These findings demonstrate that separate representations underlie pain and rejection despite common fMRI activity at the gross anatomical level. Rather than co-opting pain circuitry, rejection involves distinct affective representations in humans.

  13. Rejection of Organic Micropollutants by Clean and Fouled Nanofiltration Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rejection of organic micropollutants, including three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and three phthalic acid esters (PAEs, by clean and fouled nanofiltration membranes was investigated in the present study. The rejection of organic micropollutants by clean NF90 membranes varied from 87.9 to more than 99.9%, while that of NF270 membranes ranged from 32.1 to 92.3%. Clear time-dependence was observed for the rejection of hydrophobic micropollutants, which was attributed to the adsorption of micropollutants on the membrane. Fouling with humic acid had a negligible influence on the rejection of organic micropollutants by NF90 membranes, while considerable effects were observed with NF270 membranes, which are significantly looser than NF90 membranes. The observed enhancement in the rejection of organic micropollutants by fouled NF270 membranes was attributed to pore blocking, which was a dominating fouling mechanism for loose NF membranes. Changes in the ionic strength (from 10 to 20 mM reduced micropollutant rejection by both fouled NF membranes, especially for the rejection of dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate by NF270 membranes (from 65.8 to 25.0% for dimethyl phthalate and 75.6 to 33.3% for diethyl phthalate.

  14. Cardiac function and rejection following transplantation of the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, O.; Schuler, S.; Gratz, K.; Warnecke, H.; Lang, W.; Hetzer, R.; Creutzig, H.

    1985-05-01

    It was the purpose of the study to evaluate the noninvasive detection of rejection following cardiac transplantation. Multigated cardiac blood pool imaging (MUGA) at rest with assessment of ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall motion was determined prospectively in 14 patients with 180 studies (follow up 5.1 +- 3.2 months) following orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The results were compared with histological examination of a percutaneous endocardial biopsy specimen (EMB) from the right ventricle. Diagnosis of rejection by EF measurement was defined by a decrease of 10% if EF < 70%, and 15% if EF > 70%. In 152 studies a normal MUGA study correlated with none rejection as defined by EMB. In 14 of 22 studies with moderate or severe rejection decrease of EF followed the rejection with a delay of 5 days. Septal wall motion abnormalities were typical. In 6 studies an abnormal temporal course of EF was not related to a similar finding in EMB. A sensitivity of 69% and a specifity of 96% can be estimated in the investigated group, in which all patients survived during the period of the study. It is concluded that rejection can be excluded by noninvasive MUGA (specifity 96%) and that MUGA is predictive of rejection (sensitivity 67%) mostly with a delay of 5 days.

  15. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  16. Final scientific report for DOE award title: Improving the Representation of Ice Sedimentation Rates in Global Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, David L. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-09-05

    It is well known that cirrus clouds play a major role in regulating the earth’s climate, but the details of how this works are just beginning to be understood. This project targeted the main property of cirrus clouds that influence climate processes; the ice fall speed. That is, this project improves the representation of the mass-weighted ice particle fall velocity, Vm, in climate models, used to predict future climate on global and regional scales. Prior to 2007, the dominant sizes of ice particles in cirrus clouds were poorly understood, making it virtually impossible to predict how cirrus clouds interact with sunlight and thermal radiation. Due to several studies investigating the performance of optical probes used to measure the ice particle size distribution (PSD), as well as the remote sensing results from our last ARM project, it is now well established that the anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals often reported prior to 2007 were measurement artifacts. Advances in the design and data processing of optical probes have greatly reduced these ice artifacts that resulted from the shattering of ice particles on the probe tips and/or inlet tube, and PSD measurements from one of these improved probes (the 2-dimensional Stereo or 2D-S probe) are utilized in this project to parameterize Vm for climate models. Our original plan in the proposal was to parameterize the ice PSD (in terms of temperature and ice water content) and ice particle mass and projected area (in terms of mass- and area-dimensional power laws or m-D/A-D expressions) since these are the microphysical properties that determine Vm, and then proceed to calculate Vm from these parameterized properties. But the 2D-S probe directly measures ice particle projected area and indirectly estimates ice particle mass for each size bin. It soon became apparent that the original plan would introduce more uncertainty in the Vm calculations

  17. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  18. Final scientific report for DOE award title: Improving the Representation of Ice Sedimentation Rates in Global Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, David L. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-09-05

    It is well known that cirrus clouds play a major role in regulating the earth’s climate, but the details of how this works are just beginning to be understood. This project targeted the main property of cirrus clouds that influence climate processes; the ice fall speed. That is, this project improves the representation of the mass-weighted ice particle fall velocity, Vm, in climate models, used to predict future climate on global and regional scales. Prior to 2007, the dominant sizes of ice particles in cirrus clouds were poorly understood, making it virtually impossible to predict how cirrus clouds interact with sunlight and thermal radiation. Due to several studies investigating the performance of optical probes used to measure the ice particle size distribution (PSD), as well as the remote sensing results from our last ARM project, it is now well established that the anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals often reported prior to 2007 were measurement artifacts. Advances in the design and data processing of optical probes have greatly reduced these ice artifacts that resulted from the shattering of ice particles on the probe tips and/or inlet tube, and PSD measurements from one of these improved probes (the 2-dimensional Stereo or 2D-S probe) are utilized in this project to parameterize Vm for climate models. Our original plan in the proposal was to parameterize the ice PSD (in terms of temperature and ice water content) and ice particle mass and projected area (in terms of mass- and area-dimensional power laws or m-D/A-D expressions) since these are the microphysical properties that determine Vm, and then proceed to calculate Vm from these parameterized properties. But the 2D-S probe directly measures ice particle projected area and indirectly estimates ice particle mass for each size bin. It soon became apparent that the original plan would introduce more uncertainty in the Vm calculations

  19. Modified decentralized control for multivariable systems'disturbance rejection%针对多变量抗扰的改进分散控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚明辉; 葛月霆; 王琪; 靳其兵; 蒋北艳

    2016-01-01

    提出了一种改进的分散控制器结构来加强多变量系统的抗扰性能。首先,基于相对标准增益矩阵得到一个最佳的回路配对,然后用相对干扰增益确定耦合作用对哪些回路的干扰抑制有积极作用,最后用一个指标确定需要增加哪些控制器来抵消不利于抗扰的耦合作用。确定控制器结构以后,用等效传递函数设计控制器。2个仿真实例证明,本方法对于提高多变量系统抗扰性能是有效的。%A modified decentralized control structure is proposed to improve the performance of multivariable process for disturb-ance rejection by using the advantageous interactions and counteracting the disadvantageous interactions .First ,the relative nor-malized gain array (RNGA) is applied to obtain the best loop pairing .Then ,the relative load gain (RLG) is used to identify which interactions are useful for disturbance rejection .Finally ,an index is calculated to determine the controllers needed to add to counteract the disadvantageous interactions .The effective transfer function method is used to design controller after control struc-ture is selected .Two simulation studies are given to demonstrate the proposed method is effective for multivariable systems′dis-turbance rejection .

  20. Active Disturbance Rejection Fuzzy Controller for Roll Stabilization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle under Wave Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the case of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for designing of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance under different sea conditions. Active disturbance rejection fuzzy control is applied, which is based on nonlinear motion model of autonomous underwater vehicle and the principle of zero-speed fin stabilizer. Extended state observer is used for estimation of roll motion state and unknown wave disturbance. Wave moment is counteracted by introducing compensation term into the roll control law which is founded on nonlinear feedback. Fuzzy reasoning is used for parameter adjustment of the controller online. Simulation experiments on roll motion are conducted under different sea conditions, and the results show better robustness improved by active disturbance rejection fuzzy controller of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating near water surface.

  1. SCHEDULING WITH REJECTION AND NON-IDENTICAL JOB ARRIVALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang CAO; Yuzhong ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address the scheduling problem with rejection and non-identical job arrivals, in which we may choose not to process certain jobs and each rejected job incurs a penalty.Our goal is to minimize the sum of the total penalties of the rejected jobs and the maximum completion time of the processed ones. For the off-line variant, we prove its NP-hardness and present a PTAS, and for the on-line special case with two job arrivals, we design a best possible algorithm with competitive ratio (√5+1)/2.

  2. An improved neutral diffusion model and numerical solution of the two dimensional edge plasma fluid equations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, A.K.

    1998-09-01

    relatively smooth as a consequence of the less localized recycling, leading to an improved convergence rate of the numerical algorithm. Peak plasma density is lower and the temperature correspondingly higher than those predicted by the standard diffusion model. It is believed that the FFCD model is more accurate. With both the TP continuation and multigrid methods, the author has demonstrated the robustness of these two methods. A mutually beneficial hybridization between the TP method and multigrid methods is clearly an alternative for edge plasma simulation. While the fundamental transport model considered in this work has ignored important physics such as drifts and currents, he has nevertheless demonstrated the versatility and robustness of the numerical scheme to handle such new physics. The application of gaseous-radiative divertor model in this work is just a beginning and up to this point numerically, the future is exciting.

  3. Active Disturbance Rejection Fuzzy Controller for Roll Stabilization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle under Wave Disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Lin Wang; Hong-Jian Wang; Li-Xin Pan; Jun-Xi Guo

    2015-01-01

    Considering the case of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for designing of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance under different sea conditions. Active disturbance rejection fuzzy control is applied, which is based on nonlinear motion model of autonomous underwater vehicle and the principle of zero-speed fin stabilizer. Extended state observer is used...

  4. Outlier rejection fuzzy c-means (ORFCM) algorithm for image segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    segmentation, Outlier rejection fuzzy c-means (ORFCM)

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy clustering-based technique for image segmentation. Many attempts have been put into practice to increase the conventional fuzzy c-means (FCM) performance. In this paper, the sensitivity of the soft membership function of the FCM algorithm to the outlier is considered and the new exponent operator on the Euclidean distance is implemented in the membership function to improve the outlier rejection characteristics of the FCM. The comparative quantitative and qua...

  5. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  6. Risk factors for rejection for morphological reasons of heart valves for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Marja J; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon; Bokhorst, Arlinke G

    2013-03-01

    The study aim was to identify risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation that could be used to optimize donor selection. The files of all Dutch heart valve donors, donating in a 2.5 years period, whose hearts were processed at Heart Valve Bank Rotterdam, were reviewed for all factors that could be relevant for valve rejection and related to outcome of morphological assessment of the valves. Valves were retrieved from 813 deceased Dutch donors, 24.1% also donating organs. For 797 aortic and 767 pulmonary valves, who met retrieval criteria, morphological assessment was done. 69.5% of aortic and 37.5% of pulmonary valves were considered unsuitable for transplantation at morphological assessment. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, showed age, cardiac cause of death, cerebrovascular accident as cause of death or in medical history, and number of cardiovascular risk factors in a donor to be independent risk factors for morphological rejection of aortic valves. Age, sex, weight >100 kg and ruptured aortic aneurysm as cause of death were independent risk factors for morphological rejection of pulmonary valves. Being an organ donor was an independent predictor of morphological approval of aortic and pulmonary valves, while hypertension was an independent predictor for morphological approval of aortic valves. Thus, independent factors were identified that are associated with morphological rejection of aortic and pulmonary valves for transplantation, and that could be used to optimize donor selection by preventing unnecessary retrievals, limiting costs, while improving yield per donor with minimal compromise for availability.

  7. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  8. Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ethan Kross; Marc G. Berman; Walter Mischel; Edward E. Smith; Tor D. Wager

    2011-01-01

    How similar are the experiences of social rejection and physical pain? Extant research suggests that a network of brain regions that support the affective but not the sensory components of physical pain underlie both experiences...

  9. Children's Use of Memory Editing Strategies to Reject Source Misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kara N; Lampinen, James M; Gallo, David A; Adams, Eryn J; Bridges, Ana J

    2017-02-15

    This is the first reported study of children's use of two metacognitive strategies, recollection rejection and diagnostic monitoring, to reject misinformation. Recollection rejection involves the retrieval of details that disqualify an event, whereas diagnostic monitoring involves the failure to retrieve expected details. First (n = 56, age 7 years) and third graders (n = 52, age 9 years) witnessed a staged classroom interaction involving common and bizarre accidents, were presented with misinformation about the source of these events, and took a memory test. Both age groups used recollection rejection, but third graders were more effective. There was little evidence that diagnostic monitoring influenced responses for bizarre events, potentially because these events were not sufficiently bizarre in the context of the stereotype induction.

  10. Marginality and Social Rejection in Amiri Baraka's Slave Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hammad Abed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marginality and social rejection are the most influential matters exploited by Baraka to intentionally criticize the American society.  More often than not, these two matters have become the scenes of major or minor acts of humiliation and dehumanization that threaten to violate the ethical rules of living. This paper aims at investigating the impact of marginality and social rejection on a number of black characters in Baraka's Slave Ship who are brought to America to be sold as commodities. It is divided into two sections and conclusion. Section one deals with Amiri Baraka’s dramatic thought and experience of marginality within the American society. The textual analysis of Slave Ship is investigated in section two. The significance of the study lies in its textual exploration of the impact of marginality and social rejection in subverting the American dream of democracy, freedom, and equality in Baraka’s Slave Ship. Keywords: marginality, Baraka, rejection, slave ship, black

  11. Successful rescue of refractory, severe antibody mediated rejection with splenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Gangemi, Antonio; Thielke, James; Oberholzer, José; Sankary, Howard; Benedetti, Enrico

    2007-01-15

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) commonly occurs after transplantation of ABO-incompatible and sensitized renal transplant. Treatment regimens commonly include a combination of plasmapheresis (PL) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). However, some cases of AMR remain refractory to treatment. We report a case series of four patients with AMR refractory to standard therapy (ST) who resolved after splenectomy. Four living donor kidney transplant recipients were diagnosed with AMR. Two patients were ABO incompatible, one was cross-match positive and one had no obvious predisposing factors. After failure of therapy with corticosteroids, PL, IVIG, Thymoglobulin, and Rituximab (three patients) or Campath (one patient), AMR was treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. After an average of 11 days of ST, laparoscopic splenectomy was performed for rescue. The urinary output improved immediately in all patients, serum creatinine levels decreased within 48 hr, and ABO titers fell in the ABO-incompatible patient and the cross-match became negative in the two sensitized patients. Splenectomy may play a role in the treatment of AMR refractory to ST.

  12. Scatter rejection in quantitative thermal and cold neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kardjilov, N; Dawson, M; Strobl, M.; Manke, I. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [Nova Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2011-09-21

    The accuracy of quantitative neutron transmission radiography can be substantially decreased if highly scattering materials, such as water or plastics, exist in the sample. There are currently two main solutions to this problem: either performing experiments at a large distance between the detector and the sample or employ some numerical correction techniques. In the former case, the spatial resolution is substantially reduced by the limited beam divergence, while the latter correction requires a priori information about the sample and is limited to distances of above {approx}2 cm. We demonstrate the feasibility of another technique, namely the possibility to remove the scattered neutron component from the transmitted neutron beam by a very compact polycapillary collimator. These {approx}1 mm thick devices can be placed between the sample and the detector and remove most of the neutrons scattered at angles larger than the acceptance angle of the collimator (typically 1{sup o}). No image distortions above {approx}10 {mu}m scales are introduced by these collimators. The neutron transmission of highly scattering samples (water and plexiglass) is measured in our experiments with and without scatter rejection. In the latter case, the accuracy of measured transmission coefficient was substantially improved by our collimators.

  13. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  14. ON-LINE SCHEDULING WITH REJECTION ON IDENTICAL PARALLEL MACHINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuixia MIAO; Yuzhong ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the on-line scheduling of unit time jobs with rejection on m identical parallel machines. The objective is to minimize the total completion time of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. We give an on-line algorithm for the problem with competitive ratio 1/2(2 + √3) ≈ 1.86602.

  15. Inflammatory mediators and cytotoxins in cardiac allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, R.P.; Powell, W.S.; Blais, D.; Marghesco, D.

    1986-03-01

    Though organ allograft rejection in rats has been linked to delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) the pathogenesis of DTH induced tissue injury is uncertain. Accordingly, the authors have undertaken to identify the following inflammatory mediators/cytotoxins in rejecting rat cardiac allografts (WF ..-->.. LEW, day 5): phospholipase A/sub 2/(PLA/sub 2/ in cardiac homogenates assessed using /sup 14/C oleate labelled E Coli), PAF in lipid extracts of grafts measured by aggregation of rabbit platelets, arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites (HPLC analysis of products released from isolated perfused hearts and slices prelabelled with /sup 3/H-AA), lymphotoxin and/or tumor necrosis factor (LT/TNF release in vitro from infiltrating mononuclear cells assayed using cell line varies as L929. Briefly, aliquots of homogenates (10ml) of rejecting grafts demonstrated PLA/sub 2/ activity as evidenced by liberation of FFA from bacterial phospholipids (baseline 3%, 1 ..mu..1 4%, 25 ..mu..l 24%, 100 /sup +/l 29%, 200 ..mu..l 39%; control hearts, 200 ..mu..l 5%). Rejecting cardiac allografts contained approximately 10 ng PAF while PAF recovered from syngeneic grafts was less than or equal to 5 ng. Observed changes in eicosanoid biosynthesis with rejection were limited to a decrement in 6 oxo PGF/sub /sub 1/..cap alpha../ release. Infiltrating mononuclear cells recovered from rejecting grafts released greater than or equal to 64 units of cytotoxin (LT and/or TNF). The author present results, documenting a decrement in prostacyclin release by rejecting heart grafts, the presence of PLA/sub 2/ and PAF and the release of cytotoxins (LT and/or TNF) by infiltrating mononuclear cells are compatible with the thesis that allograft rejection must be viewed as a complex immune/inflammatory process. Additional studies are clearly required to define roles of these and other soluble factors in homograft destruction.

  16. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Daniel S Shaw

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...

  17. Adaptive clutter rejection for 3D color Doppler imaging: preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Mo; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Karadayi, Kerem; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Kim, Yongmin

    2008-08-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound color Doppler imaging (CDI), effective rejection of flash artifacts caused by tissue motion (clutter) is important for improving sensitivity in visualizing blood flow in vessels. Since clutter characteristics can vary significantly during volume acquisition, a clutter rejection technique that can adapt to the underlying clutter conditions is desirable for 3D CDI. We have previously developed an adaptive clutter rejection (ACR) method, in which an optimum filter is dynamically selected from a set of predesigned clutter filters based on the measured clutter characteristics. In this article, we evaluated the ACR method with 3D in vivo data acquired from 37 kidney transplant patients clinically indicated for a duplex ultrasound examination. We compared ACR against a conventional clutter rejection method, down-mixing (DM), using a commonly-used flow signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and a new metric called fractional residual clutter area (FRCA). The ACR method was more effective in removing the flash artifacts while providing higher sensitivity in detecting blood flow in the arcuate arteries and veins in the parenchyma of transplanted kidneys. ACR provided 3.4 dB improvement in SCR over the DM method (11.4 +/- 1.6 dB versus 8.0 +/- 2.0 dB, p < 0.001) and had lower average FRCA values compared with the DM method (0.006 +/- 0.003 versus 0.036 +/- 0.022, p < 0.001) for all study subjects. These results indicate that the new ACR method is useful for removing nonstationary tissue motion while improving the image quality for visualizing 3D vascular structure in 3D CDI.

