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Sample records for improved recovery process

  1. Chemical process for improved oil recovery from Bakken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Hongxin; Lu, Zayne [ChemEOR Inc (United States); Tang, Youngchun [Power Environmental Energy Research Institute (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the new chemically-improved oil recovery process (IOR) process for Bakken formation reservoirs. A custom surfactant agent can be used in standard hydraulic fracturing treatments in the Bakken to increase oil recovery. The rock formation consists of three members: the lower shale, middle dolostone and the upper shale. The dolostone was deposited as a coastal carbonate during shallower water and the shales were deposited in a relatively deep marine condition. With the widespread advent of horizontal well drilling and large-volume hydraulic fracturing treatments, production from the Bakken has become very active. The experimental results exhibited that specialized surfactant formulations will interact with this mixed oil-wet low permeability middle member to produce more oil. It was also observed that oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition was fast and significant. The best surfactant found in this study is compatible with a common fracture fluid system.

  2. Development of energy-efficient processes for natural gas liquids recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sekwang; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    A new NGL (natural gas liquids) recovery process configuration is proposed which can offer improved energy efficiency and hydrocarbon recovery. The new process configuration is an evolution of the conventional turboexpander processes with the introduction of a split stream transferring part of the feed to the demethanizer column. In this way additional heat recovery is possible which improves the energy efficiency of the process. To evaluate the new process configuration a number of different NGL recovery process configurations are optimized and compared using a process simulator linked interactively with external optimization methods. Process integration methodology is applied as part of the optimization to improve energy recovery during the optimization. Analysis of the new process configuration compared with conventional turbo-expander process designs demonstrates the benefits of the new process configuration. - Highlights: • Development of a new energy-efficient natural gas liquids recovery process. • Improving energy recovery with application of process integration techniques. • Considering multiple different structural changes lead to considerable energy savings.

  3. Assessing the additional impact of Process Recovery Communications on Customer Outcomes: A Comprehensive Service Recovery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. VAN VAERENBERGH; B. LARIVIÈRE; I. VERMEIR

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Services recoveries following service failures not only imply customer recovery opportunities in which customer-company relationships can be restored, they can also result in process improvements (i.e. process recoveries in literature). This paper seeks to identify the additional impact of process recoveries on four customer outcome variables (satisfaction with service recovery, overall satisfaction, repurchase intent and word-of-mouth) by communicating these improvements back to th...

  4. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  5. Uncertainty in Population Estimates for Endangered Animals and Improving the Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Rachlow

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available United States recovery plans contain biological information for a species listed under the Endangered Species Act and specify recovery criteria to provide basis for species recovery. The objective of our study was to evaluate whether recovery plans provide uncertainty (e.g., variance with estimates of population size. We reviewed all finalized recovery plans for listed terrestrial vertebrate species to record the following data: (1 if a current population size was given, (2 if a measure of uncertainty or variance was associated with current estimates of population size and (3 if population size was stipulated for recovery. We found that 59% of completed recovery plans specified a current population size, 14.5% specified a variance for the current population size estimate and 43% specified population size as a recovery criterion. More recent recovery plans reported more estimates of current population size, uncertainty and population size as a recovery criterion. Also, bird and mammal recovery plans reported more estimates of population size and uncertainty compared to reptiles and amphibians. We suggest the use of calculating minimum detectable differences to improve confidence when delisting endangered animals and we identified incentives for individuals to get involved in recovery planning to improve access to quantitative data.

  6. A New Screening Methodology for Improved Oil Recovery Processes Using Soft-Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Claudia; Ertekin, Turgay

    2010-05-01

    The first stage of production of any oil reservoir involves oil displacement by natural drive mechanisms such as solution gas drive, gas cap drive and gravity drainage. Typically, improved oil recovery (IOR) methods are applied to oil reservoirs that have been depleted naturally. In more recent years, IOR techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Descriptive screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique according to the fluid and rock properties. This methodology helps in assessing the most suitable recovery process for field deployment of a candidate reservoir. However, the already published screening guidelines neither provide information about the expected reservoir performance nor suggest a set of project design parameters, which can be used towards the optimization of the process. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) are used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening different improved oil recovery techniques: miscible injection (CO2 and N2), waterflooding and steam injection processes. The simulation tool consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation network algorithm. The tool is intended to narrow the ranges of possible scenarios to be modeled using conventional simulation, reducing the extensive time and energy spent in dynamic reservoir modeling. A commercial reservoir simulator is used to generate the data to train and validate the artificial neural networks. The proxy models are built considering four different well patterns with different well operating conditions as the field design parameters. Different expert systems are developed for each well pattern. The screening networks predict oil production rate and cumulative oil production profiles for a given set of rock and fluid properties, and design parameters. The results of this study show that the networks are

  7. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana

    2010-09-15

    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  9. CLINSULF sub-dew-point process for sulphur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, M.; Marold, F.

    1988-01-01

    In a 2-reactor system, the CLINSULF process allows very high sulphur recovery rates. When operated at 100/sup 0/C at the outlet, i.e. below the sulphur solidification point, a sulphur recovery rate of more than 99.2% was achieved in a 2-reactor series. Assuming a 70% sulphur recovery in an upstream Claus furnace plus sulphur condenser, an overall sulphur recovery of more than 99.8% results for the 2-reactor system. This is approximately 2% higher than in conventional Claus plus SDP units, which mostly consist of 4 reactors or more. This means the the CLINSULF SSP process promises to be an improvement both in respect of efficiency and low investment cost.

  10. The role of complaint management in the service recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall-Lyon, D; Powers, T L

    2001-05-01

    Patient satisfaction and retention can be influenced by the development of an effective service recovery program that can identify complaints and remedy failure points in the service system. Patient complaints provide organizations with an opportunity to resolve unsatisfactory situations and to track complaint data for quality improvement purposes. Service recovery is an important and effective customer retention tool. One way an organization can ensure repeat business is by developing a strong customer service program that includes service recovery as an essential component. The concept of service recovery involves the service provider taking responsive action to "recover" lost or dissatisfied customers and convert them into satisfied customers. Service recovery has proven to be cost-effective in other service industries. The complaint management process involves six steps that organizations can use to influence effective service recovery: (1) encourage complaints as a quality improvement tool; (2) establish a team of representatives to handle complaints; (3) resolve customer problems quickly and effectively; (4) develop a complaint database; (5) commit to identifying failure points in the service system; and (6) track trends and use information to improve service processes. Customer retention is enhanced when an organization can reclaim disgruntled patients through the development of effective service recovery programs. Health care organizations can become more customer oriented by taking advantage of the information provided by patient complaints, increasing patient satisfaction and retention in the process.

  11. Energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process through practical stack gases heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostajeran Goortani, B.; Mateos-Espejel, E.; Moshkelani, M.; Paris, J.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for the optimal recovery of heat from stack gases considering energy and technical constraints has been developed and applied to an existing Kraft pulping mill. A system based on a closed loop recirculation of hot oil is used to recover the heat from stack gases and distribute it to the appropriate cold streams. The recovery of heat from stack gases is part of an overall optimization of the Kraft mill. Tools such as Pinch Analysis and exergy analysis are used to evaluate the process streams. The results indicate that 10.8 MW of heat from stack gases can be reused to heat process streams such as the deaerator water, hot water, drying filtrates, and black liquor. A simulation model of the recirculation loop has been developed to determine the specifications of the recovery system. The total heat exchanger surface area required by the system is 3460 m 2 , with a hot oil recirculation temperature of 137 o C. The anticipated total investment is $10.3 M, with a payback time of 1.8 years. - Highlights: → We developed a process design for recovering heat from stack gases in a Kraft mill. → The recovered heat is optimally distributed to the process cold streams. → Heat recovery system has a total surface area of 3500 m 2 without gases condensation. → A reduction of 7 percent in total process steam demand is anticipated. → A total investment of 10.3 M$ is needed with a payback time of less than two years

  12. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated

  13. A model for improving endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Reading, Richard; Conway, Courtney; Jackson, Jerome A.; Hutchins, Michael; Snyder, Noel; Forrest, Steve; Frazier, Jack; Derrickson, Scott

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses common organizational problems that cause inadequate planning and implementation processes of endangered species recovery across biologically dissimilar species. If these problems occur, even proven biological conservation techniques are jeopardized. We propose a solution that requires accountability in all phases of the restoration process and is based on cooperative input among government agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, and the academic community. The first step is formation of a task-oriented recovery team that integrates the best expertise into the planning process. This interdisciplinary team should be composed of people whose skills directly address issues critical for recovery. Once goals and procedures are established, the responsible agency (for example, in the United States, the US Fish and Wildlife Service) could divest some or all of its obligation for implementing the plan, yet still maintain oversight by holding implementing entities contractually accountable. Regular, periodic outside review and public documentation of the recovery team, lead agency, and the accomplishments of implementing bodies would permit evaluation necessary to improve performance. Increased cooperation among agency and nongovernmental organizations provided by this model promises a more efficient use of limited resources toward the conservation of biodiversity.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in

  15. The new paradigm of recovery from schizophrenia: cultural conundrums of improvement without cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Janis H; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth

    2005-12-01

    This article is a qualitative investigation of the subjective experience of recovery from the perspective of persons living with schizophrenia-related disorders. An NIMH-sponsored ethnographic study of community outpatient clinics was completed for 90 persons taking second-generation antipsychotic medications. Research diagnostic criteria and clinical ratings were obtained in tandem with an anthropologically developed Subjective Experience of Medication Interview (SEMI) that elicits narrative data on everyday life and activities, medication and treatment, management of symptoms, expectations concerning recovery, and stigma. Ethnographic observations from diverse settings (clinics, public transportation, restaurants, homes) were also obtained. The primary findings are that recovery was experienced in relation to low levels of symptoms, the need to take medications to avoid hospitalization or psychotic episodes, and personal agency to struggle against the effects of illness. The majority of participants articulated their sense of illness recovery and expectation that their lives would improve. Improvement and recovery is an incremental, yet definitively discernable subjective process. Several problems were identified as part of this process surrounding cultural conflicts that generate the experience of ambivalence analyzed here as the "paradox of recovery without cure," irreconcilable "catch-22" dilemmas involving sacrifice (e.g., one must be "fat" or be "crazy"), and substantial stigma despite improvement in illness and everyday life experience.

  16. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.; Akkutlu, Yucel; Amilik, Pouya; Kechagia, Persefoni; Lu, Chuan; Shariati, Maryam; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis; Zhan, Lang

    2000-01-19

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil, with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose, the interaction of flow, transport and reaction at various scales (from the pore-network to the field scales) were studied. Particular mechanisms investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam process, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  17. Industrial Tests to Modify Molten Copper Slag for Improvement of Copper Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Congcong

    2018-04-01

    In this article, to improve the recovery of copper from copper slag by flotation process, industrial tests of the modification process involving addition of a composite additive into molten copper slag were conducted, and the modified slag was subjected to the flotation process to confirm the modification effect. The phase evolution of the slag in the modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that more copper was transformed and enriched in copper sulfide phases. The magnetite content in the modified slag decreased, and that of "FeO" increased correspondingly, leading to a better fluidity of the molten slag, which improved the aggregation and growth of fine particles of the copper sulfide minerals. Closed-circuit flotation tests of the original and modified slags were conducted, and the results show that the copper recovery increased obviously from 69.15% to 73.38%, and the copper grade of concentrates was elevated slightly from 20.24% to 21.69%, further confirming that the industrial tests of the modification process were successful. Hence, the modification process has a bright future in industrial applications for enhancing the recovery of copper from the copper slag.

  18. Improved flotation recovery via hydrophobicity adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Ofori; Graham O' Brien; Bruce Firth; Clint McNally; Anh Nguyen [University of Queensland, Qld. (Australia). CSIRO

    2009-03-15

    The main goal of this project was to examine a new approach to maximising the recovery of product specification coal during coal flotation using new generation reagents complemented by the use of the Coal Grain Analysis tool. Laboratory flotation experiments in which the novel reagents were employed as promoters by adding small amounts before adding conventional collector (diesel oil) showed that flotation recovery was significantly increased with only a small product quality (ash%) penalty. The groups of reagents used included surfactants from the group of tri-block copolymers of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO) often denoted as PEO/PPO/PEO or the reverse block copolymer PPO/PEO/PPO. Analysis of the flotation products using the grain analysis technique determined that whilst the recoveries of most grain types were improved, the coarse composite grains which were the components targeted for enhancement showed the most improvement. Plant scale test results confirmed the laboratory findings with remarkable improvements in recovery achieved for all components, especially for coarse inertite and composite grains. The difficult to float coals that are lost at this plant may be recovered without significant modification to the fines circuit by the use of targeted reagents.

  19. Tomatoes in oil recovery. [Plant waste additives improve yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The waste from processing tomato, squash and pepper stalks found unexpected use in recovery of oil. Even a negligible amount thereof in an aqueous solution pumped into an oil-bearing formation turned out to be sufficient to increase the yield. Substances of plant origin, which improve dramatically the oil-flushing properties of water, not only increase the recovery of oil, but reduce the volume of fluid to be pumped into the stratum. The staff of the Institute of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, who proved the technological and economical advantages of using the waste from plant processing, transmitted their findings to the oil workers of Baku. The scientists have concluded that there is a good raw material base in this republic for utilizing this method on oil-bearing formations.

  20. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-01-01

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes

  1. Improved heavy oil recovery by low rate waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, A. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Waterflooding techniques are frequently used to recover oil in low viscosity or marginal heavy oil reservoirs. This paper described a low-rate waterflooding oil recovery mechanism. The mechanism was determined by examining the effect of sand permeability on the impact of viscous force contributions. Changes in permeability and injection rates parameters were studied in order to evaluate the significance of imbibition, and a method of quantifying the effect of capillary forces was presented. The mechanism was demonstrated in an experimental study that used sand packs of varying permeabilities wet-packed into cores with overburden pressures. A fixed injection rate was used to investigate waterflooding in the different permeability systems with 2 different oils. Overall recovery rates were examined as a function of injection velocity. An analysis of normalized oil production rates demonstrated that viscous forces are more important during the early phases of waterflooding. The study showed that breakthrough oil recovery values increased with higher permeability values. However, when injection rates were reduced to low frontal velocity values, the correlation between sand permeability and breakthrough oil recovery resulted in low permeability rates. Lower permeability porous media resulted in more restrictive flow conditions. However, the capillary force components increased as a result of the smaller pore sizes, which in turn led to enhanced water imbibition and higher oil recovery values after water breakthrough. It was concluded that waterflooding rates can be modified later in the recovery process in order to improve final oil recovery values. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dandina N [Baton Rouge, LA

    2012-07-10

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  3. Data warehousing methods and processing infrastructure for brain recovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, T; Kenny, S; Price, C J; Seghier, M L; Small, S L; Leff, A P; Pacurar, A; Strother, S C

    2010-09-01

    In order to accelerate translational neuroscience with the goal of improving clinical care it has become important to support rapid accumulation and analysis of large, heterogeneous neuroimaging samples and their metadata from both normal control and patient groups. We propose a multi-centre, multinational approach to accelerate the data mining of large samples and facilitate data-led clinical translation of neuroimaging results in stroke. Such data-driven approaches are likely to have an early impact on clinically relevant brain recovery while we simultaneously pursue the much more challenging model-based approaches that depend on a deep understanding of the complex neural circuitry and physiological processes that support brain function and recovery. We present a brief overview of three (potentially converging) approaches to neuroimaging data warehousing and processing that aim to support these diverse methods for facilitating prediction of cognitive and behavioral recovery after stroke, or other types of brain injury or disease.

  4. Clean recovery of antioxidant compounds from plant foods, by-products and algae assisted by ultrasounds processing. Modeling approaches to optimize processing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Galanakis, Charis M.; Brnčić, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound treatment is an alternative affordable, effective and reproducible method for the improved recovery of bioactive compounds from various processing streams. The objective of this review is to discuss the impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the recovery of polyphenols, carotenoid...

  5. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil

  6. Ringer's lactate improves liver recovery in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Runkuan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen (APAP overdose induces massive hepatocyte necrosis. Liver regeneration is a vital process for survival after a toxic insult. Since hepatocytes are mostly in a quiescent state (G0, the regeneration process requires the priming of hepatocytes by cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Ringer's lactate solution (RLS has been shown to increase serum TNF-α and IL-6 in patients and experimental animals; in addition, RLS also provides lactate, which can be used as an alternative metabolic fuel to meet the higher energy demand by liver regeneration. Therefore, we tested whether RLS therapy improves liver recovery after APAP overdose. Methods C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg dissolved in 1 mL sterile saline. Following 2 hrs of APAP challenge, the mice were given 1 mL RLS or Saline treatment every 12 hours for a total of 72 hours. Results 72 hrs after APAP challenge, compared to saline-treated group, RLS treatment significantly lowered serum transaminases (ALT/AST and improved liver recovery seen in histopathology. This beneficial effect was associated with increased hepatic tissue TNF-α concentration, enhanced hepatic NF-κB DNA binding and increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin D1, three important factors in liver regeneration. Conclusion RLS improves liver recovery from APAP hepatotoxicity.

  7. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the field of metallurgy, specifically processes for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores, problems of imbalance of ion exchange agents, contamination of recycled phosphoric acid with process organics and oxidizing agents, and loss and contamination of uranium product, are solved by removing organics from the raffinate after ion exchange conversion of uranium to uranous form and recovery thereof by ion exchange, and returning organics to the circuit to balance mono and disubstituted ester ion exchange agents; then oxidatively stripping uranium from the agent using hydrogen peroxide; then after ion exchange recovery of uranyl and scrubbing, stripping with sodium carbonate and acidifying the strip solution and using some of it for the scrubbing; regenerating the sodium loaded agent and recycling it to the uranous recovery step. Economic recovery of uranium as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production is effected. (author)

  8. Measures for waste water management from recovery processing of Zhushanxia uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaochi; Xu Lechang

    2000-01-01

    Measures for waste water management from recovery processing of Zhushanxia uranium deposit of Wengyuan Mine is analyzed, which include improving process flow, recycling process water used in uranium mill as much as possible and choosing a suitable disposing system. All these can decrease the amount of waste water, and also reduce costs of disposing waste water and harm to environment

  9. Simulation of petroleum recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs: physical process representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Hernani P.; Miranda Filho, Daniel N. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The naturally fractured reservoir recovery normally involves risk especially in intermediate to oil wet systems because of the simulations poor efficiency results under waterflood displacement. Double-porosity models are generally used in fractured reservoir simulation and have been implemented in the major commercial reservoir simulators. The physical processes acting in petroleum recovery are represented in double-porosity models by matrix-fracture transfer functions, therefore commercial simulators have their own implementations, and as a result different kinetics and final recoveries are attained. In this work, a double porosity simulator was built with Kazemi et al. (1976), Sabathier et al. (1998) and Lu et al. (2008) transfer function implementations and their recovery results have been compared using waterflood displacement in oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems. The results of transfer function comparisons have showed recovery improvements in oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems under different physical processes combination, particularly in fully discontinuous porous medium when concurrent imbibition takes place, coherent with Firoozabadi (2000) experimental results. Furthermore, the implemented transfer functions, related to a double-porosity model, have been compared to double-porosity commercial simulator model, as well a discrete fracture model with refined grid, showing differences between them. Waterflood can be an effective recovery method even in fully discontinuous media for oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems where concurrent imbibition takes place with high enough pressure gradients across the matrix blocks. (author)

  10. Process for recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiewiorowski, T.K.; Thornsberry, W.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Process is claimed for the recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution in which an organic extractant, containing uranium values and dissolved iron impurities and comprising a dialkylphosphoric acid and a trialkylphosphine oxide dissolved in a water immiscible organic solvent, is contacted with a substantially iron-free dilute aqueous phosphoric acid to remove said iron impurities. The removed impurities are bled from the system by feeding the resulting iron-loaded phosphoric acid to a secondary countercurrent uranium extraction operation from which they leave as part of the uranium-depleted acid raffinate. Also, process for recovering uranium in which the extractant, after it has been stripped of uranium values by aqueous ammonium carbonate, is contacted with a dilute aqueous acid selected from the group consisting of H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 and iron-free H 3 PO 4 to improve the extraction efficiency of the organic extractant

  11. Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its...... technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based...... wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery...

  12. Protein recovery from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli using mild solubilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Upadhyay, Arun Kumar; Singh, Surinder Mohan; Panda, Amulya Kumar

    2015-03-25

    Formation of inclusion bodies in bacterial hosts poses a major challenge for large scale recovery of bioactive proteins. The process of obtaining bioactive protein from inclusion bodies is labor intensive and the yields of recombinant protein are often low. Here we review the developments in the field that are targeted at improving the yield, as well as quality of the recombinant protein by optimizing the individual steps of the process, especially solubilization of the inclusion bodies and refolding of the solubilized protein. Mild solubilization methods have been discussed which are based on the understanding of the fact that protein molecules in inclusion body aggregates have native-like structure. These methods solubilize the inclusion body aggregates while preserving the native-like protein structure. Subsequent protein refolding and purification results in high recovery of bioactive protein. Other parameters which influence the overall recovery of bioactive protein from inclusion bodies have also been discussed. A schematic model describing the utility of mild solubilization methods for high throughput recovery of bioactive protein has also been presented.

  13. On-line optimal control improves gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors' companies jointly funded the first phase of a gas processing liquids optimization project that has the specific purposes to: Improve the return of processing natural gas liquids, Develop sets of control algorithms, Make available a low-cost solution suitable for small to medium-sized gas processing plants, Test and demonstrate the feasibility of line control. The ARCO Willard CO 2 gas recovery processing plant was chosen as the initial test site to demonstrate the application of multivariable on-line optimal control. One objective of this project is to support an R ampersand D effort to provide a standardized solution to the various types of gas processing plants in the U.S. Processes involved in these gas plants include cryogenic separations, demethanization, lean oil absorption, fractionation and gas treating. Next, the proposed solutions had to be simple yet comprehensive enough to allow an operator to maintain product specifications while operating over a wide range of gas input flow and composition. This had to be a supervisors system that remained on-line more than 95% of the time, and achieved reduced plant operating variability and improved variable cost control. It took more than a year to study various gas processes and to develop a control approach before a real application was finally exercised. An initial process for C 2 and CO 2 recoveries was chosen

  14. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  15. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaomeng; Gates, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced

  16. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualized study of thermochemistry assisted steam flooding to improve oil recovery in heavy oil reservoir with glass micromodels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyu, X.; Liu, Huiqing; Pang, Zhanxi; Sun, Zhixue

    2018-01-01

    Steam channeling, one serious problem in the process of steam flooding in heavy oil reservoir, decreases the sweep efficiency of steam to cause a lower oil recovery. Viscosity reducer and nitrogen foam, two effective methods to improve oil recovery with different mechanism, present a satisfactory

  18. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Don W.; McCune, A.D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) Identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2

  19. Improved process for the injection of water for secondary recovery of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-07-24

    In this process for the secondary recovery of petroleum from the formation, an aqueous displacing medium is injected through an injection well in communication with the formation. In this aqueous medium, a polymer is dissolved and the petroleum is thus displaced toward a producing well also in communication with the formation. The polymer is a liquid organic polymer, substantially linear, water-soluble, and having a resistance characteristic of at least 1.5. The polymer is dissolved in water in sufficient quantity such that the viscosity of the displacing medium is 0.5-15% of the viscosity of the crude oil to be displaced. The displacing medium is substantially free of molecular oxygen.

  20. Molecular dynamics studies of fluid/oil interfaces for improved oil recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, Lucas S; Michelon, Mateus F; Miranda, Caetano R

    2012-12-20

    In our paper, we study the interface wettability, diffusivity, and molecular orientation between crude oil and different fluids for applications in improved oil recovery (IOR) processes through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD). The salt concentration, temperature, and pressure effects on the physical chemistry properties of different interfaces between IOR agents [brine (H(2)O + % NaCl), CO(2), N(2), and CH(4)] and crude oil have been determined. From the interfacial density profiles, an accumulation of aromatic molecules near the interface has been observed. In the case of brine interfaced with crude oil, our calculations indicate an increase in the interfacial tension with increasing pressure and salt concentration, which favors oil displacement. On the other hand, with the other fluids studied (CO(2), N(2), and CH(4)), the interfacial tension decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. With interfacial tension reduction, an increase in fluid diffusivity in the oil phase is observed. We also studied the molecular orientation properties of the hydrocarbon and fluids molecules in the interface region. We perceived that the molecular orientation could be affected by changes in the interfacial tension and diffusivity of the molecules in the interface region with the increased pressure and temperature: pressure (increasing) → interfacial tension (decreasing) → diffusion (increasing) → molecular ordering. From a molecular point of view, the combination of low interfacial tension and high diffusion of molecules in the oil phase gives the CO(2) molecules unique properties as an IOR fluid compared with other fluids studied here.

  1. Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskovic, P.; Anastasovski, A.; Markovska, Lj.; Mesko, V.

    2010-01-01

    The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six phases, and the primary tool used for the design of heat recovery network was Pinch Analysis. Performance of preliminary design are obtained by targeting procedure, for three process stream sets, and evaluated by the economic criteria. The results of process integration study are presented in the form of heat exchanger networks which fulfilled the utilization of waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.

  2. Pushing desalination recovery to the maximum limit: Membrane and thermal processes integration

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    The economics of seawater desalination processes has been continuously improving as a result of desalination market expansion. Presently, reverse osmosis (RO) processes are leading in global desalination with 53% share followed by thermally driven technologies 33%, but in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries their shares are 42% and 56% respectively due to severe feed water quality. In RO processes, intake, pretreatment and brine disposal cost 25% of total desalination cost at 30–35% recovery. We proposed a tri-hybrid system to enhance overall recovery up to 81%. The conditioned brine leaving from RO processes supplied to proposed multi-evaporator adsorption cycle driven by low temperature industrial waste heat sources or solar energy. RO membrane simulation has been performed using WinFlow and IMSDesign commercial softwares developed by GE and Nitto. Detailed mathematical model of overall system is developed and simulation has been conducted in FORTRAN. The final brine reject concentration from tri-hybrid cycle can vary from 166,000ppm to 222,000ppm if RO retentate concentration varies from 45,000ppm to 60,000ppm. We also conducted economic analysis and showed that the proposed tri-hybrid cycle can achieve highest recovery, 81%, and lowest energy consumption, 1.76kWhelec/m3, for desalination reported in the literature up till now.

  3. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  4. Personality and recovery: integrating personality assessment data to facilitate the recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, D C

    2001-01-01

    The relatively enduring and persistent nature of personality traits means that they will likely continue to impact the course of psychiatric recovery after Axis I symptoms are stabilized. These traits can significantly impact the choices that recovering persons make and the quality of interpersonal relationships with care providers who are trying to facilitate the recovery process. Despite this, they are often inadequately assessed and considered in providing psychiatric care. This manuscript reviews the common combinations of personality traits that have emerged across a variety of clinical samples. The implications of these personality features for the provision of care in an inpatient setting to facilitate recovery are discussed.