  18. A novel noninvasive method to detect rejection after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prompt and accurate detection of rejection prior to pathological changes after organ transplantation is vital for monitoring rejections. Although biopsy remains the current gold standard for rejection diagnosis, it is an invasive method and cannot be repeated daily. Thus, noninvasive monitoring methods are needed. In this study, by introducing an IL-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (IL-2 N-mAb and immunosuppressants into the culture with the presence of specific stimulators and activated lymphocytes, an activated lymphocyte-specific assay (ALSA system was established to detect the specific activated lymphocytes. This assay demonstrated that the suppression in the ALSA test was closely related to the existence of specific activated lymphocytes. The ALSA test was applied to 47 heart graft recipients and the proliferation of activated lymphocytes from all rejection recipients proven by endomyocardial biopsies was found to be inhibited by spleen cells from the corresponding donors, suggesting that this suppression could reflect the existence of activated lymphocytes against donor antigens, and thus the rejection of a heart graft. The sensitivity of the ALSA test in these 47 heart graft recipients was 100%; however, the specificity was only 37.5%. It was also demonstrated that IL-2 N-mAb was indispensible, and the proper culture time courses and concentrations of stimulators were essential for the ALSA test. This preliminary study with 47 grafts revealed that the ALSA test was a promising noninvasive tool, which could be used in vitro to assist with the diagnosis of rejection post-heart transplantation.

  19. The private rejection of unfair offers and emotional commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Takagishi, Haruto; Shinada, Mizuho; Tanida, Shigehito; Cook, Karen S

    2009-07-14

    In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that certain players of an economic game reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases rather than decreases inequity. A substantial proportion (30-40%, compared with 60-70% in the standard ultimatum game) of those who responded rejected unfair offers even when rejection reduced only their own earnings to 0, while not affecting the earnings of the person who proposed the unfair split (in an impunity game). Furthermore, even when the responders were not able to communicate their anger to the proposers by rejecting unfair offers in a private impunity game, a similar rate of rejection was observed. The rejection of unfair offers that increases inequity cannot be explained by the social preference for inequity aversion or reciprocity; however, it does provide support for the model of emotion as a commitment device. In this view, emotions such as anger or moral disgust lead people to disregard the immediate consequences of their behavior, committing them to behave consistently to preserve integrity and maintain a reputation over time as someone who is reliably committed to this behavior.

  20. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-07-17

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  1. Line clipping against polygonal window algorithm based on the multiple virtual boxes rejecting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin; LU Guo-dong; PENG Qun-sheng; WU Xuan-hui

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for line clipping against a polygonal window by exploiting the local relationship between each line segment and the polygon. Firstly, a minimal enclosing box (MEB) of the polygon is adopted to reject the invisible line segments located outside the MEB. Secondly, a 45° rotated box is used to encode the endpoint of the line segment, and then reject a portion of the invisible segments crossing polygon corners. Finally, instead of encoding the endpoints of all line segments with respect to the polygonal window, each vertex of the polygon is encoded, taking the line segment to be clipped as reference. For efficient encoding of the polygon vertices, a new concept, termed with slope adaptive virtual box, is introduced regarding each line segment. Such a box can not only conveniently reject all totally invisible lines lying outside the MEB conveniently, but also precisely identify the edges of the polygon with which the line segment potentially intersects. With the summation of the vertex codes, it can be verified whether the line segment is separated from or potentially intersects the polygon window. Based on the product of the codes of adjacent vertices, singular cases of intersection can be solved accurately. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and stability of the new algorithm.

  2. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages, Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.A.

    1978-08-01

    The objective of this project is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements toward reducing its overall duration. Thus, the plant's availability for power production would be increased. Revisions in procedures and some equipment modifications were implemented and evaluated during the Zion Unit 2 refueling/maintenance outage beginning in January 1977. Analysis of the observed data has identified benefits available through improved refueling equipment and also areas where additional new, innovative refueling, or refueling-related equipment should be beneficial. A number of specific design concepts are recommended as a result of Phase 1. In addition, a new master planning mechanism is described for implementation during subsequent planned outages at Zion Station. This final report describes the recommended conceptual designs and planning mechanism and assesses their impact upon future outages. Their effect on savings in refueling time, labor, and radiation exposure is discussed. The estimated economic payoff for these concepts was found to be of such significance that an additional phase of the program is warranted. During this extended phase, a more detailed engineering study should be undertaken to determine the cost of implementation along with more specific estimates of the benefits for PWR plants already in operation or under construction.

  3. Mice aorta loop grafting: A new model which separate vascular rejection and neointimal formation in chronic rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 窦科峰; 何勇; 孙凯

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the cause and mechanism of transplantation vasculopathy which characterized by accelerated graft arteriosclerosis (AGA), we established a mouse aorta graft model. Methods: A segment of thoracic aortas of B10.A (2R) mice were transplanted to C57BL/10 mice abdominal aorta by end to side anastomoses. The different time point collected grafts were analyzed by morphological, histochemical and electro microscopic methods. Results: Rejection was manifested as a concentric progressive destruction of the smooth muscle cells. In contrast, the endothelial inflammation and subsequent neointimal proliferation characteristic of AGA was localized to the regions of turbulent flow, i.e. the junction of the graft with the recipient aorta. Conclusion: This model separates the processes of rejection and neointimal formation which usually manifested together in the lesion of AGA, elucidate that different mechanisms control vascular rejection and neointimal formation in chronic rejection.

  4. Dragline roller track improvement. Volume I. Evaluation of low hardness dragline track materials in rolling contact. Final report, September 30, 1976-July 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunfee, J.; Leonard, L.; Rumbarger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Franklin Research Center (FRC), a Division of the Franklin Institute, was contracted by the Bureau of Mines to improve walking dragline roller tracks. The contract was subsequently transferred to the Department of Energy. The period from September 1977 to September 1978 covered laboratory rolling contact rig tests to evaluate typical low hardness dragline track materials. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-1 Final Report, Volume I. The period from September 1978 to July 1980 covered field measurements of dragline roller circle loadings. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-2 Final Report, Volume II. The laboratory rolling contact rig test results indicate that forged vacuum degassed air melt steel materials are recommended over air-melt cast materials for rollers and tracks. The steels tested exhibited good freedom from sensitivity to stress raisers like brinell marks and small holes or discontinuities (Volume I). The largest unknown in a recommended method for life testing roller tracks is the condition of the upper rotating frame structure and the lower tub supporting structure.

  5. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  6. Cognitive failure, teacher’s rejection and interpersonal relationship anxiety in children with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Aneeza; Naz, Fauzia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Present research aimed to explore relationship between cognitive failure, teacher’s rejection (TR), interpersonal relationship anxiety (IRA) and Signs of Dyslexia (SD) in children with dyslexia. Another aim was to explore TR, SD and IRA as predictors of cognitive failure and final aim was to see TR, SD and cognitive failure as predictors of IRA. Method: Sample included140 students (70 girls & 70 boys) with dyslexia. Their age was ranged between 7-14 years (mean age: M=10.50, SD= 1...

  7. Induction therapy in adult intestinal transplantation: reduced incidence of rejection with "2-dose" alemtuzumab protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, A; Zanfi, C; Bagni, A; Cescon, M; Siniscalchi, A; Pellegrini, S; Pironi, L; Pinna, A D

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of early rejection after intestinal transplantation correlates with heightened risk of graft loss and mortality. Many different induction or pre-conditioning protocols have been reported in the last 10 yr to improve outcomes; however, sepsis remains prevalent and diminishes long-term results. We recently began a "2-dose" alemtuzumab trial protocol - 15 mg at day 0 and 15 mg repeated on day 7 - with the hope of reducing our infection rate. We compared three different protocols used at our institution (daclizumab, conventional "4-dose" alemtuzumab, and "2-dose" alemtuzumab). There was a significantly lower rate of early rejection with the "2-dose" alemtuzumab protocol in our study group of mainly (88%) intestinal grafts without accompanying liver engraftment with its protective immunologic effect. Sepsis remained low. Longer follow-up will be required to evaluate the effects of this new protocol on longer-term outcomes.

  8. Disturbance observer based pitch control of wind turbines for disturbance rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Xu; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    In this research, a disturbance observer based (DOB) control scheme is illustrated to reject the unknown low frequency disturbances to wind turbines. Specifically, we aim at maintaining the constant output power but achieving better generator speed regulation when the wind turbine is operated at time-varying and turbulent wind field. The disturbance observer combined with a filter is designed to asymptotically reject the persistent unknown time-varying disturbances. The proposed algorithm is tested in both linearized and nonlinear NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine. The application of this DOB pitch controller achieves improved power and speed regulation in Region 3 compared with a baseline gain scheduling PID collective controller both in linearized and nonlinear plant.

  9. Design of active disturbance rejection internal model control strategy for SISO system with time delay process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qi-bing; LIU Li-ye

    2015-01-01

    A novel control scheme of active disturbance rejection internal model control (ADRIMC) is proposed to improve the anti-interference ability and robustness for the dead-time process. The active anti-interference concept is introduced into the internal model control (IMC) by analyzing the relationship between IMC and disturbance observer control (DOB). Further, a design process of disturbance filter is presented to realize the active anti-interference ability for ADRIMC scheme. The disturbance filter is used to estimate an equivalent disturbance consisting of both external disturbances and internal disturbances caused by model mismatches. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method possesses a good disturbance rejection performance, though losing some partial dynamic performance. In other words, the proposed method shows a tradeoff between the dynamic performance and the system robust.

  10. Active Disturbance Rejection Approach for Robust Fault-Tolerant Control via Observer Assisted Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cortés-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an active disturbance rejection approach for the establishment of a sliding mode control strategy in fault-tolerant operations. The core of the proposed active disturbance rejection assistance is a Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI observer which is in charge of the active estimation of lumped nonlinear endogenous and exogenous disturbance inputs related to the creation of local sliding regimes with limited control authority. Possibilities are explored for the GPI observer assisted sliding mode control in fault-tolerant schemes. Convincing improvements are presented with respect to classical sliding mode control strategies. As a collateral advantage, the observer-based control architecture offers the possibility of chattering reduction given that a significant part of the control signal is of the continuous type. The case study considers a classical DC motor control affected by actuator faults, parametric failures, and perturbations. Experimental results and comparisons with other established sliding mode controller design methodologies, which validate the proposed approach, are provided.

  11. INTRATHYMIC INOCULATION OF LIVER SPECIFIC ANTIGEN ALLEVIATES LIVER TRANSPLANT REJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长库; 郑树森; 朱有法

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of liver specific antigen (LSA) on liver allotransplantation rejection. Methods Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in this study. Group Ⅰ: syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ: acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar). Group Ⅲ: thymic inoculation of SD rat LSA day 7 before transplantation. The observation of general condition and survival time, rejection grades and the NF-κB activity of splenocytes were used to analyze severity of acute rejection and immune state of animals in different groups. Results The general condition of group Ⅰ was fair post transplantation with no sign of rejection. All recipients of group Ⅱ died within days 9 to 13 post transplantation with median survival time of 10.7 ±1.37 days. As for group Ⅲ, 5 out of 6 recipients survived for a long period with remarkably better general condition than that of group Ⅱ. Its rejection grades were significantly lower than group Ⅱ (P< 0.05).NF-κB activity was only detected in group Ⅰ between days 5 and 7 after transplantation, whereas high activity of NF-κB was detected at all points in group Ⅱ and low NF-κB activity was detected in group Ⅲ which was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). Conclusions LSA is an important transplantation antigen directly involved in the immunorejection of liver transplantation. Intrathymic inoculation of LSA can alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation,grafts survive for a period of time thereby, allowing a novel way to liver transplantation immunotolerance.

  12. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-02-13

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities.

  13. Gene Expression Profiling on Acute Rejected Transplant Kidneys with Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deping LI; Kang WANG; Yong DAI; Tianyu LV

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the gene expression profiles in acute allograft rejection of renal trans- plantation, and identify the markers for the early diagnosis of acute rejection, heterotopic kidney transplantation was performed by using F344 or Lewis donors and Lewis recipients. No immunosup- pressant was used. Renal grafts were harvested on days 3, 7, and 14. A commercial microarray was used to measure gene expression levels in day-7 grafts. The expression levels of 48 genes were up-regulated in the allograft in comparison with the isograft control, and interferon-y-induced GTPase gene was most significantly up-regulated in allografts. It is concluded that a variety of pathways are involved in organ transplant rejection which is dynamic and non-balanced. IFN-inducible genes, such as IGTP, may play an important role in the rejection. A lot of important factors involved in acute re- jection are unnecessary but sufficient conditions for the rejection. We are led to conclude that it is virtually impossible to make an early diagnosis based on a single gene marker, but it could he achieved on the basis of a set of markers.

  14. Rejection mechanisms for contaminants in polymeric reverse osmosis membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Meng; Lueptow, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of reverse osmosis (RO) for water purification, the molecular-level physico-chemical processes of contaminant rejection are not well understood. Here we carry out NEMD simulations on a model polyamide RO membrane to understand the mechanisms of transport and rejection of both ionic and neutral contaminants in water. We observe that the rejection changes non-monotonously with ion sizes. In particular, the rejection of urea, 2.4 A radius, is higher than ethanol, 2.6 A radius, and the rejections for organic solutes, 2.2-2.8 A radius, are lower than Na+, 1.4 A radius, or Cl-, 2.3 A radius. We show that this can be explained in terms of the solute accessible intermolecular volume in the membrane and the solute-water pair interaction energy. If the smallest open spaces in the membrane's molecular structure are all larger than the hydrated solute, then the solute-water pair interaction energy does not matter. However, when the open spaces in the polymeric structure are such that solutes have to s...

  15. Amino acid rejection behaviour as a function of concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Jason; Mandale, Stephen; Williams, Paul M

    2011-05-11

    The solute rejection versus concentration behaviour of five different amino acids has been investigated using a Nitto Denko NTR7450 nanofiltration membrane. The experimental data for amino acid rejection was also compared against a combined steric and charge rejection model. At its isoelectric point, lysine was effectively neutral and its behaviour was well described by the model incorporating a steric function only. For phenylalanine, the combined model was found to fit the data well. In contrast there was poor agreement between the model and rejection data for glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine whose rejection values at first increased with concentration. This result implied that another governing process was in operation. Dimerisation as an explanation for the observed phenomena was also investigated. Size analysis of amino acid molecules as a function of the prevailing concentration using dynamic light scattering was limited but showed no evidence of dimerisation. This data was supported by osmotic pressure measurements which demonstrated no evidence of non-linearity in the relation between osmotic pressure and concentration.

  16. A Two-stage approach to harmonic rejection mixing using blind interference cancelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moseley, N.A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—Current analog harmonic rejection mixers typically provide 30–40 dB of harmonic rejection, which is often not sufficient. We present a mixed analog-digital approach to harmonic rejection mixing that uses a digital interference canceler to reject the strongest interferer. Simulations indicat

  17. Vicarious Group-Based Rejection : Creating a Potentially Dangerous Mix of Humiliation, Powerlessness, and Anger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Tinka M.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal reject

  18. Back-stepping active disturbance rejection control design for integrated missile guidance and control system via reduced-order ESO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel composite integrated guidance and control (IGC) law for missile intercepting against unknown maneuvering target with multiple uncertainties and control constraint. First, by using back-stepping technique, the proposed IGC law design is separated into guidance loop and control loop. The unknown target maneuvers and variations of aerodynamics parameters in guidance and control loop are viewed as uncertainties, which are estimated and compensated by designed model-assisted reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). Second, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC), enhanced feedback linearization (FL) based control law is implemented for the IGC model using the estimates generated by reduced-order ESO. In addition, performance analysis and comparisons between ESO and reduced-order ESO are examined. Nonlinear tracking differentiator is employed to construct the derivative of virtual control command in the control loop. Third, the closed-loop stability for the considered system is established. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed IGC law in enhanced interception performance such as smooth interception course, improved robustness against multiple uncertainties as well as reduced control consumption during initial phase are demonstrated through simulations.

  19. Effect of flux (transmembrane pressure) and membrane properties on fouling and rejection of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes treating perfluorooctane sulfonate containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuyang Y; Fu, Q Shiang; Criddle, Craig S; Leckie, James O

    2007-03-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an emergent contaminant of substantial environmental concerns. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were used to remove this toxic and persistent compound from PFOS-containing wastewater. Five RO membranes and three NF membranes were tested at a feed concentration of 10 ppm PFOS over 4 days, and the PFOS rejection and permeate flux performances were systematically investigated. PFOS rejection was well correlated to sodium chloride rejection. The rejection efficiencies for the RO membranes were > 99%, and those for the NF membranes ranged from 90-99%. Improvement in PFOS rejection, together with mild flux reduction (filtration time. Such shifts in rejection and flux performance were probably due to the increased PFOS accumulation at longer duration, as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and liquid chromatograph and tandem mass spectrometry results. A fraction of PFOS molecules might be entrapped in the polyamide layer of the composite membranes, which hindered the further passage of both water and other PFOS molecules. In a similar fashion, PFOS rejection and fouling were enhanced for greater initial flux and/or applied pressure, where PFOS accumulation was promoted probably due to increased hydrodynamic permeate drag. Flux reduction was also shown to correlate to membrane roughness, with the rougher membranes tend to experience more flux reduction than the smoother ones.

  20. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP): A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations. The Southern Study Area, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Jeffrey M. [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Manobianco, John [MESO, Inc., Troy, NY (United States); Schroeder, John [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). National Wind Inst.; Ancell, Brian [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Atmospheric Science Group; Brewster, Keith [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms; Basu, Sukanta [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences; Banunarayanan, Venkat [ICF International (United States); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Isabel [Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This Final Report presents a comprehensive description, findings, and conclusions for the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) -- Southern Study Area (SSA) work led by AWS Truepower (AWST). This multi-year effort, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), focused on improving short-term (15-minute - 6 hour) wind power production forecasts through the deployment of an enhanced observation network of surface and remote sensing instrumentation and the use of a state-of-the-art forecast modeling system. Key findings from the SSA modeling and forecast effort include: 1. The AWST WFIP modeling system produced an overall 10 - 20% improvement in wind power production forecasts over the existing Baseline system, especially during the first three forecast hours; 2. Improvements in ramp forecast skill, particularly for larger up and down ramps; 3. The AWST WFIP data denial experiments showed mixed results in the forecasts incorporating the experimental network instrumentation; however, ramp forecasts showed significant benefit from the additional observations, indicating that the enhanced observations were key to the model systems’ ability to capture phenomena responsible for producing large short-term excursions in power production; 4. The OU CAPS ARPS simulations showed that the additional WFIP instrument data had a small impact on their 3-km forecasts that lasted for the first 5-6 hours, and increasing the vertical model resolution in the boundary layer had a greater impact, also in the first 5 hours; and 5. The TTU simulations were inconclusive as to which assimilation scheme (3DVAR versus EnKF) provided better forecasts, and the additional observations resulted in some improvement to the forecasts in the first 1 - 3 hours.

  1. Active disturbance rejection control for fractional-order system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Li, Donghai; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Chunzhe

    2013-05-01

    Fractional-order proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are the most commonly used controllers in fractional-order systems. However, this paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme for fractional-order system based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the fractional-order dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. External disturbance, sensor noise, and parameter disturbance are also estimated using extended state observer. The ADRC stability of rational-order model is analyzed. Simulation results on three typical fractional-order systems are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Prostanoids modulate inflammation and alloimmune responses during graft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Rocha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute rejection of a transplanted organ is characterized by intense inflammation within the graft. Yet, for many years transplant researchers have overlooked the role of classic mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and thromboxane (prostanoids in alloimmune responses. It has been demonstrated that local production of prostanoids within the allograft is increased during an episode of acute rejection and that these molecules are able to interfere with graft function by modulating vascular tone, capillary permeability, and platelet aggregation. Experimental data also suggest that prostanoids may participate in alloimmune responses by directly modulating T lymphocyte and antigen-presenting cell function. In the present paper, we provide a brief overview of the alloimmune response, of prostanoid biology, and discuss the available evidence for the role of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 in graft rejection.

  3. The mechanisms of rejection in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Colpo, Anna; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2017-08-01

    Organ transplantation represents the preferred treatment option for many patients in terminal organ failure. The half-life of transplanted organs, however, is still far from being satisfactory with the vast majority of the organs failing within the first two decades following transplantation. At this stage, it has become apparent that rejection (prevalently mediated by humoral events) remains the primary cause of graft loss after the first year. In this light, studies are underway to better comprehend the immune events underlying graft rejection and novel immunosuppressive strategies are being explored. In this context, therapeutic apheresis techniques, that include therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunoadsorption (IA) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), represent an important adjunct in the current immunosuppressive armamentarium. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the immune process underlying rejection of a solid organ transplant and describes the principal areas of application of therapeutic apheresis techniques in transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Immunologic basis of graft rejection and tolerance following transplantation of liver or other solid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fueyo, Alberto; Strom, Terry B

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of organs between genetically different individuals of the same species causes a T cell-mediated immune response that, if left unchecked, results in rejection and graft destruction. The potency of the alloimmune response is determined by the antigenic disparity that usually exists between donors and recipients and by intragraft expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the early period after transplantation. Studies in animal models have identified many molecules that, when targeted, inhibit T-cell activation. In addition, some of these studies have shown that certain immunologic interventions induce transplantation tolerance, a state in which the allograft is specifically accepted without the need for chronic immunosuppression. Tolerance is an important aspect of liver transplantation, because livers have a unique microenvironment that promotes tolerance rather than immunity. In contrast to the progress achieved in inducing tolerance in animal models, patients who receive transplanted organs still require nonspecific immunosuppressant drugs. The development of calcineurin inhibitors has reduced the acute rejection rate and improved short-term, but not long-term, graft survival. However, long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs leads to nephrotoxicity and metabolic disorders, as well as manifestations of overimmunosuppression such as opportunistic infections and cancers. The status of pharmacologic immunosuppression in the clinic is therefore not ideal. We review recently developed therapeutic strategies to promote tolerance to transplanted livers and other organs and diagnostic tools that might be used to identify patients most likely to accept or reject allografts.

  5. Difficulties, guidelines and review of developing an acute rejection model after rat intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ane Miren; Santamaria, Monica; Hernandez-Oliveros, Francisco; Guerra, Laura; Lopez, Sergio; Stringa, Pablo; Vallejo, Maria Teresa; Largo, Carlota; Encinas, Jose Luis; Garcia de Las Heras, Maria Soledad; Lopez-Santamaria, Manuel; Tovar, Juan Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Experimental small bowel transplantation (SBT) in rats has been proven to be a useful tool for the study of ischemia-reperfusion and immunological aspects related to solid organ transplantation. However, the model is not completely refined, specialized literature is scarce and complex technical details are typically omitted or confusing. Most studies related to acute rejection (AR) use the orthotopic standard, with small sample sizes due to its high mortality, whereas those studying chronic rejection (CR) use the heterotopic standard, which allows longer term survival but does not exactly reflect the human clinical scenario. Various animal strains have been used, and the type of rejection and the timing of its analysis differ among authors. The double purpose of this study was to develop an improved unusual AR model of SBT using the heterotopic technique, and to elaborate a guide useful to implement experimental models for studying AR. We analyzed the model's technical details and expected difficulties in overcoming the learning curve for such a complex microsurgical model, identifying the potential problem areas and providing a step-by-step protocol and reference guide for future surgeons interested in the topic. We also discuss the historic and more recent options in the literature.

  6. Comparative study of decay ratios of disturbance-rejection magnitude optimum method for PI controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbar, Satja; Vrancić, Damir; Strmcnik, Stanko

    2008-01-01

    One of the key time-domain closed-loop performance requirements is the closed-loop response decay ratio. In this paper, the decay ratios of the disturbance-rejection magnitude optimum (DRMO) tuning method [Vrancić D, Strmcnik S, Kocijan J. Improving disturbance rejection of PI controllers by means of the magnitude optimum method. ISA Trans 2004; 43: 73-84; Vrancić D, Strmcnik S. Achieving optimal disturbance rejection by using the magnitude optimum method. In: Pre-prints of the CSCC'99 conference. 1999. p. 3401-6] are analyzed and compared to decay ratios of two other modern tuning methods, i.e. the Kappa-Tau tuning method (based on time-domain step-response characteristics) [Aström KJ, Högglund T. PID controllers: Theory, design, and tuning. 2nd ed. Instrument Society of America; 1995] and the non-convex optimization tuning method (based on frequency response) [Panagopoulos H, Aström KJ, Hägglund T. Design of PI controllers based on non-convex optimization. Automatica 1998; 34: 585-601; Panagopoulos H, Aström KJ, Hägglund T. Design of PID controllers based on constrained optimisation. IEE Proc Control Theory Appl 2002; 149 (1): 32-40]. It is shown that the DRMO method results in such a closed-loop response that the decay ratio is within a relatively narrow interval when compared to the other two methods.

  7. Antibody-mediated rejection: Importance of lactate dehydrogenase and neutrophilia in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqi Toufeeq Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the importance of elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and neutrophilia (NT in two renal transplant recipients who developed renal impairment in the early post-operative period. One of our recipients developed oliguria and increased serum creatinine with unexplained elevation of LDH and NT. The biopsy was C4d positive with platelet and fibrin thrombi in the glomerular capillaries and arterioles and interpreted as acute vasculitis or thrombotic form of antibody-mediated rejection (VAMR with positive donor-specific antibodies (DSA. Despite intensive treatment, this graft was lost. When another patient developed a similar picture, prompt immunoadsorption was started without waiting for a confirmatory biopsy or DSA, and both were later reported as positive. Improvement in renal function was associated with decreasing levels of LDH and NT. Neither of these was elevated in cases of acute cellular rejection (ACR or antibody mediated rejection (AMR with isolated tubular injury (TAMR. It may therefore be reasonable to assume that LDH and NT are potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of VAMR.

  8. Spleen tyrosine kinase contributes to acute renal allograft rejection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramessur Chandran, Sharmila; Tesch, Greg H; Han, Yingjie; Woodman, Naomi; Mulley, William R; Kanellis, John; Blease, Kate; Ma, Frank Y; Nikolic-Paterson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Kidney allografts induce strong T-cell and antibody responses which mediate acute rejection. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is expressed by most leucocytes, except mature T cells, and is involved in intracellular signalling following activation of the Fcγ-receptor, B-cell receptor and some integrins. A role for Syk signalling has been established in antibody-dependent native kidney disease, but little is known of Syk in acute renal allograft rejection. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral nephrectomy and received an orthotopic Wistar renal allograft. Recipient rats were treated with a Syk inhibitor (CC0482417, 30 mg/kg/bid), or vehicle, from 1 h before surgery until being killed 5 days later. Vehicle-treated recipients developed severe allograft failure with marked histologic damage in association with dense leucocyte infiltration (T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK cells) and deposition of IgM, IgG and C3. Immunostaining identified Syk expression by many infiltrating leucocytes. CC0482417 treatment significantly improved allograft function and reduced histologic damage, although allograft injury was still clearly evident. CC0482417 failed to prevent T-cell infiltration and activation within the allograft. However, CC0482417 significantly attenuated acute tubular necrosis, infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and thrombosis of peritubular capillaries. In conclusion, this study identifies a role for Syk in acute renal allograft rejection. Syk inhibition may be a useful addition to T-cell-based immunotherapy in renal transplantation.

  9. Rejected! Cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety as mediators of the impact of cross-group friendships on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Louis, Winnifred R; Hewstone, Miles

    2009-09-01

    In a sample of White Australians (N=273), cross-group friendship with Aboriginal Australians was associated with reduced cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety, and these variables fully mediated the effect of cross-group friendship on conversational avoidance of sensitive intergroup topics, active avoidance of the outgroup, and old-fashioned prejudice. The novel mediator proposed here, cognitions of rejection, predicted intergroup anxiety, and also predicted the three outcome variables via intergroup anxiety. Over and above its indirect effects via anxiety, cognitions of rejection directly predicted both conversational and active avoidance, suggesting that whilst the cognitive and affective mediators are linked, they predict intergroup outcomes in different ways. The results demonstrate the beneficial impact of cross group friendship in reducing prejudice and avoidance by diminishing cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety. We also highlight that individuals without cross-group friends may perceive the outgroup as rejecting, feel anxious about cross-group interaction, and desire both conversational and physical avoidance of the outgroup.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Rejecting and Autonomy-Restrictive Parenting, Rejection Sensitivity, and Socioemotional Symptoms in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Susan L; Gembeck, Melanie J Zimmer; Rudolph, Julia; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-08-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) has been defined as the tendency to readily perceive and overreact to interpersonal rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test key propositions of RS theory, namely that rejecting experiences in relationships with parents are antecedents of early adolescents' future RS and symptomatology. We also expanded this to consider autonomy-restrictive parenting, given the importance of autonomy in early adolescence. Participants were 601 early adolescents (age 9 to 13 years old, 51% boys) from three schools in Australia. Students completed questionnaires at school about parent and peer relationships, RS, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at two times with a 14-month lag between assessments. Parents also reported on adolescents' difficulties at Time 1 (T1). It was anticipated that more experience of parental rejection, coercion, and psychological control would be associated with adolescents' escalating RS and symptoms over time, even after accounting for peer victimisation, and that RS would mediate associations between parenting and symptoms. Structural equation modelling supported these hypotheses. Parent coercion was associated with adolescents' increasing symptoms of social anxiety and RS over time, and parent psychological control was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Indirect effects via RS were also found, with parent rejection and psychological control linked to higher T1 RS, which was then associated with increasing loneliness and RS. Lastly, in a separate model, peer victimisation and RS, but not parenting practices, were positively associated with concurrent parent reports of adolescents' difficulties.

  11. Analysis of Turbine Load Rejection for APR1400 using SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Turbine Load Rejection event is one of the Performance Related Design Basis Event (PRDBE) that can be stabilized using plant control systems without any safety system actuation. The initiation of the event is turbine load rejection from 100% to 5% in 0.019 seconds. The NSSS control systems of APR1400 is composed of the Power Control System (PCS) and the Process-Component Control System (P-CCS). The PCS includes Reactor Regulating System (RRS), Reactor Power Cutback System (RPCS) and Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The P-CCS includes the Pressurizer Pressure Control System (PPCS), the Pressurizer Level Control System (PLCS), the Feedwater Control System (FWCS) and the Steam Bypass Control System (SBCS). Turbine load rejection results in the increase of secondary pressure due to sudden blocking of steam flow to turbine. Then the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) cooling through steam generators is decreased rapidly and the RCS temperature will be increased. Turbine load rejection is a typical event to test NSSS control systems since it requires the automatic response of all major NSSS control systems. It is shown that the NSSS control systems of APR1400 have the capability to stabilize the plant without any safety system actuation for turbine load rejection event. This analysis results show that SPACE code has the capability to analyze the turbine load rejection event. However, further validation is necessary for other PRDBEs such as Two Main Feedwater Pumps Trip, Turbine Load Step Change and Turbine Load Ramp Down (5%/min) to verify the capability of SPACE for the full range of performance analyses.

  12. Interference Rejection in UWB LNA using Front-End Triode MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rezaei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an Ultra Wide Band Low Noise Amplifier (UWB LNA with new input stage for interference rejection is presented. In this scheme, a common gate front end MOS device in triode mode is used to reject in-band and out-band interferences. Furthermore, advantage of weak inversion mode of MOS device is used. While this stage has no DC power consumption, it is possible to easily reject in band and out band interferences with 12.5 and 9.2 dB, respectively. In order to increase power gain of the circuit two stages are added as an amplifier to the circuit. Also, in order to improve the Noise Figure (NF and bandwidth of the circuit, the advantages of thermal noise cancellation technique in the second stage and the series-peaking method in the output buffer are used. The circuit is design in 0.18 μm technology. Simulation results show peak gain of 17.6 dB in the low band (3.1-4.75 GHz and 15.6 dB in the high band (6.1-10.6 GHz. Minimum NF in mentioned frequency band is 3 and 2.3 dB, respectively. Hence, this circuit rejects in band and out band interferences 15.6 and 11.5 dB, respectively, while UWB LNA consumes 16 mW DC power from 1.8 V. The s11 is less than -9.6 dB over entire bandwidth since worst value of IIP3 over entire bandwidth is -14 dBm which occurs at 10.6 GHz.

  13. Diagonal rejection-based minimum variance distortionless response for fiber underwater acoustic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zou, Ling; Zhou, Bin

    2017-07-01

    The high mounting precision of the fiber underwater acoustic array leads to an array manifold without perturbation. Besides, the targets are either static or slowly moving in azimuth in underwater acoustic array signal processing. Therefore, the covariance matrix can be estimated accurately by prolonging the observation time. However, this processing is limited to poor bearing resolution due to small aperture, low SNR and strong interferences. In this paper, diagonal rejection (DR) technology for Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) was developed to enhance the resolution performance. The core idea of DR is rejecting the main diagonal elements of the covariance matrix to improve the output signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR). The definition of SINR here implicitly assumes independence between the spatial filter and the received observations at which the SINR is measured. The power of noise converges on the diagonal line in the covariance matrix and then it is integrated into the output beams. With the diagonal noise rejected by a factor smaller than 1, the array weights of MVDR will concentrate on interference suppression, leading to a better resolution capability. The algorithm was theoretically proved with optimal rejecting coefficient derived under both infinite and finite snapshots scenarios. Numerical simulations were conducted with an example of a linear array with eight elements half-wavelength spaced. Both resolution and Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) performances of MVDR and DR-based MVDR (DR-MVDR) were compared under different SNR and snapshot numbers. A conclusion can be drawn that with the covariance matrix accurately estimated, DR-MVDR can provide a lower sidelobe output level and a better bearing resolution capacity than MVDR without harming the DOA performance.

  14. Belief decision support and reject for textured images characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    The textured images' classification assumes to consider the images in terms of area with the same texture. In uncertain environment, it could be better to take an imprecise decision or to reject the area corresponding to an unlearning class. Moreover, on the areas that are the classification units, we can have more than one texture. These considerations allows us to develop a belief decision model permitting to reject an area as unlearning and to decide on unions and intersections of learning classes. The proposed approach finds all its justification in an application of seabed characterization from sonar images, which contributes to an illustration.

  15. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  16. Multiquadrant Subtenon Triamcinolone Injection for Acute Corneal Graft Rejection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunali Goyal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of reversal of an acute corneal graft rejection following multiquadrant subtenon triamcinolone injection. Case Presentation: A 19-year-old woman who had acute corneal graft rejection failed to show resolution of the graft rejection after standard treatment with systemic, intravenous, and topical steroids. The graft rejection, however, responded to injection of triamcinolone in multiple subtenon quadrants. Conclusions: For corneal graft rejection, multiquadrant subtenon triamcinolone injections may be a safe adjunct to systemic treatment.

  17. Final technical report DOE award DE-SC0007206 Improving CESM Efficiency to Study Variable C:N:P Stoichiometry in the Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primeau, Francois William [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    This report lists the accomplishments of the project, which includes: (1) analysis of inorganic nutrient concentration data as well as suspended particulate organic matter data in the ocean to demonstrate that the carbon to nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (C:N:P) of biological uptake and export vary on large spatial scales, (2) the development of a new computationally efficient method for simulating biogeochemical tracers in earth system models, (3) the application of the method to help calibrate an improved representation of dissolved organic matter in the ocean that includes variable C:N:P stoichiometry. This research is important because biological uptake of carbon and nutrients in the upper ocean and export by sinking particles and downward mixing of dissolved organic matter helps maintain a vertical gradient in the carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean. This gradient is key to understanding the partitioning of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. The final report lists seven peer reviewed scientific publications, one Ph.D. thesis, one technical report and two papers in preparation.

  18. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH`s concentrator module. Final technical report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R. [ENTECH, Inc., Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, TX (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH`s Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  19. On the rejection-based algorithm for simulation and analysis of large-scale reaction networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Vo Hong, E-mail: vo@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research-University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Zunino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zunino@unitn.it [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Priami, Corrado, E-mail: priami@cosbi.eu [The Microsoft Research-University of Trento Centre for Computational and Systems Biology, Piazza Manifattura 1, Rovereto 38068 (Italy); Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)

    2015-06-28

    Stochastic simulation for in silico studies of large biochemical networks requires a great amount of computational time. We recently proposed a new exact simulation algorithm, called the rejection-based stochastic simulation algorithm (RSSA) [Thanh et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141(13), 134116 (2014)], to improve simulation performance by postponing and collapsing as much as possible the propensity updates. In this paper, we analyze the performance of this algorithm in detail, and improve it for simulating large-scale biochemical reaction networks. We also present a new algorithm, called simultaneous RSSA (SRSSA), which generates many independent trajectories simultaneously for the analysis of the biochemical behavior. SRSSA improves simulation performance by utilizing a single data structure across simulations to select reaction firings and forming trajectories. The memory requirement for building and storing the data structure is thus independent of the number of trajectories. The updating of the data structure when needed is performed collectively in a single operation across the simulations. The trajectories generated by SRSSA are exact and independent of each other by exploiting the rejection-based mechanism. We test our new improvement on real biological systems with a wide range of reaction networks to demonstrate its applicability and efficiency.