  5. Racial and Socioeconomic Differences Manifest in Process Measure Adherence for Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Alimi, Yewande; Hobson, Deborah R; Efron, Jonathan E; Wick, Elizabeth C; Haut, Elliott R; Johnston, Fabian M

    2017-10-01

    Adherence to care processes and surgical outcomes varies by population subgroups for the same procedure. Enhanced recovery after surgery pathways are intended to standardize care, but their effect on process adherence and outcomes for population subgroups is unknown. This study aims to demonstrate the association between recovery pathway implementation, process measures, and short-term surgical outcomes by population subgroup. This study is a pre- and post-quality improvement implementation cohort study. This study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center. A modified colorectal enhanced recovery after surgery pathway was implemented. Patients were included who had elective colon and rectal resections before (2013) and following (2014-2016) recovery pathway implementation. Thirty-day outcomes by race and socioeconomic status were analyzed using a difference-in-difference approach with correlation to process adherence. We identified 639 cases (199 preimplementation, 440 postimplementation). In these cases, 75.2% of the patients were white, and 91.7% had a high socioeconomic status. Groups were similar in terms of other preoperative characteristics. Following pathway implementation, median lengths of stay improved in all subgroups (-1.0 days overall, p ≤ 0.001), but with no statistical difference by race or socioeconomic status (p = 0.89 and p = 0.29). Complication rates in both racial and socioeconomic groups were no different (26.4% vs 28.8%, p = 0.73; 27.3% vs 25.0%, p = 0.86) and remained unchanged with implementation (p = 0.93, p = 0.84). By race, overall adherence was 31.7% in white patients and 26.5% in nonwhite patients (p = 0.32). Although stratification by socioeconomic status demonstrated decreased overall adherence in the low-status group (31.8% vs 17.1%, p = 0.05), white patients were more likely to have regional pain therapy (57.1% vs 44.1%, p = 0.02) with a similar trend seen with socioeconomic status. Data were collected primarily for

  6. Tide Gauge Records Reveal Improved Processing of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Time-Variable Mass Solutions over the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Landerer, Felix W.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2018-05-01

    Monthly ocean bottom pressure solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), derived using surface spherical cap mass concentration (MC) blocks and spherical harmonics (SH) basis functions, are compared to tide gauge (TG) monthly averaged sea level data over 2003-2015 to evaluate improved gravimetric data processing methods near the coast. MC solutions can explain ≳ 42% of the monthly variance in TG time series over broad shelf regions and in semi-enclosed marginal seas. MC solutions also generally explain ˜5-32 % more TG data variance than SH estimates. Applying a coastline resolution improvement algorithm in the GRACE data processing leads to ˜ 31% more variance in TG records explained by the MC solution on average compared to not using this algorithm. Synthetic observations sampled from an ocean general circulation model exhibit similar patterns of correspondence between modeled TG and MC time series and differences between MC and SH time series in terms of their relationship with TG time series, suggesting that observational results here are generally consistent with expectations from ocean dynamics. This work demonstrates the improved quality of recent MC solutions compared to earlier SH estimates over the coastal ocean, and suggests that the MC solutions could be a useful tool for understanding contemporary coastal sea level variability and change.

  7. Analysis of an optimal resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yiji; Wang, Yaodong; Bao, Huashan; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Liwei; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Resorption cogeneration for electricity and refrigeration generation. • Mass and heat recovery to further improve the performance. • The first and second law analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimised resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery to improve the performance of a novel resorption cogeneration fist proposed by Wang et al. This system combines ammonia-resorption technology and expansion machine into one loop, which is able to generate refrigeration and electricity from low-grade heat sources such as solar energy and industrial waste heat. Two sets of resorption cycle are designed to overcome the intermittent performance of the chemisorption and produce continuous/simultaneous refrigeration and electricity. In this paper, twelve resorption working pairs of salt complex candidates are analysed by the first law analysis using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The optimal resorption working pairs from the twelve candidates under the driven temperature from 100 °C to 300 °C are identified. By applying heat/mass recovery, the coefficient of performance (COP) improvement is increased by 38% when the high temperature salt (HTS) is NiCl 2 and by 35% when the HTS is MnCl 2 . On the other hand, the energy efficiency of electricity has also been improved from 8% to 12% with the help of heat/mass recovery. The second law analysis has also been applied to investigate the exergy utilisation and identify the key components/processes. The highest second law efficiency is achieved as high as 41% by the resorption working pair BaCl 2 –MnCl 2 under the heat source temperature at 110 °C.

  8. Use of polymers in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav, J.F.

    Water-soluble polymers are used extensively in various stages of gas and oil production operations, typical examples being enhanced oil recovery, water production control, and well drilling. A variety of polymetric materials, both naturally occurring and synthetic ones, are currently used; guar and cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, polysaccharides, polyacrylamides and others. In this work, only the application of polymeric materials to enhanced recovery processes is discussed.

  9. Method for the recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid, originating from the wet-process of uraniferous phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.; Carrington, O.F.

    1978-01-01

    Improvement in the process for recoverying uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange circuits is described. (Auth.)

  10. Waste heat and water recovery opportunities in California tomato paste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amón, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Mike; Wong, Tony; Kazama, Don; Simmons, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy efficiency are important for the vitality of the food processing industry as demand for these limited resources continues to increase. Tomato processing, which is dominated by paste production, is a major industry in California – where the majority of tomatoes are processed in the United States. Paste processing generates large amounts of condensate as moisture is removed from the fruit. Recovery of the waste heat in this condensate and reuse of the water may provide avenues to decrease net energy and water use at processing facilities. However, new processing methods are needed to create demand for the condensate waste heat. In this study, the potential to recover condensate waste heat and apply it to the tomato enzyme thermal inactivation processing step (the hot break) is assessed as a novel application. A modeling framework is established to predict heat transfer to tomatoes during the hot break. Heat recovery and reuse of the condensate water are related to energy and monetary savings gained through decreased use of steam, groundwater pumping, cooling towers, and wastewater processing. This analysis is informed by water and energy usage data from relevant unit operations at a commercial paste production facility. The case study indicates potential facility seasonal energy and monetary savings of 7.3 GWh and $166,000, respectively, with most savings gained through reduced natural gas use. The sensitivity of heat recovery to various process variables associated with heat exchanger design and processing conditions is presented to identify factors that affect waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • The potential to recovery waste heat in tomato paste processing is examined. • Heat transfer from evaporator condensate to tomatoes in the hot break is modeled. • Processing facility data is used in model to predict heat recovery energy savings. • The primary benefit of heat recovery is reduced use of natural gas in boilers. • Reusing

  11. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  12. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  13. Membrane-based processes for wastewater nutrient recovery: Technology, challenges, and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Shon, Ho Kyong; Gray, Stephen R; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater nutrient recovery holds promise for more sustainable water and agricultural industries. We critically review three emerging membrane processes - forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis (ED) - that can advance wastewater nutrient recovery. Challenges associated with wastewater nutrient recovery were identified. The advantages and challenges of applying FO, MD, and ED technologies to wastewater nutrient recovery are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. Emphasis is given to exploration of the unique mass transfer properties of these membrane processes in the context of wastewater nutrient recovery. We highlight that hybridising these membrane processes with existing nutrient precipitation process will lead to better management of and more diverse pathways for near complete nutrient recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Process of Divorce Recovery: A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastil, Richard W.

    Many researchers have speculated over the nature of the divorce recovery process. Is the process similar to Kubler-Ross's stages of grief or does divorce recovery follow a unique process? This paper examines the current body of empirical research in an attempt to answer these questions. From the 91 sources analyzed, it was discovered that most of…

  15. Recovery of clean coal fines through a combination of gravity concentrator and flotation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K.; Dutta, A.; Mishra, A. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). Research & Development

    2007-07-01

    Flotation feed is a mixture of coarse and ultra-fine fractions. During conditioning of the flotation feed with collector and frother, the finer fraction consumes more reagents as compared to coarser particles. This is mainly due to more specific surface area of the ultra fine than the coarse fraction. This favors the adsorption of reagents toward ultra-finer fractions leads to less complete surface coverage of coarse particles and more entrainment of finer gangue particles. This results in the lower yield of coarse fractions from the flotation circuit and loss in selectivity. Hence, the major challenge is to improve the recovery of the coarser fraction and selectivity of ultra-fine fractions by improving flotation kinetics of all size fractions. This article deals with an approach to overcome the improper reagent adsorption by fine and coarse coal fractions in the flotation circuit through an innovative washing circuit containing gravity operation and flotation processes. Flotation performance between a new washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation and normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process is compared in terms of selectivity, separation efficiency, rate constant, and size-wise recovery. The washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation processes improves the fine clean coal yield by 10% and reduces the consumption of reagent compared to the normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process.

  16. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  17. Poststroke Trajectories: The Process of Recovery Over the Longer Term Following Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Rebecca J; Jowett, Adam; Godfrey, Mary; Mellish, Kirste; Young, John; Farrin, Amanda; Holloway, Ivana; Hewison, Jenny; Forster, Anne

    2017-01-01

    We adopted a grounded theory approach to explore the process of recovery experienced by stroke survivors over the longer term who were living in the community in the United Kingdom, and the interacting factors that are understood to have shaped their recovery trajectories. We used a combination of qualitative methods. From the accounts of 22 purposively sampled stroke survivors, four different recovery trajectories were evident: (a) meaningful recovery, (b) cycles of recovery and decline, (c) ongoing disruption, (d) gradual, ongoing decline. Building on the concept of the illness trajectory, our findings demonstrate how multiple, interacting factors shape the process and meaning of recovery over time. Such factors included conception of recovery and meanings given to the changing self, the meanings and consequences of health and illness experiences across the life course, loss, sense of agency, and enacting relationships. Awareness of the process of recovery will help professionals better support stroke survivors.

  18. Exploring identity within the recovery process of people with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley-Walker, Kellie; Crowe, Trevor; Caputi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To examine self-identity within the recovery processes of people with serious mental illnesses using a repertory grid methodology. Cross-sectional study involving 40 mental health service consumers. Participants rated different "self" and "other" elements on the repertory grid against constructs related to recovery, as well as other recovery focused measures. Perceptions of one's "ideal self" represented more advanced recovery in contrast to perceptions of "a person mentally unwell." Current perceptions of self were most similar to perceptions of "usual self" and least similar to "a person who is mentally unwell." Increased identification with one's "ideal self" reflected increased hopefulness in terms of recovery. The recovery repertory grid shows promise in clinical practice, in terms of exploring identity as a key variable within mental health recovery processes. Distance measures of similarity between various self-elements, including perceptions of others, maps logically against the recovery process of hope.

  19. An ecologically-controlled exoskeleton can improve balance recovery after slippage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, V.; Tropea, P.; Aprigliano, F.; Martelli, D.; Parri, A.; Cortese, M.; Molino-Lova, R.; Vitiello, N.; Micera, S.

    2017-05-01

    The evolution to bipedalism forced humans to develop suitable strategies for dynamically controlling their balance, ensuring stability, and preventing falling. The natural aging process and traumatic events such as lower-limb loss can alter the human ability to control stability significantly increasing the risk of fall and reducing the overall autonomy. Accordingly, there is an urgent need, from both end-users and society, for novel solutions that can counteract the lack of balance, thus preventing falls among older and fragile citizens. In this study, we show a novel ecological approach relying on a wearable robotic device (the Active Pelvis Orthosis, APO) aimed at facilitating balance recovery after unexpected slippages. Specifically, if the APO detects signs of balance loss, then it supplies counteracting torques at the hips to assist balance recovery. Experimental tests conducted on eight elderly persons and two transfemoral amputees revealed that stability against falls improved due to the “assisting when needed” behavior of the APO. Interestingly, our approach required a very limited personalization for each subject, and this makes it promising for real-life applications. Our findings demonstrate the potential of closed-loop controlled wearable robots to assist elderly and disabled subjects and to improve their quality of life.

  20. Processing of spent nickelcatalyst for fat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASIR Mohammad Ibraim

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent nickel catalyst (SNC has the potential of insulting the quality of the environment in a number of ways. Its disposal has a pollution effect. Optimum recovery of fat from SNC, could save the environment and reduce the oil loss. Hexane has been the solvent of choice for oil extraction. Alternative solvents considered to have been safer have been evaluated. Hexane, isopropanol, ethanol and heptane were examined using soxhlet extraction. While hexane is more efficient in oil recovery from SNC, isopropanol proved to be very good in clear separation of oil from waste material and also provides high solvent recovery compared to other solvents. Isopropanol extraction with chill separation of miscella into lower oil-rich phase, and an upper, solvent-rich recyclable phase save mush energy of vaporization for distilling. An aqueous extraction process with immiscible solvent assisted was tested. Solvent like hexane added to SNC, and water added later with continuous stirring. The mixture was stirred for about 30 minutes, prior to centrifugation. Aqueous process extracted less amount of oil compared to solvent extraction.

  1. Experimental investigation of molten salt droplet quenching and solidification processes of heat recovery in thermochemical hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandehariun, S.; Wang, Z.; Naterer, G.F.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal efficiency of a thermochemical cycle of hydrogen production is improved. • Direct contact heat recovery from molten salt is analyzed. • Falling droplets quenched into water are investigated experimentally. - Abstract: This paper investigates the heat transfer and X-ray diffraction patterns of solidified molten salt droplets in heat recovery processes of a thermochemical Cu–Cl cycle of hydrogen production. It is essential to recover the heat of the molten salt to enhance the overall thermal efficiency of the copper–chlorine cycle. A major portion of heat recovery within the cycle can be achieved by cooling and solidifying the molten salt exiting an oxygen reactor. Heat recovery from the molten salt is achieved by dispersing the molten stream into droplets. In this paper, an analytical study and experimental investigation of the thermal phenomena of a falling droplet quenched into water is presented, involving the droplet surface temperature during descent and resulting composition change in the quench process. The results show that it is feasible to quench the molten salt droplets for an efficient heat recovery process without introducing any material imbalance for the overall cycle integration.

  2. Efficient recovery of uranium using genetically improved microalgae; Recuperacion eficaz de uranio utilizando microalgas geneticamente mejoradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rodas, V.; Conde Vilda, E.; Garcia-Balboa, C.

    2015-07-01

    We propose an alternative process for the efficient recovery of dissolved uranium based on genetically improved microalgae. We isolate Chlamydomonas cf. fonticola from a pond extremely contaminated by uranium (∼ 25 ppm) from ENUSA U-mine, Saelices (Salamanca, Spain). After a process of genetic improvement we obtained a strain capable to recover 115 mg of U per g of dry weight, by mean of bio-adsorption on the cell wall (mostly) and intra-cytoplasm bioaccumulation. Such a genetically improved microalgae resist extremes of acidity and pollution, but even its dead biomass is still able to recover a large amount of uranium. (Author)

  3. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H(sub 2)S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf(trademark) (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H(sub 2)S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO(sub 2) at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H(sub 2)S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described

  4. A process for uranium recovery in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Neto, J.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented about studies carried out envisaging the development of a process for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid, produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). This process uses a mixture of DEPA-TOPO as extractant and the extraction cycle involves the following stages: acid pre-treatment; adjustment of the oxidation potential so to ensure that all uranium is hexavalent; extraction of uranium from the acid; screening of the solvent to remove undesirable impurities; uranium re-extraction and precipitation; solvent recovery. A micro-pilot plant for continuous processing was built up. Data collected showed that uranium can be recovered with an yield greater than 99%, thus proving the feasibility of the process and encouraging the construction of a bigger scale plant. (Author) [pt

  5. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Australian mental health consumers contributions to the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Sarah L; Oades, Lindsay G; Growe, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    One key component of recovery-oriented mental health services, typically overlooked, involves genuine collaboration between researchers and consumers to evaluate and improve services delivered within a recovery framework. Eighteen mental health consumers working with staff who had received training in the Collaborative Recovery Model (CRM) took part in in-depth focus group meetings, of approximately 2.5 hours each, to generate feedback to guide improvement of the CRM and its use in mental health services. Consumers identified clear avenues for improvement for the CRM both specific to the model and broadly applicable to recovery-oriented service provision. Findings suggest consumers want to be more engaged and empowered in the use of the CRM from the outset. Improved sampling procedures may have led to the identification of additional dissatisfied consumers. Collaboration with mental health consumers in the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented practice is crucial with an emphasis on rebuilding mental health services that are genuinely oriented to support recovery.

  7. Status of pre-processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Germany and its influence on the recovery of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Bolland, Til; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains gold in low but from an environmental and economic point of view relevant concentration. After collection, WEEE is pre-processed in order to generate appropriate material fractions that are sent to the subsequent end-processing stages (recovery, reuse or disposal). The goal of this research is to quantify the overall recovery rates of pre-processing technologies used in Germany for the reference year 2007. To achieve this goal, facilities operating in Germany were listed and classified according to the technology they apply. Information on their processing capacity was gathered by evaluating statistical databases. Based on a literature review of experimental results for gold recovery rates of different pre-processing technologies, the German overall recovery rate of gold at the pre-processing level was quantified depending on the characteristics of the treated WEEE. The results reveal that - depending on the equipment groups - pre-processing recovery rates of gold of 29 to 61% are achieved in Germany. Some practical recommendations to reduce the losses during pre-processing could be formulated. Defining mass-based recovery targets in the legislation does not set incentives to recover trace elements. Instead, the priorities for recycling could be defined based on other parameters like the environmental impacts of the materials. The implementation of measures to reduce the gold losses would also improve the recovery of several other non-ferrous metals like tin, nickel, and palladium.

  8. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  9. Recovery process of elite athletes: A review of contemporary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Draško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerous training stimulus and competition as well can reduce level of abilities among athletes. This decline of performance can be a temporary phenomenon, with duration of several minutes or several hours after a workout, or take much longer, even a several days. The lack of adequate recovery process can influence on athletes not being able to train at the desired intensity or do not fully meet the tasks at the next training session. Chronic fatigue can lead to injuries, and therefore, full recovery is necessary for achieving optimal level of abilities that will ensure a better athletic performance. For this reasons, athletes often carry out a variety of techniques and methods aimed to recover after training or match. They have become a part of the training process and their purpose is reduction of stress and fatigue incurred as a result of daily exposure to intense training stimulus. There are numerous methods and techniques today that can accelerate the recovery process of athletes. For this reason it is necessary to know the efficiency of an adequate method which will be applied in the training process. The aim of this review article is to point to those currently used and their effects on the process of recovery after physical activity in elite sport.

  10. Promoting information diffusion through interlayer recovery processes in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Weihua; Liu, Longzhao; Pei, Sen; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    For information diffusion in multiplex networks, the effect of interlayer contagion on spreading dynamics has been explored in different settings. Nevertheless, the impact of interlayer recovery processes, i.e., the transition of nodes to stiflers in all layers after they become stiflers in any layer, still remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a modified ignorant-spreader-stifler model of rumor spreading equipped with an interlayer recovery mechanism. We find that the information diffusion can be effectively promoted for a range of interlayer recovery rates. By combining the mean-field approximation and the Markov chain approach, we derive the evolution equations of the diffusion process in two-layer homogeneous multiplex networks. The optimal interlayer recovery rate that achieves the maximal enhancement can be calculated by solving the equations numerically. In addition, we find that the promoting effect on a certain layer can be strengthened if information spreads more extensively within the counterpart layer. When applying the model to two-layer scale-free multiplex networks, with or without degree correlation, similar promoting effect is also observed in simulations. Our work indicates that the interlayer recovery process is beneficial to information diffusion in multiplex networks, which may have implications for designing efficient spreading strategies.

  11. Alternatives to improve technological and environmentally the miner-metallurgic processes of recovery of gold in Vetas and California (Santander, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza Rosas, Julio Elias; Yanez Traslavina, Jose Julian

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of improving the recovery of gold, to eliminate the use of the mercury and to diminish the contamination with cyanide in the Mining District of Vetas and Californian, the concentration processes were studied in a machine knelson and the intensive cyanidation of the concentrate. As fundamental part of this work, it was carried out the characterization of the samples, determining and quantifying the most influential characteristics in the processes of gravimetric concentration and of cyanidation, as well as the necessary for the design of plants. Of the mineralogical characterization it concluded that the ore of the two municipalities present significant differences that bear to think of the necessity of using different extractive processes. In general, the ore of California, bigger tenors of gold contain and of silver and they are poly-sulphurated; while those of Vetas are of pyritic type, except for that of the Golden Mine that presents similarity with those of California. The minerals of California presented a high percentage of gold (40-60%), fine coming from the alteration of the mineral; a high lixiviability in bottle; especially the samples of the Sinues Mine, with dissolutions of gold of the order of 95%, while of the Vetas was of the order of 60%. The experimental results in the knelson equipment, allowed to check the applicability of this concentration type for the case of the minerals of Vetas, obtaining under controlled operative conditions, concentrated with high tenors of gold, 421.16 g/t; significant enrichment reasons, 29.5 (tenor of the concentrate / tenor of the mineral head), with recoveries of gold notables, bigger to 80%. On the contrary, with those of Californian ores, satisfactory results were not obtained, accountable for the presence of the high percentage of gold in the fines. The application of the intensive cyanidation to the obtained concentrates, it was evaluated in presence and absence of the catalytic Leachwell and Pb

  12. MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Basics studies on the suitability of microorganisms for improved oil recovery. Final report; MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Grundlagen der Eignung von Mikroorganismen fuer die Verbesserung der Erdoelgewinnung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Fischer, K. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Timmis, K.N. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Yakimov, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Kroeger, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Bosecker, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Kruckemeyer, I. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Mengel-Jung, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Bock, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Schink, B. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Denger, K. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Kessel, D. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Amro, M. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Jacobs, G. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Hoffmann, G.G. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wagner, M. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Ziran, B. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Nowak, H.U. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Eins, I. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Rosenspiess, K. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Lungershausen, D. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) is the use of microorganisms or microbial products that are injected into the oil reservoir to improve oil flow. The aim of this project was the application of MIOR in case of clastic reservoir rocks of the type encountered typically in Northern Germany. Microorganisms were concentrated, insolated and characterized from samples that were taken from oil production wells, oil processing facilities and soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. More than 500 bacteria strains were investigated for ability to grow under anaerobic conditions, halotolerance, heat tolerance and production of substances that increase viscosity or are surface active. 39 strains were selected for specific tests and genetic investigations. The two bacteria strains Bacillus licheniformis BNP 29 and Sporohalobacter showed to the capable for MIOR. Dynamic flooding experiments were carried out under realistic reservoir conditions, in order to quantify the ability of the microorganisms to mobilize residual oil in place, as well as to investigate the oil mobilizing mechanisms in more detail. It could be shown that the injectivity and migration of the bacteria in porous media are ensured. The microorganisms are able to grow under reservoir conditions as present in oil reservoirs of Northern Germany. Their application in flooding experiments leads to a significant increase of oil recovery. The most important factors influencing the oil recovery are the reduction of the permeability of the reservoir pores and changes in the wettability because of the bacterial growth. A suitable nutrient medium with an acid buffer was developed for the application of MIOR in sandstone reservoirs. An executive summary is prublished in DGMK-Report 441-2/1. (orig.) [Deutsch] MIOR (microbial improved oil recovery)-Verfahren dienen dazu, den Entoelungsgrad einer Erdoellagerstaette durch den gezielten in-situ-Einsatz von geeigneten Mikroorganismen und deren Stoffwechselprodukten zu erhoehen

  13. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine......In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous...

  14. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    . Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis......Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity......, and to assist individuals to work through the false analogy between illness and identity while supporting the transformation from patient to person. It is also necessary for clinicians to develop a clear understanding of peoples’ actual needs and gain more knowledge about peoples’ own views and experiences...

  15. Complementary Therapies – a spiritual resource in recovery-processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe; Johannessen, Helle

    rehabilitative treatments intends to support recovery processes of people with serious mental illness. Aim: To investigate how employees and residents perceive complementary therapies as an integral rehabilitative treatment, and to explore the recovery related implications of spirituality employed in the use...... and health as well as for the ethics of providing complementary treatment practice in social psychiatry....

  16. Auditory processing during deep propofol sedation and recovery from unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Heinke, Wolfgang; Sammler, Daniela; Olthoff, Derk

    2006-08-01

    Using evoked potentials, this study investigated effects of deep propofol sedation, and effects of recovery from unconsciousness, on the processing of auditory information with stimuli suited to elicit a physical MMN, and a (music-syntactic) ERAN. Levels of sedation were assessed using the Bispectral Index (BIS) and the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale (MOAAS). EEG-measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep propofol sedation (MOAAS 2-3, mean BIS=68), and a recovery period. Between deep sedation and recovery period, the infusion rate of propofol was increased to achieve unconsciousness (MOAAS 0-1, mean BIS=35); EEG measurements of recovery period were performed after subjects regained consciousness. During deep sedation, the physical MMN was markedly reduced, but still significant. No ERAN was observed in this level. A clear P3a was elicited during deep sedation by those deviants, which were task-relevant during the awake state. As soon as subjects regained consciousness during the recovery period, a normal MMN was elicited. By contrast, the P3a was absent in the recovery period, and the P3b was markedly reduced. Results indicate that the auditory sensory memory (as indexed by the physical MMN) is still active, although strongly reduced, during deep sedation (MOAAS 2-3). The presence of the P3a indicates that attention-related processes are still operating during this level. Processes of syntactic analysis appear to be abolished during deep sedation. After propofol-induced anesthesia, the auditory sensory memory appears to operate normal as soon as subjects regain consciousness, whereas the attention-related processes indexed by P3a and P3b are markedly impaired. Results inform about effects of sedative drugs on auditory and attention-related mechanisms. The findings are important because these mechanisms are prerequisites for auditory awareness, auditory learning and memory, as well as language perception during anesthesia.

  17. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J.; Ciriacks, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia

  18. Low-Power Adiabatic Computing with Improved Quasistatic Energy Recovery Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of adiabatic logic circuits is determined by the adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses incurred by them during the charging and recovery operations. The lesser will be these losses circuit will be more energy efficient. In this paper, a new approach is presented for minimizing power consumption in quasistatic energy recovery logic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the nonadiabatic losses completely by replacing the diodes with MOSFETs whose gates are controlled by power clocks. Proposed circuit inherits the advantages of quasistatic ERL (QSERL family but is with improved power efficiency and driving ability. In order to demonstrate workability of the newly developed circuit, a 4 × 4 bit array multiplier circuit has been designed. A mathematical expression to calculate energy dissipation in proposed inverter is developed. Performance of the proposed logic (improved quasistatic energy recovery logic (IQSERL is analyzed and compared with CMOS and reported QSERL in their representative inverters and multipliers in VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18 μm UMC technology. In our proposed (IQSERL inverter the power efficiency has been improved to almost 20% up to 50 MHz and 300 fF external load capacitance in comparison to CMOS and QSERL circuits.

  19. Measuring personal recovery - psychometric properties of the Swedish Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR-Swe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentzell, Elisabeth; Hultqvist, Jenny; Neil, Sandra; Eklund, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Personal recovery, defined as an individual process towards meaning, is an important target within mental health services. Measuring recovery hence requires reliable and valid measures. The Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR) was developed for that purpose. The aim was to develop a Swedish version of the QPR (QPR-Swe) and explore its psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity and sensitivity to change. A total of 226 participants entered the study. The factor structure was investigated by Principal Component Analysis and Scree plot. Construct validity was addressed in terms of convergent validity against indicators of self-mastery, self-esteem, quality of life and self-rated health. A one-factor solution of QPR-Swe received better support than a two-factor solution. Good internal consistency was indicated, α = 0.92, and construct validity was satisfactory. The QPR-Swe showed preliminary sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe showed promising initial psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, convergent validity and sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe is recommended for use in research and clinical contexts to assess personal recovery among people with mental illness.

  20. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-01-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H(sub 2)S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf(sup SM) (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H(sub 2)S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H(sub 2)S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO(sub 2) at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H(sub 2)S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H(sub 2)S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H(sub 2)S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H(sub 2)S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change

  1. Opportunities for low-grade heat recovery in the UK food processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Richard; Harvey, Adam; Reay, David

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in the process industry is becoming an increasingly important issue due to the rising costs of both electricity and fossil fuel resources, as well as the tough targets for the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions outlined in the Climate Change Act 2008. Utilisation of waste heat sources is key to improving industrial energy efficiency, with an estimated 11.4 TWh of recoverable heat being wasted each year, a quarter of which is from the food and drinks processing sector. This paper examines the low-grade waste heat sources common to the food and drinks processing sector and the various opportunities for the use of this heat. A review of the best available technologies for recovery of waste heat is provided, ranging from heat transfer between source and sink, to novel technologies for the generation of electricity and refrigeration. Generally, the most economic option for waste heat recovery is heat exchange between nearby/same process source and sink, with a number of well-developed heat exchangers widely available for purchase. More novel options, such as the use of organic Rankine cycles for electricity generation prove to be less economical due to high capital outlays. However, with additional funding provision for demonstration of such projects and development of modular units, such technologies would become more common

  2. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  3. Technology of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakashio, Fumiyuki

    1982-12-01

    Rock phosphate contains from 0.005 to 0.02 wt.% of uranium. Though the content is a mere 5 to 10 % of that in uranium ore, the total recovery of uranium is significant since it is used for fertilizer manufacture in a large quantity. Wet-process phosphoric acid is produced by the reaction of rock phosphate with sulfuric acid. The recovery of uranium from this phosphoric acid is mostly by solvent extraction at present. According to U/sup 4 +/ or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ as the form of its existence, the technique of solvent extraction differs. The following matters are described: processing of rock phosphate; recovery techniques including the extraction by OPPA-octyl pyrophosphoric acid for U/sup 4 +/, and by mixed DEHPA-Di-(2)-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid and TOPO-tryoctyl phosphine oxide for UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, and by OPAP-octylphenyl acid phosphate for U/sup 4 +/; the recent progress of the technology as seen in patents.

  4. Recovery of acids from dilute streams : A review of process technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talnikar, Vivek Digambar; Mahajan, Yogesh Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Chemical process industries convert raw materials into useful products. Acids, among other chemicals, are used in many industries as reactants, solvents and also as catalysts in a few instances as well. Resulting streams are dilute, from which the acids must be recovered. For recovery, many technologies can be used by which acids can be regained as such or can be converted into other value-added products like esters. Membrane processes and biological processes are being researched academically and practiced industrially. These have their own advantages and disadvantages in view of conversion, energy consumption etc. These are not always advantageous and hence an alternate process technology is necessary like reactive separation (RS). RS is advantageous especially when the acid is to be converted to other useful products by reaction, due to additional advantages or because no other technology is well suited or due to cost considerations alone. Conventional process technologies use the reactor configuration followed by the subsequent separation sequence. This approach can sometimes suffer from lesser conversion, difficulties in separation etc. To overcome these problems, RS has an edge over other processes in terms of the recovery of the useful compounds. Reactive distillation (RD), reactive extraction (RE) and reactive chromatography (RC) are the separation technologies that can be useful for acid recovery in an economically feasible way. This review covers the various processes of acid recovery along with the recent work in the field of reactive separations

  5. Viability analysis of heat recovery solution for industrial process of roasting coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Miroslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial heat recovery solution is specific engineering challenge but not because predicted energy rationalization or achieved energy savings but potential unavoidable technological deviations and consequences on related processes and for sure, high investment because of delicate design and construction. Often, the energy savings in a particular segment of the industrial process is a main goal. However, in the food industry, especially roasting coffee, additional criteria has to be strictly observed and fulfilled. Such criteria may include prescribed and uniform product quality, compliance with food safety standards, stability of the processes etc., and all in the presence of key process parameters variability, inconsistency of raw material composition and quality, complexity of measurement and analytical methods etc. The paper respects all circumstances and checks viability of proposed recovery solution. The paper analyzes the possibility of using waste heat from the roasting process to ensure shortening of roasting cycle, reduction of fuel consumption and increasing capacity of roasting lines on daily basis. Analysis concludes that effects are valuable and substantial, although the complete solution is on the threshold of economic sustainability with numerous opportunities to improve of both technical and economic indicators. The analysis combines measuring and analytical methods with standard cost-benefit analysis. Conclusions are derived from measurements and calculations of key parameters in the operating conditions and checked by experimental methods. Test results deviate from 10 to 15%, in relation with parameters in main production line.

  6. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, A; Iakovou, E

    2009-05-01

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

  7. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.; Iakovou, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study

  8. Cold-Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy: No Improvement of Short-Term Recovery After Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Christos K; Broatch, James R; Petersen, Aaron C; Polman, Remco; Bishop, David J; Halson, Shona

    2017-08-01

    An athlete's ability to recover quickly is important when there is limited time between training and competition. As such, recovery strategies are commonly used to expedite the recovery process. To determine the effectiveness of both cold-water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) compared with control on short-term recovery (<4 h) after a single full-body resistance-training session. Thirteen men (age 26 ± 5 y, weight 79 ± 7 kg, height 177 ± 5 cm) were assessed for perceptual (fatigue and soreness) and performance measures (maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVC] of the knee extensors, weighted and unweighted countermovement jumps) before and immediately after the training session. Subjects then completed 1 of three 14-min recovery strategies (CWI, CWT, or passive sitting [CON]), with the perceptual and performance measures reassessed immediately, 2 h, and 4 h postrecovery. Peak torque during MVC and jump performance were significantly decreased (P < .05) after the resistance-training session and remained depressed for at least 4 h postrecovery in all conditions. Neither CWI nor CWT had any effect on perceptual or performance measures over the 4-h recovery period. CWI and CWT did not improve short-term (<4-h) recovery after a conventional resistance-training session.

  9. Process options and projected mass flows for the HTGR refabrication scrap recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, S.M.

    1979-03-01

    The two major uranium recovery processing options reviewed are (1) internal recovery of the scrap by the refabrication system and (2) transfer to and external recovery of the scrap by the head end of the reprocessing system. Each option was reviewed with respect to equipment requirements, preparatory processing, and material accountability. Because there may be a high cost factor on transfer of scrap fuel material to the reprocessing system for recovery, all of the scrap streams will be recycled internally within the refabrication system, with the exception of reject fuel elements, which will be transferred to the head end of the reprocessing system for uranium recovery. The refabrication facility will be fully remote; thus, simple recovery techniques were selected as the reference processes for scrap recovery. Crushing, burning, and leaching methods will be used to recover uranium from the HTGR refabrication scrap fuel forms, which include particles without silicon carbide coatings, particles with silicon carbide coatings, uncarbonized fuel rods, carbon furnace parts, perchloroethylene distillation bottoms, and analytical sample remnants. Mass flows through the reference scrap recovery system were calculated for the HTGR reference recycle facility operating with the highly enriched uranium fuel cycle. Output per day from the refabrication scrap recovery system is estimated to be 4.02 kg of 2355 U and 10.85 kg of 233 U. Maximum equipment capacities were determined, and future work will be directed toward the development and costing of the scrap recovery system chosen as reference

  10. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    (53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for

  11. Process for uranium recovery in phosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthe, J.M.; Solar, Serge.

    1980-01-01

    Process for uranium recovery in phosphorus compounds with an organic phase containing a dialkylphosphoric acid. A solubilizing agent constituted of an heavy alcohol or a phosphoric acid ester or a tertiary phosphine oxide or octanol-2, is added to the organic phase for solubilization of the uranium and ammonium dialkyl pyrophosphate [fr

  12. [A Correlational Study of the Recovery Process in Patients With Mental Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Lin, Yao-Yu; Lee, Shih-Kai; Lee, Ming-Feng; Lin, Ching-Lan Esther

    2018-04-01

    The ideology of recovery addresses the autonomy of patients with mental illness and their ability to reconstruct a normal life. Empirical knowledge of this process of recovery and related factors remains unclear. To assess the process of recovery and related factors in patients with mental illness. This cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted on a convenience sample in a psychiatric hospital. Two-hundred and fifty patients with mental illness were recruited and were assessed using 3 instruments: Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR), Perceived Psychiatric Stigma Scale (PPSS), and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ 2 , analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis. Most of the participants were male, middle-aged, unmarried, educated to the senior high school level, employed, receiving home-care treatment, and diagnosed with schizophrenia. Those who were unemployed, living in a community rehabilitative house, and living in the community, respectively, earned relatively higher recovery scores (p mental illness. Community psychiatric nurses should provide care to help employed patients adapt to stresses in the workplace, strengthen their stigma-coping strategies, and promote public awareness of mental health issues by increasing public knowledge and acceptance of mental illness in order to minimize patient-perceived stigma and facilitate their recovery.

  13. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  14. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  15. Energy-neutral sustainable nutrient recovery incorporated with the wastewater purification process in an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongya; Gao, Yifan; Hou, Dianxun; Zuo, Kuichang; Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Recovery of nutrient resources from the wastewater is now an inevitable strategy to maintain the supply of both nutrient and water for our huge population. While the intensive energy consumption in conventional nutrient recovery technologies still remained as the bottleneck towards the sustainable nutrient recycle. This study proposed an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (EMNRC) which was powered by the energy contained in wastewater and achieved multi-cycle nutrient recovery incorporated with in situ wastewater treatment. With the optimal recovery solution of 3 g/L NaCl and the optimal volume ratio of wastewater to recovery solution of 10:1, >89% of phosphorus and >62% of ammonium nitrogen were recovered into struvite. An extremely low water input ratio of water. It was proved the EMNRC system was a promising technology which could utilize the chemical energy contained in wastewater itself and energy-neutrally recover nutrient during the continuous wastewater purification process.

  16. Spectral analysis of creep recovery process in finemet type amorphous alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurikova, A; Csach, K; Miskuf, J; Bengus, VZ; Ocelik, Vaclav

    2002-01-01

    The creep recovery process in Finemet type amorphous alloy leas been analyzed using the method for calculating the relaxation tithe spectra. The influence of structural relaxation and temperature on the spectra shape lags been studied. The creep recovery spectrum of the anelastic deformation of the

  17. Combined gettering and molten salt process for tritium recovery from lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Finn, P.A.; Bartlit, J.; Tanaka, S.; Teria, T.; Yamawaki, M.

    1988-02-01

    A new tritium recovery concept from lithium has been developed as part of the US/Japan collaboration on Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor Design Studies. This concept combines the γ-gettering process as the front end to recover tritium from the coolant, and a molten salt recovery process to extract tritium for fuel processing. A secondary lithium is used to regenerate the tritium from the gettering bed and, in the process, increases the tritium concentration by a factor of about 20. That way, the required size of the molten salt process becomes very small. A potential problem is the possible poisoning of the gettering bed by the salt dissolved in lithium. 16 refs., 6 figs

  18. Pressurized Recuperator For Heat Recovery In Industrial High Temperature Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators and regenerators are important devices for heat recovery systems in technological lines of industrial processes and should have high air preheating temperature, low flow resistance and a long service life. The use of heat recovery systems is particularly important in high-temperature industrial processes (especially in metallurgy where large amounts of thermal energy are lost to the environment. The article presents the process design for a high efficiency recuperator intended to work at high operating parameters: air pressure up to 1.2 MPa and temperature of heating up to 900°C. The results of thermal and gas-dynamic calculations were based on an algorithm developed for determination of the recuperation process parameters. The proposed technical solution of the recuperator and determined recuperation parameters ensure its operation under maximum temperature conditions.

  19. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2013-01-01

    ) and purification of target compound(s) from the crude extract. Process analytical technology (PAT) is used in each step to understand the nature of material systems and separation characteristics of each separation method. In the present work, this methodology is applied to generate process flow sheet for recovery......A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract...... in individual unit operations of maceration, flash column chromatography, and crystallization are 90.0%, 87.1, and 47.6%, respectively. Results showed that the crystallization step is dominant to the overall yield of the process which was 37.3%....

  20. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  1. Effective sulfur and energy recovery from hydrogen sulfide through incorporating an air-cathode fuel cell into chelated-iron process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Cui, Yu-Zhi

    2013-12-15

    The chelated-iron process is among the most promising techniques for the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal due to its double advantage of waste minimization and resource recovery. However, this technology has encountered the problem of chelate degradation which made it difficult to ensure reliable and economical operation. This work aims to develop a novel fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process which employs an air-cathode fuel cell for the catalyst regeneration. By using such a process, sulfur and electricity were effectively recovered from H2S and the problem of chelate degradation was well controlled. Experiment on a synthetic sulfide solution showed the fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process could maintain high sulfur recovery efficiencies generally above 90.0%. The EDTA was preferable to NTA as the chelating agent for electricity generation, given the Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) of 17.8 ± 0.5% to 75.1 ± 0.5% for the EDTA-chelated process versus 9.6 ± 0.8% to 51.1 ± 2.7% for the NTA-chelated process in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. The Fe (III)/S(2-) ratio exhibited notable influence on the electricity generation, with the CEs improved by more than 25% as the Fe (III)/S(2-) molar ratio increased from 2.5:1 to 3.5:1. Application of this novel process in treating a H2S-containing biogas stream achieved 99% of H2S removal efficiency, 78% of sulfur recovery efficiency, and 78.6% of energy recovery efficiency, suggesting the fuel-cell-assisted chelated-iron process was effective to remove the H2S from gas streams with favorable sulfur and energy recovery efficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  3. Recovery of phosphorus and aluminium from sewage sludge ash by a new wet chemical elution process (SESAL-Phos-recovery process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzet, S; Peplinski, B; Bodkhe, S Y; Cornel, P

    2011-01-01

    The potential of a new wet chemical process for phosphorus and aluminium recovery from sewage sludge ash by sequential elution with acidic and alkaline solutions has been investigated: SESAL-Phos (sequential elution of sewage sludge ash for aluminium and phosphorus recovery). Its most innovative aspect is an acidic pre-treatment step in which calcium is leached from the sewage sludge ash. Thus the percentage of alkaline soluble aluminium phosphates is increased from 20 to 67%. This aluminium phosphate is then dissolved in alkali. Subsequently, the dissolved phosphorus is precipitated as calcium phosphate with low heavy metal content and recovered from the alkaline solution. Dissolved aluminium is recovered and may be reused as a precipitant in wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Survivability Assessment: Modeling A Recovery Process

    OpenAIRE

    Paputungan, Irving Vitra; Abdullah, Azween

    2009-01-01

    Survivability is the ability of a system to continue operating, in a timely manner, in the presence ofattacks, failures, or accidents. Recovery in survivability is a process of a system to heal or recover from damageas early as possible to fulfill its mission as condition permit. In this paper, we show a preliminary recoverymodel to enhance the system survivability. The model focuses on how we preserve the system and resumes itscritical service under attacks as soon as possible.Keywords: surv...

  5. Enhanced oil recovery using local alkaline | Akpoturi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in productivity is one of the Oil and Gas industry's biggest challenges. About 60% of crude Oil still lay trapped in the reservoir even after primary and secondary recovery process have been completed, hence the need for a method that further improves recovery. In this study, flooding experiment was conducted ...

  6. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the potential of process sites for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin; Perry, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis considers the temperature and duties of the available waste heat. • Models for organic Rankine cycles, absorption heat pumps and chillers proposed. • Exploitation of waste heat from site processes and utility systems. • Concept of a site energy efficiency introduced. • Case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: As a result of depleting reserves of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources are becoming less available. In spite of this, energy is still being wasted, especially in the form of heat. The energy efficiency of process sites (defined as useful energy output per unit of energy input) may be increased through waste heat utilisation, thereby resulting in primary energy savings. In this work, waste heat is defined and a methodology developed to identify the potential for waste heat recovery in process sites; considering the temperature and quantity of waste heat sources from the site processes and the site utility system (including fired heaters and, the cogeneration, cooling and refrigeration systems). The concept of the energy efficiency of a site is introduced – the fraction of the energy inputs that is converted into useful energy (heat or power or cooling) to support the methodology. Furthermore, simplified mathematical models of waste heat recovery technologies using heat as primary energy source, including organic Rankine cycles (using both pure and mixed organics as working fluids), absorption chillers and absorption heat pumps are developed to support the methodology. These models are applied to assess the potential for recovery of useful energy from waste heat. The methodology is illustrated for an existing process site using a case study of a petroleum refinery. The energy efficiency of the site increases by 10% as a result of waste heat recovery. If there is an infinite demand for recovered energy (i.e. all the recoverable waste heat sources are exploited), the site

  8. Silver recovery from the waste materials by the method of flotation process

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; G. Siwiec; A. Tomaszewska; D. Piękoś

    2018-01-01

    During the leaching process of zinc concentrates, the waste materials rich in various metals such as eg. silver are produced. So far no attempts of silver recovery from the mentioned waste materials have been made due to the lack of any method which would be both effective and beneficial. The paper presents some possibilities of application of flotation process in silver recovery form waste materials generated during zinc production.

  9. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  10. Development of an improved two-cycle process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.M.; Chen, H.J.; Tsai, Y.M.; Lee, T.W.; Ting, G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved two-cycle separation process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid by extraction with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) plus dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP) in kerosene has been developed and demonstrated successfully in bench-scale, continuous mixer-settler tests. The sulfuric acid and water scrubbing steps for the recycled extraction in the second cycle solve the problems of the contamination and dilution of the phosphoric acid by the ammonium ion and water and also avoid the formation of undesirable phosphatic precipitates during the subsequent extraction of uranium by recycled organic extractant

  11. Development of a higher-order finite volume method for simulation of thermal oil recovery process using moving mesh strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, M. [Heriot Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a project in which a higher order up-winding scheme was used to solve mass/energy conservation equations for simulating steam flood processes in an oil reservoir. Thermal recovery processes are among the most complex because they require a detailed accounting of thermal energy and chemical reaction kinetics. The numerical simulation of thermal recovery processes involves localized phenomena such as saturation and temperatures fronts due to hyperbolic features of governing conservation laws. A second order accurate FV method that was improved by a moving mesh strategy was used to adjust for moving coordinates on a finely gridded domain. The Finite volume method was used and the problem of steam injection was then tested using derived solution frameworks on both mixed and moving coordinates. The benefits of using a higher-order Godunov solver instead of lower-order ones were qualified. This second order correction resulted in better resolution on moving features. Preferences of higher-order solvers over lower-order ones in terms of shock capturing is under further investigation. It was concluded that although this simulation study was limited to steam flooding processes, the newly presented approach may be suitable to other enhanced oil recovery processes such as VAPEX, SAGD and in situ combustion processes. 23 refs., 28 figs.

  12. Converting the Caetité Mill Process to Enhance Uranium Recovery and Expand Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomiero, L. A.; Scassiotti Filho, W.; Veras, A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A — INB, Caetité, BA (Brazil); Cunha, J. W. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morais, C. A. [Centro do Desenvolvimento da Tec. Nuclear-CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The Caetité uranium mill was commissioned in 2000 to produce about 340 t U per year from an uranium ore averaging 0.29% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This production is sufficient to supply the two operating nuclear power plants in the country. As the Brazilian government has recently confirmed its plan to start building another ones from 2009, the uranium production will have to expand its capacity in the next two years. This paper describes the changes in the milling process that are being evaluated in order to not only increase the production but also the uranium recovery, to fulfil the increasing local demand. The heap leaching process will be changed to conventional tank agitated leaching of ground ore slurry in sulphuric acid medium. Batch and pilot plant essays have shown that the uranium recovery can increase from the 77% historical average to about 93%. As the use of sodium chloride as the stripping agent has presented detrimental effects in the extraction and stripping process, two alternatives are being evaluated for the uranium recovery from the PLS: (a) uranium peroxide precipitation at controlled pH from a PLS that was firstly neutralized and filtered. Batch essays have shown good results with a final calcined precipitate averaging 99% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Conversely the results obtained at the first pilot plant essay has shown that the precipitation conditions of the continuous process calls for further evaluation. The pilot plant is being improved and another essay will be carried out. (b) uranium extraction with a tertiary amine followed by stripping with concentrated sulphuric acid solution. Efforts are being made to recover the excess sulphuric acid from the pregnant stripping solution to enhance the economic viability of the process and to avoid the formation of a large quantity of gypsum in the pre-neutralization step before the uranium peroxide precipitation. (author)

  13. Improving access to important recovery information for heart patients with low health literacy: reflections on practice-based initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Biuso, Catuscia; Jennings, Amanda; Patsamanis, Harry

    2018-05-29

    Evidence exists for the association between health literacy and heart health outcomes. Cardiac rehabilitation is critical for recovery from heart attack and reducing hospital readmissions. Despite this, literacy. This brief case study reflects and documents practice-based initiatives by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. Three key initiatives, namely the Six Steps To Cardiac Recovery resource, the Love Your Heart book and the nurse ambassador program, were implemented informed by mixed methods that assessed need and capacity at the individual, organisational and systems levels. Key outcomes included increased access to recovery information for patients with low health literacy, nurse knowledge and confidence to engage with patients on recovery information, improved education of patients and improved availability and accessibility of information for patients in diverse formats. Given the challenges involved in addressing heart health literacy, multifaceted practice-based approaches are essential to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What is known about the topic? Significant challenges exist for patients with lower health literacy receiving recovery information after a heart attack in hospitals. What does this paper add? This case study provides insights into a practice-based initiative by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What are the implications for practitioners? Strategies to improve recovery through increased heart health literacy must address the needs of patients, nursing staff and the health system within hospitals. Such strategies need to be multifaceted and designed to build the capacity of nurses, heart patients and their carers, as well as support from hospital management.

  14. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oustadakis, P.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Katsiapi, A.; Agatzini-Leonardou, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the development of an integrated process for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Part I presents the EAFD characterization and its leaching process by diluted sulphuric acid, whereas Part II deals with the purification of the leach liquor and the recovery of zinc by solvent extraction/electrowinning. The characterization of the examined electric arc furnace dust was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaching process was based on the Zn extraction with diluted sulphuric acid from EAFD under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The zinc recovery efficiency on the basis of EAFD weight reached 80%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the leached residues.

  15. Silver recovery from the waste materials by the method of flotation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the leaching process of zinc concentrates, the waste materials rich in various metals such as eg. silver are produced. So far no attempts of silver recovery from the mentioned waste materials have been made due to the lack of any method which would be both effective and beneficial. The paper presents some possibilities of application of flotation process in silver recovery form waste materials generated during zinc production.

  16. Why service recovery fails : tensions among customer, employee, and process perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Stefan; Bowen, David Earl; Johnston, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The keys to effective service recovery are familiar to many throughout industry and academia. Nevertheless, overall customer satisfaction after a failure has not improved, and many managers claim their organizations cannot respond to and fix recurring problems quickly enough. Why does service recovery so often fail and what can managers do about it? This paper aims to address these issues.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The objective is to produce an interdisciplinary summary ...

  17. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vinicius R; Oades, Lindsay G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness.

  18. Instrumentation and control systems for monitoring and data acquisition for thermal recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Hernandez, E.; Perozo, H. [PDVSA Intevep, S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Thermal recovery methods are often applied to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs, one of its challenges is to control the displacement of the thermal front. Methods are thus implemented to obtain data on the temperatures in the wells at any given time and to monitor other variables so that the behaviour of the thermal front can be predicted. The aim of this paper is to present a new control and instrumentation scheme to measure all of the variables. A software was created using Labview a graphs-based programming language software and PostgreSQL, a database management system. Using this software, sensors can be added or removed at any time; trends can be immediately visualized; and quality of the information is ensured since there is no human intervention in the data collection or processing. This paper presented a software which improves monitoring of all of the variables affecting the behaviour of the thermal front.

  19. Phosphorus and uranium recovery process from phosphated rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, M C.Y.; Long, R H

    1981-01-30

    Improvement of uranium recovery in phosphate rocks by treatment with nitric acid avoiding the formation of a precipitate including a part of the uranium. The separation of uranium from phosphoric acid is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction using dialkyl posphoric acid with at least 10 carbon atoms and a phosphoryl alkyl alkoxy compound with at least 10 carbon atoms and a non water miscible organic solvent.

  20. Investigation of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'red acrylic' dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patko, J.; Beke, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'Red Acrylic' dosimeters was studied. It was found that the decay is due to diffusion of oxygen into the matrix and a thermal decay takes place, too. The diffusion processes result in the appearance of a clear surface layer which becomes thicker and thicker. This layer is separated by a sharp boundary surface from the dark region. The activation energy of the oxygen diffusion was determined from the kinetics. In samples irradiated and heat-treated in noble gas this process does not take place but it was observed that in pure oxygen, chlorine and in air the colour recovery was similar. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Enhanced Recovery Pathways for Improving Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Oncology Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jocelyn S; Roddy, Erika; Ueda, Stefanie; Brooks, Rebecca; Chen, Lee-Lynn; Chen, Lee-May

    2016-07-01

    To estimate whether an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway facilitates early recovery and discharge in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery. This was a retrospective case-control study. Consecutive gynecologic oncology patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic surgery between July 1 and November 5, 2014, were treated on an enhanced recovery pathway. Enhanced recovery pathway components included patient education, multimodal analgesia, opioid minimization, nausea prophylaxis as well as early catheter removal, ambulation, and feeding. Cases were matched in a one-to-two ratio with historical control patients on the basis of surgery type and age. Primary endpoints were length of hospital stay, rates of discharge by noon, 30-day hospital readmission rates, and hospital costs. There were 165 patients included in the final cohort, 55 of whom were enhanced recovery pathway patients. Enhanced recovery patients were more likely to be discharged on postoperative day 1 compared with patients in the control group (91% compared with 60%, Pcontrol patients (P=.03). Postoperative pain scores decreased (2.6 compared with 3.12, P=.03) despite a 30% reduction in opioid use. Average total hospital costs were decreased by 12% in the enhanced recovery group ($13,771 compared with $15,649, P=.01). Readmission rates, mortality, and reoperation rates did not differ between the two groups. An enhanced recovery pathway in patients undergoing gynecologic oncology minimally invasive surgery is associated with significant improvements in recovery time, decreased pain despite reduced opioid use, and overall lower hospital costs.

  2. Improvement in deuterium recovery from water–isotope mixture by thermal diffusion in the device of branch columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ching-Chun; Yeh, Ho-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Recovery of deuterium by thermal diffusion from water–isotope mixture has been investigated. • The undesirable remixing effect can be reduced by employing the device of branch columns. • Deuterium recoveries were compared with that in a single column of the same total column length. • Considerable recovery improvement is obtainable in the device of branch columns, instead of in a single-column device. - Abstract: Deuterium recovery from water–isotopes mixture using thermal diffusion can be improved by employing the branch column device, instead of single column devices, with the same total column length. The remixing effect due to convection currents in a thermal diffusion column for heavy water enrichment is thus reduced and separation improvement increases when the flow rate or the total column length increases. The improvement in separation can reach about 50% for the numerical example given

  3. Valuable metals - recovery processes, current trends, and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Peter; Lorenz, Tom; Martin, Gunther; Brett, Beate; Bertau, Martin [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Strasse 29, 09599, Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    This Review provides an overview of valuable metals, the supply of which has been classified as critical for Europe. Starting with a description of the current state of the art, novel approaches for their recovery from primary resources are presented as well as recycling processes. The focus lies on developments since 2005. Chemistry strategies which are used in metal recovery are summarized on the basis of the individual types of deposit and mineral. In addition, the economic importance as well as utilization of the metals is outlined. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Improvement of carbon usage for phosphorus recovery in EBPR-r and the shift in microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pan Yu; Cheng, Ka Yu; Krishna, K C Bal; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David C; Ginige, Maneesha P

    2018-07-15

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBPR-r) is a biofilm process that makes use of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) to remove and recover phosphorus (P) from wastewater. The original process was inefficient, as indicated by the low P-release to carbon (C)-uptake (P rel /C upt ) molar ratio of the biofilm. This study successfully validated a strategy to improve the P rel /C upt ratio by at least 3-fold. With an unchanged supply of carbon in the recovery stream, an increase in the hydraulic loading in stages I, II and III (7.2, 14.4 and 21.6 L, respectively) resulted in a 43% increase in the P rel /C upt ratio (0.069, 0.076 and 0.103, respectively). The ratio further increased by 150% (from 0.103 to 0.255) when the duration of the P uptake period was increased from 4 h (stage III) to 10 h (stage IV). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that, correlated to the 3-fold increase in the P rel /C upt ratio, there was an increase in the abundance of PAOs ("Candidatus Accumulibacter" Clade IIA) and a decrease in the occurrence of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) (family Sinobacteraceae). However, the four stage operation impaired denitrification, resulting in a 5-fold reduction in the N den /P upt ratio. The decline in denitrification was consistent with a decrease in the abundance of denitrifiers including denitrifying PAOs (family Comamonadaceae and "Candidatus Accumulibacter" Clade IA). Overall, a strategy to facilitate more efficient use of carbon was validated, enabling a 3-fold carbon saving for P recovery. The new process enabled up to 80% of the wastewater P to be captured in a P-enriched stream (>90 mg/L) with a single uptake/release cycle of recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid: process design and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Orjuela, Andrea; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-07-01

    Recovery and purification of organic acids produced in fermentation constitutes a significant fraction of total production cost. In this paper, the design and economic analysis of a process to recover succinic acid (SA) via dissolution and acidification of succinate salts in ethanol, followed by reactive distillation to form succinate esters, is presented. Process simulation was performed for a range of plant capacities (13-55 million kg/yr SA) and SA fermentation titers (50-100 kg/m(3)). Economics were evaluated for a recovery system installed within an existing fermentation facility producing succinate salts at a cost of $0.66/kg SA. For a SA processing capacity of 54.9 million kg/yr and a titer of 100 kg/m(3) SA, the model predicts a capital investment of $75 million and a net processing cost of $1.85 per kg SA. Required selling price of diethyl succinate for a 30% annual return on investment is $1.57 per kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidants, mechanisms, and recovery by membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-03-04

    Antioxidants molecules have a great interest for bio-food and nutraceutical industries since they play a vital role for their capacity to reduce oxidative processes. Consequently, these molecules, generally present in complex matrices, have to be fractionated and purified to characterize them and to test their antioxidant activity. However, as natural or synthetics antioxidant molecules differ in terms of structural composition and physico-chemical properties, appropriate separation technologies must be selected. Different fractionation technologies are available but the most commonly used are filtration processes. Indeed, these technologies allow fractionation according to molecular size (pressure-driven processes), charge, or both size and charge (electrically driven processes). In this context, and after summarizing the reaction mechanisms of the different classes and nature of antioxidants as well as membrane fractionation technologies, this manuscript presents the specific applications of these membranes processes for the recovery of antioxidant molecules.