  20. Enhanced analogue front-end for the measurement of the high state of wide-band voltage pulses with 87 dB common-mode rejection ratio and ±0.65 ppm 1-day offset stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Martino, Michele

    2015-09-01

    An improved analogue front-end for measuring the high state of trapezoidal voltage pulses with transition duration of 3 μs is presented. A new measurement system, composed by a front-end and the state-of-the-art acquisition board NI PXI-5922, has been realized with improved Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of more than 87 dB at DC and 3-sigma stability of ±0.65 ppm over 1 day. After highlighting the main design enhancements with respect to state-of-the-art solutions, the CMRR measurement is reported. The output drift due to temperature and humidity is assessed to be negligible. Finally, the worst-case repeatability is measured both with shorted-to-ground inputs and with an applied common-mode voltage of 10 V, which represents the nominal working condition.

  1. Enhanced analogue front-end for the measurement of the high state of wide-band voltage pulses with 87 dB common-mode rejection ratio and ±0.65 ppm 1-day offset stability

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    An improved analogue front-end for measuring the high state of trapezoidal voltage pulses with transition duration of 3 μs is presented. A new measurement system, composed by a front-end and the state-of-the-art acquisition board NI PXI-5922, has been realized with improved Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of more than 87 dB at DC and 3-sigma stability of }0.65 ppm over 1 day. After highlighting the main design enhancements with respect to state-of-the-art solutions, the CMRR measurement is reported. The output drift due to temperature and humidity is assessed to be negligible. Finally, the worst-case repeatability is measured both with shorted-to-ground inputs and with an applied common-mode voltage of 10 V, which represents the nominal working condition.

  2. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  3. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  4. Pretransplant identification of acute rejection risk following kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lebranchu (Yvon); C.C. Baan (Carla); L. Biancone (Luigi); C. Legendre (Christophe); J.M. Morales (José Maria); L. Naesens; O. Thomusch (Oliver); P. Friend (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLack of an accepted definition for 'high immunological risk' hampers individualization of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. For recipient-related risk factors for acute rejection, the most compelling evidence points to younger age and African American ethnicity. Rec

  5. Pretransplant identification of acute rejection risk following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebranchu, Yvon; Baan, Carla; Biancone, Luigi; Legendre, Christophe; Morales, José Maria; Naesens, Maarten; Thomusch, Oliver; Friend, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Lack of an accepted definition for 'high immunological risk' hampers individualization of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. For recipient-related risk factors for acute rejection, the most compelling evidence points to younger age and African American ethnicity. Recipient gender, body mass, previous transplantation, and concomitant infection or disease do not appear to be influential. Deceased donation now has only a minor effect on rejection risk, but older donor age remains a significant predictor. Conventional immunological markers (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] mismatching, pretransplant anti-HLA alloantibodies, and panel reactive antibodies) are being reassessed in light of growing understanding about the role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). At the time of transplant, delayed graft function is one of the most clear-cut risk factors for acute rejection. Extended cold ischemia time (≥ 24 h) may also play a contributory role. While it is not yet possible to establish conclusively the relative contribution of different risk factors for acute rejection after kidney transplantation, the available data point to variables that should be taken into account at the time of transplant. Together, these offer a realistic basis for planning an appropriate immunosuppression regimen in individual patients.

  6. Compact filtering monopole patch antenna with dual-band rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a compact ultra-wideband patch antenna with dual-band rejection is proposed. The proposed antenna filters 3.3-3.8 GHz WiMAX and 5.15-5.85 GHz WLAN by respectively rejecting these bands through a C-shaped slit and a λg/4 resonator. The λg/4 resonator is positioned as a pair, centered around the microstrip line, and a C-type slit is inserted into an elliptical patch. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 2.9-9.3 GHz, which satisfies the bandwidth for ultra-wideband communication systems. Further, the proposed antenna provides dual-band rejection at two bands: 3.2-3.85 and 4.7-6.03 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna is omnidirectional, and antenna gain is maintained constantly while showing -8.4 and -1.5 dBi at the two rejected bands, respectively.

  7. 48 CFR 619.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration recommendations. The Procurement Executive is the agency head for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 619.505 Section 619.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  8. 48 CFR 1319.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) The designee authorized to render a decision on the Small Business Administration's appeal of the contracting officer's decision is set forth in CAM 1301.70... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small...

  9. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reject the offer simply because it specifies a bid acceptance time that is shorter than that contained in... that the bid as submitted is in such a form that acceptance would create a valid and binding contract... determination that the bid as submitted is in such form that acceptance would not create a valid and...

  10. Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) for Variable Heat Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology leverages the temperature dependent phase change of shape memory alloys (SMAs) to drive the shape of a flexible radiator panel. The opening/closing of the radiator panel, as a function of temperature, passively adapts the radiator's rate of heat rejection in response to a vehicle's needs.

  11. Nucleic Acid Drugs for Prevention of Cardiac Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation has been broadly performed in humans. However, occurrence of acute and chronic rejection has not yet been resolved. Several inflammatory factors, such as cytokines and adhesion molecules, enhance the rejection. The graft arterial disease (GAD, which is a type of chronic rejection, is characterized by intimal thickening comprised of proliferative smooth muscle cells. Specific treatments that target the attenuation of acute rejection and GAD formation have not been well studied in cardiac transplantation. Recent progress in the nucleic acid drugs, such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs to regulate the transcription of disease-related genes, has important roles in therapeutic applications. Transfection of cis-element double-stranded DNA, named as “decoy,” has been also reported to be a useful nucleic acid drug. This decoy strategy has been not only a useful method for the experimental studies of gene regulation but also a novel clinical strategy. In this paper, we reviewed the experimental results of NF-κB, E2F, AP-1, and STAT-1 decoy and other ODNs using the experimental heart transplant models.

  12. Tracking and disturbance rejection for fully actuated mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Weiss, George

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we solve the tracking and disturbance rejection problem for fully actuated passive mechanical systems. We assume that the reference signal r and its first two derivatives r, r are available to the controller and the disturbance signal d can be decomposed into a finite superposition of

  13. Perceived parental rejection mediates the effects of previous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... problems related to perceived parental rejection underlie the ... Childhood abuse can lead to the manifestation in later ... In the United States,. Moylan et ... schools were included in the study. ... International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and ... (emotional, physical and sexual abuse; emotional and.

  14. Noninvasive methods of rejection diagnosis after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemkes, B M; Schütz, A; Engelhardt, M; Brandl, U; Breuer, M

    1992-01-01

    For clinical follow-up and prognosis in heart transplant patients, it is important to understand accurately the presence and extent of cardiac allograft rejection. Since the introduction of endomyocardial biopsy, almost 40 different noninvasive diagnostic procedures for the recognition of myocardial rejection have been proposed. However, endomyocardial biopsy is invasive and not suitable for frequent monitoring. If the pattern of rejection shows a focal distribution, false-negative results can be expected. Discrepancies between biopsy findings and allograft function are obviously possible. State-of-the-art information will be given on the most reliable noninvasive methods for rejection diagnosis, which can be differentiated from electrophysiology (fast-Fourier-transformed electrocardiography and intramyocardial electrocardiography), echocardiography, immunologic methods (cytoimmunologic monitoring, transferrin receptors, and interleukin-2 receptors), various biochemical markers (neopterines, prolactin, urinary polyamines, and beta 2-microglobulins), radioisotopic techniques (antimyosin-monoclonal antibodies, thallium, technetium, and gallium scintigraphy and indium-labeled cells), as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Thus modified and patient-adapted antirejection therapy can be provided if the decision for or against antirejection therapy is not based on biopsy findings alone but rather is confirmed along with histologic, electrophysiologic, biochemical, immunologic, and functional parameters.

  15. Rejected Ballots and Democratic Consolidation in Ghana's Fourth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    This paper discusses the incidence of rejected ballots in Ghana since. 1992 and ..... Heritage Party (PHP) respectively garnered 2.86% and 1.76% of the valid ..... of the ballot papers by voters may lead to spoilt ballots as the ink may end up.

  16. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  17. Rejection of false saturation data in optical pulse-oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Marchionni, Paolo; Carnielli, Virgilio

    2010-04-01

    Pulse oximetry (PO) is a non-invasive medical device used for monitoring of the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and in particular of haemoglobin oxygenation in blood. Oxygen saturation is commonly used in any setting where the patient blood oxygen saturation is unstable, including Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The main factor affecting PO's output data is the presence of voluntary or involuntary motion artifacts or imperfect skin-sensor contact. Various methods have been employed to reject motion artifact but have met with little success. The aim of the present work is to propose a novel measurement procedure for real-time monitoring and validation of the oxygen saturation data as measured in standard pulse oxymeter. The procedure should be able to individuate and reject erroneous saturation data due to incorrect transducer-skin contact or motion artifact. In the case of short sequences of rejected SpO2 data (time durationoximeter (HRSAT) and the SpO2 value. In order to remove the erroneous SpO2 values reported in the rough data in coincidence of motion artifact (top, right), we have implemented a specific algorithm which provides at the output a new sequence of SpO2 data (validated SpO2 data). With the aim to "rescue" SpO2 value rejected by the previously presented algorithm, we have implemented an algorithm able to provide the "most-probable" SpO2 values in the case of single rejected values or in the case of short sequences of invalidated data (oximeter are not validated by the use of our method (corresponding to a total time of 16 hr, 8min and 40s). The use of the proposed algorithm aiming to "rescue" data from short sequences of rejected data (< 8s) allows to increase the validated data of the 2.5%t(equivalent to 8hr, 40 min and 16s), allowing a percent of usable data of the 95.7%. Once implemented in clinic, it could be used to identify the period of the day in which the percent of rejected data increase or correlate this data to clinical procedure

  18. Fate of Manuscripts Rejected From the Red Journal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B., E-mail: emmaholliday@gmail.com [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yang, George [The University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Bennett, Katherine Egan; Grace, Calley [Scientific Publications, American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate characteristics associated with higher rates of acceptance for original manuscripts submitted for publication to the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (IJROBP) and describe the fate of rejected manuscripts. Methods and Materials: Manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP from May 1, 2010, to August 31, 2010, and May 1, 2012, to August 31, 2012, were evaluated for author demographics and acceptance status. A PubMed search was performed for each IJROBP-rejected manuscript to ascertain whether the manuscript was ultimately published elsewhere. The Impact Factor of the accepting journal and the number of citations of the published manuscript were also collected. Results: Of the 500 included manuscripts, 172 (34.4%) were accepted and 328 (65.6%) were rejected. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates according to gender or degree of the submitting author, but there were significant differences seen based on the submitting author's country, rank, and h-index. On multivariate analysis, earlier year submitted (P<.0001) and higher author h-index (P=.006) remained significantly associated with acceptance into the IJROBP. Two hundred thirty-five IJROBP-rejected manuscripts (71.7%) were ultimately published in a PubMed-listed journal as of July 2014. There were no significant differences in any submitting author characteristics. Journals accepting IJROBP-rejected manuscripts had a lower median [interquartile range] 2013 impact factor compared with the IJROBP (2.45 [1.53-3.71] vs 4.176). The IJROBP-rejected manuscripts ultimately published elsewhere had a lower median [interquartile range] number of citations (1 [0-4] vs 6 [2-11]; P<.001), which persisted on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP is approximately one-third, and approximately 70% of rejected manuscripts are ultimately published in other PubMed-listed journals, but these ultimate

  19. Vicarious group-based rejection: creating a potentially dangerous mix of humiliation, powerlessness, and anger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka M Veldhuis

    Full Text Available Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal rejection was followed by two main studies on vicarious group-based rejection. It was found that merely observing rejection of ingroup members can trigger feelings of humiliation that are equally intense as those experienced in response to personal rejection. Moreover, given that the rejection is explicit, vicariously experienced feelings of humiliation can be accompanied by powerlessness and anger. Potentially, this combination of emotions could be an important source of offensive action against rejecters.

  20. Rejection Thresholds in Solid Chocolate-Flavored Compound Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers versus melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate (SOA), a bitter GRAS additive. Paired preference tests (blank vs. spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between two self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (p = 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (p = 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (p = 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. PMID:22924788

  1. Identification and rejection of scattered neutrons in AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şenyiğit, M., E-mail: meneksek@science.ankara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, TR-06100 Tandoğan, Ankara (Turkey); Ataç, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, TR-06100 Tandoğan, Ankara (Turkey); Deptartment of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Akkoyun, S. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kaşkaş, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, TR-06100 Tandoğan, Ankara (Turkey); Bazzacco, D. [INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Recchia, F. [INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Brambilla, S. [INFN Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Camera, F. [Universitá degli Studi di Milano via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Crespi, F.C.L. [INFN Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Farnea, E. [INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Giaz, A. [INFN Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Gottardo, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Kempley, R. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-01-21

    γ Rays and neutrons, emitted following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf, were measured in an AGATA experiment performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy. The setup consisted of four AGATA triple cluster detectors (12 36-fold segmented high-purity germanium crystals), placed at a distance of 50 cm from the source, and 16 HELENA BaF{sub 2} detectors. The aim of the experiment was to study the interaction of neutrons in the segmented high-purity germanium detectors of AGATA and to investigate the possibility to discriminate neutrons and γ rays with the γ-ray tracking technique. The BaF{sub 2} detectors were used for a time-of-flight measurement, which gave an independent discrimination of neutrons and γ rays and which was used to optimise the γ-ray tracking-based neutron rejection methods. It was found that standard γ-ray tracking, without any additional neutron rejection features, eliminates effectively most of the interaction points due to recoiling Ge nuclei after elastic scattering of neutrons. Standard tracking rejects also a significant amount of the events due to inelastic scattering of neutrons in the germanium crystals. Further enhancements of the neutron rejection was obtained by setting conditions on the following quantities, which were evaluated for each event by the tracking algorithm: energy of the first and second interaction point, difference in the calculated incoming direction of the γ ray, and figure-of-merit value. The experimental results of tracking with neutron rejection agree rather well with GEANT4 simulations.

  2. DESIGN OF A CMOS BANDGAP REFERENCE WITH LOWTEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT AND HIGH POWER SUPPLY REJECTION PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Abhisek Dey; Tarun Kanti Bhattacharyya

    2011-01-01

    A high precision temperature compensated CMOS bandgap reference is presented. The proposed circuit employs current-mode architecture that improves the temperature stability of the output reference voltage as well as the power supply rejection when compared to the conventional voltage-mode band gap reference.Using only first order compensation the new architecture can generate an output reference voltage of 550 mV with a peak-to-peak variation of 400μV over a wide temperature range from -25oC ...

  3. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications, Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Wilkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The program goals were to develop and demonstrate significant improvements in processing methods, process controls and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1,370{degrees}C. The program focused on a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-4% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} high temperature ceramic composition and hot-isostatic-pressing as the method of densification. Stage I had as major objectives: (1) comparing injection molding and colloidal consolidation process routes, and selecting one route for subsequent optimization, (2) comparing the performance of water milled and alcohol milled powder and selecting one on the basis of performance data, and (3) adapting several NDE methods to the needs of ceramic processing. The NDE methods considered were microfocus X-ray radiography, computed tomography, ultrasonics, NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent liquid dye penetrant and X-ray diffraction residual stress analysis. The colloidal consolidation process route was selected and approved as the forming technique for the remainder of the program. The material produced by the final Stage II optimized process has been given the designation NCX 5102 silicon nitride. According to plan, a large number of specimens were produced and tested during Stage III to establish a statistically robust room temperature tensile strength database for this material. Highlights of the Stage III process demonstration and resultant database are included in the main text of the report, along with a synopsis of the NCX-5102 aqueous based colloidal process. The R and D accomplishments for Stage I are discussed in Appendices 1--4, while the tensile strength-fractography database for the Stage III NCX-5102 process demonstration is provided in Appendix 5. 4 refs., 108 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Donor MHC gene to mitigate rejection of transplantation in recipient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tong; ZHANG Zhi-tai; LI Hui; YAN Jun; TAN Jia-li; L(U) Yue-ping; HOU Sheng-cai; LI Shen-tao; XU Qing; TONG Xue-hong; DING Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background Donor organ rejection continues to be a significant problem for patients receiving transplants.We therefore tested whether transferring a donor's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene to the recipient would mitigate the rejection of transplanted hearts in mice.Methods H-2Kkgene from donor mice was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligated into a mammalian expression vector,which was then transfected into thymus ground mass cells collected from the recipients.Clones stably expressing the transgene were then injected into the recipients' thymus visualized using ultrasound.Control mice were administered cells previously transfected with empty vector.Following heart transplantation,cardiac activity was monitored electrocardiographically.Recipient thymus cells were tested for MHC antigenicity using flow cytometry and spleen cells were subjected to mixed lymphocyte culture tests.Finally,the transplanted hearts were sectioned,stained and examined under light microscopy.Results Southern analysis following nested PCR revealed clear expression of H-2Kk gene.Following transplantation,electrocardiosignals were detectable highly significantly longer in recipients administered thymal cells expressing donor H-2Kk than in those receiving control cells.Flow cytometric analysis using an anti-H-2Kk antibody confirmed its expression in H-2Kk treated recipients but not in control mice.Mixed lymphocyte cultures containing H-2Kk treated cells showed significantly less proliferation than those containing control cells.Hearts from control mice showed substantially greater lymphocyte infiltration than those from H-2Kk treated mice and large areas of necrosis.Conclusion Rejection of transplanted hearts can be mitigated substantially by introducing the donor's MHC into the recipient.

  5. Immunosuppressive therapy mitigates immunological rejection of human embryonic stem cell xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Schrepfer, Sonja; Govaert, Johannes A; Cao, Feng; Ransohoff, Katie; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Haddad, Munif; Connolly, Andrew J; Davis, Mark M; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2008-09-02

    Given their self-renewing and pluripotent capabilities, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are well poised as a cellular source for tissue regeneration therapy. However, the host immune response against transplanted hESCs is not well characterized. In fact, controversy remains as to whether hESCs have immune-privileged properties. To address this issue, we used in vivo bioluminescent imaging to track the fate of transplanted hESCs stably transduced with a double-fusion reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced GFP. We show that survival after transplant is significantly limited in immunocompetent as opposed to immunodeficient mice. Repeated transplantation of hESCs into immunocompetent hosts results in accelerated hESC death, suggesting an adaptive donor-specific immune response. Our data demonstrate that transplanted hESCs trigger robust cellular and humoral immune responses, resulting in intragraft infiltration of inflammatory cells and subsequent hESC rejection. Moreover, we have found CD4(+) T cells to be an important modulator of hESC immune-mediated rejection. Finally, we show that immunosuppressive drug regimens can mitigate the anti-hESC immune response and that a regimen of combined tacrolimus and sirolimus therapies significantly prolongs survival of hESCs for up to 28 days. Taken together, these data suggest that hESCs are immunogenic, trigger both cellular and humoral-mediated pathways, and, as a result, are rapidly rejected in xenogeneic hosts. This process can be mitigated by a combined immunosuppressive regimen as assessed by molecular imaging approaches.