  7. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  8. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  9. Aircraft Route Recovery Based on An Improved GRASP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircrafts maintenance, temporary airport closures are common factors that disrupt normal flight schedule. The aircraft route recovery aims to recover original schedules by some strategies, including flights swaps, and cancellations, which is a NP-hard problem. This paper proposes an improved heuristic procedure based on Greedy Random Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP to solve this problem. The effectiveness and high global optimization capability of the heuristic is illustrated through experiments based on large-scale problems. Compared to the original one, it is shown that the improved procedure can find feasible flight recovered schedules with lower cost in a short time.

  10. Modelling of a Naphtha Recovery Unit (NRU with Implications for Process Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphtha recovery unit (NRU is an integral part of the processes used in the oil sands industry for bitumen extraction. The principle role of the NRU is to recover naphtha from the tailings for reuse in this process. This process is energy-intensive, and environmental guidelines for naphtha recovery must be met. Steady-state models for the NRU system are developed in this paper using two different approaches. The first approach is a statistical, data-based modelling approach where linear regression models have been developed using Minitab® from plant data collected during a performance test. The second approach involves the development of a first-principles model in Aspen Plus® based on the NRU process flow diagram. A novel refinement to this latter model, called “withdraw and remix”, is proposed based on comparing actual plant data to model predictions around the two units used to separate water and naphtha. The models developed in this paper suggest some interesting ideas for the further optimization of the process, in that it may be possible to achieve the required naphtha recovery using less energy. More plant tests are required to validate these ideas.

  11. In-situ water vaporization improves bitumen production during electrothermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); McGee, B. [E-T Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electro-thermal processes are now being considered as an alternative or complementary process to steam injection processes. This study used an in situ vaporized water process to optimize electrothermal processes for steam injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR). A simulation tool was used to model electro-thermal processes in an Athabasca oil sands reservoir. Incremental oil recovery was estimated based on a 3-block conceptual model. A field scale model was then used to investigate the effects of electrode spacing, water injection rates, and electrical heating rates on bitumen recovery. Results of the simulation studies were then analyzed using a statistical tool in order to determine optimal conditions for maximizing bitumen production. Results of the study showed that incremental recovery using the water vaporization technique resulted in oil recovery rates of 25 per cent original oil in place (OOIP). Sensitivity analyses showed that medium electrical heating rates, low water injection rates, and small spacings between electrodes maximized bitumen production rates. It was concluded that the technique can be used alone or combined with other methods to economically produce bitumens. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Improvement of Particle Recovery Method for Uranium Isotope Analysis Using SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Jinkyu; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Lim, Sang Ho; Han, Sun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new design of vacuum-suction impactor with wider inlet nozzle and outlet nozzle for guiding particles to disperse the particles on the surface of carbon planchet. We prepared simulated samples with lead dioxide and examined particle recovery yield and degree of dispersion using the conventional vacuum impactor and the newly designed ones with different inlet nozzle diameters. We tried to improve the inlet part of vacuum impactor, in order to increase the recovery yield and disperse the collected particle on carbon planchet. As the diameter of inlet nozzle became larger, the collected particles were better dispersed on planchet. In addition, when the inner diameter of the impactor was 3 mm or 5 mm, the recovery yield was higher than that of conventional impactor. Considering the degree of dispersion and recovery yield, we used the impactor with 5 mm exit diameter and recovered the mixed uranium standard materials for SIMS measurement. We were able to reduce the mixing effect and measure the isotopic ratio more accurately and precisely.

  13. Purex Process Improvements for Pu and NP Control in Total Actinide Recycle Flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, J.E.; Carrott, M.J.; Crooks, G.; Fox, O.D.; Maher, C.J.; Taylor, R.J.; Woodhead, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvements are required in the Purex process to optimise it for Advanced Fuel Cycles. Two key challenges we have identified are, firstly, developing more efficient methods for U/Pu separations especially at elevated Pu concentrations and, secondly, improving recovery, control and routing of Np in a modified Purex process. A series of Purex-like flowsheets for improved Pu separations based on hydroxamic acids and are reported. Purex-like flowsheets have been tested on a glovebox-housed 30-stage miniature centrifugal contactor train. A series of trials have been performed to demonstrate the processing of feeds with varying Pu contents ranging from 7 - 40% by weight. These flowsheets have demonstrated hydroxamic acids are excellent reagents for complexant stripping of Pu being able to achieve high decontamination factors (DF) on both the U and Pu product streams and co - recover Np with Pu. The advantages of a complexant-based approach are shown to be especially relevant when AFC scenarios are considered, where the Pu content of the fuel is expected to b e significantly higher. Recent results towards modifying the Purex process to improve recovery and control of Np in short residence time contactors are reported. Work on the development of chemical and process models to describe the complicated behaviour of Np under primary separation conditions (i.e. the HA extraction contactor) is described. To test the performance of the model a series of experiments were performed including testing of flowsheets on a fume-hood housed miniature centrifugal contactor train. The flowsheet was designed to emulate the conditions of a primar y separations contactor with the Np split between the U-solvent product and aqueous raffinate. In terms of Np routing the process model showed good agreement with flowsheet trial however much further work is required to fully understand this complex system. (authors)

  14. Numerical simulation of minor actinide recovery behaviour in batch processing of spent metallic fuel by electrorefining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawada, H P; Bhat, N P [Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Balasubramanian, G R [Atomic Energy Commission, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Numerical simulation of electro-transport of fuel actinides (FAs), minor actinides (MAs) and rare earths (REs) in the electro-refiner (ER) for pyrochemical reprocessing of a typical spent IFR metallic fuel has been attempted based on improved thermo-chemical model developed for application to multi-component system in the ER. Optimization of MA recovery and decontamination factors (DFs) for MAs and REs in batch processing is presented. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

    2013-12-31

    On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

  16. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.

  17. The impact of familial expressed emotion on clinical and personal recovery among patients with psychiatric disorders: The mediating roles of self-stigma content and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin Ka Shing; Lam, Chun Bun

    2018-05-24

    The present study examined the associations of familial expressed emotion (EE) with clinical and personal recovery among patients with psychiatric disorders, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying these associations. Guided by the content-process theory of self-stigma, we hypothesized that EE would be negatively associated with clinical and personal recovery and that these associations would be mediated by self-stigma content and process. A total of 311 patients with psychiatric disorders completed questionnaires on their perceptions of EE, self-stigma, and recovery. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that EE was positively associated with self-stigma content and process, which were in turn negatively associated with clinical and personal recovery. The indirect effects of EE on clinical and personal recovery, via self-stigma content and process, were also significant. Multigroup analyses further demonstrated that the impact of EE on self-stigma and recovery was generalizable across patients with psychotic and nonpsychotic disorders. Theoretically, our findings revealed the potential pathways through which EE may adversely affect psychiatric recovery. Practically, our findings highlighted the importance of designing multipronged intervention programs to reduce familial EE and its potential harmful impact on psychiatric patients. In addition to helping family members improve their knowledge about psychiatric disorders and adjust their communication styles, practitioners should help psychiatric patients develop resilience against EE, mitigate self-stigma, and achieve recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Waste Processing Cost Recovery at Los Alamos National Laboratory-Analysis and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, St. R.

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is implementing full cost recovery for waste processing in fiscal year 2009 (FY2009), after a transition year in FY2008. Waste processing cost recovery has been implemented in various forms across the nuclear weapons complex and in corporate America. The fundamental reasoning of sending accurate price signals to waste generators is economically sound, and leads to waste minimization and reduced waste expense over time. However, Los Alamos faces significant implementation challenges because of its status as a government-owned, contractor-operated national scientific institution with a diverse suite of experimental and environmental cleanup activities, and the fact that this represents a fundamental change in how waste processing is viewed by the institution. This paper describes the issues involved during the transition to cost recovery and the ultimate selection of the business model. Of the six alternative cost recovery models evaluated, the business model chosen to be implemented in FY2009 is Recharge Plus Generators Pay Distributed Direct. Under this model, all generators who produce waste must pay a distributed direct share associated with their specific waste type to use a waste processing capability. This cost share is calculated using the distributed direct method on the fixed cost only, i.e., the fixed cost share is based on each program's forecast proportion of the total Los Alamos volume forecast of each waste type. (Fixed activities are those required to establish the waste processing capability, i.e., to make the process ready, permitted, certified, and prepared to handle the first unit of waste. Therefore, the fixed cost ends at the point just before waste begins to be processed. The activities to actually process the waste are considered variable.) The volume of waste actually sent for processing is charged a unit cost based solely on the variable cost of disposing of that waste. The total cost recovered each year is the

  19. The investigation of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'Red Acrylic' dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patko, J.; Beke, D.L.; Herbak, J.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'Red Acrylic' dosemeters was studied. It was found that the decay is due to diffusion of oxygen into the matrix and there is also a thermal decay. The diffusion process results in the appearance of a clear surface layer which becomes more and more thick. This layer is separated with a sharp boundary surface from the dark region. The activation energy of the oxygen diffusion was determined from the kinetics. With samples irradiated and heat-treated in noble gas, the process does not take place, but in pure oxygen, chlorine, and in air the colour recovery was similar. (author)

  20. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  1. Optimal design of advanced distillation configuration for enhanced energy efficiency of waste solvent recovery process in semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniago, Yus Donald; Minh, Le Quang; Khan, Mohd Shariq; Koo, Kee-Kahb; Bahadori, Alireza; Lee, Moonyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermally coupled distillation process is proposed for waste solvent recovery. • A systematic optimization procedure is used to optimize distillation columns. • Response surface methodology is applied to optimal design of distillation column. • Proposed advanced distillation allows energy efficient waste solvent recovery. - Abstract: The semiconductor industry is one of the largest industries in the world. On the other hand, the huge amount of solvent used in the industry results in high production cost and potential environmental damage because most of the valuable chemicals discharged from the process are incinerated at high temperatures. A distillation process is used to recover waste solvent, reduce the production-related costs and protect the environment from the semiconductor industrial waste. Therefore, in this study, a distillation process was used to recover the valuable chemicals from semiconductor industry discharge, which otherwise would have been lost to the environment. The conventional sequence of distillation columns, which was optimized using the Box and sequential quadratic programming method for minimum energy objectives, was used. The energy demands of a distillation problem may have a substantial influence on the profitability of a process. A thermally coupled distillation and heat pump-assisted distillation sequence was implemented to further improve the distillation performance. Finally, a comparison was made between the conventional and advanced distillation sequences, and the optimal conditions for enhancing recovery were determined. The proposed advanced distillation configuration achieved a significant energy saving of 40.5% compared to the conventional column sequence

  2. Symbolic healing of early psychosis: psychoeducation and sociocultural processes of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, John Aggergaard

    2007-09-01

    This article analyzes sociocultural processes of recovery in a Danish mental health service providing two years of integrated biopsychosocial treatment following first-episode psychosis. The study is based on ethnographic research in the service and person-centered involvement with 15 clients. The analysis applies Dow's [1986 American Anthropologist 88:56-69] model of universal components of symbolic healing to elucidate sociocultural aspects of therapeutic efficacy that are alternatively disregarded as placebo or nonspecific effects. It is demonstrated how staff engaged with clients to deliver "psychoeducation" that provided scientific and biomedical theories about mental illness, constituting a shared "mythic world" that was accepted as an experiential truth and used to explain clients' illness experiences. The analysis highlights the need to supplement attention in Dow's model to the healing procedure with consideration of variability in the healing process. Depending on individual responses to the intervention, the staff's professional backgrounds and staff-client relationships different recovery models were applied. One suggested "episodic psychosis" and full recovery, and the other suggested "chronic schizophrenia" and the necessity of comprehensive life adjustments to the mental illness. The recovery models influenced clients' perspectives on illness and self as they engaged in identity work, negotiating future plans and individual life projects by including also alternative systems of explanation from the wider cultural repertoire.

  3. Chromic acid recovery by electro-electrodialysis. II. Pilot scal process, development, and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, I.; Frenzel, I.; Holdik, H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Pourcelly, G.; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Electro-electrodialysis is a promising technology for chromic acid recovery and static rinse water purification. It combines the recovery of the plating chemicals from rinse water, the elimination of metallic impurities from the process and rinse water treatment in one step. Previous industrial use

  4. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The present document forms the Final Report for the first phase of the project `Process Integration and Waste Heat Recovery in Lithuanian and Danish Industry`. The project is carried out in the period 1995-1998 in a co-operation between the COWI offices in Lyngby and Vilnius, The Technical University of Denmark (Institute for Energetics), Kaunas University of Technology (CIPAI) and Vilnius Technical University, financed by The Danish Ministry of Energy`s EFP-95-programme, Lithuanian Energy Agency as well as the participants. The first phase of the project has comprised the establishment of the CIPAI centre (Centre for Industrial Process Analysis and Integration) at Kaunas University of Technology, training and knowledge transfer as well as elaboration of 6 industrial case-studies within the area of `Process Integration and waste Heat Recovery`. The second phase of the project has comprised R and D activities in this area in order to present general conclusions from the project as well as to present new and improved methods and tools for PI-analysis. The aim of the Final Report for the first phase of the project is to summarise project activities and the achieved results from case-studies and from the operation of the CIPAI-centre in general. (au)

  5. Improved Savitzky-Golay-method-based fluorescence subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we propose an improved subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra that can substantially reduce the computation time. This algorithm is based on an improved Savitzky-Golay (SG) iterative smoothing method, which involves two key novel approaches: (a) the use of the Gauss-Seidel method and (b) the introduction of a relaxation factor into the iterative procedure. By applying a novel successive relaxation (SG-SR) iterative method to the relaxation factor, additional improvement in the convergence speed over the standard Savitzky-Golay procedure is realized. The proposed improved algorithm (the RIA-SG-SR algorithm), which uses SG-SR-based iteration instead of Savitzky-Golay iteration, has been optimized and validated with a mathematically simulated Raman spectrum, as well as experimentally measured Raman spectra from non-biological and biological samples. The method results in a significant reduction in computing cost while yielding consistent rejection of fluorescence and noise for spectra with low signal-to-fluorescence ratios and varied baselines. In the simulation, RIA-SG-SR achieved 1 order of magnitude improvement in iteration number and 2 orders of magnitude improvement in computation time compared with the range-independent background-subtraction algorithm (RIA). Furthermore the computation time of the experimentally measured raw Raman spectrum processing from skin tissue decreased from 6.72 to 0.094 s. In general, the processing of the SG-SR method can be conducted within dozens of milliseconds, which can provide a real-time procedure in practical situations.

  6. Accurate Region-of-Interest Recovery Improves the Measurement of the Cell Migration Rate in the In Vitro Wound Healing Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Cesar; Cardona, Andrés; Galeano, July; Cortés-Mancera, Fabián; Sandoz, Patrick; Zarzycki, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The wound healing assay is widely used for the quantitative analysis of highly regulated cellular events. In this essay, a wound is voluntarily produced on a confluent cell monolayer, and then the rate of wound reduction (WR) is characterized by processing images of the same regions of interest (ROIs) recorded at different time intervals. In this method, sharp-image ROI recovery is indispensable to compensate for displacements of the cell cultures due either to the exploration of multiple sites of the same culture or to transfers from the microscope stage to a cell incubator. ROI recovery is usually done manually and, despite a low-magnification microscope objective is generally used (10x), repositioning imperfections constitute a major source of errors detrimental to the WR measurement accuracy. We address this ROI recovery issue by using pseudoperiodic patterns fixed onto the cell culture dishes, allowing the easy localization of ROIs and the accurate quantification of positioning errors. The method is applied to a tumor-derived cell line, and the WR rates are measured by means of two different image processing software. Sharp ROI recovery based on the proposed method is found to improve significantly the accuracy of the WR measurement and the positioning under the microscope.

  7. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  8. Association of solvent extraction and liquid-liquid flotation processes for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia P.; Mendonca, Luciano A. de; Massarani, Giulio

    2000-01-01

    From the batch solvent extraction process, in this work it has been carried out a preliminary study aiming the determination of the optimal operating conditions for zirconium recovery (10 ppm) using alamine 336 (tricaprylylamine) as extractor. The results have shown that the extraction takes place instantaneously (5s of manual agitation) and that at pH around 2.0 the extraction efficiency is up to 98-99% for an aqueous/organic phase volumetric ratio of 10. Based on these results, it is proposed to evaluate the possibility of using of a pioneering technology for metal recovery at low concentrations, using a experimental set-up that associates standard solvent extraction process with liquid-liquid flotation process. (author)

  9. Flourishing With Psychosis: A Prospective Examination on the Interactions Between Clinical, Functional, and Personal Recovery Processes on Well-being Among Individuals with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Randolph C H; Mak, Winnie W S; Chio, Floria H N; Tong, Alan C Y

    2017-09-08

    Well-being is not just the absence of mental disorder but also involves positive feelings and contentment (emotional well-being), meaningful engagement (psychological well-being), and contribution of one's community or society (social well-being). Recovery processes, which encompass mitigation of clinical symptomatology (clinical recovery), improvement in occupational, social, and adaptive functioning (functional recovery), and development of personally valued goals and identity (personal recovery), have demonstrated to be important markers of well-being. This study examined the relative contribution of clinical, functional, and personal recovery processes on well-being among individuals with schizophrenia and explored the effect of personal recovery on people with varying levels of symptom severity and functional ability. A longitudinal quantitative research design was used in which 181 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed at baseline and 6 months. At baseline, 28.2% of the participants were considered as flourishing. Around half of the participants (52.5%) were moderately mentally healthy, while 19.3% were identified as languishing. Results showed that clinical recovery was predictive of better well-being at 6-month postbaseline. Personal recovery was found to positively predict well-being, above and beyond the effects of clinical and functional recovery. Moderation analysis showed that the effect of personal recovery on well-being did not depend on clinical and functional recovery, which implied that people with schizophrenia can participate in the process of personal recovery and enjoy positive well-being regardless of their clinical stability and functional competence. Given the robust salutogenic effect of personal recovery, greater emphasis should be placed on developing person-centered, strength-based, recovery-oriented services. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research

  10. Advances in primary recovery: centrifugation and membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, David J; Lu, Yuefeng

    2008-01-01

    Significant and continual improvements in upstream processing for biologics have resulted in challenges for downstream processing, both primary recovery and purification. Given the high cell densities achievable in both microbial and mammalian cell culture processes, primary recovery can be a significant bottleneck in both clinical and commercial manufacturing. The combination of increased product titer and low viability leads to significant relative increases in the levels of process impurities such as lipids, intracellular proteins and nucleic acid versus the product. In addition, cell culture media components such as soy and yeast hydrolysates have been widely applied to achieve the cell culture densities needed for higher titers. Many of the process impurities can be negatively charged at harvest pH and can form colloids during the cell culture and harvest processes. The wide size distribution of these particles and the potential for additional particles to be generated by shear forces within a centrifuge may result in insufficient clarification to prevent fouling of subsequent filters. The other residual process impurities can lead to precipitation and increased turbidity during processing and even interference with the performance of the capturing chromatographic step. Primary recovery also poses significant challenges owing to the necessity to execute in an expedient manner to minimize both product degradation and bioburden concerns. Both microfiltration and centrifugation coupled with depth filtration have been employed successfully as primary recovery processing steps. Advances in the design and application of membrane technology for microfiltration and dead-end filtration have contributed to significant improvements in process performance and integration, in some cases allowing for a combination of multiple unit operations in a given step. Although these advances have increased productivity and reliability, the net result is that optimization of primary

  11. Recovery of uranium in the production of concentrated phosphoric acid by a hemihydrate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, S.; Miyamoto, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nissan Chemical Industries as manufacturers of phosphoric acid have studied the recovery of uranium, based on a concentrated phosphoric acid production process. The process consists of two stages, a hemihydrate stage with a formation of hemihydrate and a filtration section, followed by a dihydrate stage with hydration and a filtration section. In the hemihydrate stage, phosphate is treated with a mixture of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid and hydrous calcium sulphate; the product is recovered in the filtration section and its concentration is 40-50% P 2 O 3 . In the dihydrate stage, the hemihydrate is transformed by re-dissolution and hydration, producing hydrous calcium sulphate, i.e. gypsum. This process therefore comprises two parts, each with different acid concentrations. As the extraction of uranium is easier in the case of a low concentration of phosphoric acid, the process consists of the recovery of uranium starting from the filtrate of the hydration section. The tests have shown that the yield of recovery of uranium was of the order of 80% disregarding the handling losses and no disadvantageous effect has been found in the combination of the process of uranium extraction with the process of concentrated phosphoric acid production. Compared with the classical process where uranium is recovered from acid with 30% P 2 O 5 , the process of producing high-concentration phosphoric acid such as the Nissan process, in which the uranium recovery is effected from acid with 15% P 2 O 5 from the hydration section, presents many advantages [fr

  12. Inhibition of CXCL12 signaling attenuates the postischemic immune response and improves functional recovery after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei

    2013-01-01

    cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1......After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after......,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3...

  13. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Demystifying process mapping: a key step in neurosurgical quality improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Rodstein, Jennifer; Burke, Michael A; Martin, Neil A

    2014-08-01

    Reliable delivery of optimal care can be challenging for care providers. Health care leaders have integrated various business tools to assist them and their teams in ensuring consistent delivery of safe and top-quality care. The cornerstone to all quality improvement strategies is the detailed understanding of the current state of a process, captured by process mapping. Process mapping empowers caregivers to audit how they are currently delivering care to subsequently strategically plan improvement initiatives. As a community, neurosurgery has clearly shown dedication to enhancing patient safety and delivering quality care. A care redesign strategy named NERVS (Neurosurgery Enhanced Recovery after surgery, Value, and Safety) is currently being developed and piloted within our department. Through this initiative, a multidisciplinary team led by a clinician neurosurgeon has process mapped the way care is currently being delivered throughout the entire episode of care. Neurosurgeons are becoming leaders in quality programs, and their education on the quality improvement strategies and tools is essential. The authors present a comprehensive review of process mapping, demystifying its planning, its building, and its analysis. The particularities of using process maps, initially a business tool, in the health care arena are discussed, and their specific use in an academic neurosurgical department is presented.

  15. Processes of recovery through routine or specialist treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD): a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsakou, Christina; Pistrang, Nancy; Barnicot, Kirsten; White, Hayley; Priebe, Stefan

    2017-07-04

    Recovery processes in borderline personality disorder (BPD) are poorly understood. This study explored how recovery in BPD occurs through routine or specialist treatment, as perceived by service users (SUs) and therapists. SUs were recruited from two specialist BPD services, three community mental health teams, and one psychological therapies service. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 SUs and 15 therapists. The "framework" approach was used to analyse the data. The findings were organized into two domains of themes. The first domain described three parallel processes that constituted SUs' recovery journey: fighting ambivalence and committing to taking action; moving from shame to self-acceptance and compassion; and moving from distrust and defensiveness to opening up to others. The second domain described four therapeutic challenges that needed to be addressed to support this journey: balancing self-exploration and finding solutions; balancing structure and flexibility; confronting interpersonal difficulties and practicing new ways of relating; and balancing support and independence. Therapies facilitating the identified processes may promote recovery. The recovery processes and therapeutic challenges identified in this study could provide a framework to guide future research.

  16. MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Basic studies on the suitability of microorganisms for improved oil recovery. Executive summary; MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recocery. Grundlagen der Eignung von Mikroorganismen fuer die Verbesserung der Erdoelgewinnung. Kurzbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Timmis, K.N. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Bosecker, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Schink, B. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Kessel, D. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wagner, M. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Tessmer, G. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) is the use of microorganisms or microbial products that are injected into the oil reservoir to improve oil flow. The aim of this project was the application of MIOR in case of clastic reservoir rocks of the type encountered typically in Nothern Germany. Microorganisms were concentrated, isolated and characterized from samples that were taken from oil production wells, oil processing facilities and soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. More than 500 bacteria strains were investigated for ability to grow under anaerobic conditions, halotolerance, heat tolerance and production of substances that increase viscosity or are surface active. 39 strains were selected for specific tests and genetic investigations. The two bacteria strains Bacillus licheniformis BNP 29 and Sporohalobacter showed to the capable for MIOR. Dynamic flooding experiments were carried out under realistic reservoir conditions, in order to quantify the ability of the microorganisms to mobilize residual oil in place, as well as to investigate the oil mobilizing mechanisms in more detail. It could be shown that the injectivity and migration of the bacteria in porous media are ensured. The microorganisms are able to grow under reservoir conditions as present in oil reservoirs of Nothern Germany. Their application in flooding experiments leads to a significant increase of oil recovery. The most important factors influencing the oil recovery are the reduction of the permeability of the reservoir pores and changes in the wettability because of the bacterial growth. A suitable nutrient medium with an acid buffer was developed for the application of MIOR in sandstone reservoirs. (orig.) [Deutsch] MIOR (microbial improved oil recovery)-Verfahren dienen dazu, den Entoelungsgrad einer Erdoellagerstaette durch den gezielten in-situ-Einsatz von geeigneten Mikroorganismen und deren Stoffwechselprodukten zu erhoehen. Ziel des Projektes war es, die Anwendbarkeit von MIOR

  17. Reshaping an enduring sense of self: the process of recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Donna M; McCay, Elizabeth; Goering, Paula; Boydell, Katherine; Zipursky, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Although advances in the treatment of schizophrenia have been made, little is known about the process of recovery from first episode of schizophrenia (FES). To date, the study of recovery in the field of mental health has focused on long-term mental illness. This qualitative study addresses ways in which individuals with FES describe their process of recovery and how identified individuals (e.g. family members) describe their perceptions of and roles in the participant's process of recovery. Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to interview 10 young adults twice who self-identified as recovering from FES. In addition, 10 individuals were identified who had influenced their recovery and were interviewed once, for a total of 30 interviews. Data collection sources included in-depth semi-structured interviews. Data analysis methods were consistent with Charmaz's methodology and included coding, and constant comparison of data. The results provide a substantive theory of the process of recovery from FES that is comprised of the following phases: 'Who they were prior to the illness', 'Lives interrupted: Encountering the illness', 'Engaging in services and supports', 'Re-engaging in life', 'Envisioning the future'; and the core category, 'Re-shaping an enduring sense of self', that occurred throughout all phases. A prominent feature of this model is that participants' enduring sense of self were reshaped rather than reconstructed throughout their recovery. This model of recovery from FES is unique, and as such, provides implications for clinical care, research and policy development for these young adults and their families.

  18. Two-step optimization of pressure and recovery of reverse osmosis desalination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Liu, Cui; Song, Lianfa

    2009-05-01

    Driving pressure and recovery are two primary design variables of a reverse osmosis process that largely determine the total cost of seawater and brackish water desalination. A two-step optimization procedure was developed in this paper to determine the values of driving pressure and recovery that minimize the total cost of RO desalination. It was demonstrated that the optimal net driving pressure is solely determined by the electricity price and the membrane price index, which is a lumped parameter to collectively reflect membrane price, resistance, and service time. On the other hand, the optimal recovery is determined by the electricity price, initial osmotic pressure, and costs for pretreatment of raw water and handling of retentate. Concise equations were derived for the optimal net driving pressure and recovery. The dependences of the optimal net driving pressure and recovery on the electricity price, membrane price, and costs for raw water pretreatment and retentate handling were discussed.