  6. Plasma cell-rich acute rejection of the renal allograft: A distinctive morphologic form of acute rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Sharma, A; Mahanta, P J; Agarwal, S K; Dinda, A K

    2012-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic features of plasma cell-rich acute rejection (PCAR) of renal allograft and comparing them with acute cellular rejection (ACR), non-plasma cell-rich type. During a 2-year period, eight renal allograft biopsies were diagnosed as PCAR (plasma cells >10% of interstitial infiltrate). For comparison, 14 biopsies with ACR were included in the study. Detailed pretransplant data, serum creatinine at presentation, and other clinical features of all these cases were noted. Renal biopsy slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry performed for characterization of plasma cell infiltrate. The age range and duration of transplantation to diagnosis of acute rejection were comparable in both the groups. Histologically, the proportion of interstitial plasma cells, mean interstitial inflammation, and tubulitis score were higher in the PCAR group compared with cases with ACR. A significant difference was found in the outcome at last follow-up, being worse in patients with PCAR. This study shows that PCAR portends a poor outcome compared with ACR, with comparable Banff grade of rejection. Due to its rarity and recent description, nephrologists and renal pathologists need to be aware of this entity.

  7. Gender and social rejection as risk factors for engaging in risky sexual behavior among crack/cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopetz, Catalina; Pickover, Alison; Magidson, Jessica F; Richards, Jessica M; Iwamoto, Derek; Lejuez, C W

    2014-06-01

    Crack/cocaine and engagement in risky sexual behavior represent important contributors to the escalation of the HIV infection among women. Several lines of research have emphasized the role of social factors in women's vulnerability for such practices and stressed the importance of understanding such factors to better inform prevention efforts and improve their effectiveness and efficiency. However, few studies have attempted to pinpoint specific social/contextual factors particularly relevant to high-risk populations such as female crack/cocaine users. Extensive previous research has related the experience of social rejection to a variety of negative outcomes including, but not limited to, various forms of psychopathology, self-defeating, and self-harm behavior. Motivated by this research, the current study explored the role of laboratory-induced social rejection in moderating the relationship between gender and risky sexual behavior among a sample of crack/cocaine users (n = 211) at high risk for HIV. The results showed that among women, but not among men, experiencing social rejection was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners. Further, experiencing social rejection was not related to the frequency of condom use. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  8. Analysis of Sera of Recipients with Allograft Rejection Indicates That Keratin 1 Is the Target of Anti-Endothelial Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuli; Hu, Juan; Luo, Weiguang; Luo, Qizhi; Guo, Jing; Tian, Fang; Ming, Yingzi

    2017-01-01

    Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECAs) are usually directed against the surface antigens on the vascular endothelial cells. Clinical studies suggest a pathogenic role for nonhuman leukocyte antigen in antibody-mediated rejection; however, the antigens on the donor vascular endothelium that serve as the first-line targets for an immune response during allograft rejection have not been fully identified. Here, we used immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify antigens from the sera of kidney transplant recipients who were experiencing antibody-mediated rejection. Keratin 1 (KRT1) was identified as a novel antigenic target expressed on endothelial cells. To validate our finding, we produced recombinant proteins representing the three most common alleles of KRT1. The serum used for immunoprecipitation showed a strong reaction to KRT1 recombinants in western blot and ELISA. In the kidney transplant cohort, more AECA-positive recipients than AECA-negative recipients had KRT1 antibodies (32.2% versus 11.9%, p = 0.002). Sera from 255 renal recipients were tested by ELISA. Of the 77 recipients with deteriorating graft function (serum creatinine > 120 μmol/L), 23 had anti-KRT1 antibodies. KRT1-IgG positivity was, therefore, associated with a higher risk of kidney transplant rejection (29.9% (23/77) versus 16.9% (30/178), p = 0.0187). A better understanding of this antigenic target will improve long-term allograft survival.

  9. How many hot subdwarf stars were rejected from the PG survey?

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, R A; Green, R F

    2004-01-01

    The Palomar-Green (PG) survey for UV-excess objects selected objects with U-B<-0.46 for spectroscopic follow-up. The color selection was done from photographic photometry, with typical error sigma(U-B) = 0.38. Spectroscopic detection of the Ca II K line in color-selected candidates was thought to indicate that a metal-weak cool star (sdF-sdG) had entered the list owing to photometric errors. About 1100 such "K-line" stars were rejected on this basis from the final published PG catalog, as not having "genuine" UV excesses. However, another possibility is that some of these objects are composite (binary) stars, consisting of a hot subdwarf (sdB or sdO) and a cool companion (F-G-K). Recent interest in binary-star formation channels for sdB stars in particular has brought renewed attention to the issue of completeness of lists of known hot subdwarfs, especially ones with cool companions. In this contribution, we attempt to determine that nature of the "rejected" PG candidate stars, by assembling available info...

  10. Robust disturbance rejection control of a biped robotic system using high-order extended state observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fonseca, Nadhynee; Castañeda, Luis Ángel; Uranga, Agustín; Luviano-Juárez, Alberto; Chairez, Isaac

    2016-05-01

    This study addressed the problem of robust control of a biped robot based on disturbance estimation. Active disturbance rejection control was the paradigm used for controlling the biped robot by direct active estimation. A robust controller was developed to implement disturbance cancelation based on a linear extended state observer of high gain class. A robust high-gain scheme was proposed for developing a state estimator of the biped robot despite poor knowledge of the plant and the presence of uncertainties. The estimated states provided by the state estimator were used to implement a feedback controller that was effective in actively rejecting the perturbations as well as forcing the trajectory tracking error to within a small vicinity of the origin. The theoretical convergence of the tracking error was proven using the Lyapunov theory. The controller was implemented by numerical simulations that showed the convergence of the tracking error. A comparison with a high-order sliding-mode-observer-based controller confirmed the superior performance of the controller using the robust observer introduced in this study. Finally, the proposed controller was implemented on an actual biped robot using an embedded hardware-in-the-loop strategy.

  11. A nonlinear optimization approach for disturbance rejection in flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design of an active control law for the rejection of persistent disturbances in large space structures is presented. The control system design approach is based on a deterministic model of the disturbances, with a model-based-compensator (MBC) structure, optimizing the magnitude of the disturbance that the structure can tolerate without violating certain predetermined constraints. In addition to closed-loop stability, the explicit treatment of state, control and control rate constraints, such as structural displacement, control actuator effort, and compensator time guarantees that the final design will exhibit desired performance characteristics. The technique is applied for the vibration damping of a simple two bay truss structure which is subjected to persistent disturbances, such as shuttle docking. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed control system can reject considerable persistent disturbances by utilizing most of the available control, while limiting the structural displacements to within desired tolerances. Further work, however, for incorporating additional design criteria, such as compensator robustness to be traded-off against performance specifications, is warranted.

  12. CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL OF SPECIFIC IONS IN SOIL TREATED WITH REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDLER MILTON PAIVA DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percolation columns constructed in the Laboratory can predict the degree of contamination in soil due to reject brine disposal and can be a tool for reducing environmental impacts. This study aim to evaluate the mobilization of ions in reject brine from desalination process by reverse osmosis. The mobilization of the contaminant ions in the saline waste was studied in glass percolation columns, which were filled with soil of contrasting textures (eutrophic CAMBISOL, typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, ENTISOL Quartzipsamment. Experiments ware repeated three times each, and the initial and final concentrations of the ion contaminants were analyzed. The pollution potential of this wastewater was determined by the retardation factor and dispersion-diffusion coefficient of K+, Cl- and Na+ for each studied soil. The differences in the displacement curves of the ions present in the saline waste among various soil types were analyzed. The Entisol Quartzipsamment showed a higher forward speed of the ions K+ and Cl- (greater retardation factor, i.e., greater power of the subsurface contamination for these ions. In typic dystrophic Red OXISOL, the ions move with greater ease and therefore produced greater groundwater contamination. In eutrophic CAMBISOL, the low coefficient of diffusion-dispersion in all ions was evaluated (i.e., reduced ion mobility is directly influenced by their exchangeable levels.

  13. Design of Compact 4 × 4 UWB-MIMO Antenna with WLAN Band Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Khac Kiem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact 4 × 4 UWB-MIMO antenna with rejected WLAN band employing an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG structure is presented in this paper. The MIMO antenna is electrically small (60 mm × 60 mm, printed on a FR4_epoxy substrate with the dielectric constant of 4.4 and a thickness of 1.6 mm. A mushroom-like EBG structure is used to reject the WLAN frequency at 5.5 GHz. In order to reduce the mutual coupling of the antenna elements, a stub structure acting as a bandstop filter is inserted to suppress the effect of the surface current between elements of the proposed antenna. The final design of the MIMO antenna satisfies the return loss requirement of less than −10 dB in a bandwidth ranging from 2.73 GHz to 10.68 GHz, which entirely covers UWB frequency band, which is allocated from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. The antenna also exhibits a WLAN band-notched performance at the frequency band of 5.36–6.34 GHz while the values of all isolation coefficients are below −15 dB and the correlation coefficient of MIMO antenna is less than −28 dB over the UWB range. A good agreement between simulation and measurement is shown in this context.

  14. BLT1-mediated T cell trafficking is critical for rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Benjamin D; Seung, Edward; Wain, John C; Means, Terry K; Campanella, Gabriele S V; Islam, Sabina A; Thomas, Seddon Y; Ginns, Leo C; Grabie, Nir; Lichtman, Andrew H; Tager, Andrew M; Luster, Andrew D

    2005-07-04

    Leukotriene B4 is a lipid mediator that recently has been shown to have potent chemotactic activity for effector T lymphocytes mediated through its receptor, BLT1. Here, we developed a novel murine model of acute lung rejection to demonstrate that BLT1 controls effector CD8+ T cell trafficking into the lung and that disruption of BLT1 signaling in CD8+ T cells reduces lung inflammation and mortality in the model. In addition, we used BLT1-deficient mice and a BLT1 antagonist in two tracheal transplant models of lung transplantation to demonstrate the importance of BLT1 for the recruitment of T cells into tracheal allografts. We also show that BLT1-mediated CD8+ T cell recruitment plays an important role in the development of airway fibroproliferation and obliteration. Finally, in human studies of lung transplant recipients, we found that BLT1 is up-regulated on T lymphocytes isolated from the airways of patients with obliterative bronchiolitis. These data demonstrate that BLT1 contributes to the development of lung rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis by mediating effector T lymphocyte trafficking into the lung. This is the first report that describes a pathologic role for BLT1-mediated T lymphocyte recruitment in disease and identifies BLT1 as a potential therapeutic target after lung transplantation.

  15. ST2 IN REJECTION OF THE TRANSPLANTED HEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current literature devoted to the analysis of prognostic role of ST2 biomarker in rejection of the transplanted heart. ST2 is one of the most promising diagnostic markers of the development and severity of heart failure as well as the mortality risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases. ST2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes in response to a variety of pathological processes and mechanical damage to the heart, which allows diagnosing cardiovascular diseases before clinical manifestations. Presumably, measuring the level of ST2 in heart transplant may have diagnostic and prognostic value in the assessment of graft and risk of rejection. Currently, accumulated clinical data on the role of given biomarker in heart transplantation are not enough, and further research on the relation of ST2 levels with different clinical and laboratory parameters in heart recipients is necessary. 

  16. Recurrence and rejection in liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bjarte Fosby; Tom H Karlsen; Espen Melum

    2012-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease affecting the bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis in most patients. Its etiology is unknown and so far no effective medical therapy is available. Liver transplantation (LTX) is the only curative treatment and at present PSC is the main indication for LTX in the Scandinavian countries. Close to half of the PSC patients experience one or more episodes of acute cellular rejection (ACR) following transplantation and approximately 1/5 of the transplanted patients develop recurrent disease in the graft. In addition, some reports indicate that ACR early after LTX for PSC can influence the risk for recurrent disease. For these important post-transplantation entities affecting PSC patients, we have reviewed the current literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment and the possible influence of rejection on the risk of recurrent disease in the allograft.

  17. Modified active disturbance rejection control for time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shen; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Industrial processes are typically nonlinear, time-varying and uncertain, to which active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective solution. The control design becomes even more challenging in the presence of time delay. In this paper, a novel modification of ADRC is proposed so that good disturbance rejection is achieved while maintaining system stability. The proposed design is shown to be more effective than the standard ADRC design for time-delay systems and is also a unified solution for stable, critical stable and unstable systems with time delay. Simulation and test results show the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed design. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) based stability analysis is provided as well.

  18. Control of Spacecraft Formation with Disturbance Rejection and Exponential Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schlanbusch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of state feedback translational motion control of a spacecraft formation through a modified sliding surface controller using variable gains and I^2 action for disturbance rejection. The exponential varying gains ensure faster convergence of the state trajectories during attitude maneuver while keeping the gains small (and the system less stiff for station keeping. Integral action is introduced for rejection of disturbances with a constant nonzero mean such as aerodynamic drag. A direct consequence is a drop in energy consumption when affected by sensor noise and a decrease in size of the error states residual when operating close to the equilibrium point. A large number of simulation results are presented to show the control performance.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Air-Based Heat Rejection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Fugmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Number of Transfer Units (NTU method a functional relation between electric power for fans/pumps and effectiveness in dry coolers and wet cooling towers is developed. Based on this relation, a graphical presentation method of monitoring and simulation data of heat rejection units is introduced. The functional relation allows evaluating the thermodynamic performance of differently sized heat rejection units and comparing performance among them. The method is used to evaluate monitoring data of dry coolers of different solar cooling field projects. The novelty of this approach is that performance rating is not limited by a design point or standardized operating conditions of the heat exchanger, but is realizable under flexible conditions.

  20. Self-excitation in Francis runner during load rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, É.; Giacobbi, D.-B.; Gagnon, M.; Léonard, F.

    2014-03-01

    Typically, transients such as load rejection generate only a few high vibration cycles in Francis runners. However, in the cases presented in this study, a sustained vibration around a natural frequency was observed on three (3) homologous Francis runners of different sizes during such events. The first two (2) runners were equipped with strain gauges on the blades and displacement sensors positioned circumferentially in the bottom ring and head cover around the runner labyrinth seals. The third runner was monitored only with displacement sensors on non-rotating components. The data from the first two (2) runners provided a better understanding of the parameters influencing the appearance of the high amplitude vibrations and allowed the implementation of a test plan to circumvent the phenomenon during commissioning of the third runner. Based on the measured data, the distributor's closing parameters were optimized to eliminate the vibration observed during load rejection on most of the operating range and reduce it significantly at full load.

  1. Heat pipe radiator. [for spacecraft waste heat rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdling, B.; Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    A 15,000 watt spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels was investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500 watt radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000 watt system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiating fin. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon-21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. Descriptions of the results of the system studies and details of the radiator design are included along with the test results for both the heat pipe components and the assembled radiator panel. These results support the feasibility of using heat pipes in a spacecraft waste heat rejection system.

  2. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; NG, Yolanda; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-05

    Background: Urine exosomes, vesicles exocytosed into urine by all renal epithelial cell types, occur under normal physiologic and disease states. Exosome contents may mirror disease-specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed and for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration from mid-stream, second morning void, urine samples collected from kidney transplant recipients with and without biopsy matched acute rejection. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Uexo) underwent mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR). Results: Identifications of 1018 and 349 proteins, Uw and Uexo fractions, respectively, demonstrated a 279 protein overlap between the two urinary compartments with 25%(70) of overlapping proteins unique to Uexoand represented membrane bound proteins (p=9.31e-7). Of 349 urine exosomal proteins identified in transplant patients 220 were not previously identified in the normal urine exosomal fraction. Uexo proteins (11), functioning in the inflammatory / stress response, were more abundant in patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, 3 of which were exclusive to Uexo. Uexo AR-specific biomarkers (8) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusions: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Uexo proteins was applied. Urine proteins specific to the exosomal fraction were detected either in unfractionated urine (at low abundances) or by Uexo fraction analysis. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were

  3. Disturbance Rejection for Fractional-Order Time-Delay Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Peng Jiang; Yong-Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an equivalent-input-disturbance (EID-) based disturbance rejection method for fractional-order time-delay systems. First, a modified state observer is applied to reconstruct the state of the fractional-order time-delay plant. Then, a disturbance estimator is designed to actively compensate for the disturbances. Under such a construction of the system, by constructing a novel monochromatic Lyapunov function and using direct Lyapunov approach, the stability analysis and cont...

  4. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  5. Daclizumab prevents acute renal allograft rejection: 1 year analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Pan; Wujun Xue; Puxun Tian; Xiaoming Ding

    2007-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the clinical effect of Daclizumab on preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients.Methods:71 patients were randomly divided into two groups:Daclizumab group (n =26) and control group (n = 45). Baseline regimen of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin (CsA), methylprednisolone (MPD) and prednisone (Pred) were administered to all patients. The treatment of Daclizumab was based on baseline regimen. The Daclizumab group received Daclizumab twice before and after renal transplant. The occurrence of post-transplantation acute rejection, renal function and T lymphocyte subtypes were sequentially monitored; meanwhile adverse events, infection episode, and patient and graft survival were observed.All of patients received a follow-up of 12 months at least. Results :The occurrence of acute rejection in Daclizumab group in 1,3, 6 and 12 months after renal transplantation was 7.7%, 19.2%, 23.1% and 30.8%, respectively,while it was 15.6% ,28.9%,35.6% and 46.7% in the control group. There was significant difference between the two group(P < 0.05). There was no difference in infection episodes and adverse events between the Daclizumab group and control group. One year patient survival was 92.3% in Daclizumab group, 91.1% in control group (P > 0.05), compared with graft survival of 96.2 % and 93.3 % for Daclizumab and control group, respectively (P > 0. 05). The renal function in Daclizumab group in 1, 6 and 12 months after renal transplantation was better than that in control group (P < 0.05). The CD3+ and CD4+ subtypes decreased in both two groups after operation but no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion:Daclizumab combined with MMF, CsA, MPD and Pred therapeutic regimen was effective to reduce the occurrence of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients and have no influence on T lymphocyte subtypes.

  6. Performance Comparison of Thin and Thick Film Microstrip Rejection Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Mandhare, M. M.; S.A. Gangal; M. S. Setty; Karekar, R. N.

    1988-01-01

    A performance comparison of microstripline circuits using thin and thick film techniques has been studied, in which a Microstrip rejection filter, in the X-band of microwaves, is used as test circuit. A thick film technique is capable of giving good adhesive films with comparable d.c. sheet resistivity, but other parameters such as open area (porosity), particle size, and edge definition are inferior to thin-film microstrip filters. Despite this drawback, the average value of transmission, tr...

  7. Domestic violence and rejection of LGBT children in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević, Zorica

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides analysis of different forms of violence against LGBT children within the regime of so-called forced normalization (Butler) committed by their parents and other close relatives. These regimes are often rigid normative type, much less of the flexible type of normalizing. The term 'production of the body' in the case of domestic violence against LGBT chil­dren comprises rejection, threats, forced medical treatment, various forms of physical and psychological violence and eject...

  8. Inferring Acceptance and Rejection in Dialogue by Default Rules of Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the processes by which conversants in a dialogue can infer whether their assertions and proposals have been accepted or rejected by their conversational partners. It expands on previous work by showing that logical consistency is a necessary indicator of acceptance, but that it is not sufficient, and that logical inconsistency is sufficient as an indicator of rejection, but it is not necessary. I show how conversants can use information structure and prosody as well as logical reasoning in distinguishing between acceptances and logically consistent rejections, and relate this work to previous work on implicature and default reasoning by introducing three new classes of rejection: {\\sc implicature rejections}, {\\sc epistemic rejections} and {\\sc deliberation rejections}. I show how these rejections are inferred as a result of default inferences, which, by other analyses, would have been blocked by the context. In order to account for these facts, I propose a model of the common ground that...

  9. Rejection of trace organic compounds by high-pressure membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T U; Amy, G; Drewes, J E

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure membranes, encompassing reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and low-pressure RO, may provide an effective treatment barrier for trace organic compounds including disinfection by-products (DBPs), pesticides, solvents, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). The objective is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the rejection of trace organic compounds by high-pressure membranes, based on an integrated framework of compound properties, membrane properties, and operational conditions. Eight trace organic compounds, four DBPs and four chlorinated (halogenated) solvents, are being emphasized during an initial study, based on considerations of compound properties, occurrence, and health effects (regulations). Four polyamide FilmTec membranes; three reverse osmosis/RO (BW-400, LE-440, XLE-440) and one nanofiltration/NF (NF-90); are being characterized according to pure water permeability (PWP), molecular weight cutoff (MWCO), hydrophobicity (contact angle), and surface charge (zeta potential). It is noteworthy that rejections of compounds of intermediate hydrophobicity by the candidate membranes were observed to be less than salt rejections reported for these membranes, suggesting that transport of these solutes through these membranes is facilitated by solute-membrane interactions. We are continuing with diffusion cell measurements to describe solute-membrane interactions by estimation of diffusion coefficients through membranes pores, either hindered or facilitated.

  10. Exploiting Reject Option in Classification for Social Discrimination Control

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2017-09-29

    Social discrimination is said to occur when an unfavorable decision for an individual is influenced by her membership to certain protected groups such as females and minority ethnic groups. Such discriminatory decisions often exist in historical data. Despite recent works in discrimination-aware data mining, there remains the need for robust, yet easily usable, methods for discrimination control. In this paper, we utilize reject option in classification, a general decision theoretic framework for handling instances whose labels are uncertain, for modeling and controlling discriminatory decisions. Specifically, this framework permits a formal treatment of the intuition that instances close to the decision boundary are more likely to be discriminated in a dataset. Based on this framework, we present three different solutions for discrimination-aware classification. The first solution invokes probabilistic rejection in single or multiple probabilistic classifiers while the second solution relies upon ensemble rejection in classifier ensembles. The third solution integrates one of the first two solutions with situation testing which is a procedure commonly used in the court of law. All solutions are easy to use and provide strong justifications for the decisions. We evaluate our solutions extensively on four real-world datasets and compare their performances with previously proposed discrimination-aware classifiers. The results demonstrate the superiority of our solutions in terms of both performance and flexibility of applicability. In particular, our solutions are effective at removing illegal discrimination from the predictions.

  11. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Optical axis jitter rejection for double overlapped adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Luo, Xi; Li, Xinyang

    2016-04-01

    Optical axis jitters, or vibrations, which arise from wind shaking and structural oscillations of optical platforms, etc., cause a deleterious impact on the performance of adaptive optics systems. When conventional integrators are utilized to reject such high frequency and narrow-band disturbance, the benefits are quite small despite their acceptable capabilities to reject atmospheric turbulence. In our case, two suits of complete adaptive optics systems called double overlapped adaptive optics systems (DOAOS) are used to counteract both optical jitters and atmospheric turbulence. A novel algorithm aiming to remove vibrations is proposed by resorting to combine the Smith predictor and notch filer. With the help of loop shaping method, the algorithm will lead to an effective and stable controller, which makes the characteristics of error transfer function close to notch filters. On the basis of the spectral analysis of observed data, the peak frequency and bandwidth of vibrations can be identified in advance. Afterwards, the number of notch filters and their parameters will be determined using coordination descending method. The relationship between controller parameters and filtering features is discussed, and the robustness of the controller against varying parameters of the control object is investigated. Preliminary experiments are carried out to validate the proposed algorithms. The overall control performance of DOAOS is simulated. Results show that time delays are a limit of the performance, but the algorithm can be successfully implemented on our systems, which indicate that it has a great potential to reject jitters.

  13. An author’s guide to submission, revision and rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    ‘Continuous effort, not strength or intelligence, is the key to understanding our potential.’ Winston Churchill The sting of rejection is nasty. However, when you get that letter (which you will), remember you will be in esteemed company. Many of us would like to publish in Science or Nature but what better revenge when they reject you than a Nobel Prize! This is exactly what happened to Hans Krebs, the biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1953 for discovering the citric acid cycle, commonly known as the Krebs cycle. Krebs submitted his findings to Nature but was faced with rejection. Never has Frank Sinatra’s famous quote been truer: ‘The best revenge is massive success.’ Nature has admitted to many other such faux pas in its publishing history and it is not unique in its misjudgements. Publishing is a game of risk-taking behaviour and strategy. Authors must convince editors and referees that their work is worthy of publishing. When journals do not publish this work, authors must remember the value of their manuscript and persist in finding it another home. JYOTI SHAH Commissioning Editor PMID:26492899

  14. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  15. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Thomas James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  17. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  18. Control System Design of Shunt Active Power Filter Based on Active Disturbance Rejection and Repetitive Control Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Le Ge; Xiaodong Yuan; Zhong Yang

    2014-01-01

    To rely on joint active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) and repetitive control (RC), in this paper, a compound control law for active power filter (APF) current control system is proposed. According to the theory of ADRC, the uncertainties in the model and from the circumstance outside are considered as the unknown disturbance to the system. The extended state observer can evaluate the unknown disturbance. Next, RC is introduced into current loop to improve the steady characteristics. Th...

  19. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  20. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  1. 42 CFR 424.525 - Rejection of a provider or supplier's enrollment application for Medicare enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of a provider or supplier's enrollment... provider or supplier's enrollment application for Medicare enrollment. (a) Reasons for rejection. CMS may reject a provider or supplier's enrollment application for the following reasons: (1) The...

  2. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Didie, Elizabeth R; Phillips, Katharine A

    2014-06-01

    Although rejection sensitivity may be an important feature of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), no studies have examined rejection sensitivity in a clinical sample and compared types of rejection sensitivity in individuals with BDD. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity scores in forty-six patients diagnosed with BDD were compared with published norms. Associations between rejection sensitivity, BDD severity, and other clinical variables were examined. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity scores were 0.6 and 1.1 standard deviation units above published norms, respectively. Greater personal rejection sensitivity was associated with more severe BDD and depressive symptoms, poorer mental health, general health, and physical and social functioning. Greater appearance-based rejection sensitivity was associated with more severe BDD and depressive symptoms, and poorer general health. Appearance-based rejection sensitivity contributed more unique variance to BDD severity than personal rejection sensitivity did; however, personal rejection sensitivity contributed more unique variance to general health than appearance-based rejection sensitivity did.

  3. Could a factor that does not affect egg recognition influence the decision of rejection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Soler, Manuel; Sanchez-Perez, Lucia L. I.; Ibanez-Alamo, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Rejection of the parasitic egg is the most important defence of hosts against brood parasites. However, this response is variable among and within species, and egg discrimination is not always followed by egg rejection. Low risk of parasitism and high risk of rejection costs may lead to the

  4. Vicarious Group-Based Rejection : Creating a Potentially Dangerous Mix of Humiliation, Powerlessness, and Anger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Tinka M.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal

  5. Rejection Sensitivity and College Student Depression: Findings and Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether rejection sensitivity, or the fear of interpersonal rejection, was related to depression among college students. The regression model that resulted from the study indicated that level of rejection sensitivity accounted for approximately 11% of variance in depression among students in the research. Implications for…

  6. Could a factor that does not affect egg recognition influence the decision of rejection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Soler, Manuel; Sanchez-Perez, Lucia L. I.; Ibanez-Alamo, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Rejection of the parasitic egg is the most important defence of hosts against brood parasites. However, this response is variable among and within species, and egg discrimination is not always followed by egg rejection. Low risk of parasitism and high risk of rejection costs may lead to the acceptan

  7. 41 CFR 102-38.210 - What happens when bids have been rejected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have been rejected? 102-38.210 Section 102-38.210 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Bids Acceptance of Bids § 102-38.210 What happens when bids have been rejected? You may re-offer items for which all bids have been rejected at the same sale, if possible, or...

  8. A Simulative Study on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC as a Control Tool for Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Herbst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to both classical PID-type and modern model-based approaches to solving control problems, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC has gained significant traction in recent years. With its simple tuning method and robustness against process parameter variations, it puts itself forward as a valuable addition to the toolbox of control engineering practitioners. This article aims at providing a single-source introduction and reference to linear ADRC with this audience in mind. A simulative study is carried out using generic first- and second-order plants to enable a quick visual assessment of the abilities of ADRC. Finally, a modified form of the discrete-time case is introduced to speed up real-time implementations as necessary in applications with high dynamic requirements.

  9. Flatness-based active disturbance rejection control for linear systems with unknown time-varying coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congzhi; Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt

    2015-12-01

    A flatness-based active disturbance rejection control approach is proposed to deal with the linear systems with unknown time-varying coefficients and external disturbances. By selecting appropriate nominal values for the parameters of the system, all the deviation between the nominal and actual dynamics of the controlled process, as well as all the external disturbances can be viewed as a total disturbance. Based on the accurately estimated total disturbance with the aid of the proposed extended state observer, a linear proportional derivative feedback control law taking into account the derivatives of the desired output is designed to eliminate the effect of the total disturbance on the system performance. Finally, the load frequency control problem of a single-area power system with non-reheated unit is employed as an illustrative example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Performance analysis of active disturbance rejection tracking control for a class of uncertain LTI systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenchao; Huang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The paper considers the tracking problem for a class of uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) systems with both uncertain parameters and external disturbances. The active disturbance rejection tracking controller is designed and the resulting closed-loop system's characteristics are comprehensively studied. In the time-domain, it is proven that the output of closed-loop system can approach its ideal trajectory in the transient process against different kinds of uncertainties by tuning the bandwidth of extended state observer (ESO). In the frequency-domain, different kinds of parameters' influences on the phase margin and the crossover frequency of the resulting control system are illuminated. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are verified through the actuator position control system with uncertain parameters and load disturbances in the simulations.

  11. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  12. The Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) Survey of Galactic HI: Final data release of the combined LDS and IAR surveys with improved stray-radiation corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaberla, P.M.W.; Burton, W.B.; Hartmann, L.; Arnal, E.M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W.G.L.

    2005-01-01

    We present the final data release of observations of λ21-cm emission from Galactic neutral hydrogen over the entire sky, merging the Leiden/Dwingeloo Survey (LDS: Hartmann & Burton 1997, Atlas of Galactic Neutral Hydrogen) of the sky north of δ = −30◦ with the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía

  13. Acute mixed cellular and humoral rejection of renal allograft with leucopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, D K; Hota, J K; Malhotra, V

    2011-08-01

    Diagnosis and management of acute renal allograft dysfunction often pose challenge to nephrologists during practice. Acute rejection is a major cause of acute graft dysfunction but is rare in patients with leucopenia. Acute rejection can have either humoral or cellular components or sometimes mixed components. Mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection often present as steroid resistant rejection. Here we report a patient with live related renal transplant recipient with acute graft dysfunction with leucopenia who was found to have mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection.

  14. Variable Structure Disturbance Rejection Control for Nonlinear Uncertain Systems with State and Control Delays via Optimal Sliding Mode Surface Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of variable structure control for nonlinear systems with uncertainty and time delays under persistent disturbance by using the optimal sliding mode surface approach. Through functional transformation, the original time-delay system is transformed into a delay-free one. The approximating sequence method is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal sliding mode surface problem which is reduced to a linear two-point boundary value problem of approximating sequences. The optimal sliding mode surface is obtained from the convergent solutions by solving a Riccati equation, a Sylvester equation, and the state and adjoint vector differential equations of approximating sequences. Then, the variable structure disturbance rejection control is presented by adopting an exponential trending law, where the state and control memory terms are designed to compensate the state and control delays, a feedforward control term is designed to reject the disturbance, and an adjoint compensator is designed to compensate the effects generated by the nonlinearity and the uncertainty. Furthermore, an observer is constructed to make the feedforward term physically realizable, and thus the dynamical observer-based dynamical variable structure disturbance rejection control law is produced. Finally, simulations are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the presented controller and the simplicity of the proposed approach.

  15. Urinary mRNA for the Diagnosis of Renal Allograft Rejection: The Issue of Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galichon, P; Amrouche, L; Hertig, A; Brocheriou, I; Rabant, M; Xu-Dubois, Y-C; Ouali, N; Dahan, K; Morin, L; Terzi, F; Rondeau, E; Anglicheau, D

    2016-05-27

    Urinary messenger RNA (mRNA) quantification is a promising method for noninvasive diagnosis of renal allograft rejection (AR), but the quantification of mRNAs in urine remains challenging due to degradation. RNA normalization may be warranted to overcome these issues, but the strategies of gene normalization have been poorly evaluated. Herein, we address this issue in a case-control study of 108 urine samples collected at time of allograft biopsy in kidney recipients with (n = 52) or without (n = 56) AR by comparing the diagnostic value of IP-10 and CD3ε mRNAs-two biomarkers of AR-after normalization by the total amount of RNA, normalization by one of the three widely used reference RNAs-18S, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-or normalization using uroplakin 1A (UPK) mRNA as a possible urine-specific reference mRNA. Our results show that normalization based on the total quantity of RNA is not substantially improved by additional normalization and may even be worsened with some classical reference genes that are overexpressed during rejection. However, considering that normalization by a reference gene is necessary to ensure polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quality and reproducibility and to suppress the effect of RNA degradation, we suggest that GAPDH and UPK1A are preferable to 18S or HPRT RNA.

  16. Mycophenolate mofetil: safety and efficacy in the prophylaxis of acute kidney transplantation rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Dalal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pranav Dalal1, Monica Grafals2, Darshika Chhabra2, Lorenzo Gallon21Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Chicago, USA; 2Northwestern University–Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USAAbstract: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, a prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA, is an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH. It preferentially inhibits denovo pathway of guanosine nucleotide synthesis in T and B-lymphocytes and prevents their proliferation, thereby suppresses both cell mediated and humoral immune responses. Clinical trials in kidney transplant recipients have shown the efficacy of MMF in reducing the incidence and severity of acute rejection episodes. It also improves long term graft function as well as graft and patient survival in kidney transplant recipients. MMF is useful as a component of toxicity sparing regimens to reduce or avoid exposure of steroids or calcineurin inhibitor (CNI. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS can be used as an alternative immunosuppressive agent in kidney transplant recipients with efficacy and safety profile similar to MMF.Keywords: mycophenolate mofetil, kidney transplantation, acute rejection, toxicity sparing

  17. Donor liver natural killer cells alleviate liver allograft acute rejection in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Dong Yu; Tian-Zhu Long; Guo-Lin Li; Li-Hong Lv; Hao-Ming Lin; Yong-Heng Huang; Ya-Jin Chen; Yun-Le Wan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver enriched natural killer (NK) cells are of high immune activity. However, the function of donor liver NK cells in allogeneic liver transplantation (LTx) remains unclear. METHODS: Ten Gy of whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) from a 60Co source at 0.6 Gy/min was used for depleting donor-derived leukocytes, and transfusion of purified liver NK cells isolated from the same type rat as donor (donor type liver NK cells, dtlNKs) through portal vein was performed immediately after grafting the irradiated liver. Post-transplant survival observation on recipients and histopathological detection of liver grafts were adoptive to evaluate the biological impact of donor liver NK cells on recipients' survival in rat LTx. RESULTS: Transfusion of dtlNKs did not shorten the survival time among the recipients of spontaneous tolerance model (BN to LEW rat) after rat LTx, but prolonged the liver graft survival among the recipients depleted of donor-derived leukocytes in the acute rejection model (LEW to BN rat). Compared to the recipients in the groups which received the graft depleted of donor-derived leukocytes, better survival and less damage in the allografts were also found among the recipients in the two different strain combinations of liver allograft due to transfusion of dtlNKs. CONCLUSIONS: Donor liver NK cells alone do not exacerbate liver allograft acute rejection. Conversely, they can alleviate it, and improve the recipients' survival.

  18. An experimental study of energy balance in low heat rejection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I. [University of Sakarya, Adapazari (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-03-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition, another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on diesel engine energy balance system was investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and inter-cooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and load conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces were coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic-coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic-coated engine. (author)

  19. Linear Classifier with Reject Option for the Detection of Vocal Fold Paralysis and Vocal Fold Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotropoulos, Constantine; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2009-12-01

    Two distinct two-class pattern recognition problems are studied, namely, the detection of male subjects who are diagnosed with vocal fold paralysis against male subjects who are diagnosed as normal and the detection of female subjects who are suffering from vocal fold edema against female subjects who do not suffer from any voice pathology. To do so, utterances of the sustained vowel "ah" are employed from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary database of disordered speech. Linear prediction coefficients extracted from the aforementioned utterances are used as features. The receiver operating characteristic curve of the linear classifier, that stems from the Bayes classifier when Gaussian class conditional probability density functions with equal covariance matrices are assumed, is derived. The optimal operating point of the linear classifier is specified with and without reject option. First results using utterances of the "rainbow passage" are also reported for completeness. The reject option is shown to yield statistically significant improvements in the accuracy of detecting the voice pathologies under study.

  20. Disclosure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and its Effect on Rejection of Students by Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The common psychiatric disorder of attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and the knowledge ofteachers about it are well discussed in literature. While teacherscan play an important role for the management of ADHD, it isnot clear whether informing of teachers about children withADHD affects their behavior and attitude toward the children. Inthe present study, we studied whether the disclosure of childrenwith ADHD is associated with social rejection and negative attitudeof their teachers. In addition, we studied the perception ofteachers for treatment and its benefits.Methods: A total of 558 primary school teachers of students ingrade I in Shiraz, south of Iran, participated in this study. Theycompleted the questionnaires after studying one of the randomlyselected four vignettes. One of the vignettes with inattentive typeand one of the vignettes with hyperactive-impulsive typesymptoms were not labeled as ADHD children.Results: The teachers did not show any difference in theirattitude on various types of disclosed and undisclosed ADHDvignettes. The four groups of teachers were not differentregarding their belief for treatment and its benefits.Conclusion: Parents of the children with ADHD could beassured that informing of teachers about the disorder does notcause the social rejection or negative attitude towards theaffected children. Lack of difference among the teacher groupsfor the necessity of the treatment and its benefits shows thattheir knowledge about ADHD is not enough. Improving theknowledge of teachers about ADHD is a preceding step fordisclosing the children's disorder.