  19. Recovery process of cathode material of the spent lithium-ion batteries using Pechini methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo Fonseca, C.; Prado, R.M.; Santos Junior, G.A.; Marques, E.C.; Neves, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes a new process of recovering LiCoO 2 from spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by a combination of acid leaching and Pechini synthesis, as an alternative process to improve the recovery efficiency of LiCoO 2 and reduce energy consumption and pollution. The effects of calcination temperature and lithium acetate addition in the synthesis on the structure and morphology of LiCoO 2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. According to the analysis, the crystallinity of LiCoO 2 powders depends on the calcination temperature. The results indicate the layered HT-LiCoO 2 powders can be obtained at 750 deg C for 24 h in oxygen with lithium salt addition. Cyclic voltammograms showed one reversible redox process at 4.0/3.85 V for the LiCoO 2 obtained with lithium addition in the synthesis and irreversible redox process for the LiCoO 2 obtained without lithium addition. (author)

  20. Foam rheology in porous media and enhanced oil recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies using foam as a mobility control agent in partially depleted oil wells have shown that foam has a potential for enhancing oil recovery after primary water flooding. The characteristics of foam as indicated by the results of several studies point to three potential applications of foam in oil recovery processes. These are: Improving the displacement efficiency of gas-drive processes (mobility control). Improving the sweep efficiency of other fluid injection processes (mobility control and flow impediment). Restricting the flow of undesired fluids and plugging of high permeable oil 'thief' zones (partial or total pore blockage). (author)

  1. Selective recovery of gold from waste mobile phone PCBs by hydrometallurgical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-young; Kim, Min-seuk; Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Selective leaching of Au from scrap mobile phone PCBs by two stage electro-generated chlorine and recovery by ion exchange. ► Copper leaching (97%) by 1st stage electro-generated leaching (ORP value Ag/AgCl ) with a minor gold (5%). ► Gold leaching (93%, ∼67 mg/L) by 2nd leaching (ORP value >1100 mV Ag/AgCl ) in 0.1 mol/L HCl at 25 °C. ► A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained by ion exchange process. - Abstract: The leaching of gold from the scrap mobile phone PCBs by electro-generated chlorine as an oxidant and its recovery by ion exchange process was investigated. The leaching experiments were carried out by employing separate leaching reactor connected with the anode compartment of a Cl 2 gas generator. The leaching of gold increased with increase in temperature and initial concentration of chlorine, and was favorable even at low concentration of acid, whereas copper leaching increased with increase in concentration of acid and decrease in temperature. In a two-stage leaching process, copper was mostly dissolved (97%) in 165 min at 25 °C during the 1st stage leaching in 2.0 mol/L HCl by electro-generated chlorine at a current density of 714 A/m 2 along with a minor recovery of gold (5%). In the 2nd stage gold was mostly leached out (93% recovery, ∼67 mg/L) from the residue of the 1st stage by the electro-generated chlorine in 0.1 mol/L HCl. Gold recovery from the leach liquor by ion exchange using Amberlite XAD-7HP resin was found to be 95% with the maximum amount of gold adsorbed as 46.03 mg/g resin. A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained in the ion exchange process.

  2. Selective recovery of gold from waste mobile phone PCBs by hydrometallurgical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-young [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kim, Min-seuk [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-chun, E-mail: jclee@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Pandey, B.D. [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selective leaching of Au from scrap mobile phone PCBs by two stage electro-generated chlorine and recovery by ion exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper leaching (97%) by 1st stage electro-generated leaching (ORP value <350 mV{sub Ag/AgCl}) with a minor gold (5%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gold leaching (93%, {approx}67 mg/L) by 2nd leaching (ORP value >1100 mV{sub Ag/AgCl}) in 0.1 mol/L HCl at 25 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained by ion exchange process. - Abstract: The leaching of gold from the scrap mobile phone PCBs by electro-generated chlorine as an oxidant and its recovery by ion exchange process was investigated. The leaching experiments were carried out by employing separate leaching reactor connected with the anode compartment of a Cl{sub 2} gas generator. The leaching of gold increased with increase in temperature and initial concentration of chlorine, and was favorable even at low concentration of acid, whereas copper leaching increased with increase in concentration of acid and decrease in temperature. In a two-stage leaching process, copper was mostly dissolved (97%) in 165 min at 25 Degree-Sign C during the 1st stage leaching in 2.0 mol/L HCl by electro-generated chlorine at a current density of 714 A/m{sup 2} along with a minor recovery of gold (5%). In the 2nd stage gold was mostly leached out (93% recovery, {approx}67 mg/L) from the residue of the 1st stage by the electro-generated chlorine in 0.1 mol/L HCl. Gold recovery from the leach liquor by ion exchange using Amberlite XAD-7HP resin was found to be 95% with the maximum amount of gold adsorbed as 46.03 mg/g resin. A concentrated gold solution, 6034 mg/L with 99.9% purity was obtained in the ion exchange process.

  3. Spider Silk Processing for Spidroin Recovery from Crossopriza Lyoni Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, J. A.; Ooi, W. L.; Yusuf, F.

    2018-03-01

    Spider silk is a potential biomaterial that can be used in various applications for its outstanding physicomechanical properties attributed by the spidroin composition. Efforts for commercializing spider silks have been mainly focused on the characterization of spidroins from the Entelegyne spiders for exceptional fibre construction. Hence, studies on silk proteins from the Haplogyne species remain neglected. The aim of this study is to isolate spidroin from Crossopriza lyoni web. Silk processing involved the pretreatment of fibres for the shell layer removal from the surface. A screening study was conducted to analyze the effect of temperature, incubation time and agitation speed on spidroin extraction using Ajisawa’s reagent by OFAT analysis followed by statistical optimization of the extraction process via RSM for maximal protein recovery. All parameters exerted significant effect on spidroin recovery (pspider silk to meet the demand for a variety of silk-based products in the near future.

  4. Conceptual process design for uranium recovery from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoyuki; Chihara, Kazuyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiko; Yagi, Hiroshi; Wada, Akihiko.

    1985-01-01

    Based on design of uranium recovery process from sea water, total cost for uranium production was estimated. Production scale of 1,000 ton-uranium per year was supposed, because of the big demand for uranium in the second age, i.e., fast breeder reactor age. The process is described as follows: Fluidized bed of hydrous titanium oxide (diameter is 0.1 mm, saturated adsorption capacity is 510 μg-U/g-Ad, adsorption capacity for ten days is 150 μg-U/g-Ad) is supposed, as an example, to be utilized as the primarily concentration unit. Fine adsorbent particles can be transferred as slurry in all of the steps of adsorption, washing, desorption, washing, regeneration. As an example, ammonium carbonate is applied to desorb the adsorbed uranium from titanium oxide. Then, stripping method is adopted for desorbent recovery. As for the secondary concentration, strong basic anion exchange method is supposed. The first step of process design is to determine the mass balance of each component through the whole process system by using the signal diagram. Then, the scale of each unit process, with which the mass balances are satisfied, is estimated by detailed chemical engineering calculation. Also, driving cost of each unit operation is estimated. As a result, minimum total cost of 160,000 yen/kg-U is obtained. Adsorption process cost is 80 to 90 % of the total cost. Capital cost and driving cost are fifty-fifty in the adsorption process cost. Pump driving cost forms a big part of the driving cost. Further concentrated study should be necessary on the adsorption process design. It might be important to make an effort on direct utilization of ocean current for saving the pump driving cost. (author)

  5. Music and speech listening enhance the recovery of early sensory processing after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Pihko, Elina; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2010-12-01

    Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients who had middle cerebral artery stroke were randomly assigned to a music listening group, an audio book listening group, or a control group. Auditory sensory memory, as indexed by the magnetic MMN (MMNm) response to changes in sound frequency and duration, was measured 1 week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke with whole-head magnetoencephalography recordings. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that the amplitude of the frequency MMNm increased significantly more in both music and audio book groups than in the control group during the 6-month poststroke period. In contrast, the duration MMNm amplitude increased more in the audio book group than in the other groups. Moreover, changes in the frequency MMNm amplitude correlated significantly with the behavioral improvement of verbal memory and focused attention induced by music listening. These findings demonstrate that merely listening to music and speech after neural damage can induce long-term plastic changes in early sensory processing, which, in turn, may facilitate the recovery of higher cognitive functions. The neural mechanisms potentially underlying this effect are discussed.

  6. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  7. Combined oxidative leaching and electrowinning process for mercury recovery from spent fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Cihan; Coskun, Sezen; Akcil, Ata; Beyhan, Mehmet; Üncü, Ismail Serkan; Civelekoglu, Gokhan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, oxidative leaching and electrowinnig processes were performed to recovery of mercury from spent tubular fluorescent lamps. Hypochlorite was found to be effectively used for the leaching of mercury to the solution. Mercury could be leached with an efficiency of 96% using 0.5M/0.2M NaOCl/NaCl reagents at 50°C and pH 7.5 for 2-h. Electrowinning process was conducted on the filtered leaching solutions and over the 81% of mercury was recovered at the graphite electrode using citric acid as a reducing agent. The optimal process conditions were observed as a 6A current intensity, 30g/L of reducing agent concentration, 120min. electrolysis time and pH of 7 at the room temperature. It was found that current intensity and citric acid amount had positive effect for mercury reduction. Recovery of mercury in its elemental form was confirmed by SEM/EDX. Oxidative leaching with NaOCl/NaCl reagent was followed by electrowinning process can be effectively used for the recovery of mercury from spent fluorescent lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flux Recovery of a Forward Osmosis Membrane After a Fouling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Mangado, Jaione; Parodi, Jurek; Gamboa-Vazquez, Sonia; Stefanson, Ofir; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Flynn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment through forward osmosis (FO) membranes is a process that has been evaluated in the past years as an innovative technology for the Next Generation Life Support Systems. FO technologies are cost effective, and require very low energy consumption, but are subject to membrane fouling. Membrane fouling occurs when unwanted materials accumulate on the active side of the membrane during the wastewater treatment process, which leads to a decrease in membrane flux rate. The aim of this study is to identify the materials that cause flux rate reduction due to membrane fouling, as well as to evaluate the flux rate recovery after membrane treatment using commercially available antifoulants. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry results identified possible compounds that cause membrane fouling and FO testing results demonstrated flux rate recovery after membrane treatment using antifoulants.

  9. Dietary Supplements for Health, Adaptation, and Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Miles, Mary P; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2018-03-01

    Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Omega 3-fatty acid supplementation may also reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mTBI. Replenishment of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency will likely improve some aspects of immune, bone, and muscle health. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve training or competitive performance. Preliminary data show that gelatin and/or collagen may improve connective tissue health. Some anti-inflammatory supplements, such as curcumin or tart cherry juice, may reduce inflammation and possibly delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not consistently increase strength and/or lean mass or reduce markers of muscle damage, but more research on recovery from injury that includes periods of extreme inactivity is needed. Several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate, omega 3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and curcumin/tart cherry juice could help athletes train and/or compete more effectively.

  10. Process evaluations for uranium recovery from scrap material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept being developed by Argonne National Laboratory is based on pyrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear metallic fuel with subsequent fabrication into new reactor fuel by an injection casting sequence. During fabrication, a dilute scrap stream containing uranium alloy fines and broken quartz (Vycor) molds in produced. Waste characterization of this stream, developed by using present operating data and chemical analysis was used to evaluate different uranium recovery methods and possible process variations for the return of the recovered metal. Two methods, comminution with size separation and electrostatic separation, have been tested and can recover over 95% of the metal. Recycling the metal to either the electrochemical process or the injection casting was evaluated for the different economic and process impacts. The physical waste parameters and the important separation process variables are discussed with their effects on the viability of recycling the material. In this paper criteria used to establish the acceptable operating limits is discussed

  11. Improving Healthcare Logistics Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes

    logistics processes in hospitals and aims to provide theoretically and empirically based evidence for improving these processes to both expand the knowledge base of healthcare logistics and provide a decision tool for hospital logistics managers to improve their processes. Case studies were conducted...... processes. Furthermore, a method for benchmarking healthcare logistics processes was developed. Finally, a theoretically and empirically founded framework was developed to support managers in making an informed decision on how to improve healthcare logistics processes. This study contributes to the limited...... literature concerned with the improvement of logistics processes in hospitals. Furthermore, the developed framework provides guidance for logistics managers in hospitals on how to improve their processes given the circumstances in which they operate....

  12. A high recovery membrane process for purification of low-level radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samadi, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Davloor, R.; Harper, B., E-mail: ram.davloor@brucepower.com [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    An advanced Active Liquid Waste Treatment System (ALWTS) was designed placed in-service at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' in 1999. As part of this unique system an innovative high recovery reverse osmosis system (ROS) was installed to concentrate the contaminants into a small retentate stream that can be processed on-site or sent off-site for disposal. The permeate is discharged to the lake. The overall permeate recovery of the system is greater than 98%. This patented system which saw its first commercial application at the station has now operated continuously for over thirteen years. It has enabled the ALWTS to consistently produce high quality effluent that exceeds environmental discharge limits. This paper discusses the high recovery membrane process its unique design features aimed at minimizing the volume of rejects its separation performance operating history. (author)

  13. A high recovery membrane process for purification of low-level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Samadi, R.; Davloor, R.; Harper, B.

    2013-01-01

    An advanced Active Liquid Waste Treatment System (ALWTS) was designed placed in-service at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' in 1999. As part of this unique system an innovative high recovery reverse osmosis system (ROS) was installed to concentrate the contaminants into a small retentate stream that can be processed on-site or sent off-site for disposal. The permeate is discharged to the lake. The overall permeate recovery of the system is greater than 98%. This patented system which saw its first commercial application at the station has now operated continuously for over thirteen years. It has enabled the ALWTS to consistently produce high quality effluent that exceeds environmental discharge limits. This paper discusses the high recovery membrane process its unique design features aimed at minimizing the volume of rejects its separation performance operating history. (author)

  14. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  15. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  16. Heat recovery optimization in a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafi, Omid; Navarri, Philippe; Hughes, Robin; Lu, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Pinch Analysis was used to improve the energy performance of a typical steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. The objective of this work was to reduce the amount of natural gas used for steam generation in the plant and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. The INTEGRATION software was used to analyze how heat is being used in the existing design and identify inefficient heat exchanges causing excessive use of energy. Several modifications to improve the base case heat exchanger network (HEN) were identified. The proposed retrofit projects reduced the process heating demands by improving the existing heat recovery system and by recovering waste heat and decreased natural gas consumption in the steam production unit by approximately 40 MW, representing approximately 8% of total consumption. As a result, the amount of glycol used to transfer energy across the facility was also reduced, as well as the electricity consumption related to glycol pumping. It was shown that the proposed heat recovery projects reduced natural gas costs by C$3.8 million/y and greenhouse gas emissions by 61,700 t/y of CO_2. - Highlights: • A heat integration study using Pinch analysis was performed in a SAGD process. • Several modifications are suggested to improve the existing heat recovery system. • Heat recovery projects increased boiler feed water and combustion air temperatures. • The proposed modifications reduced natural gas use for steam generation. • Heat recovery significantly reduced operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  18. Novel precipitation technique for uranium recovery from carbonate leach solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujoy Biswas; Rupawate, V.H.; Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from carbonate ore leach solution was studied using novel precipitation method. The uranium from leach liquor was recovered as magnesium diuranate with NaOH in presence of trace amount of Mg 2+ . Effects of various parameters such as addition of H 2 SO 4 , MgO, MgSO 4 as well as NaOH were investigated for maximum uranium recovery. Overall uranium recovery of the process was 97 % with improved particle size (∼57 µm). Based on the experimental findings, a process flow-sheet was developed for uranium recovery from carbonate ore leach solution with a uranium concentration of <1 g/L. (author)

  19. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory for Measurement of Nursing Student Views on Recovery-oriented Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recovery-oriented services are a goal for policy and practice in the Australian mental health service system. Evidence-based reform requires an instrument to measure knowledge of recovery concepts. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) was designed for this purpose, however, its suitability and validity for student health professionals has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current article is to report the psychometric features of the RKI for measuring nursing students' views on recovery. The RKI, a self-report measure, consists of four scales: (I) Roles and Responsibilities, (II) Non-Linearity of the Recovery Process, (III) Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and (IV) Expectations Regarding Recovery. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the baseline data (n = 167) were applied to assess validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses generally replicated the item structure suggested by the three main scales, however more stringent analyses (confirmatory factor analysis) did not provide strong support for convergent validity. A refined RKI with 16 items had internal reliabilities of α = .75 for Roles and Responsibilities, α = .49 for Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and α = .72, for Recovery as Non-Linear Process. If the RKI is to be applied to nursing student populations, the conceptual underpinning of the instrument needs to be reworked, and new items should be generated to evaluate and improve scale validity and reliability.

  20. Product recovery optimization in closed-loop supply chain to improve sustainability in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jha, P. C.; Garg, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    that emerge from that business’s economical, environmental and social dimensions. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective mixed integer mathematical problem for a generic closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network to rationalise how a system’s product recovery helps to improve manufacturing sustainability....... The CLSC network proposed in this study consists of a hybrid manufacturing facility, warehouse, distribution centres, collection centres and a hybrid recovery facility (HRF). The proposed model determines the best location for the HRF and optimal flow of products, recovered parts and material...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Processes for Recovery of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Chenna Rao; Blanpain, Bart; Pontikes, Yiannis; Binnemans, Koen; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Environmental concerns and lack of space suggest that the management of bauxite residue needs to be re-adressed. The utilization of the residue has thus become a topic high on the agenda for both academia and industry, yet, up to date, it is only rarely used. Nonetheless, recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) with or without other metals from bauxite residue, and utilization of the left-over residue in other applications like building materials may be a viable alternative to storage. Hence, different processes developed by the authors for recovery of REEs and other metals from bauxite residue were compared. In this study, preliminary energy and cost analyses were carried out to assess the feasibility of the processes. These analyses show that the combination of alkali roasting-smelting-quenching-leaching is a promising process for the treatment of bauxite residue and that it is justified to study this process at a pilot scale.

  2. [Recovery of consciousness: process-oriented approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarova, S B

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally psychological neurorehabilitation of neurosurgical patients is provided subject to availability of clear consciousness and minimal potential to communicate verbally. Cognitive and emotional disorders, problems in social adaptation, neurotic syndromes are normally targets in such cases. We work with patients having survived severe brain damage being in different states of consciousness: vegetative state, minimal state of consciousness, mutism, confusion, posttraumatic Korsaroff syndrom. Psychologist considers recovery of consciousness as the target besides traditional tasks. Construction of communication with patient is central part of such job, where the patient remains unable to contact verbally, yet it is impossible to consider potential aphasia. This is a non-verbal "dialogue" with patient created by psychologist with gradual development and involving other people and objects of environment. Inline with modern neuroscientific achievements demonstrating ability to recognize by patients with severe brain injury (A. Owen, S. Laureys, M. Monti, M. Coleman, A. Soddu, M. Boly and others) we base upon psychological science, on psychotherapeutic approaches containing instruments inevitable to work with patients in altered states of consciousness and creation of non-verbal communication with patient (Jung, Reich, Alexander, Lowen, Keleman, Arnold and Amy Mindell, S. Tomandl, D. Boadella, A. Längle, P. Levin etc). This article will include 15 years of experience to apply Process-oriented approach by A. Mindell to recovery of consciousness of neurosurgical patients based on work with "minimal signals" (micro moves, breath, mimic reactions etc.), principle of feedback, psychosomatic resonance, empathy.

  3. Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunio, A.H.; Harijan, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

  4. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, T. E.; Diaz, L. A.; Clark, G. G.; Keller, P.

    2016-09-01

    As electronic technology continues to evolve there is a growing need to develop processes which recover valuable material from antiquated technology. This need follows from the environmental challenges associated with the availability of raw materials and fast growing generation of electronic waste. Although just present in small quantities in electronic devices, the availability of raw materials, such as rare earths and precious metals, becomes critical for the production of high tech electronic devices and the development of green technologies (i.e. wind turbines, electric motors, and solar panels). Therefore, the proper recycling and processing of increasing volumes of electronic waste present an opportunity to stabilize the market of critical materials, reducing the demand of mined products, and providing a proper disposal and treatment of a hazardous waste stream. This paper will describe development and techno-economic assessment of a comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste. This hydrometallurgical scheme aims to selectively recover different value segments in the materials streams (base metals, precious metals, and rare earths). The economic feasibility for the recovery of rare earths from electronic waste is mostly driven by the efficient recovery of precious metals, such as Au and Pd (ca. 80 % of the total recoverable value). Rare earth elements contained in magnets (speakers, vibrators and hard disk storage) can be recovered as a mixture of rare earths oxides which can later be reduced to the production of new magnets.

  5. Recovery of uranium mineral concentrate from copper tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, S.; Tewari, U.K.; Beri, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the studies conducted on the samples of copper tailings from Surda Copper Concentrator plant, wet concentrating table (Diaster Diagonal Deck) was found most suitable for recovering uranium mineral concentrate. Based on this technique, uranium recovery plants were set up at Surda, Rakha and Mosabani. The recoveries obtained from Surda Uranium Recovery Plant and Rakha Uranium Recovery Plant were in the range of 40-50%. But in Mosaboni Uranium Recovery Plant which is treating copper tailings from Mosaboni Copper Concentrator Plant, the biggest concentrator plant processing nearly 2,700 MT/day of copper ore, the recovery by wet concentrating tables was found to be around 22%. Low recovery was mainly due to low concentration of uranium in ore and as well as more percentage of uranium distribution in fines which tables were unable to recover. Studies were done to recover uranium mineral concentrate from the fines with new set of equipment viz. Curved Static Screen/Bartles Mozley Separator/Cross Belt Concentrator. This gave an improvement of 14-16% only. Studies by low acid leaching in chemical process side have shown that an overall recovery of 68% can be achieved. Though the chemical process is best as far as recovery is concerned but there are several constraints. The major constraint is pertaining to environmental and pollution control. Depending on the results of studies to overcome the constraints decision for the process to be adopted will be taken up and executed. The test results and plant performance data have also been included in the paper. (author). 8 figs., 11 tabs., 1 appendix

  6. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  7. Selective flocculation and precipitation for the improvement of virus-like particle recovery from yeast homogenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoka, S.; Ciniawskyj, O. C.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2000-01-01

    The purification of an intracellular product from a complex mixture of contaminants after cell disruption is a common problem in processes downstream of fermentation systems. This is particularly challenging for the recovery of particulate (80 nm in diameter) multimeric protein products, named vi...... the challenge of scale-up of solid-liquid separation stages for biological particle processing.......The purification of an intracellular product from a complex mixture of contaminants after cell disruption is a common problem in processes downstream of fermentation systems. This is particularly challenging for the recovery of particulate (80 nm in diameter) multimeric protein products, named...

  8. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  9. Don't fix it, make it better! : using frontline service employees to improve recovery performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.A.H.; Schepers, J.J.L.; Nijssen, E.J.; Ordanini, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how frontline service employees (FSEs) can learn from recovery services and improve their performance accordingly. While research recognizes that FSEs can fulfill an innovation role by sourcing customer knowledge and developing ideas for performance improvement, it remains

  10. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by an electrokinetic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N.; Mateus, E.P.

    to supply P for the next ca. 80 years. Additionaly, the quality of this raw material has deteriorated due to contamination, which has increased processing costs of mineral P fertilizers. The recovery of nutrients, like P, from secondary resources urges. Sewage sludge (SS) and sewage sludge ash (SSA) from...... waste water treatment plants (WWTP) may contain contaminants or unwanted elements regarding specific applications, but they also contain secondary resources of high value. Using these ash as a P resource, while removing the contaminants, seems a sustainable option. The electrokinetic (EK) process can....... This communication aims to discuss preliminary results of the feasibility of EK process to recover P from WWTP target wastes....

  11. Former patients' experiences of recovery from self-harm as an individual, prolonged learning process: a phenomenological hermeneutical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofthagen, Randi; Talseth, Anne Grethe; Fagerstrøm, Lisbeth Maria

    2017-10-01

    To explore, describe and understand former patients' experiences of recovery from self-harm. Previous research shows that a person's development towards a more secure self-image, mastery of their emotions, an understanding of what triggers self-harm and mastery of new ways to cope with problems are central to recovery. Recovery from self-harm is still a relatively new field of research. A phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Eight participants were interviewed in 2013. Inclusion criteria were as follows: to have committed no self-harm during the past 2 years, to have experienced recovery and to be 18 or older. We analysed data using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The findings resulted in three themes with subthemes. The first theme, the turning point, occurred at the start of the recovery process. Participants learned to choose life, verbally express their inner pain and reconcile with their life histories. In the second theme, coping with everyday life, participants learned how to choose alternative actions instead of self-harm and attend to their basic, physical needs. In the third theme, valuing close relationships and relationships with mental health nurses, participants learned to receive support from close relationships with others and mental health nurses. A tentative model illustrates the comprehensive understanding of the recovery process, described as an individual, prolonged learning process. To achieve recovery, persons who self-harm need guidance and knowledge of how to realize a personal learning process. More research is needed on how mental health nurses can support individual transition processes and thereby facilitate recovery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  13. Vagus nerve stimulation delivered during motor rehabilitation improves recovery in a rat model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, Navid; Hays, Seth A; Sloan, Andrew M; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Hulsey, Daniel R; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Neural plasticity is widely believed to support functional recovery following brain damage. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with different forelimb movements causes long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex that is specific to the paired movement. We tested the hypothesis that repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with upper forelimb movements would improve recovery of motor function in a rat model of stroke. Rats were separated into 3 groups: vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitation (rehab), vagus nerve stimulation after rehab, and rehab alone. Animals underwent 4 training stages: shaping (motor skill learning), prelesion training, postlesion training, and therapeutic training. Rats were given a unilateral ischemic lesion within motor cortex and implanted with a left vagus nerve cuff. Animals were allowed 1 week of recovery before postlesion baseline training. During the therapeutic training stage, rats received vagus nerve stimulation paired with each successful trial. All 17 trained rats demonstrated significant contralateral forelimb impairment when performing a bradykinesia assessment task. Forelimb function was recovered completely to prelesion levels when vagus nerve stimulation was delivered during rehab training. Alternatively, intensive rehab training alone (without stimulation) failed to restore function to prelesion levels. Delivering the same amount of stimulation after rehab training did not yield improvements compared with rehab alone. These results demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation repeatedly paired with successful forelimb movements can improve recovery after motor cortex ischemia and may be a viable option for stroke rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Recovery Processes During and After Work: Associations With Health, Work Engagement, and Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Kinnunen, Ulla; Korpela, Kalevi

    2015-07-01

    We examined energy management during work, recovery experiences after work and their connections to health, work engagement, and job performance. An online survey was completed by 1208 Finnish employees. Energy management was assessed through 13 strategies and recovery experiences through four experiences. As outcomes of recovery, we examined self-reported health, work engagement, and job performance. On average, employees applied three energy management strategies. The most beneficial strategies were work-related: shifting focus, goal setting, and helping coworkers. Both energy management and recovery experiences contributed to the outcomes. Employees benefit in terms of energy from shifting their focus to positive aspects of their jobs and demonstrating proactive social behavior at work. Recovery processes during and after work are closely connected to each other, to well-being and performance at work.

  15. Processing of Phosphorus Slag with Recovery of Rare Earth Metals and Obtaining Silicon Containing Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshigina, Zaure; Abisheva, Zinesh; Bochevskaya, Yelena; Akcil, Ata; Sharipova, Aynash; Sargelova, Elmira

    2016-10-01

    The present research is devoted to the processing of slag generating during the yellow phosphorus production. In this paper are presented studies on leaching of phosphorus production slag by nitric acid with recovery of rare earth metals (REMs) into solution. REMs recovery into the solution achieved 98 % during the leaching process with using 7.5 mol/L of HNO3, liquid-to-solid ratio is 2.6:1, temperature is 60°C, process duration is 1 hour and stirrer speed is 500 rpm. Behaviour during the leaching of associated components such as calcium, aluminium, and iron was studied. After the leaching cake contains ∼⃒75-85 % of SiO2 and it might be useful for obtaining of precipitated silicon dioxide. With the purpose of separation from the impurities, recovery and concentrating of REMs, the obtained solution after leaching was subjected to extraction processing methods. The influence of ratio of organic and aqueous phases (O: A) on the extraction of rare earth metals by tributyl phosphate (TBP) with concentrations from 20 up to 100 % was studied. The REMs extraction with increasing TBP concentration under changes O:A ratio from 1:20 down to 1:1 into the organic phase from the solutions after nitric acid leaching increased from 22.2 up to 99.3%. The duration effect of REMs extraction process was studied by tributyl phosphate. It is revealed that with increasing of duration of the extraction process from 10 to 30 minutes REMs recovery into the organic phase almost did not changed. The behaviour of iron in the extraction process by TBP was studied. It was found that such accompanying components as calcium and aluminium by tributyl phosphate didn't extracted. To construct isotherm of REMs extraction of by tributyl phosphate was used variable volume method. It was calculated three-step extraction is needed for REMs recovery from the solutions after nitric acid leaching of phosphorus production slag. The process of the three-steps counter current extraction of rare earth

  16. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste

  17. Improving Multi-Sensor Drought Monitoring, Prediction and Recovery Assessment Using Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakouchak, Amir; Tourian, Mohammad J.