  1. PD1-Expressing T Cell Subsets Modify the Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Rebecca; Thomas, Niclas; Workman, Sarita; Ambrose, Lyn; Guzman, David; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Johnson, Margaret; Thorburn, Douglas; Harber, Mark; Chain, Benny; Stauss, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether multi-parameter immune phenotyping before or after renal ­transplantation can predict the risk of rejection episodes. Blood samples collected before and weekly for 3 months after transplantation were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to define 52 T cell and 13 innate lymphocyte subsets in each sample, producing more than 11,000 data points that defined the immune status of the 28 patients included in this study. Principle component analysis suggested that the patients with histologically confirmed rejection episodes segregated from those without rejection. Protein death 1 (PD-1)-expressing subpopulations of regulatory and conventional T cells had the greatest influence on the principal component segregation. We constructed a statistical tool to predict rejection using a support vector machine algorithm. The algorithm correctly identified 7 out of 9 patients with rejection, and 14 out of 17 patients without rejection. The immune profile before transplantation was most accurate in determining the risk of rejection, while changes of immune parameters after transplantation were less accurate in discriminating rejection from non-rejection. The data indicate that pretransplant immune subset analysis has the potential to identify patients at risk of developing rejection episodes, and suggests that the proportion of PD1-expressing T cell subsets may be a key indicator of rejection risk. PMID:27148254

  2. Clinical and pathological analysis of acute rejection following orthotopic liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yi; WANG Guo-dong; HE Xiao-shun; LI Jun-liang; ZHU Xiao-feng; HU Rui-de

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute rejection is one of the most important factors for prognosis following liver transplantation. With the use of potent immunosuppressants, acute rejection does not always present typical manifestations. Moreover, other complications often occur concomitantly after liver transplantation, which makes early diagnosis of acute rejection more difficult. Acute rejection is best diagnosed by liver biopsy. Differentiation of clinical manifestations and pathological features plays an important role in achieving individualized immunosuppressive treatment and prolonging long term survival of patients given orthotopic liver transplants.Methods From January 2004 to December 2006, 516 orthotopic liver transplantations were performed at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University. For patients who suffered acute rejection, clinical manifestations, histopathological features, diagnosis and anti-rejection treatment were summarized and analyzed. Results In 86 cases (16.7%), of the 516 recipients, 106 episodes of acute rejection occurred, which included 9 with histopathological borderline changes, 36 Banff Ⅰ rejections, 48 Banff Ⅱ and 13 Banff Ⅲ. Among these, 36 were cured by adjusting the dose of immunosuppressant and 65 were reversed by methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Five were methylprednisolone resistant, 3 of whom were given OKT3 treatment and 2 underwent liver retransplantation. Conclusions Due to potent immunosuppressive agents, acute rejection following an orthotopic liver transplantation lacks typical clinical manifestations and pathological features. Acute rejection is best diagnosed by liver biopsy. Designing rational individualized immunosuppressive regimen based on clinical and pathological features of acute rejection plays an important role in prolonging long term survival of patients.

  3. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  4. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eSigdel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine exosomes are small vesicles exocytosed into the urine by all renal epithelial cell types under normal physiologic and disease states. Urine exosomal proteins may mirror disease specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration of urine samples collected from kidney transplant patients with and without acute rejection, which were biopsy matched. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw and urine exosomes (Ue underwent mass spectroscopy-based quantitative proteonomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR. A total of 1018 proteins were identified in Uw and 349 proteins in Ue. 279 overlapped between the two urinary compartments and 70 proteins were unique to the Ue compartment. Of 349 exosomal proteins identified from transplant patients,220 had not been previously identified in the normal Ue fraction. 11 Ue proteins, functionally involved in an inflammatory and stress response, were more abundant in urine samples from patients with acute rejection, 3 of which are exclusive to the Ue fraction. Ue AR-specific biomarkers(8 were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Ue proteins was applied. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were specific to inflammatory responses, and were not observed in the Ue fraction from normal healthy subjects. Ue specific protein alterations in renal disease provide potential mechanistic insights and offer a unique panel of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring AR.

  6. Medical students' career indecision and specialty rejection: roads not taken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, D G; Szenas, P L

    1995-10-01

    The authors used data from the AAMC Matriculating Student Questionnaire and Medical School Graduation Questionnaire to ascertain how closely the specialty or subspecialty choices of the 1991 and 1994 graduates of U.S. medical schools matched the preferences they had declared when they were matriculated; the extent to which these students strongly considered and then rejected choices that arose during medical school; and the graduation choices of the substantial number of students in both cohorts who were undecided about their careers when they entered medical school. Approximately 80% of the graduates in both classes rejected the specialty intentions they had declared when they began medical school. However, matriculation interests in the generalist specialties--family practice, general pediatrics, and general internal medicine--were more enduring for the 1994 cohort, while interests in the medical, surgical, and support specialties were less so. Large percentages of the 1991 and 1994 cohorts were undecided about their careers at matriculation (20.8% and 26.2%, respectively), and nearly the same proportions remained undecided at graduation. However, more of the graduates in the 1994 cohort who had initially been undecided reached decisions favoring one of the generalist specialties than was true for the 1991 cohort. Nearly half the 1994 graduates had strongly considered and then rejected an alternative to their matriculation interest that arose during medical school. Within the generalist specialties, both early and later interests in family practice were more durable than were those in general pediatrics and general internal medicine: for every student who retreated from tentative interest in family practice, another student's interest was reinforced or kindled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Project Learning T.I.P. (To Improve Productivity) Workplace Literacy Program at Lindsey Hopkins Technical Education Center, 1989-1990. Final Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Joan E.

    Project Learning TIP (To Improve Productivity) was a federally-funded 18-month workplace literacy program for hospital workers in Miami, Florida. Students enrolled in courses designed to improve work-related skills, including English as a Second Language, basic literacy, general basic skills, pre-nursing, and high school equivalency test…

  8. A report on developing a checklist to assess company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, N.; Starren, H.; Keus, M.; Gort, J.; Vervoort, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the process of developing a checklist to asses company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture. These plans are part of a programme initiated by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment aiming at improving the safety performance of co

  9. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  10. Nonlinear Feedforward Control for Wind Disturbance Rejection on Autonomous Helicopter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan

    2010-01-01

    for the purpose. The model is inverted for the calculation of rotor collective and cyclic pitch angles given the wind disturbance. The control strategy is then applied on a small helicopter in a controlled wind environment and flight tests demonstrates the effectiveness and advantage of the feedforward controller.......This paper presents the design and verification of a model based nonlinear feedforward controller for wind disturbance rejection on autonomous helicopters. The feedforward control is based on a helicopter model that is derived using a number of carefully chosen simplifications to make it suitable...

  11. Muon identification and pion rejection in the 4th concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Haupton

    2007-12-01

    We describe a completely new way to reconstruct and identify muons with high efficiency and very high pion rejection in the 4th concept detector. The dual-solenoid magnetic field allows the reconstruction and precision momentum measurement of muons down to a few GeV (just the energy loss in the 10-int calorimeter and the coil) and the dual-readout calorimeter provides a new, unique and powerful separation of muons from pions. We use test beam data for the calorimeter and calculations for the magnetic fields

  12. Rejection Mechanism in 2D Bounded Confidence Provides more Conformity

    CERN Document Server

    Huet, Sylvie; Jager, Wander

    2014-01-01

    We add a rejection mechanism (negative influence) into a two-dimensions bounded confidence model. The principle is that one shifts aways from a close attitude of one's interlocutor, when there is a strong disagreement on the other attitude. The model shows metastable clusters, which maintain themselves through opposite influences of competitor clusters. Our analysis and first experiments support the hypothesis that the number of clusters grows linearly with the inverse of the uncertainty, whereas this growth is quadratic in the bounded confidence model.

  13. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  14. Active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-Neng; Jayasuriya, Suhada; Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic compensator for active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures is designed on the principle of the H(infinity)-optimization of the sensitivity transfer function matrix. A general state space solution is formulated to the multiinput multioutput H(infinity)-optimal control problem, allowing the use of the H(infinity)-optimal synthesis algorithm for the state-space models of space structures that result from model order reduction. Disturbances encountered in flexible space structures, such as shuttle docking, are investigated using the high-mode and the reduced-order models of a cantilevered two-bay truss, demonstrating the applicability of the H(infinity)-optimal approach.

  15. An observer with controller to detect and reject disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Rubio, José; Meléndez, Fidel; Figueroa, Maricela

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a novel states observer is designed. This observer not only estimates the states, but also detects the disturbances by creating estimated signals. Then, both the observed states and detected disturbances are used in a control law to reject the disturbances, avoiding the requirement to know the states and disturbances. The observer is designed by the combination of the poles assignation and geometric techniques. Both the observer and controller work simultaneously. The proposed method is applied in an active suspension system and a liquid-level hydraulic system.

  16. Active disturbance rejection control of temperature for ultrastable optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Calonico, Davide; Calosso, Claudio; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Mura, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to the stabilization of the temperature of two ultra-stable Fabry-Perot cavities. The cavities are 10 cm long and entirely made of ultralow- expansion glass. The control is based on a linear extended state observer that estimates and compensates the disturbance in the system in real time. The resulting control is inherently robust and easy to tune. A digital implementation of ADRC gives a temperature instability of 200 μK at one day of integration time.

  17. Design and Modeling of a Variable Heat Rejection Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Berisford, Daniel F.; Stephan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Variable Heat Rejection Radiator technology needed for future NASA human rated & robotic missions Primary objective is to enable a single loop architecture for human-rated missions (1) Radiators are typically sized for maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment resulting in a large panel area (2) Large radiator area results in fluid being susceptible to freezing at low load in cold environment and typically results in a two-loop system (3) Dual loop architecture is approximately 18% heavier than single loop architecture (based on Orion thermal control system mass) (4) Single loop architecture requires adaptability to varying environments and heat loads

  18. Acute appendicitis mistaken as acute rejection in renal transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwalkar N

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of 2 renal transplant recipients are reported who had presenting features of fever, leukocytosis and pain/tenderness over right iliac fossa and were diagnosed to be due to acute appendicitis rather than more commonly suspected acute rejection episode which has very similar features. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis was suspected on the basis of rectal examination and later confirmed by laparotomy. The purpose of this communication is to emphasize the need for proper diagnosis in patient with such presentation; otherwise wrong treatment may be received.

  19. Automatic Carrier Landing System with Gust-rejection Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东; 杨一栋; 余勇; 范彦铭

    2004-01-01

    A new direct-lift control carrier landing mode is advanced, and it is proved to be very effective to keep the attitude angle and path angle constant when the aircraft is in the blind area of tracking radar and the guidance system is shut off. The direct-lift control mode is achieved with the symmetric deflection of the flaps and dynamic decoupling for minor disturbance of the angle of attack. This mode changes an aircraft' s model from a short-period oscillation model to a non-oscillation one, which could evidently increase the gust-rejection capability of the aircraft.

  20. Improved Solar Cell Efficiency Through the Use of an Additive Nanostructure-Based Optical Downshifter: Final Subcontract Report, January 28, 2010 -- February 28, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtin, J.

    2011-05-01

    This final report summarizes all SpectraWatt's progress in achieving a boost in solar cell efficiency using an optical downshifter. Spectrawatt's downshifting technology is based on a nanostructured material system which absorbs high energy (short wavelength) light and reemits it at a lower energy (long wavelength) with high efficiency. This system has shown unprecedented performance parameters including near unity quantum yield and high thermal stability.

  1. Design of the improved cascade ADRC and its application in photoelectric tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dan; Tang, Tao; Huang, Yongmei; Cai, Huaxiang

    2015-10-01

    According to the larger error when reversing in photoelectric tracking control system, the improved cascade Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC) is put forward to improve the system position tracking performance and tracking precision. First of all, this essay analyses the controlled object model and system control strategy; Then, it gives design method of the improved cascade ADRC; Finally, in order to analyses the improved cascade's better control performance, in the condition of the same input signal ,the improved cascade ADRC, conventional ADRC-ADRC and traditional PI-PI controller are used in photoelectric tracking control system to do comparative experiment. The experiment results show that the improved cascade ADRC's performance is better than other two algorithms, the tracking error and the steady state mean square error are significantly reduced, tracking accuracy is significantly improved. The improved cascade ADRC is an appealing solution in dealing with industrial control system problems where uncertainties and interference abound.

  2. Sugar or spice: Using I3 metatheory to understand how and why glucose reduces rejection-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; DeWall, C Nathan; Fries, Veronika; Geiger, Babette; Krämer, Tanya; Krug, Sebastian; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social rejection can increase aggression, especially among people high in rejection sensitivity. Rejection impairs self-control, and deficits in self-control often result in aggression. A dose of glucose can counteract the effect of situational factors that undermine self-control. But no research has integrated these literatures to understand why rejection increases aggression, and how to reduce it. Using the I(3) model of aggression, we proposed that aggression would be highest under conditions of high instigation (rejection), high impellance (high rejection sensitivity), and low inhibition (drinking a beverage sweetened with a sugar substitute instead of glucose). As predicted, aggression was highest among participants who experienced social rejection, were high in rejection sensitivity, and drank a placebo beverage. A dose of glucose reduced aggression, especially among rejected people high in rejection sensitivity. These findings point to the importance of self-control in understanding why social rejection increases aggression, and how to prevent it.

  3. Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels -- Final Report under the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Martin, Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Phelip, Mayeul [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ballinger, Ronald [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this INERI project was to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated-particle fuels and to explore improved coated-particle fuel designs that could be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in gas-cooled fast reactors. Project participants included the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), Centre Étude Atomique (CEA), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). To accomplish the project objectives, work was organized into five tasks.

  4. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  5. Identification and rejection of scattered neutrons in AGATA

    CERN Document Server

    Şenyiğit, M; Akkoyun, S; Kaşkaş, A; Bazzacco, D; Nyberg, J; Recchia, F; Brambilla, S; Camera, F; Crespi, F C L; Farnea, E; Giaz, A; Gottardo, A; Kempley, R; Ljungvall, J; Mengoni, D; Michelagnoli, C; Million, B; Palacz, M; Pellegri, L; Riboldi, S; Şahin, E; Söderström, P A; Dobon, J J Valiente

    2013-01-01

    Gamma rays and neutrons, emitted following spontaneous fission of 252Cf, were measured in an AGATA experiment performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy. The setup consisted of four AGATA triple cluster detectors (12 36-fold segmented high-purity germanium crystals), placed at a distance of 50 cm from the source, and 16 HELENA BaF2 detectors. The aim of the experiment was to study the interaction of neutrons in the segmented high-purity germanium detectors of AGATA and to investigate the possibility to discriminate neutrons and gamma rays with the gamma-ray tracking technique. The BaF2 detectors were used for a time-of-flight measurement, which gave an independent discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays and which was used to optimise the gamma-ray tracking-based neutron rejection methods. It was found that standard gamma-ray tracking, without any additional neutron rejection features, eliminates effectively most of the interaction points due to recoiling Ge nuclei after elastic scattering of...

  6. Aire deficiency promotes TRP-1 specific immune rejection of melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Nagavalli, Anil; Su, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    The thymic transcription factor AIRE prevents autoimmunity in part by promoting expression of tissue-specific self-antigens, which include many cancer antigens. For example, AIRE-deficient patients are predisposed to vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of melanocytes that is often triggered by efficacious immunotherapies against melanoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aire deficiency in mice may elevate immune responses to cancer and provide insights into how such responses might be triggered. In this study, we show that Aire deficiency decreases thymic expression of TRP-1 (TYRP1), which is a self-antigen in melanocytes and a cancer antigen in melanomas. Aire deficiency resulted in defective negative selection of TRP-1 specific T cells without affecting thymic numbers of regulatory T cells. Aire deficient mice displayed elevated T cell immune responses that were associated with suppression of melanoma outgrowth. Further, transplantation of Aire-deficient thymic stroma was sufficient to confer more effective immune rejection of melanoma in an otherwise Aire wildtype host. Together, our work showed how Aire deficiency can enhance immune responses against melanoma, and how manipulating TRP-1 specific T cell negative selection may offer a logical strategy to enhance immune rejection of melanoma. PMID:23370329

  7. Aire deficiency promotes TRP-1-specific immune rejection of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Nagavalli, Anil; Su, Maureen A

    2013-04-01

    The thymic transcription factor autoimmune regulator (Aire) prevents autoimmunity in part by promoting expression of tissue-specific self-antigens, which include many cancer antigens. For example, AIRE-deficient patients are predisposed to vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of melanocytes that is often triggered by efficacious immunotherapies against melanoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aire deficiency in mice may elevate immune responses to cancer and provide insights into how such responses might be triggered. In this study, we show that Aire deficiency decreases thymic expression of TRP-1 (TYRP1), which is a self-antigen in melanocytes and a cancer antigen in melanomas. Aire deficiency resulted in defective negative selection of TRP-1-specific T cells without affecting thymic numbers of regulatory T cells. Aire-deficient mice displayed elevated T-cell immune responses that were associated with suppression of melanoma outgrowth. Furthermore, transplantation of Aire-deficient thymic stroma was sufficient to confer more effective immune rejection of melanoma in an otherwise Aire wild-type host. Together, our work showed how Aire deficiency can enhance immune responses against melanoma and how manipulating TRP-1-specific T-cell negative selection may offer a logical strategy to enhance immune rejection of melanoma. ©2013 AACR.

  8. Nationalism and patriotism: national identification and out-group rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummendey, A; Klink, A; Brown, R

    2001-06-01

    It is argued that the differentiation between nationalism and patriotism proposed in the literature can be seen as analogous to judgments based on different types of comparisons: intergroup comparisons with other nations are associated with intergroup behaviour that corresponds to nationalism, whereas temporal or standard comparisons are linked with behaviour that corresponds to patriotism. Four studies (N = 103, 107, 96 and 105) conducted in Germany and Britain examined the hypothesis that national identification and in-group evaluation only show a reliable relationship with out-group rejection under an intergroup comparison orientation. Participants were primed with either an intergroup comparison, a temporal comparison or no explicit comparison orientation. A subsequent questionnaire assessed in-group (own country) identification, in-group evaluation (i.e. national pride) and rejection of national out-groups. Across all four studies, both in-group identification and in-group evaluation show a stronger correlation with out-group derogation if participants were primed with an intergroup comparison orientation compared to temporal and control conditions. Results are discussed with regard to nationalism and patriotism as well as Hinkle and Brown's (1990) model on relational vs. autonomous orientations.

  9. fMRI Artefact Rejection and Sleep Scoring Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Leclercq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We started writing the “fMRI artefact rejection and sleep scoring toolbox”, or “FAST”, to process our sleep EEG-fMRI data, that is, the simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired while a subject is asleep. FAST tackles three crucial issues typical of this kind of data: (1 data manipulation (viewing, comparing, chunking, etc. of long continuous M/EEG recordings, (2 rejection of the fMRI-induced artefact in the EEG signal, and (3 manual sleep-scoring of the M/EEG recording. Currently, the toolbox can efficiently deal with these issues via a GUI, SPM8 batching system or hand-written script. The tools developed are, of course, also useful for other EEG applications, for example, involving simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisition, continuous EEG eye-balling, and manipulation. Even though the toolbox was originally devised for EEG data, it will also gracefully handle MEG data without any problem. “FAST” is developed in Matlab as an add-on toolbox for SPM8 and, therefore, internally uses its SPM8-meeg data format. “FAST” is available for free, under the GNU-GPL.

  10. Parametric Adaptive Radar Detector with Enhanced Mismatched Signals Rejection Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of adaptive signal detection in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrix. We propose a parametric radar detector by introducing a design parameter to trade off the target sensitivity with sidelobes energy rejection. The resulting detector merges the statistics of Kelly's GLRT and of the Rao test and so covers Kelly's GLRT and the Rao test as special cases. Both invariance properties and constant false alarm rate (CFAR behavior for this detector are studied. At the analysis stage, the performance of the new receiver is assessed and compared with several traditional adaptive detectors. The results highlight better rejection capabilities of this proposed detector for mismatched signals. Further, we develop two two-stage detectors, one of which consists of an adaptive matched filter (AMF followed by the aforementioned detector, and the other is obtained by cascading a GLRT-based Subspace Detector (SD and the proposed adaptive detector. We show that the former two-stage detector outperforms traditional two-stage detectors in terms of selectivity, and the latter yields more robustness.

  11. Shotgun Proteomics Identifies Proteins Specific for Acute Renal Transplant Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Kaushal, Amit; Gritsenko, Marina; Norbeck, Angela D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2010-01-01

    Acute rejection (AR) remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need. We used shotgun proteomics applying LC-MS/MS and ELISA to analyze a set of 92urine samples, from patients with AR, stable grafts (STA), proteinuria (NS), and healthy controls (HC). A total of 1446 urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific, renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins. Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins. We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. A subset of proteins (UMOD, SERPINF1 and CD44), have been further cross-validated by ELISA in an independent set of urine samples, for significant differences in the abundance of these urinary proteins in AR. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after kidney transplantation. PMID:20543976

  12. Shotgun Proteomics Identifies Proteins Specific for Acute Renal Transplant Rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Kaushal, Amit; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Qian, Weijun; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2010-01-04

    Acute rejection (AR) remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need. We used shotgun proteomics using LC-MS/MS and ELISA to analyze a set of 92 urine samples, from patients with AR, stable grafts (STA), proteinuria (NS), and healthy controls (HC). A total of 1446 urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific, renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins. Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins. We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. A subset of proteins (UMOD, SERPINF1 and CD44), have been further cross-validated by ELISA in an independent set of urine samples, for significant differences in the abundance of these urinary proteins in AR. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after

  13. A Multisurface Interpersonal Circumplex Assessment of Rejection Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Clarkin, John F

    2017-01-01

    Individuals high in rejection sensitivity (RS) are at risk for experiencing high levels of interpersonal distress, yet little is known about the interpersonal profiles associated with RS. This investigation examined the interpersonal problems, sensitivities, and values associated with RS in 2 samples: 763 multicultural undergraduate students (Study 1) and 365 community adults (Study 2). In Study 1, high anxious RS was associated with socially avoidant interpersonal problems, whereas low anxious RS was associated with vindictive interpersonal problems. In Study 2, we assessed both anxious and angry expectations of rejection. Circumplex profile analyses showed that the high anxious RS group reported socially avoidant interpersonal problems, sensitivities to remoteness in others, and valuing connections with others, whereas the high angry RS group reported vindictive interpersonal problems, sensitivities to submissiveness in others, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior. Low anxious RS was related to domineering interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior, whereas low angry RS was related to submissive interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing receiving approval from others. Overall, results suggest that there are distinct interpersonal profiles associated with varying levels and types of RS.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program Final EIS (DOE EIS /SA-156) - Upper Salmon River Anadromous Fish Passage Improvement Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Carl J. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2004-07-13

    BPA proposes to fund IDFG to plan and complete construction of fish passage improvements and water conservation activities that are contained within IDFG’s Statement of Work (SOW) for the period 7/1/04 to 6/30/05. The funding request contained in their SOW is part of an ongoing IDFG effort to fund anadromous fish passage projects that fall outside the scope of the Mitchell Act. The proposed SOW activities fall within the following four categories: Phase I-Planning and Design (gather data, perform investigations, and exchange information; perform surveys and assessments to be compliant; survey project sites and perform engineering designs; perform contract and project management); Phase II-Construction and Implementation (procure materials and supplies, prepare contracts and solicit bids, plant native seedlings, complete capital improvements); Phase III-Operation and Maintenance (maintain office operations); and Phase IV- Monitoring and Evaluation (monitor and evaluate post-project effects, reporting). The SOW culminates with proposed construction of 18 capital improvement projects (Table 1 attached). The types of capital improvements include: screening gravity water diversions; consolidating and/or eliminating ditches; evaluating and screening pump diversions; evaluating and implementing water conservation activities; constructing screens along migration routes and rearing areas for hatchery and wild salmon; improving upstream and downstream passage for anadromous fish; and maximize benefits to aquatic habitat. Because each of the proposed projects in the SOW is still in the planning stages, the specifics of each still need to be completed.

  16. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  17. Active Disturbance Rejection with Sliding Mode Control Based Course and Path Following for Underactuated Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound control of active-disturbance-rejection control (ADRC with sliding mode is proposed to improve the performance of the closed-loop system and deal with the constraint condition problem of a surface ship. The advantages of ADRC with sliding mode were verified by ship course control simulations. Meanwhile, to solve the path-following problem of underactuated surface ships with uncertainties of internal dynamic and external disturbances, the ADRC controller with sliding mode is introduced to steer the ship to follow the desired path. In order to overcome the cross-track error caused by wind and current, drift angle is compensated in the controller by designing a coordinate transformation equation. Simulations were performed on a nonlinear kinematics model of a training ship to validate the stability and excellent robustness of the proposed path-following controller.

  18. Direct Adaptive Rejection of Vortex-Induced Disturbances for a Powered SPAR Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Balas, Mark J.; VanZwieten, James H.; Driscoll, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rapidly Deployable Stable Platform (RDSP) is a novel vessel designed to be a reconfigurable, stable at-sea platform. It consists of a detachable catamaran and spar, performing missions with the spar extending vertically below the catamaran and hoisting it completely out of the water. Multiple thrusters located along the spar allow it to be actively controlled in this configuration. A controller is presented in this work that uses an adaptive feedback algorithm in conjunction with Direct Adaptive Disturbance Rejection (DADR) to mitigate persistent, vortex-induced disturbances. Given the frequency of a disturbance, the nominal DADR scheme adaptively compensates for its unknown amplitude and phase. This algorithm is extended to adapt to a disturbance frequency that is only coarsely known by including a Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The PLL improves the frequency estimate on-line, allowing the modified controller to reduce vortex-induced motions by more than 95% using achievable thrust inputs.

  19. Induction Motor Drive System Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liying; Zhang, Yongli; Yao, Qingmei

    It is difficult to establish an exact mathematical model for the induction motor and the robustness is poor of the vector control system using PI regulator. This paper adopts the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) to control inductor motor. LADRC doesn't need the exact mathematical model of motor and it can not only estimate but also compensate the general disturbance that includes the coupling items in model of motor and parameters perturbations by linear extended state observer (LESO), so the rotor flux and torque fully decouple. As a result, the performance is improved. To prove the above control scheme, the proposed control system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the comparison was made with PID. Simulation results show that LADRC' has better performance and robustness than PID.

  20. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Based on Benchmark Simulation Model Number 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, the dissolved oxygen is the key variable to be controlled in bioreactors. In this paper, linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC is utilized to track the dissolved oxygen concentration based on benchmark simulation model number 1 (BSM1. Optimal LADRC parameters tuning approach for wastewater treatment processes is obtained by analyzing and simulations on BSM1. Moreover, by analyzing the estimation capacity of linear extended state observer (LESO in the control of dissolved oxygen, the parameter range of LESO is acquired, which is a valuable guidance for parameter tuning in simulation and even in practice. The simulation results show that LADRC can overcome the disturbance existing in the control of wastewater and improve the tracking accuracy of dissolved oxygen. LADRC provides another practical solution to the control of WWTPs.

  1. Switching Control of Wind Turbine Sub-Controllers Based on an Active Disturbance Rejection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancai Xiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind power generation systems require complex control systems with multiple working conditions and multiple controllers. Under different operating conditions, switching without disturbancebetweenthesub-controllersplaysacriticalroleinensuringthestabilityofpowersystems. The sub-controllers of two typical cases in the permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD wind turbine running process are studied, one is the proportional integral (PI controller in the maximum power points tracking (MPPT stage, the other is the fuzzy pitch angle controller in the constant power stage. The switching strategy of the two sub-controllers is the emphasis in this research. Based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC, the switching mode of the sub-controllers is proposed, which can effectively restrain the sudden changes of the rotor current during the switching process, and improve the quality of power generation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the sub-controller switching strategy is verified by Matlab/Simulink simulation for a 2 MW PMDD wind turbine.

  2. Rejection of Linear FM Interference in DSSS System Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Lin; TAO Ran; ZHOU Si-yong

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the rejection of linear frequency modulation (LFM) interference in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system based on the fractional Fourier transform is proposed, and the configuration of the receiver with an interference exciser is also presented. Based on the property that the fractional Fourier transform of a signal is equivalent to rotating the signal in the time-frequency plane, the received signal is transform into a certain fractional Fourier domain, this transform will result in the least spectrum overlap between the signal and interference. Then, a narrowband filter is exploited to extract most of the interference energy. The performance analyses show that remarkable improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and biterror-ratio (BER) are obtained.

  3. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  5. A novel cardioprotective agent in cardiac transplantation: metformin activation of AMP-activated protein kinase decreases acute ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jocelyn T; Troke, Joshua J; Kimura, Naoyuki; Itoh, Satoshi; Wang, Xi; Palmer, Owen P; Robbins, Robert C; Fischbein, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    The main cause of mortality after the first year from cardiac transplantation is cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), which leads to chronic rejection of the heart. To improve long-term outcomes in cardiac transplantation, treatments to prevent or diminish CAV are actively being researched. Ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury has been shown to be the strongest alloantigen-independent factor in the development of CAV. Here, we investigate the use of metformin in murine cardiac transplantation models as a novel cardioprotective agent to limit acute I-R injury and subsequent chronic rejection. We show that metformin treatment activates AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in vivo. In the acute transplantation model, metformin activation of AMPK resulted in significantly decreased apoptosis in cardiac allografts on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 8. In the chronic transplantation model, metformin pretreatment of allografts led to significantly improved graft function and significantly decreased CAV, as measured on POD 52. Taken together, our results in the acute and chronic rejection studies suggest a potential cardioprotective mechanism for metformin; we demonstrate a correlation between metformin-induced decrease in acute I-R injury and metformin-related decrease in chronic rejection. Thus, one of the ways by which metformin and AMPK activation may protect the transplanted heart from chronic rejection is by decreasing initial I-R injury inherent in donor organ preservation and implantation. Our findings suggest novel therapeutic strategies for minimizing chronic cardiac rejection via the use of metformin- and AMPK-mediated pathways to suppress acute I-R injury.

  6. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  7. A REGIONAL INSTITUTE TO AID IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES, MATERIALS AND STUDENT EXPERIENCES FOR COORDINATORS AND INSTRUCTORS OF VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION PROGRAMS. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLAIR, MARGARET; AND OTHERS

    APPROXIMATELY 100 EDUCATORS FROM FIVE STATES AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS PARTICIPATED IN AN INSTITUTE TO HELP INSTRUCTIONAL AND GUIDANCE PERSONNEL IMPROVE THE VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WHO ARE PREPARING TO ENTER THE WORLD OF WORK. THE AGENDA CONSISTED OF SPEECHES ON VOCATIONS, GROUP SESSIONS TO DISCUSS VOCATIONAL PROGRAM…

  8. Wheelchairmanship Project. A Program to Educate Personnel in the Transportation, Hotel and Restaurant, and Entertainment Industries in Improved Techniques for Serving Disabled People. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anita P.; And Others

    In a project designed to train customer service personnel in improved methods of assisting the physically disabled, audio-visual training materials were developed and presented during 2-week courses involving 1,058 employees at transportation, hotel/restaurant, and entertainment centers in 25 cities. The participants judged the training program…

  9. Medical devices; general and plastic surgery devices; classification of the powered surgical instrument for improvement in the appearance of cellulite. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the powered surgical instrument for improvement in the appearance of cellulite into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  10. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  11. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  12. Improvement on post-OPC verification efficiency for contact/via coverage check by final CD biasing of metal lines and considering their location on the metal layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Choi, Jae-Young; Choi, Kwangseon; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Lee, Sooryong

    2011-04-01

    As IC design complexity keeps increasing, it is more and more difficult to ensure the pattern transfer after optical proximity correction (OPC) due to the continuous reduction of layout dimensions and lithographic limitation by k1 factor. To guarantee the imaging fidelity, resolution enhancement technologies (RET) such as off-axis illumination (OAI), different types of phase shift masks and OPC technique have been developed. In case of model-based OPC, to cross-confirm the contour image versus target layout, post-OPC verification solutions continuously keep developed - contour generation method and matching it to target structure, method for filtering and sorting the patterns to eliminate false errors and duplicate patterns. The way to detect only real errors by excluding false errors is the most important thing for accurate and fast verification process - to save not only reviewing time and engineer resource, but also whole wafer process time and so on. In general case of post-OPC verification for metal-contact/via coverage (CC) check, verification solution outputs huge of errors due to borderless design, so it is too difficult to review and correct all points of them. It should make OPC engineer to miss the real defect, and may it cause the delay time to market, at least. In this paper, we studied method for increasing efficiency of post-OPC verification, especially for the case of CC check. For metal layers, final CD after etch process shows various CD bias, which depends on distance with neighbor patterns, so it is more reasonable that consider final metal shape to confirm the contact/via coverage. Through the optimization of biasing rule for different pitches and shapes of metal lines, we could get more accurate and efficient verification results and decrease the time for review to find real errors. In this paper, the suggestion in order to increase efficiency of OPC verification process by using simple biasing rule to metal layout instead of etch model

  13. Stomaching rejection: Self-compassion and self-esteem moderate the impact of daily social rejection on restrictive eating behaviours among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Janine B; Stock, Michelle L; Howe, George W

    2017-05-05

    The present study examined whether having high self-esteem or a self-compassionate perspective help mitigate the impact of daily social rejection on negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. Following a baseline survey assessing self-esteem and self-compassion, 121 college women completed online daily diaries for one week. Negative affect and restrictive eating behaviours. On days when women reported more rejection, they also reported higher restrictive eating behaviours and greater negative affect. Effects were moderated by self-esteem and self-compassion, such that the lower participants were in self-esteem or self-compassion, the stronger the positive relation between rejection and negative affect and restrictive eating. However, only the common humanity/isolation dimension of self-compassion significantly moderated daily effects of rejection when controlling for self-esteem. Mediated moderation results reveal different mechanisms by which self-esteem and self-compassion buffer against rejections' effects on affect and restrictive eating. Self-compassion and self-esteem influence the complex impact that social rejection has on affect and restrictive eating. More than other dimensions of self-compassion or self-esteem, remembering one's common humanity can result in a healthier response to social rejection.

  14. Social exclusion in middle childhood: rejection events, slow-wave neural activity, and ostracism distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Michael J; Wu, Jia; Molfese, Peter J; Mayes, Linda C

    2010-01-01

    This study examined neural activity with event-related potentials (ERPs) in middle childhood during a computer-simulated ball-toss game, Cyberball. After experiencing fair play initially, children were ultimately excluded by the other players. We focused specifically on “not my turn” events within fair play and rejection events within social exclusion. Dense-array ERPs revealed that rejection events are perceived rapidly. Condition differences (“not my turn” vs. rejection) were evident in a posterior ERP peaking at 420 ms consistent, with a larger P3 effect for rejection events indicating that in middle childhood rejection events are differentiated in ostracism, including subgenual cortex, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and insula, was greater for rejection events vs. “not my turn” events.

  15. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby D Dunn

    Full Text Available Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  16. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Makarova, Dasha; Evans, David; Clark, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  17. Mouse model of alloimmune-induced vascular rejection and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Winnie; von Rossum, Anna; Choy, Jonathan

    2015-05-17

    Vascular rejection that leads to transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is the leading representation of chronic heart transplant failure. In TA, the immune system of the recipient causes damage of the arterial wall and dysfunction of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This triggers a pathological repair response that is characterized by intimal thickening and luminal occlusion. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system causes vasculature rejection and TA may inform the development of novel ways to manage graft failure. Here, we describe a mouse aortic interposition model that can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of vascular rejection and TA. The model involves grafting of an aortic segment from a donor animal into an allogeneic recipient. Rejection of the artery segment involves alloimmune reactions and results in arterial changes that resemble vascular rejection. The basic technical approach we describe can be used with different mouse strains and targeted interventions to answer specific questions related to vascular rejection and TA.

  18. Rejected by Family for Being Gay or Lesbian: Portrayals, Perceptions, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carastathis, Geoffrey S; Cohen, Lynne; Kaczmarek, Elizabeth; Chang, Paul

    2017-01-01

    A myriad of negative psychosocial outcomes face gay men and lesbians who experience rejection by their family for not being heterosexual. However, what constitutes rejection is not clear, and, more importantly, it is not known how resilience is fostered within such a context. This qualitative study sought to examine these issues by exploring the lived experiences of Australian gay men and lesbians who were previously or were currently experiencing family rejection because of their sexuality. A total of 21 in-depth, semistructured interviews were individually conducted and analyzed. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed several themes that provided greater understanding of the portrayals and perceptions of family rejection; the impact of family rejection on mental health; and, importantly, how these individuals came to establish resilience in the face of experiencing family rejection. Limitations, directions for future research, and clinical implications of the findings are also discussed.

  19. Implicit versus Explicit Rejection Self-Perceptions and Adolescents' Interpersonal Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Schad, Megan M; Teachman, Bethany A; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-11-01

    We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (N=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents' explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners. After controlling for explicit self-perceptions, adolescents' implicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with their romantic partners reporting more negative relationship quality with them, and observations of adolescents displaying more negative behaviors with romantic partners. Implicit and explicit rejection self-perceptions uniquely explain individual differences in interpersonal behaviors.

  20. Implicit versus Explicit Rejection Self-Perceptions and Adolescents’ Interpersonal Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (N=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents’ explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners. After controlling for explicit self-perceptions, adolescents’ implicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with their romantic partners reporting more negative relationship quality with them, and observations of adolescents displaying more negative behaviors with romantic partners. Implicit and explicit rejection self-perceptions uniquely explain individual differences in interpersonal behaviors. PMID:26478646