    2015-04-01

    Development of reliable drought monitoring, prediction and recovery assessment tools are fundamental to water resources management. This presentation focuses on how gravimetry information can improve drought assessment. First, we provide an overview of the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which offers near real-time drought information using remote sensing observations and model simulations. Then, we present a framework for integration of satellite gravimetry information for improving drought prediction and recovery assessment. The input data include satellite-based and model-based precipitation, soil moisture estimates and equivalent water height. Previous studies show that drought assessment based on one single indicator may not be sufficient. For this reason, GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions and provides composite multi-index drought information for overall characterization of droughts. GIDMaPS includes a seasonal prediction component based on a statistical persistence-based approach. The prediction component of GIDMaPS provides the empirical probability of drought for different severity levels. In this presentation we present a new component in which the drought prediction information based on SPI, SSI and MSDI are conditioned on equivalent water height obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Using a Bayesian approach, GRACE information is used to evaluate persistence of drought. Finally, the deficit equivalent water height based on GRACE is used for assessing drought recovery. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from 2014

  18. Post-event Processing Predicts Impaired Cortisol Recovery Following Social Stressor: The Moderating Role of Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shunta; Sato, Tomoya; Shimada, Hironori; Tsumura, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individuals with social anxiety show impaired cortisol recovery after experiencing social evaluative stressors. Yet, little is known regarding the cognitive processes underlying such impaired cortisol recovery. The present study examined the effect of post-event processing (PEP), referred to as repetitive thinking about social situations, on cortisol recovery following a social stressor. Forty-two non-clinical university students (23 women, 19 men, mean age = 22.0 ± 2.0 years) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by a thought sampling procedure which assessed the frequency of PEP reflecting the TSST. A growth curve model showed PEP and social anxiety interactively predicted cortisol recovery. In particular, PEP predicted impaired cortisol recovery in those with low levels of social anxiety but not in those with high levels of social anxiety, which contradicted the initial hypothesis. These findings suggest that PEP is differentially associated with cortisol recovery depending on levels of social anxiety. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings were discussed in terms of protective inhibition framework.

  19. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher

  20. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  1. Process correlation analysis model for process improvement identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su-jin; Kim, Dae-Kyoo; Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data.

  2. Yttrium recovery from primary and secondary sources: A review of main hydrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Review of the main hydrometallurgical processes to recover yttrium. • Recovery of yttrium from primary sources. • Recovery of yttrium from e-waste and other types of waste. - Abstract: Yttrium is important rare earths (REs) used in numerous fields, mainly in the phosphor powders for low-energy lighting. The uses of these elements, especially for high-tech products are increased in recent years and combined with the scarcity of the resources and the environmental impact of the technologies to extract them from ores make the recycling waste, that contain Y and other RE, a priority. The present review summarized the main hydrometallurgical technologies to extract Y from ores, contaminated solutions, WEEE and generic wastes. Before to discuss the works about the treatment of wastes, the processes to retrieval Y from ores are discussed, since the processes are similar and derived from those already developed for the extraction from primary sources. Particular attention was given to the recovery of Y from WEEE because the recycle of them is important not only for economical point of view, considering its value, but also for environmental impact that this could be generated if not properly disposal.

  3. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-02-27

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  4. Progress in the development of the reverse osmosis process for spacecraft wash water recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, J. N.; Podall, H. E.; Spurlock, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Research work on ambient- and pasteurization-temperature reverse osmosis processes for wash water recovery in a spacecraft environment is reviewed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each are noted. A key requirement in each case is to provide a membrane of appropriate stability and semipermeability. Reverse osmosis systems intended for such use must also take into account the specific limitations and requirements imposed by the small volume of water to be processed and the high water recovery desired. The incorporation of advanced high-temperature membranes into specially designed modules is discussed.

  5. Status of Americium-241 recovery at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knighton, J.B.; Hagan, P.G.; Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is presented in two parts: Part I, Molten Salt Extraction of Americium from Molten Plutonium Metal, and Part II, Aqueous Recovery of Americium from Extraction Salts. The Rocky Flats recovery process used for waste salts includes (1) dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution of residues; (2) cation exchange to convert from the chloride to the nitrate system and to remove gross amounts of monovalent impurities; (3) anion exchange separation of plutonium; (4) oxalate precipitation of americium; and (5) calcination of the oxalate at 600 0 C to yield americium oxide. The aqueous process portion describes attempts to improve the recovery of americium. The first part deals with modifications to the cation exchange step; the second describes development of a solvent extractions process that will recovery americium from residues containing aluminium as well as other common impurities. Results of laboratory work are described. 3 figures, 6 tables. (DP)

  6. Incomplete reporting of enhanced recovery elements and its impact on achieving quality improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, R W; Fielder, S; Calhoun, J

    2015-01-01

    per cent), length of stay (47, 94 per cent) and mortality (45, 90 per cent). CONCLUSION: The current standard of reporting is frequently incomplete. To transfer knowledge and facilitate implementation of pathways that demonstrate improvements in perioperative care and recovery, a consistent structured...

  7. Influence of pH on dynamics of microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas putida: Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, P; Suresh Kumar, G

    2017-01-01

    In present work, the influence of reservoir pH conditions on dynamics of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes using Pseudomonas putida was analysed numerically from the developed mathematical model for MEOR processes. Further, a new strategy to improve the MEOR performance has also been proposed. It is concluded from present study that by reversing the reservoir pH from highly acidic to low alkaline condition (pH 5-8), flow and mobility of displaced oil, displacement efficiency, and original oil in place (OOIP) recovered gets significantly enhanced, resulting from improved interfacial tension (IFT) reduction by biosurfactants. At pH 8, maximum of 26.1% of OOIP was recovered with higher displacement efficiency. The present study introduces a new strategy to increase the recovery efficiency of MEOR technique by characterizing the biosurfactants for IFT min /IFT max values for different pH conditions and subsequently, reversing the reservoir pH conditions at which the IFT min /IFT max value is minimum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The lived experience of art making as a companion to the mental health recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lith, Theresa; Fenner, Patricia; Schofield, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Art making is a common activity provided for consumers in mental health psychosocial rehabilitation services, yet there is little evidence available which examines its role in the recovery process. The current study inquires into mental health consumers' lived experiences of art making within psychosocial rehabilitation services and their views on how art making supports mental health recovery. This research used qualitative in-depth interviews to explore the role of art making in the mental health recovery journey. The sample comprised 18 consumer participants who attended art-based programs in two psychosocial services in Victoria, Australia. The 60-90 min interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. A total of 11 major themes were identified and organised into three areas: qualities conducive to the art making context, how the art making process benefits mental health recovery, and how the image or art product benefits mental health recovery. The 11 themes are described and illustrated from participant interviews. Consumers described art making as a transformative activity which enabled them to take greater control of their lives, resulting in feeling stronger, more confident, and more capable of driving their journey of recovery. The art product also served valuable roles in supporting their recovery. Art making is a highly valued activity by consumers, who suggest that innovative and strengths-based methods, such as art making, can facilitate recovery and self-expression. A key challenge for the field is to determine how such methods can be better integrated into mental health service delivery.

  9. Motion processing after sight restoration: No competition between visual recovery and auditory compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Hense, Marlene; Troje, Nikolaus F; Sourav, Suddha; Röder, Brigitte

    2018-02-15

    The present study tested whether or not functional adaptations following congenital blindness are maintained in humans after sight-restoration and whether they interfere with visual recovery. In permanently congenital blind individuals both intramodal plasticity (e.g. changes in auditory cortex) as well as crossmodal plasticity (e.g. an activation of visual cortex by auditory stimuli) have been observed. Both phenomena were hypothesized to contribute to improved auditory functions. For example, it has been shown that early permanently blind individuals outperform sighted controls in auditory motion processing and that auditory motion stimuli elicit activity in typical visual motion areas. Yet it is unknown what happens to these behavioral adaptations and cortical reorganizations when sight is restored, that is, whether compensatory auditory changes are lost and to which degree visual motion processing is reinstalled. Here we employed a combined behavioral-electrophysiological approach in a group of sight-recovery individuals with a history of a transient phase of congenital blindness lasting for several months to several years. They, as well as two control groups, one with visual impairments, one normally sighted, were tested in a visual and an auditory motion discrimination experiment. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying the visual motion coherence and the signal to noise ratio, respectively. The congenital cataract-reversal individuals showed lower performance in the visual global motion task than both control groups. At the same time, they outperformed both control groups in auditory motion processing suggesting that at least some compensatory behavioral adaptation as a consequence of a complete blindness from birth was maintained. Alpha oscillatory activity during the visual task was significantly lower in congenital cataract reversal individuals and they did not show ERPs modulated by visual motion coherence as observed in both control groups. In

  10. Improved leaching process for metal ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar-Kwan Yung, K.; Barlow, C.B.; Glass, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The general overall sequence of process steps in the technique of the invention in set forth. In sequence, the ore is crushed, and solubilizing reagents and moisture are added to the crushed ore in preselected controlled portions. The mixture of ore, reagent, and moisture is then cured followed in the preferred process by conditioning for filtration. The slurry that is produced from conditioning is then subjected to multiple stage washing on a belt filter. The filtrate is further processed for metal value recovery and the solids are transported to tailings disposal

  11. Optical processes in the performance and recovery of gas-phase switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper several optical processes that may be used to affect gas-phase switch performance and operation are discussed, and approaches using a laser to increase recovery rates of switches are presented. In the latter the laser is used during the recovery phase rather than the conductive or closure phase. This papper suggests that it should be possible to use a low-power laser (e.g., one that is technologically feasible to use as part of a switch) to assist in opening the switch by quenching excited atomic and/or molecular species. The application of laser-induced energy extraction to gas-phase switches is also discussed

  12. Complex service recovery processes: how to avoid triple deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edvardsson, Bo; Tronvoll, Bård; Höykinpuro, Ritva

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This article seeks to develop a new framework to outline factors that influence the resolution of unfavourable service experiences as a result of double deviation. The focus is on understanding and managing complex service recovery processes. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive, explorative and narrative approach was selected. Data were collected in the form of narratives from the field through interviews with actors at various levels in organisations as well as with custo...

  13. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  14. Single image super-resolution based on compressive sensing and improved TV minimization sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnukumar, S.; Wilscy, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a single image Super-Resolution (SR) method based on Compressive Sensing (CS) and Improved Total Variation (TV) Minimization Sparse Recovery. In the CS framework, low-resolution (LR) image is treated as the compressed version of high-resolution (HR) image. Dictionary Training and Sparse Recovery are the two phases of the method. K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD) method is used for dictionary training and the dictionary represents HR image patches in a sparse manner. Here, only the interpolated version of the LR image is used for training purpose and thereby the structural self similarity inherent in the LR image is exploited. In the sparse recovery phase the sparse representation coefficients with respect to the trained dictionary for LR image patches are derived using Improved TV Minimization method. HR image can be reconstructed by the linear combination of the dictionary and the sparse coefficients. The experimental results show that the proposed method gives better results quantitatively as well as qualitatively on both natural and remote sensing images. The reconstructed images have better visual quality since edges and other sharp details are preserved.

  15. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  16. A business process for enhanced heavy oil recovery research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, P.; Campbell, M.; Kantzas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Husky Oil's enhanced oil recovery (EOR) research management processes for reducing process development time and increasing investment efficiency were described. The considerations that went into the development of the plan a decade ago were reviewed and new ideas incorporated into the revised plan were presented. Four case studies were presented to illustrate the need for process to reservoir matching. A need for strategic research planning was emphasized. Proposed technologies for enhancement of heavy oil reservoir productivity were presented in tabular form. 1 tab., 7 figs

  17. Quantification of biomolecules in herring (Clupea harengus) industry processing waters and their recovery using electroflocculation and ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ali; Gringer, Nina; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF). The high......Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF...

  18. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  19. Novel simple process for tocopherols selective recovery from vegetable oils by adsorption and desorption with an anion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromori, Kousuke; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    A novel and simple low-temperature process was used to recover tocopherols from a deodorizer distillate, which is a by-product of edible oil refining. The process consists of three operations: the esterification of free fatty acids with a cation-exchange resin catalyst, the adsorption of tocopherols onto an anion-exchange resin, and tocopherol desorption from the resin. No degradation of tocopherols occurred during these processes. In the tocopherol-rich fraction, no impurities such as sterols or glycerides were present. These impurities are commonly found in the product of the conventional process. This novel process improves the overall recovery ratio and the mass fraction of the product (75.9% and 51.0wt%) compared with those in the conventional process (50% and 35wt%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The family living the child recovery process after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Júlia Peres; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida; Ribeiro, Circéa Amalia

    2015-01-01

    to understand the meaning attributed by the family to its experience in the recovery process of a child affected by an acute disease after discharge, and to develop a theoretical model of this experience. Symbolic interactionism was adopted as a theoretical reference, and grounded theory was adopted as a methodological reference. data were collected through interviews and participant observation with 11 families, totaling 15 interviews. A theoretical model consisting of two interactive phenomena was formulated from the analysis: Mobilizing to restore functional balance and Suffering from the possibility of a child's readmission. the family remains alert to identify early changes in the child's health, in an attempt to avoid rehospitalization. the effects of the disease and hospitalization continue to manifest in family functioning, causing suffering even after the child's discharge and recovery.

  1. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  2. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  3. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  4. Polyelectrolyte flocculation of grain stillage for improved clarification and water recovery within bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhaus, Todd J; Anderson, Jason; Lane, Samuel; Waddell, Evan

    2010-04-01

    Polyelectrolytes were investigated for flocculation of a corn whole stillage stream to improve solid-liquid clarification operations and reduce downstream utility requirements for evaporation and drying within a bioethanol process. Despite a negative zeta potential for the stillage solids, an anionic polyelectrolyte was found to provide the best flocculation. At the optimal dosage of 1.1mg polymer/g dry suspended solids, an anionic flocculant provided a clarified stream with only 0.15% w/w suspended solids (equivalent to a total dissolved solid to total suspended solid ratio greater than 40, and a viscosity reduction of 39% compared to an unflocculated "clarified" stream). The resulting solids cake had greater than 40% w/w solids, and more than 80% water recovery was found in the clarified stream. Addition of flocculant improved filtration flux by six fold and/or would allow for up to a 4-times higher flow rate if using a decanting centrifuge for clarification of corn stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory-parietal cortical stimulation improves motor recovery in severe capsular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ra Gyung; Cho, Jongwook; Ree, Jinkyue; Kim, Hyung-Sun; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Kim, Jin-Myung; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of subcortical white matter strokes in elderly patients is on the rise, but these patients show mixed responses to conventional rehabilitative interventions. To examine whether cortical electrical stimulation can promote motor recovery after white matter stroke, we delivered stimulation to a small or wide region of sensory-parietal cortex for two weeks in a rodent model of circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct. The sham-operated group (SOG) showed persistent and severe motor impairments together with decreased activation in bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striatum. In contrast, sensory-parietal cortex stimulation significantly improved motor recovery: final recovery levels were 72.9% of prelesion levels in the wide stimulation group (WSG) and 37% of prelesion levels in the small stimulation group (SSG). The microPET imaging showed reversal of cortical diaschisis in both groups: in both hemispheres for the WSG, and in the hemisphere ipsilateral to stimulation in the SSG. In addition, we observed activation of the corpus callosum and subcortical corticostriatal structures after stimulation. The results from the c-Fos mapping study were grossly consistent with the microPET imaging. Sensory-parietal cortex stimulation may therefore be a useful strategy for overcoming the limits of rehabilitative training in patients with severe forms of subcortical capsular infarct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Liquid membrane process for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valint, P.L. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquid membrane emulsion extraction process for recovering uranium from a WPPA feed solution containing uranyl cations wherein said feed is contacted with a water-in-oil emulsion which extracts and captures the uranium in the interior aqueous phase thereof, wherein the improvement comprises the presence of an alkane diphosphonic acid uranium complexing agent in the interior phase of the emulsion. This improvement results in greater extraction efficiency

  7. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Solution for Draw Solute Recovery in Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho

    2013-01-01

    Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system

  8. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Solution for Draw Solute Recovery in Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho [Korea Institute of Machinery Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system.

  9. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  10. Selection and application of microorganisms to improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P.F.; Moreira, R.S.; Almeida, R.C.C.; Guimaraes, A.K.; Carvalho, A.S. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia e Ecologia de Microrganismos da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Avenida Reitor Miguel Calmon, s/n, Vale do Canela, CEP 41.160-100 Salvador BA (Brazil); Quintella, C.; Esperidia, M.C.A. [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barao de Geremoabo, s/n, Campus Universitario de Ondina, CEP 40.170-290, Salvador BA (Brazil); Taft, C.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-08-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (Meor) is an incontestably efficient alternative to improve oil recovery, especially in mature fields and in oil reservoirs with high paraffinic content. This is the case for most oil fields in the Reconcavo basin of Bahia, Brazil. Given the diverse conditions of most oil fields, an approach to apply Meor technology should consider primarily: (i) microbiological studies to select the appropriate microorganisms and (ii) mobilization of oil in laboratory experiments before oil field application. A total of 163 bacterial strains, selectively isolated from various sources, were studied to determine their potential to be used in Meor. A laboratory microbial screening based on physiological and metabolic profiles and growth rates under conditions representative for oil fields and reservoirs revealed that 10 bacterial strains identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2), Bacillus licheniformis (2), Bacillus brevis (1), Bacillus polymyxa (1), Micrococcus varians (1), Micrococcus sp. (1), and two Vibrio species demonstrated potential to be used in oil recovery. Strains of B. licheniformis and B. polymyxa produced the most active surfactants and proved to be the most anaerobic and thermotolerant among the selected bacteria. Micrococcus and B. brevis were the most salt-tolerant and polymer producing bacteria, respectively, whereas Vibrio sp. and B. polymyxa strains were the most gas-producing bacteria. Three bacterial consortia were prepared with a mixture of bacteria that showed metabolic and technological complementarity and the ability to grow at a wide range of temperatures and salinity characteristics for the oil fields in Bahia, Brazil. Oil mobilization rates in laboratory column experiments using the three consortia of bacteria varied from 11.2 to 18.3 % [v/v] of the total oil under static conditions. Consortia of B. brevis, B. icheniformis and B. polymyxa exhibited the best oil mobilization rates. Using these consortia under anaerobic

  11. Effects of introducing energy recovery processes to the municipal solid waste management system in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiki, Kosuke; Giang, Pham Quy; Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Sekikawa, Takahiro; Yu, Jeoung-soo; Choijil, Baasandash; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, most developing countries have not set up municipal solid waste management systems with a view of recovering energy from waste or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we have studied the possible effects of introducing three energy recovery processes either as a single or combination approach, refuse derived fuel production, incineration and waste power generation, and methane gas recovery from landfill and power generation in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, as a case study. We concluded that incineration process is the most suitable as first introduction of energy recovery. To operate it efficiently, 3Rs strategies need to be promoted. And then, RDF production which is made of waste papers and plastics in high level of sorting may be considered as the second step of energy recovery. However, safety control and marketability of RDF will be required at that moment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support.

  13. Improving Earth/Prediction Models to Improve Network Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS) primaryseismic network consists of a relatively small number of arrays andthree-component stations. The relatively small number of stationsin the USAEDS primary network make it both necessary and feasibleto optimize both station and network processing.Station processing improvements include detector tuning effortsthat use Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to helpjudiciously set acceptable Type 1 (false) vs. Type 2 (miss) errorrates. Other station processing improvements include the use ofempirical/historical observations and continuous background noisemeasurements to compute time-varying, maximum likelihood probabilityof detection thresholds.The USAEDS network processing software makes extensive use of theazimuth and slowness information provided by frequency-wavenumberanalysis at array sites, and polarization analysis at three-componentsites. Most of the improvements in USAEDS network processing aredue to improvements in the models used to predict azimuth, slowness,and probability of detection. Kriged travel-time, azimuth andslowness corrections-and associated uncertainties-are computedusing a ground truth database. Improvements in station processingand the use of improved models for azimuth, slowness, and probabilityof detection have led to significant improvements in USADES networkprocessing.

  14. Understanding Total Hip Replacement Recovery towards the Design of a Context-Aware Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Garcia, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Total Hip Replacement (THR) is a common procedure to improve the mobility of elderly with osteoarthritis. Presently information about the recovery process after discharge is unclear. As consequence patients and physiotherapists face uncertainties to follow an adequate trajectory for recovery.

  15. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers | Olwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of timing recovery in wireless mobile receiver systems is critical. This is partly because timing recovery functions must follow rapid parameter changes inherent in mobile systems and partly because both bandwidth and power must be conserved in low signal to noise ratio communication channels. The ultimate ...

  16. Centrifugal washing and recovery as an improved method for obtaining lignin precipitated from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes centrifugal recovery as an improved method for collection of lignin isolated from black liquor obtained from a South African kraft mill. Precipitation of lignin was achieved by utilising 6 M sulphuric acid. Recovery...

  17. Face Processing Improvements in Prosopagnosia: Successes and Failures over the last 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Degutis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians and researchers have widely believed that face processing cannot be improved in prosopagnosia. Though more than a dozen reported studies have attempted to enhance face processing in prosopagnosics over the last 50 years, evidence for effective treatment approaches has only begun to emerge. Here, we review the current literature on spontaneous recovery in acquired prosopagnosia (AP, as well as treatment attempts in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia (DP, differentiating between compensatory and remedial approaches. We find that for AP, rather than remedial methods, strategic compensatory training such as verbalizing distinctive facial features has shown to be the most effective approach (despite limited evidence of generalization. In children with DP, compensatory training has also shown some effectiveness. In adults with DP, two recent larger-scale studies, one using remedial training and another administering oxytocin, have demonstrated group-level improvements and evidence of generalization. These results suggest that DPs, perhaps because of their more intact face processing infrastructure, may benefit more from treatments targeting face processing than APs.

  18. Flow behavior of N2 huff and puff process for enhanced oil recovery in tight oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Teng; Li, Zhaomin; Li, Jian; Hou, Dawei; Zhang, Dingyong

    2017-11-16

    In the present work, the potential of N 2 huff and puff process to enhance the recovery of tight oil reservoir was evaluated. N 2 huff and puff experiments were performed in micromodels and cores to investigate the flow behaviors of different cycles. The results showed that, in the first cycle, N 2 was dispersed in the oil, forming the foamy oil flow. In the second cycle, the dispersed gas bubbles gradually coalesced into the continuous gas phase. In the third cycle, N 2 was produced in the form of continuous gas phase. The results from the coreflood tests showed that, the primary recovery was only 5.32%, while the recoveries for the three N 2 huff and puff cycles were 15.1%, 8.53% and 3.22%, respectively.The recovery and the pressure gradient in the first cycle were high. With the increase of huff and puff cycles, and the oil recovery and the pressure gradient rapidly decreased. The oil recovery of N 2 huff and puff has been found to increase as the N 2 injection pressure and the soaking time increased. These results showed that, the properly designed and controlled N 2 huff and puff process can lead to enhanced recovery of tight oil reservoirs.

  19. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-07-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate the various units into a continuously operating circuit that will be demonstrated at a site selected based on the results presented in this study.

  1. Conservation physiology can inform threat assessment and recovery planning processes for threatened species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Walton, Sarah; Delle Palme, Caleigh A.

    2017-01-01

    threat assessments and work with partners to develop recovery plans. Here we argue that conservation physiology has much to offer for the threat assessment process and outline the ways in which this can be operationalized. For instance, conservation physiology is effective at revealing causal...... role in the conservation activities of bodies like the IUCN that are engaged in threat assessment and recovery of endangered organisms. Although we focus on activities at the international scale, these same concepts are relevant and applicable to national and regional bodies...

  2. Global sensitivity analysis of Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrero, Enrique; Queipo, Nestor V.; Pintos, Salvador; Zerpa, Luis E. [Applied Computing Institute, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zulia, Zulia (Venezuela)

    2007-08-15

    After conventional waterflooding processes the residual oil in the reservoir remains as a discontinuous phase in the form of oil drops trapped by capillary forces and is likely to be around 70% of the original oil in place (OOIP). The EOR method so-called Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding has been proved to be effective in reducing the oil residual saturation in laboratory experiments and field projects through reduction of interfacial tension and mobility ratio between oil and water phases. A critical step for the optimal design and control of ASP recovery processes is to find the relative contributions of design variables such as, slug size and chemical concentrations, in the variability of given performance measures (e.g., net present value, cumulative oil recovery), considering a heterogeneous and multiphase petroleum reservoir (sensitivity analysis). Previously reported works using reservoir numerical simulation have been limited to local sensitivity analyses because a global sensitivity analysis may require hundreds or even thousands of computationally expensive evaluations (field scale numerical simulations). To overcome this issue, a surrogate-based approach is suggested. Surrogate-based analysis/optimization makes reference to the idea of constructing an alternative fast model (surrogate) from numerical simulation data and using it for analysis/optimization purposes. This paper presents an efficient global sensitivity approach based on Sobol's method and multiple surrogates (i.e., Polynomial Regression, Kriging, Radial Base Functions and a Weighed Adaptive Model), with the multiple surrogates used to address the uncertainty in the analysis derived from plausible alternative surrogate-modeling schemes. The proposed approach was evaluated in the context of the global sensitivity analysis of a field scale Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer flooding process. The design variables and the performance measure in the ASP process were selected as slug size

  3. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  4. Single dose systemic acetaminophen to improve patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory segmental mastectomy: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Rodes, Meghan E; Bialek, Jane; Kendall, Mark C; McCarthy, Robert J

    2017-11-15

    Few systemic drug interventions are efficacious to improve patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory surgery. We aimed to evaluate whether a single dose systemic acetaminophen improve quality of recovery in female patients undergoing ambulatory breast surgery. We hypothesized that patients receiving a single dose systemic acetaminophen at the end of the surgical procedure would have a better global quality of postsurgical recovery compared to the ones receiving saline. The study was a prospective randomized double blinded, placebo controlled, clinical trial. Healthy female subjects were randomized to receive 1 g single dose systemic acetaminophen at the end of the surgery or the same volume of saline. The primary outcome was the Quality of Recovery 40 (QOR-40) questionnaire at 24 hours after surgery. Other data collected included opioid consumption and pain scores. Data were analyzed using group t tests and the Wilcoxon exact test. The association between opioid consumption and quality of recovery was evaluated using Spearman rho. P quality of recovery, P = .007. A single dose of systemic acetaminophen improves patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory breast surgery. The use of systemic acetaminophen is an efficacious strategy to improve patient perceived quality of postsurgical recovery and analgesic outcomes after hospital discharge for ambulatory breast surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  6. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  8. Retrofit of heat exchanger networks with pressure recovery of process streams at sub-ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Caballero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New mathematical model for heat exchanger networks retrofit with pressure recovery. • Optimal heat and work integration applied to the retrofit of sub-ambient processes. • Streams pressure manipulation is used to enhance heat integration of the system. • Compressors and turbines can act on a coupling shaft and/or as stand-alone equipment. • Use of smaller amount of cold utilities, reducing significantly the operational costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a new mathematical programming model for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HENs), wherein the pressure recovery of process streams is conducted to enhance heat integration. Particularly applied to cryogenic processes, HENs retrofit with combined heat and work integration is mainly aimed at reducing the use of expensive cold services. The proposed multi-stage superstructure allows the increment of the existing heat transfer area, as well as the use of new equipment for both heat exchange and pressure manipulation. The pressure recovery of streams is carried out simultaneously with the HEN design, such that the process conditions (streams pressure and temperature) are variables of optimization. The mathematical model is formulated using generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) and is optimized via mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), through the minimization of the retrofit total annualized cost, considering the turbine and compressor coupling with a helper motor. Three case studies are performed to assess the accuracy of the developed approach, including a real industrial example related to liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. The results show that the pressure recovery of streams is efficient for energy savings and, consequently, for decreasing the HEN retrofit total cost especially in sub-ambient processes

  9. Service user experiences of REFOCUS: a process evaluation of a pro-recovery complex intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Genevieve; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Le Boutillier, Clair; Janosik, Monika; MacPherson, Rob; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Policy is increasingly focused on implementing a recovery-orientation within mental health services, yet the subjective experience of individuals receiving a pro-recovery intervention is under-studied. The aim of this study was to explore the service user experience of receiving a complex, pro-recovery intervention (REFOCUS), which aimed to encourage the use of recovery-supporting tools and support recovery-promoting relationships. Interviews (n = 24) and two focus groups (n = 13) were conducted as part of a process evaluation and included a purposive sample of service users who received the complex, pro-recovery intervention within the REFOCUS randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants reported that the intervention supported the development of an open and collaborative relationship with staff, with new conversations around values, strengths and goals. This was experienced as hope-inspiring and empowering. However, others described how the recovery tools were used without context, meaning participants were unclear of their purpose and did not see their benefit. During the interviews, some individuals struggled to report any new tasks or conversations occurring during the intervention. Recovery-supporting tools can support the development of a recovery-promoting relationship, which can contribute to positive outcomes for individuals. The tools should be used in a collaborative and flexible manner. Information exchanged around values, strengths and goals should be used in care-planning. As some service users struggled to report their experience of the intervention, alternative evaluation approaches need to be considered if the service user experience is to be fully captured.

  10. Motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia in a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    We report on a chronic stroke patient who showed motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) after undergoing intensive rehabilitation for a period of one month, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe paralysis of the left extremities at the onset of thalamic hemorrhage. At thirty months after onset, the patient exhibited moderate weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. In addition, he exhibited a slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern during grasp-release movements of his left hand. During a one-month period of intensive rehabilitation, which was started at thrity months after onset, the patient showed 22% motor recovery of the left extremities. The slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern of the left hand almost disappeared. DTTs of the corticospinal tract (CST) in both hemispheres originated from the cerebral cortex, including the primary motor cortex, and passed along the known CST pathway. The DTT of the right CST was located anterior to the old hemorrhagic lesion. TMS study performed at thirty and thirty-one months after onset showed normal and similar findings for motor evoked potential in terms of latency and amplitude of the left hand muscle. We think that the motor weakness of the left extremities in this patient was mainly ascribed to LKA and that most of the motor recovery during a one-month period of rehabilitation was attributed to improvement of LKA.

  11. An Integrated Recovery-oriented Model (IRM) for mental health services: evolution and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Barry G; Tirupati, Srinivasan; Johnston, Suzanne; Turrell, Megan; Lewin, Terry J; Sly, Ketrina A; Conrad, Agatha M

    2017-01-17

    Over past decades, improvements in longer-term clinical and personal outcomes for individuals experiencing serious mental illness (SMI) have been moderate, although recovery has clearly been shown to be possible. Recovery experiences are inherently personal, and recovery can be complex and non-linear; however, there are a broad range of potential recovery contexts and contributors, both non-professional and professional. Ongoing refinement of recovery-oriented models for mental health (MH) services needs to be fostered. This descriptive paper outlines a service-wide Integrated Recovery-oriented Model (IRM) for MH services, designed to enhance personally valued health, wellbeing and social inclusion outcomes by increasing access to evidenced-based psychosocial interventions (EBIs) within a service context that supports recovery as both a process and an outcome. Evolution of the IRM is characterised as a series of five broad challenges, which draw together: relevant recovery perspectives; overall service delivery frameworks; psychiatric and psychosocial rehabilitation approaches and literature; our own clinical and service delivery experience; and implementation, evaluation and review strategies. The model revolves around the person's changing recovery needs, focusing on underlying processes and the service frameworks to support and reinforce hope as a primary catalyst for symptomatic and functional recovery. Within the IRM, clinical rehabilitation (CR) practices, processes and partnerships facilitate access to psychosocial EBIs to promote hope, recovery, self-agency and social inclusion. Core IRM components are detailed (remediation of functioning; collaborative restoration of skills and competencies; and active community reconnection), together with associated phases, processes, evaluation strategies, and an illustrative IRM scenario. The achievement of these goals requires ongoing collaboration with community organisations. Improved outcomes are achievable for

  12. Heavy Oil Upgrading and Enhanced Recovery in a Steam Injection Process Assisted by NiO- and PdO-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticulated Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisana Cardona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the effect of active catalytic nanoparticles on the improvement of the efficiency in recovery of a continuous steam injection process. Catalytic nanoparticles were selected through batch-adsorption experiments and the subsequent evaluation of the temperature for catalytic steam gasification in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A nanoparticulated SiO2 support was functionalized with 1.0 wt % of NiO and PdO nanocrystals, respectively, to improve the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles. Oil recovery was evaluated using a sand pack in steam injection scenarios in the absence and presence of a 500 mg/L SiNi1Pd1 nanoparticles-based nanofluid. The displacement test was carried out by constructing the base curves with water injection followed by steam injection in the absence and presence of the prepared treatment. The oil recovery increased 56% after steam injection with nanoparticles in comparison with the steam injection in the absence of the catalysts. The API gravity increases from 7.2° to 12.1°. Changes in the asphaltenes fraction corroborated the catalytic effect of the nanoparticles by reducing the asphaltenes content and the 620 °C+ residue 40% and 47%, respectively. Also, rheological measurements showed that the viscosity decreased by up to 85% (one order of magnitude after the nanofluid treatment during the steam injection process.

  13. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  14. Mathematical models for the efficiency of flotation process for the recovery of north waziristan copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Rahman, S.U.; Khan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical models were developed to give an insight into the effect of process variables, propylxanthae (X/sub 1/ g/ton), pH (X/sub 2/), sodium sulphide (X3 g/ton) and sodium cyanide (X/sub 4/ g/ton), on the recovery (YR) of copper. The optimum recovery (YR) 62.95%, was obtained at X/sub 4/=60g/ton. (author)

  15. A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of terbium from fluorescent lamps: Experimental design, optimization of acid leaching process and process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; Ippolito, Nicolò Maria; De Michelis, Ida; Medici, Franco; Vegliò, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    Terbium and rare earths recovery from fluorescent powders of exhausted lamps by acid leaching with hydrochloric acid was the objective of this study. In order to investigate the factors affecting leaching a series of experiments was performed in according to a full factorial plan with four variables and two levels (4 2 ). The factors studied were temperature, concentration of acid, pulp density and leaching time. Experimental conditions of terbium dissolution were optimized by statistical analysis. The results showed that temperature and pulp density were significant with a positive and negative effect, respectively. The empirical mathematical model deducted by experimental data demonstrated that terbium content was completely dissolved under the following conditions: 90 °C, 2 M hydrochloric acid and 5% of pulp density; while when the pulp density was 15% an extraction of 83% could be obtained at 90 °C and 5 M hydrochloric acid. Finally a flow sheet for the recovery of rare earth elements was proposed. The process was tested and simulated by commercial software for the chemical processes. The mass balance of the process was calculated: from 1 ton of initial powder it was possible to obtain around 160 kg of a concentrate of rare earths having a purity of 99%. The main rare earths elements in the final product was yttrium oxide (86.43%) following by cerium oxide (4.11%), lanthanum oxide (3.18%), europium oxide (3.08%) and terbium oxide (2.20%). The estimated total recovery of the rare earths elements was around 70% for yttrium and europium and 80% for the other rare earths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of acid impregnated steam explosion process on xylose recovery and enzymatic conversion of cellulose in corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Hongjia; Li, Menghua; Wang, Shizeng; Yuan, Qipeng

    2014-12-19

    Corncob residue is a cellulose-rich byproduct obtained from industrial xylose production via dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in acid hydrolysis residue of corncob (AHRC) is often less efficient without further pretreatment. In this work, the process characteristics of acid impregnated steam explosion were studied in conjunction with a dilute acid process, and their effects on physiochemical changes and enzymatic saccharification of corncob residue were compared. With the acid impregnated steam explosion process, both higher xylose recovery and higher cellulose conversion were obtained. The maximum conversion of cellulose in acid impregnated steam explosion residue of corncob (ASERC) reached 85.3%, which was 1.6 times higher than that of AHRC. Biomass compositional analysis showed similar cellulose and lignin content in ASERC and AHRC. XRD analysis demonstrated comparable crystallinity of ASERC and AHRC. The improved enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was attributed to higher porosity in ASERC, measured by mercury porosimetry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Process for the recovery of curium-244 from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, J.C.

    1980-10-01

    A process has been designed for the recovery of curium from purex waste. Curium and americium are separated from the lanthanides by a TALSPEAK extraction process using differential extraction. Equations were derived for the estimation of the economically optimum conditions for the extraction using laboratory batch extraction data. The preparation of feed for the extraction involves the removal of nitric acid from the Purex waste by vaporization under reduced pressure, the leaching of soluble nitrates from the resulting cake, and the oxalate precipitation of a pure lanthanide-actinide fraction. Final separation of the curium from americium is done by ion-exchange. The steps of the process, except ion-exchange, were tested on a laboratory scale and workable conditions were determined

  18. Exposure to nature versus relaxation during lunch breaks and recovery from work: development and design of an intervention study to improve workers’ health, well-being, work performance and creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this research project is to understand and to improve workers’ recovery from work stress. Although recovery during lunch breaks is the most common within-workday break, it has received only minor research attention. Therefore, we will study whether lunch breaks including a relaxation session or exposure to nature have more favorable outcomes than usually spent lunch breaks concerning: a) recovery processes, b) health, c) well-being, d) job performance and e) creativity. We approach recovery by combining the theoretical frameworks of work and environmental psychology. Methods/Design We conduct an intervention study in a sample of 268 knowledge-workers who engage in different lunch break activities for 15-minutes per day, two weeks in a row. We randomly assign participants to three experimental conditions: 1) exposure to nature, 2) relaxation and 3) control group (lunch break spent as usual). Online questionnaires before and after the intervention assess long term changes regarding recovery processes and the major outcome variables. Before, during and after the intervention, SMS and paper-pencil questionnaires measure the same constructs four times a day with fewer items. We also measure blood pressure and collect saliva samples to map cortisol excretion across the intervention period. A timed experimental task (i.e., the Alternative Uses Task) is used to examine differences in creativity between the three groups after the intervention period. Discussion By combining the knowledge of work and environmental psychology about recovery and restorative experiences, by merging three recovery perspectives (settings, processes, and outcomes) and by using data triangulation, we produce valid results that broaden our view on mechanisms underlying recovery and enhance our understanding about their links to psychological, behavioural and physiological outcomes, resulting in a more comprehensive picture of work stress recovery in general. Trial

  19. Exposure to nature versus relaxation during lunch breaks and recovery from work: development and design of an intervention study to improve workers' health, well-being, work performance and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Kinnunen, Ulla; Korpela, Kalevi

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this research project is to understand and to improve workers' recovery from work stress. Although recovery during lunch breaks is the most common within-workday break, it has received only minor research attention. Therefore, we will study whether lunch breaks including a relaxation session or exposure to nature have more favorable outcomes than usually spent lunch breaks concerning: a) recovery processes, b) health, c) well-being, d) job performance and e) creativity. We approach recovery by combining the theoretical frameworks of work and environmental psychology. We conduct an intervention study in a sample of 268 knowledge-workers who engage in different lunch break activities for 15-minutes per day, two weeks in a row. We randomly assign participants to three experimental conditions: 1) exposure to nature, 2) relaxation and 3) control group (lunch break spent as usual). Online questionnaires before and after the intervention assess long term changes regarding recovery processes and the major outcome variables. Before, during and after the intervention, SMS and paper-pencil questionnaires measure the same constructs four times a day with fewer items. We also measure blood pressure and collect saliva samples to map cortisol excretion across the intervention period. A timed experimental task (i.e., the Alternative Uses Task) is used to examine differences in creativity between the three groups after the intervention period. By combining the knowledge of work and environmental psychology about recovery and restorative experiences, by merging three recovery perspectives (settings, processes, and outcomes) and by using data triangulation, we produce valid results that broaden our view on mechanisms underlying recovery and enhance our understanding about their links to psychological, behavioural and physiological outcomes, resulting in a more comprehensive picture of work stress recovery in general. ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System

  20. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C

    2015-09-01

    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  2. Improving Recovery and Outcomes Every Day after the ICU (IMPROVE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia; Hammes, Jessica; Khan, Sikandar; Gao, Sujuan; Harrawood, Amanda; Martinez, Stephanie; Moser, Lyndsi; Perkins, Anthony; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Clark, Daniel O; Boustani, Malaz; Khan, Babar

    2018-03-27

    Delirium affects nearly 70% of older adults hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU), and many of those will be left with persistent cognitive impairment or dementia. There are no effective and scalable recovery models to remediate ICU-acquired cognitive impairment and its attendant elevated risk for dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). The Improving Recovery and Outcomes Every Day after the ICU (IMPROVE) trial is an ongoing clinical trial which evaluates the efficacy of a combined physical exercise and cognitive training on cognitive function among ICU survivors 50 years and older who experienced delirium during an ICU stay. This article describes the study protocol for IMPROVE. IMPROVE is a four-arm, randomized controlled trial. Subjects will be randomized to one of four arms: cognitive training and physical exercise; cognitive control and physical exercise; cognitive training and physical exercise control; and cognitive control and physical exercise control. Facilitators administer the physical exercise and exercise control interventions in individual and small group formats by using Internet-enabled videoconference. Cognitive training and control interventions are also facilitator led using Posit Science, Inc. online modules delivered in individual and small group format directly into the participants' homes. Subjects complete cognitive assessment, mood questionnaires, physical performance batteries, and quality of life scales at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Blood samples will also be taken at baseline and 3 months to measure pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase reactants; neurotrophic factors; and markers of glial dysfunction and astrocyte activation. This study is the first clinical trial to examine the efficacy of combined physical and cognitive exercise on cognitive function in older ICU survivors with delirium. The results will provide information about potential synergistic effects of a combined intervention on a range of outcomes and mechanisms

  3. Auditory processing during deep propofol sedation and recovery from unconsciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Koelsch, Stefan; Heinke, Wolfgang; Sammler, Daniela; Olthoff, Derk

    2006-01-01

    Objective Using evoked potentials, this study investigated effects of deep propofol sedation, and effects of recovery from unconsciousness, on the processing of auditory information with stimuli suited to elicit a physical MMN, and a (music-syntactic) ERAN. Methods Levels of sedation were assessed using the Bispectral Index (BIS) and the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation Scale (MOAAS). EEG-measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep propofol sedation (MOAAS 2–3...

  4. Trend towards reverse leach process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The South African gold mining industry is making notable strides in improving recovery methods for both gold and uranium with significant additions to profits because of higher efficiencies and reductions in costs in the recovery processes. The most notable step on the gold side recently is the adoption of the reverse leach process at Buffelsfontein and Western Deep Levels. This process was pioneered at Hartebeesfontein as far back as 1975 and when introduced there resulted in a two and a half per cent improvement in recovery efficiencies. The essence of reverse leaching under which the uranium is recovered before the gold is the fact that the gold partly coated with iron oxide or locked in uranite, is exposed to be recovered later by cyanidation

  5. Acetone facilitated DNA sampling from electrical tapes improves DNA recovery and enables latent fingerprints development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feine, Ilan; Shpitzen, Moshe; Geller, Boris; Salmon, Eran; Peleg, Tsach; Roth, Jonathan; Gafny, Ron

    2017-07-01

    Electrical tapes (ETs) are a common component of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used by terrorists or criminal organizations and represent a valuable forensic resource for DNA and latent fingerprints recovery. However, DNA recovery rates are typically low and usually below the minimal amount required for amplification. In addition, most DNA extraction methods are destructive and do not allow further latent fingerprints development. In the present study a cell culture based touch DNA model was used to demonstrate a two-step acetone-water DNA recovery protocol from ETs. This protocol involves only the adhesive side of the ET and increases DNA recovery rates by up to 70%. In addition, we demonstrated partially successful latent fingerprints development from the non-sticky side of the ETs. Taken together, this protocol maximizes the forensic examination of ETs and is recommended for routine casework processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Taiwanese women's process of recovery from stillbirth: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Fen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to portray the recovery process of Taiwanese women after stillbirth. Data were generated through individual in-depth interviews with 21 women selected using purposeful sampling. Three stages in an emotional journey of recovery were suffering from silent grief, searching for a way out, and achieving peace of mind and mental stability. Throughout their journey, the women's overarching concern was where the deceased child had gone and whether it was well. Together these stages composed A pathway to peace of mind, a mental journey on which women struggled to spiritually connect with the lost baby and finally sought a personal pathway to emotional peace. Findings can inform healthcare providers in providing culturally sensitive care for Taiwanese women to facilitate healing after a stillbirth. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  8. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  9. From recovery to regulation: an attempt to reconceptualize 'recovery from work'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, F R H; Cropley, M; Rydstedt, L W

    2014-08-01

    The concept of 'recovery' (from work) has quickly gained in importance in the occupational health literature. However, we think that the conceptualization of 'recovery' needs some more attention. Although many authors acknowledge that 'recovery' refers to a 'process', the concept is often treated as a static construct. In this paper, we argue that recovery should be conceptualized as a dynamic construct related to changes in psychophysiological state of the person. We refer to two main theories that have provided a theoretical framework for research in this area: Meijman & Mulder's Effort-Recovery (E-R) model and Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory. In particular, the E-R model has been seminal in this area and stresses the element of changing psychophysiological states that has been used for reconceptualising 'recovery'. Various biological rhythms influence these changing psychophysiological states, and thus the level of energy (or effort) a person can mobilize or wants to mobilize. A distinction is made between 'physical fatigue' and 'mental fatigue' and its consequences for recovery. The discrepancy between 'actual state' and 'required state' has been suggested as the basis for 'recovery'. This emphasises that recovery is a dynamic and ongoing process, which also included motivational aspects, in particular as far as mental work is concerned. The capacity to maintain self-regulation of one's psychophysiological state is important in this respect. Thus, we propose that 'recovery' is the continuous process of harmonizing the 'actual state' with the state that is 'required' at that moment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS® and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS®. The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m2. It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year.

  11. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazare; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB......). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3,7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented...... a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy...

  12. Improving Gold Recovery from Artificial Preg-Robbing Ore by Pre-treatment using Blinding Agent and Resin-in-Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zaki Mubarok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effectiveness of the use of blinding agents, ionic exchanger resins and the combination of them in improving gold extraction from simulated preg-robbing ore is discussed. The blinding agents used were kerosene, diesel oil and pine oil, while the ion exchange resins used were Lewatit Monoplus MP 800, Lewatit AF 5 and guanidine. Preg-robbing conditions were simulated by blending fine activated carbon with ore sample. The investigation results show that the presence of artificial carbonaceous materials at 2% (w/w in the gold ore significantly reduces gold recovery. Pretreatment of artificial preg-robbing ore prior to cyanidation by mixing with kerosene, diesel oil and pine oil for 0.5h improved gold recovery up to 25.4%. A combination of pre-treatment using blinding agent and a resin in leach (RIL test using Lewatit MP 800 resin demonstrated a synergistic effect that improves gold recovery up to a level of 99.5%,which is significantly higher than using activated carbon and without pretreatment.

  13. Study on auto-plating process time versus recovery for polonium, Po-210 in environmental sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamed; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Yii Mei Wo; Kamarozaman Ishak; Siti Aminah Yusoff

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate time effectiveness and recovery 16 samples of 4 Kuala Muda stations during auto-plating process procedures for determination Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. The study was performed using Kuala Muda sediment as sample in the same methodology. The auto-plating process runs for 4, 12, 24 and 30 hours on a silver disc for 4 samples each station, and then counted for one (1) day using an alpha spectrometry counting system. The objectives for this study is to justify on time duration for auto-plating process effecting a chemical yield of Po-209.The results showed recovery are increasing versus time and constantly at 24 hour auto-plating. Its mean, 24 hour is an optimum time for auto-plating process for determination of Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. (Author)

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  15. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  16. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  17. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Liebrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  18. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  19. Recovery from a psychiatrist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ronald J

    2006-09-01

    Recovery is not the same as cure. Recovery from mental illness is the process of having more to life than just illness. It is an ongoing process rather than simply a goal that can be achieved. Recovery from the stigma of mental illness may be as difficult as recovery from the illness itself. Several common, but incorrect, beliefs can interfere with the recovery process. Myths include the belief that the illness has an inherently downhill course, that rehabilitation is useful only after stabilization, and that people with schizophrenia can only work at low-level jobs. People who have schizophrenia have reported that their own process of recovery was helped by their determination to get better, an understanding of the illness, taking personal responsibility, having friends who accept them, an optimistic attitude, and spiritual beliefs that help them find meaning in life.

  20. Model-based software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettervall, Brenda T.

    1994-01-01

    The activities of a field test site for the Software Engineering Institute's software process definition project are discussed. Products tested included the improvement model itself, descriptive modeling techniques, the CMM level 2 framework document, and the use of process definition guidelines and templates. The software process improvement model represents a five stage cyclic approach for organizational process improvement. The cycles consist of the initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and leveraging phases.

  1. Process Optimization for Valuable Metal Recovery from Dental Amalgam Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Parra–Mesa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methodology used for optimizing leaching in a semi pilot plant is presented. This leaching process was applied to recover value metals from dental amalgam residues. 23 factorial design was used to characterize the process during the first stage and in the second one, a central compound rotational design was used for modeling copper percentage dissolved, a function of the nitric acid concentration, leaching time and temperature. This model explained the 81% of the response variability, which is considered satisfactory given the complexity of the process kinetics and, furthermore, it allowed the definition of the operation conditions for better copper recovery, which this was of 99.15%, at a temperature of 55°C, a concentration of 30% by weight and a time of 26 hours.

  2. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  3. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng; Ko, Yung-Chang; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area.

  4. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003 (China); Ko, Yung-Chang [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 81233 (China); Lin, Ta-Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area. (author)

  5. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheshu; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    The increase of ship's energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  6. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Zheshu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  7. Final report on impact of catchment scale processes and climate change on cause-effect and recovery-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Spears, B.; Brucet, S.; Johnson, R.; Feld, C.; Kernan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Catchment wide integrated basin management requires knowledge on cause-effect and recovery chains within water bodies as well as on the interactions between water bodies and categories. In the WISER WP6.4 recovery processes in rivers, lakes and estuarine and coastal waters were evaluated. The major

  8. Combining bleach and mild predigestion improves ancient DNA recovery from bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen; Nistelberger, Heidi M.

    2017-01-01

    library characteristics, such as DNA damage profiles or the composition of microbial communities, are little affected by the pre-extraction protocols. Application of the combined protocol presented in this study will facilitate the genetic analysis of an increasing number of ancient remains...... aimed to improve ancient DNA recovery before library amplification have recently been developed. Here, we test the effects of combining two of such protocols, a bleach wash and a predigestion step, on 12 bone samples of Atlantic cod and domestic horse aged 750-1350 cal. years before present. Using high...

  9. Self-assemblage and post-radiation recovery of cell supramolecular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinskij, D.M.; Kolomiets, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the molecular equation and self-assemblage in post-radiation chromatin recovery of meristematic cells of pea rootlets is shown. Found are the two repair types at the chromatin level by fractionating of the radiation dose. The first type comprises transient processes including DNA repair, the second type comprises processes including biosynthesis of the chromatin components and proteins, in the first place. The role of protein biosynthesis in the process of recovery of the chromatin supramolecular structure is shown. The improved radiostability of chromatin self-assemblage is characteristic for the level of its subunits. The supramolecular chromatin structure of the other levels has less radiostability

  10. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  11. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  13. Recovery Process of Li, Al and Si from Lepidolite by Leaching with HF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo D. Rosales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a new process for the recovery of Li, Al and Si along with the proposal of a flow sheet for the precipitation of those metals. The developed process is comprised of lepidolite acid digestion with hydrofluoric acid, and the subsequent precipitation of the metals present in the leach liquor. The leaching operational parameters studied were: reaction time, temperature and HF concentration. The experimental results indicate that the optimal conditions to achieve a Li extraction higher than 90% were: solid-liquid ratio, 1.82% (w/v; temperature, 123 °C; HF concentration, 7% (v/v; stirring speed, 330 rpm; and reaction time, 120 min. Al and Si can be recovered as Na3AlF6 and K2SiF6. LiF was separated from the leach liquor during water evaporation, with recovery values of 92%.

  14. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  15. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Integration with Models of Other Water Recovery Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to form a complete Water Recovery System (WRS) for future missions. Independent chemical process simulations with varying levels of detail have previously been developed using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) to aid in the analysis of the CDS and several WPA components. The existing CDS simulation could not model behavior during thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. The first part of this paper describes modifications to the ACM model of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version of the model can accurately predict behavior during thermal startup for both NaCl solution and pretreated urine feeds. The model is used to predict how changing operating parameters and design features of the CDS affects its performance, and conclusions from these predictions are discussed. The second part of this paper describes the integration of the modified CDS model and the existing WPA component models into a single WRS model. The integrated model is used to demonstrate the effects that changes to one component can have on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.

  16. Initiating statistical process control to improve quality outcomes in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Deborah S; Stulberg, Jonah J; Lawrence, Justin K; Samia, Hoda; Delaney, Conor P

    2015-12-01

    Unexpected variations in postoperative length of stay (LOS) negatively impact resources and patient outcomes. Statistical process control (SPC) measures performance, evaluates productivity, and modifies processes for optimal performance. The goal of this study was to initiate SPC to identify LOS outliers and evaluate its feasibility to improve outcomes in colorectal surgery. Review of a prospective database identified colorectal procedures performed by a single surgeon. Patients were grouped into elective and emergent categories and then stratified by laparoscopic and open approaches. All followed a standardized enhanced recovery protocol. SPC was applied to identify outliers and evaluate causes within each group. A total of 1294 cases were analyzed--83% elective (n = 1074) and 17% emergent (n = 220). Emergent cases were 70.5% open and 29.5% laparoscopic; elective cases were 36.8% open and 63.2% laparoscopic. All groups had a wide range in LOS. LOS outliers ranged from 8.6% (elective laparoscopic) to 10.8% (emergent laparoscopic). Evaluation of outliers demonstrated patient characteristics of higher ASA scores, longer operating times, ICU requirement, and temporary nursing at discharge. Outliers had higher postoperative complication rates in elective open (57.1 vs. 20.0%) and elective lap groups (77.6 vs. 26.1%). Outliers also had higher readmission rates for emergent open (11.4 vs. 5.4%), emergent lap (14.3 vs. 9.2%), and elective lap (32.8 vs. 6.9%). Elective open outliers did not follow trends of longer LOS or higher reoperation rates. SPC is feasible and promising for improving colorectal surgery outcomes. SPC identified patient and process characteristics associated with increased LOS. SPC may allow real-time outlier identification, during quality improvement efforts, and reevaluation of outcomes after introducing process change. SPC has clinical implications for improving patient outcomes and resource utilization.

  17. Pore-scale simulation of wettability and interfacial tension effects on flooding process for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-08-27

    For enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, the oil/water flow characteristics during the flooding process was numerically investigated with the volume-of-fluid method at the pore scale. A two-dimensional pore throat-body connecting structure was established, and four scenarios were simulated in this paper. For oil-saturated pores, the wettability effect on the flooding process was studied; for oil-unsaturated pores, three effects were modelled to investigate the oil/water phase flow behaviors, namely the wettability effect, the interfacial tension (IFT) effect, and the combined wettability/IFT effect. The results show that oil saturated pores with the water-wet state can lead to 25-40% more oil recovery than with the oil-wet state, and the remaining oil mainly stays in the near wall region of the pore bodies for oil-wet saturated pores. For oil-unsaturated pores, the wettability effects on the flooding process can help oil to detach from the pore walls. By decreasing the oil/water interfacial tension and altering the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet state, the remaining oil recovery rate can be enhanced successfully. The wettability-IFT combined effect shows better EOR potential compared with decreasing the interfacial tension alone under the oil-wet condition. The simulation results in this work are consistent with previous experimental and molecular dynamics simulation conclusions. The combination effect of the IFT reducation and wettability alteration can become an important recovery mechanism in future studies for nanoparticles, surfactant, and nanoparticle-surfactant hybrid flooding process.

  18. Energy recovery by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) in SWRO–PRO integrated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2015-11-11

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, it is projected that 25.6-40.7millionkWh/day of energy can be recovered globally, if the brines from SWRO are used as the draw solution and diluted to the seawater level in a PRO system. Detailed integrated SWRO-PRO processes are developed in this study with the option to form a closed-loop SWRO-PRO process that can substantially reduce the pretreatment cost of desalination. The governing mathematical models that describe both the transport phenomena on a module level and the energy flow on a system level are developed to evaluate the performances of the SWRO-PRO processes. The model aims to investigate the performance of the hollow fibers as dilution occurs and provides guidelines on hollow fiber module design and process operation. Determining the dilution factor and the corresponding operating pressure of PRO is the key to optimize the integrated process. The specific energy consumptions of three SWRO-involved processes; namely, (1) SWRO without a pressure exchanger, (2) SWRO with a pressure exchanger, and (3) SWRO with pressure exchangers and PRO are compared. The results show that the specific energy consumptions for the above three processes are 5.51, 1.79 and 1.08kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 25% recovery SWRO plant; and 4.13, 2.27 and 1.14kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 50% recovery SWRO plant, using either freshwater or wastewater as the feed solution in PRO.

  19. Assessment of modularity architecture for recovery process of electric vehicle in supporting sustainable design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroroh, D. K.; Alfiah, D.

    2018-05-01

    The electric vehicle is one of the innovations to reduce the pollution of the vehicle. Nevertheless, it still has a problem, especially for disposal stage. In supporting product design and development strategy, which is the idea of sustainable design or problem solving of disposal stage, assessment of modularity architecture from electric vehicle in recovery process needs to be done. This research used Design Structure Matrix (DSM) approach to deciding interaction of components and assessment of modularity architecture using the calculation of value from 3 variables, namely Module Independence (MI), Module Similarity (MS), and Modularity for End of Life Stage (MEOL). The result of this research shows that existing design of electric vehicles has the architectural design which has a high value of modularity for recovery process on disposal stage. Accordingly, so it can be reused and recycled in component level or module without disassembly process to support the product that is environmentally friendly (sustainable design) and able reduce disassembly cost.

  20. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  1. PROCESS VARIABILITY REDUCTION THROUGH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Mahesh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become one of the most important customer decision factors in the selection among the competing product and services. Consequently, understanding and improving quality is a key factor leading to business success, growth and an enhanced competitive position. Hence quality improvement program should be an integral part of the overall business strategy. According to TQM, the effective way to improve the Quality of the product or service is to improve the process used to build the product. Hence, TQM focuses on process, rather than results as the results are driven by the processes. Many techniques are available for quality improvement. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one such TQM technique which is widely accepted for analyzing quality problems and improving the performance of the production process. This article illustrates the step by step procedure adopted at a soap manufacturing company to improve the Quality by reducing process variability using Statistical Process Control.

  2. Entropy based software processes improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.J.M.; Kusters, R.J.; Kriek, D.; Siemons, P.

    2009-01-01

    Actual results of software process improvement projects show different levels of success. Although many software development organisations have adopted improvement models such as CMMI, it appears to be difficult to improve software development processes in the right way, e.g. tuned to the actual

  3. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorstos, Yannis C.

    2003-03-19

    The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.

  4. The work programme of NERIS in post-accident recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Andronopoulos, S; Camps, J; Duranova, T; Gallego, E; Gering, F; Isnard, O; Maître, M; Murith, C; Oughton, D; Raskob, W

    2018-01-01

    NERIS is the European platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery. Created in 2010 with 57 organisations from 28 different countries, the objectives of the platform are to: improve the effectiveness and coherency of current approaches to preparedness; identify further development needs; improve 'know how' and technical expertise; and establish a forum for dialogue and methodological development. The NERIS Strategic Research Agenda is now structured with three main challenges: (i) radiological impact assessments during all phases of nuclear and radiological events; (ii) countermeasures and countermeasure strategies in emergency and recovery, decision support, and disaster informatics; and (iii) setting up a multi-faceted framework for preparedness for emergency response and recovery. The Fukushima accident has highlighted some key issues for further consideration in NERIS research activities, including: the importance of transparency of decision-making processes at local, regional, and national levels; the key role of access to environmental monitoring; the importance of dealing with uncertainties in assessment and management of the different phases of the accident; the use of modern social media in the exchange of information; the role of stakeholder involvement processes in both emergency and recovery situations; considerations of societal, ethical, and economic aspects; and the reinforcement of education and training for various actors. This paper emphasises the main issues at stake for NERIS for post-accident management.

  5. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-23

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  6. Structuring Disaster Recovery Infrastructure Decisions: Lessons from Boulder County's 2013 Flood Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavin, C.; Petropoulos, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Recovery phase decision making processes, as compared to mitigation and response phase decision making processes, require communities make significant financial and capital decisions in the months after a disaster. Collectively, these investments may significantly contribute to the resilience of a community to future hazards. Pre-disaster administrative decisions are well-established within existing planning processes. Post-event recovery requires community decision makers to quickly evaluate technical proposals and manage significant recovery financial resources to ensure their community rebuilds in a manner that will be more resilient to future events. These technical and administrative hurdles in the aftermath of a disaster create a challenging atmosphere to make sound, scientifically-informed decisions leading to resilient recovery. In September 2013, a 1,000-year rain event that resulted in flooding throughout the Front Range of Colorado, significantly impacting Boulder County. While the event is long past, disaster recovery efforts still continue in parts of Boulder County. Boulder County officials formed a county collaborative that adapted the NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems to facilitate a goals-based multi-criteria decision making process. Rather than use hazard-based information to guide infrastructure design, the county's decision process established time-to-recovery goals for infrastructure systems that were used as criteria for project design. This presentation explores the decision-making process employed by Boulder County to specify design standards for resilient rebuilding of infrastructure systems and examine how this infrastructure planning model could be extrapolated to other situations where there is uncertainty regarding future infrastructure design standards.

  7. An improved CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) used for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Shi, Lingfeng; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiaoya; Huang, Guangdai; Chang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved CTRC system (PR-CTRC) for engine waste heat recovery. • The PR-CTRC achieves a significant increase in thermodynamic performance. • The PR-CTRC possesses a strong coupling capability for high and low grade waste heat. • The PR-CTRC uses smaller turbine design parameters than ORC systems. • Total cooling load analysis of combined engine and recovery system was conducted. - Abstract: CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) is a promising technology for the waste heat recovery of an engine considering its safety and environment friendly characteristics, which also matchs the high temperature of the exhaust gas and satisfies the miniaturization demand of recovery systems. But the traditional CTRC system with a basic configuration (B-CTRC) has a poor thermodynamic performance. This paper introduces an improved CTRC system containing both a preheater and regenerator (PR-CTRC), for recovering waste heat in exhaust gas and engine coolant of an engine, and compares its performance with that of the B-CTRC system and also with that of the traditional excellent Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems using R123 as a working fluid. The utilization rate of waste heat, total cooling load, net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy loss, exergy efficiency and component size have been investigated. Results show that, the net power output of the PR-CTRC could reach up to 9.0 kW for a 43.8 kW engine, which increases by 150% compared with that of the B-CTRC (3.6 kW). The PR-CTRC also improves the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the B-CTRC, with increases of 184% and 227%, respectively. Compared with the ORC system, the PR-CTRC shows the significant advantage of highly recycling the exhaust gas and engine coolant simultaneously due to the special property of supercritical CO_2’s specific heat capacity. The supercritical property of CO_2 also generates a better heat transfer and flowing performances. Meanwhile, the PR

  8. Conformational dynamics of Rouse chains during creep/recovery processes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Inoue, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The Rouse model is a well-established model for non-entangled polymer chains and also serves as a fundamental model for entangled chains. The dynamic behaviour of this model under strain-controlled conditions has been fully analysed in the literature. However, despite the importance of the Rouse model, no analysis has been made so far of the orientational anisotropy of the Rouse eigenmodes during the stress-controlled, creep and recovery processes. For completeness of the analysis of the model, the Rouse equation of motion is solved to calculate this anisotropy for monodisperse chains and their binary blends during the creep/recovery processes. The calculation is simple and straightforward, but the result is intriguing in the sense that each Rouse eigenmode during these processes has a distribution in the retardation times. This behaviour, reflecting the interplay/correlation among the Rouse eigenmodes of different orders (and for different chains in the blends) under the constant stress condition, is quite different from the behaviour under rate-controlled flow (where each eigenmode exhibits retardation/relaxation associated with a single characteristic time). Furthermore, the calculation indicates that the Rouse chains exhibit affine deformation on sudden imposition/removal of the stress and the magnitude of this deformation is inversely proportional to the number of bond vectors per chain. In relation to these results, a difference between the creep and relaxation properties is also discussed for chains obeying multiple relaxation mechanisms (Rouse and reptation mechanisms). (topical review)

  9. The improved heat integration of cement production under limited process conditions: A case study for Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyryev, Stanislav; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Mohorović, Zoran; Vujanović, Milan; Krajačić, Goran; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Given that cement is the most widely used material for housing and modern infrastructure needs, this paper analyses the energy efficiency of the cement manufacturing processes for a particular cement plant. The cement industry is one of the largest consumers of carbon-containing primary energy sources and one of the primary polluters of the environment, emitting approximately 5% of global pollution. Energy consumption represents the largest part of the production cost for cement factories and has a significant influence on product prices. Given that it is realised in modern society that infrastructural projects lead to a higher level of economy and sustainability for countries, reducing the production cost in the cement industry is a very important problem. The authors analysed the energy consumption of a particular cement factory in Croatia to determine the minimum energy targets of production and proposed pathways to improve energy efficiency. The Process Integration approach was used in this study. Nevertheless, the features of the cement factory forced the research to update its methodological steps to propose real pathways for a retrofit project with the aim of achieving the optimal minimum temperature difference between process streams. There are various streams, including those that contain solid particles, gas and air streams, and streams, that should be cooled down rapidly; these facts become more complicated by the special construction of the process equipment, which causes heat transfer between some streams to be impossible. The main objective of this paper is to determine the potential of real energy savings and propose a solution for a new concept of heat exchanger network (HEN) that avoids the process traps and provides a feasible retrofit. The maximum heat recovery of that production of a particular type of cement was determined and improved when a HEN was built. The authors conclude that the energy consumption of the cement factory can be reduced by

  10. Process for gasifying fuels with the recovery of rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, F

    1921-04-10

    A process for gasifying fuels with recovery of water-free, rich-in-tar gases in a ring-gas-producer characterized by hot-gas-stream arising from the gasification bed of a fresh chamber in the known way is divided. One part is conducted through an old chamber, the other part is led first during the drying through the fresh fuel and with the received water-vapor also through the old chamber and then during the carbonization with the carbonization products is led to the carbonization-gas conduit.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

    1976-10-01

    This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

  12. School Improvement Grants: Selected States Generally Awarded Funds Only to Eligible Schools. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Final Audit Report. ED-OIG/A05L0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This final audit report covers the results of the review of five State educational agencies' monitoring plans and awarding processes for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and regular School Improvement Grants funds that the State educational agencies awarded for fiscal year 2009 (for use during school year 2010-2011). The objectives…

  13. Recovery of polyphenols from Pink Guava processing wastes by ultra filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilis Sukeksi; Che Rosmani Che Hassan; Nik Meriam Sulaiman; Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Processing of fruits are results in high amounts of waste material that is prone to microbial spoilage and usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Polyphenols are a wide variety of compounds that occur in pink guava fruit or others fruits and vegetables. Recovery from pink guava wastes seems to be promising in the case of polyphenols, which are of considerable interest due to their healthy and anti oxidative properties. In this work the performance of commercial tubular PVDF membrane FP 200 with nominal MWCO 200,000, was studied during pretreatment for recovery polyphenols from pink guava processing wastes. The experiments have been carried out at trans-membrane pressure of 0.5 until 2.5 Bar, and all permeate flux significantly decreased with time until a steady-state was established. The steady-state permeates flux reached a maximum at a trans-membrane pressure of about 1 bar. The first results obtained confirm the flux decline at 20 minutes was 35 % of the total flux. Meanwhile concentration of polyphenols at first step reached a steady state after 900 ml of permeate volume (47 %) and the concentration of polyphenols when the permeate volume at VCR = 4 or 3000 ml is 54 %. (author)

  14. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, Boris; Julklang, Wittaya

    2014-01-01

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  15. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  16. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210Po in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2012-01-01

    An improved laboratory technique for measurement of polonium-210( 210 Po) in environmental samples has been developed in Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. To further improve this technique, a study with the objectives to determine the optimum conditions for 210 Po deposition and; evaluate the accuracy and precision results for the determination of 210 Po in environmental samples was carried-out. Polonium-210 which is an alpha emitter obtained in acidic solution through total digestion and dissolution of samples has been efficiently plated onto one side of the silver disc in the spontaneous plating process for measurement of its alpha activity. The optimum conditions for deposition of 210 Po were achieved using hydrochloric acid (HCl) media at acidity of 0.5 M with the presence of 1.0 gram hydroxyl ammonium chloride and the plating temperature at 90 degree Celsius. The plating was carried out in 80 ml HCl solution (0.5 M) for 4 hours. The recorded recoveries obtained using 209 Po tracers in the CRM IAEA-385 and environmental samples were 85 % - 98% whereby the efficiency of the new technique is a distinct advantage over the existing techniques. Therefore, optimization of deposition parameters is a prime importance to achieve accuracy and precision results as well as economy and time saving. (author)

  17. Recovery of copper and lead from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water oxidation combined with electrokinetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Furong; Zhang Fushen

    2009-01-01

    An effective and benign process for copper and lead recovery from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was developed. In the process, the PCBs was pre-treated in supercritical water, then subjected to electrokinetic (EK) process. Experimental results showed that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was strong enough to decompose the organic compounds of PCBs, and XRD spectra indicated that copper and lead were oxidized into CuO, Cu 2 O and β-PbO 2 in the process. The optimum SCWO treatment conditions were 60 min, 713 K, 30 MPa, and EK treatment time, constant current density were 11 h, 20 mA cm -2 , respectively. The recovery percentages of copper and lead under optimum SCWO + EK treatment conditions were around 84.2% and 89.4%, respectively. In the optimized EK treatment, 74% of Cu was recovered as a deposit on the cathode with a purity of 97.6%, while Pb was recovered as concentrated solutions in either anode (23.1%) or cathode (66.3%) compartments but little was deposited on the electrodes. It is believed that the process is effective and practical for Cu and Pb recovery from waste electric and electronic equipments.

  18. Developments in gold and silver recovery through flotation in processing of gold ore slags; Avances en la recuperacion de oro y plata mediante flotacion en escorias de procesamiento de menas de oro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, N.; Diaz, A.; Bazan, V.; Sarquis, P.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to recover and improve the extraction of gold and silver present in smelting slags through various mineralogical processes applicable in gold ores. The slag was concentrated in a Knelson type centrifuge, two concentrates (C1 and C2 and a tailing T1) being obtained. In order to improve the recovery, three series of rougher flotation tests were conducted on the tailing T1. The variables analyzed were: particle size, type of collectors (xanthates, di-monothiophosphate) and flotation time. It was deduced that by applying gravity concentration, the recovery of Au and Ag (Knelson centrifuge) is 42.0% and 13.7%, respectively. Au recovery is improved by 87.7% through the flotation of the centrifuge separation tailings, whereas that for Ag is 47.4%. The optimum conditions were: particle size 200 mesh, collectors: PAX (15.8 g/t), F-C5439 (18.75 g/t), MIBC frother (12.5g/t) and 8.5 minutes of flotation time. (Author)

  19. Process improvement : the creation and evaluation of process alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    Companies continuously strive to improve their processes to increase productivity and delivered quality against lower costs. With Business Process Redesign (BPR) projects such improvement goals can be achieved. BPR involves the restructuring of business processes, stimulated by the application of

  20. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Ellen; de Jonge, Jan; Hamers, Jan P H

    2010-05-28

    Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial) is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1) how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2) what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  1. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Jan PH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. Methods/design The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1 how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2 what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  2. Why Process Improvement Training Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dawei; Betts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying reasons why providing process improvement training, by itself, may not be sufficient to achieve the desired outcome of improved processes; and to attempt a conceptual framework of management training for more effective improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Two similar units within…

  3. Optimizing the Prioritization of Natural Disaster Recovery Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aftanas, Jason M

    2007-01-01

    .... This work will focus on promoting objectivity in the project prioritizing process, improving the communication of the overall base recovery requirement, increasing efficiency in utilizing human and monetary resources, and the creation of a usable and repeatable decision-making tool based on Value-Focused Thinking and integer programming methods.

  4. RT-CaCCO process: an improved CaCCO process for rice straw by its incorporation with a step of lime pretreatment at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Riki; Park, Jeung-yil; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Ike, Masakazu; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2011-02-01

    We improved the CaCCO process for rice straw by its incorporation with a step of lime pretreatment at room temperature (RT). We firstly optimized the RT-lime pretreatment for the lignocellulosic part. When the ratio of lime/dry-biomass was 0.2 (w/w), the RT lime-pretreatment for 7-d resulted in an effect on the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and xylan equivalent to that of the pretreatment at 120°C for 1h. Sucrose, starch and β-1,3-1,4-glucan, which could be often detected in rice straw, were mostly stable under the RT-lime pretreatment condition. Then, the pretreatment condition in the conventional CaCCO process was modified by the adaptation of the optimized RT lime-pretreatment, resulting in significantly better carbohydrate recoveries via enzymatic saccharification than those of the CaCCO process (120°C for 1 h). Thus, the improved CaCCO process (the RT-CaCCO process) could preserve/pretreat the feedstock at RT in a wet form with minimum loss of carbohydrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Farzaneh [Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-30

    MBI, a 501c(3) company focusing on de-risking and scaling up bio-based technologies, has teamed with Michigan State University and the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate process improvements to the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment process. The logistical hurdles of biomass handling are well known, and the regional depot concept - in which small, distributed bioprocessing operations collect, preprocess, and densify biomass before shipping to a centralized refinery - is a promising alternative to centralized collection. AFEXTM (AFEX is a trademark of MBI) has unique features among pretreatments that would make it desirable as a pretreatment prior to densification at the depot scale. MBI has developed a novel design, using a packed bed reactor for the AFEX process that can be scaled down economically to the depot scale at a lower capital cost as compared to the traditional design (Pandia type reactor). Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and improve this novel design The key challenges are the recovery of ammonia, consistent and complete pretreatment performance, and the overall throughput of the reactor. In this project an engineering scale packed bed AFEX system with 1-ton per day capacity was installed at MBI’s building. The system has been operational since mid-2013. During that time, MBI has demonstrated the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the process. To date, nearly 500 runs have been performed in the reactors. There have been no incidences of plugging (i.e., inability to remove ammonia from biomass after the treatment), nor has there been any instance of a major ammonia release into the atmosphere. Likewise, the sugar released via enzyme hydrolysis has remained consistent throughout these runs. Our economic model shows a 46% reduction in AFEX capital cost at the 100 ton/day scale compared to the traditional design of AFEX (Pandia type reactor). The key performance factors were

  6. A Unique Application of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Used to Facilitate Patient Engagement in the Amputation Recovery Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Jessica; White, Alicia; Stinner, Daniel J; Fergason, John R

    2017-08-01

    Amputation rates during recent military conflicts were at an all-time high, but medical treatment of those amputations and attitudes of service members to get back to duty are also surging ahead. We present the cases of an active duty rescue C130 pilot with an above-the-knee amputation and a retired army sergeant with a below-the-knee amputation. Successful rehabilitation was augmented in both cases by using negative pressure incorporated in a custom prosthetic socket to accelerate incision closure, improve self-efficacy in wound care, and self-management, ultimately leading to faster recovery times, full engagement of the rehabilitation process, and return to active duty.

  7. Improving flow in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin-Delisle, Charles Hubert; Drolet, Renee; Gagnon, Serge; Turcotte, Stephane; Boutet, Sylvie; Coulombe, Martin; Daneau, Eric

    2018-03-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to increase efficiency in ORs without affecting quality of care by improving the workflow processes. Administrative processes independent of the surgical act can be challenging and may lead to clinical impacts such as increasing delays. The authors hypothesized that a Lean project could improve efficiency of surgical processes by reducing the length of stays in the recovery ward. Design/methodology/approach Two similar Lean projects were performed in the surgery departments of two hospitals of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec: Hôtel Dieu de Quebec (HDQ) and Hôpital de l'Enfant Jesus (HEJ). The HDQ project designed around a Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control process revision and a Kaizen workshop focused on patients who were hospitalized in a specific care unit after surgery and the HEJ project targeted patients in a post-operative ambulatory context. The recovery ward output delay was measured retrospectively before and after project. Findings For the HDQ Lean project, wasted time in the recovery ward was reduced by 62 minutes (68 percent reduction) between the two groups. The authors also observed an increase of about 25 percent of all admissions made in the daytime after the project compared to the time period before the project. For the HEJ Lean project, time passed in the recovery ward was reduced by 6 min (29 percent reduction). Originality/value These projects produced an improvement in the flow of the OR without targeting clinical practices in the OR itself. They demonstrated that change in administrative processes can have a great impact on the flow of clinical pathways and highlight the need for comprehensive and precise monitoring of every step of the elective surgery patient trajectory.

  8. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  9. Visualization of the functional recovery process of brain and spinal cord after injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of spontaneous functional recovery of central nervous system (CNS) after injury like trauma and stroke is important to develop and conduct the better rehabilitation training to promote the recuperation. Authors have developed a macaque monkey model with an artificial injury of cervical corticospinal tract (CST), where its elaborative motor activity of fingers spontaneously recovers. This paper describes the selective CST injury procedure, its recovery process in finger movement and in CNS images by positron emission tomography (PET), and validation of the obtained images by nerve block. For the injury, CST is cut selectively at monkey's C4/C5 boundary to block the hand motion nerve and to preserve the 2-synapse pathway through the propriospinal neuron, which results in acute loss of grasping a piece of potato food. At 1-3 months after the treatment, the elaborative motor activity of fingers completely recovers. During this recovery period, PET is conducted to trace the brain blood flow change at the upper center of the motion in realizing/grasping food, where the dorsal pathway and cerebellar nuclei are activated at the motion in the untreated animal. At 1-2 months after operation, the blood flow is found increased in the two areas above and the increased area, widened relative to those before operation. At 3 months (at complete functional recovery), the activity in the ipsilateral primary motor area returns to normal level and in the contralateral area, is spread accompanying the increase in the bilateral dorsal premotor and secondary somatosensory areas. Imaging results are validated by nerve block with micro-injection of muscimol into the activated areas during the task motor. Findings are helpful for developing a method to promote the compensation of nervous function after injury. (K.T.)

  10. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.B.; Lewis, W.W.; Edmiston, A.; Klauser, G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO 2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  11. Improving Service Utilization for Parents with Substance Abuse Problems: Experimenting with Recovery Coaches in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Substance abusers often face substantial systematic and personal barriers to receiving required substance abuse treatment services as well as other services; hence, various linkage mechanisms have been proposed for drug abuse treatment programs to overcome such barriers. Although there is a growing interest in the use of case management with a substance abuse background, its effectiveness in child welfare has yet to be explored. In this study the author attempts to investigate the effectiveness of case management in service utilization by systematically evaluating the five-year Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration project with Recovery Coaches in Illinois. A classic experimental design with a control group was used. Random assignment occurs at the agency level. Parents in the experimental group (N = 1562) received recovery coaches in addition to traditional child welfare services while parents in the control group (N = 598) only received traditional child welfare services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Ordinary Last Square regressions) were used. Compared to parents in the control group, parents in the experimental group were more likely to utilize substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that gender, education level, employment status, and the number of service needs were significantly associated with service utilization. Controlling other factors, recovery coaches improved overall service utilization. Because the outcome of child welfare often depends on the improvement of risks or resolution, it is important for parents to utilize the needed services. Future studies need to address what aspects of recovery coaches facilitate the services utilization.

  12. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  13. SEL's Software Process-Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin; McGarry, Frank; Page, Jerry; Waligora, Sharon; Pajerski, Rose

    1995-01-01

    The goals and operations of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is reviewed. For nearly 20 years the SEL has worked to understand, assess, and improve software and the development process within the production environment of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SEL was established in 1976 with the goals of reducing: (1) the defect rate of delivered software, (2) the cost of software to support flight projects, and (3) the average time to produce mission-support software. After studying over 125 projects of FDD, the results have guided the standards, management practices, technologies, and the training within the division. The results of the studies have been a 75 percent reduction in defects, a 50 percent reduction in cost, and a 25 percent reduction in development time. Over time the goals of SEL have been clarified. The goals are now stated as: (1) Understand baseline processes and product characteristics, (2) Assess improvements that have been incorporated into the development projects, (3) Package and infuse improvements into the standard SEL process. The SEL improvement goal is to demonstrate continual improvement of the software process by carrying out analysis, measurement and feedback to projects with in the FDD environment. The SEL supports the understanding of the process by study of several processes including, the effort distribution, and error detection rates. The SEL assesses and refines the processes. Once the assessment and refinement of a process is completed, the SEL packages the process by capturing the process in standards, tools and training.

  14. Evaluation of a Residential Mental Health Recovery Service in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyeres, Marion; Kinchin, Irina; Whatley, Elise; Brophy, Lisa; Jago, Jon; Wintzloff, Thomas; Morton, Steve; Mosby, Vinitta; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Tsey, Komla

    2018-01-01

    Evidence shows that subacute mental health recovery occurs best when a person remains active within the community and fulfils meaningful and satisfying roles of their choosing. Several residential care services that incorporate these values have been established in Australia and overseas. This study describes (a) the development of an evaluation framework for a new subacute residential mental health recovery service in regional Australia and (b) reports on the formative evaluation outcomes. Continuous quality improvement and participatory research approaches informed all stages of the development of the evaluation framework. A program logic was established and subsequently tested for practicability. The resultant logic utilizes the Scottish Recovery Indicator 2 (SRI 2) service development tool, Individual Recovery Plans (IRPs), and the impact assessment of the service on psychiatric inpatient admissions (reported separately). Service strengths included a recovery-focused practice that identifies and addresses the basic needs of residents (consumers). The consumers of the service were encouraged to develop their own goals and self-manage their recovery plans. The staff of the service were identified as working effectively in the context of the recovery process; the staff were seen as supported and valued. Areas for improvement included more opportunities for self-management for residents and more feedback from residents and carers.

  15. Evaluation of a Residential Mental Health Recovery Service in North Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Heyeres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence shows that subacute mental health recovery occurs best when a person remains active within the community and fulfils meaningful and satisfying roles of their choosing. Several residential care services that incorporate these values have been established in Australia and overseas.AimsThis study describes (a the development of an evaluation framework for a new subacute residential mental health recovery service in regional Australia and (b reports on the formative evaluation outcomes.MethodsContinuous quality improvement and participatory research approaches informed all stages of the development of the evaluation framework. A program logic was established and subsequently tested for practicability. The resultant logic utilizes the Scottish Recovery Indicator 2 (SRI 2 service development tool, Individual Recovery Plans (IRPs, and the impact assessment of the service on psychiatric inpatient admissions (reported separately.ResultsService strengths included a recovery-focused practice that identifies and addresses the basic needs of residents (consumers. The consumers of the service were encouraged to develop their own goals and self-manage their recovery plans. The staff of the service were identified as working effectively in the context of the recovery process; the staff were seen as supported and valued. Areas for improvement included more opportunities for self-management for residents and more feedback from residents and carers.

  16. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  17. The trees and the forest: mixed methods in the assessment of recovery based interventions' processes and outcomes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Yanos, Philip T; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-12-01

    Recent developments in mental health have emphasized recovery as an outcome for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Accordingly, several studies have attempted to evaluate the process and outcome of recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions. To review and discuss quantitative and qualitative findings from previous efforts to study the impact of five recovery-oriented interventions: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR), Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy (NECT), Supported Employment (SE), Supported Socialization (SS), and Family Psychoeducation. Reviewing the literature on studies that examine the effectiveness of these interventions by using both quantitative and qualitative approach. Qualitative findings in these studies augment quantitative findings and at times draw attention to unexpected findings and uniquely illuminate the effects of these interventions on self-reflective processes. There is a need for further exploration of how mixed-methods can be implemented to explore recovery-oriented outcomes. Critical questions regarding the implications of qualitative findings are posed.

  18. Sleeving-back of horizontal wells to control downstream oil saturation and improve oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, M.; Saghr, A. M. [Bath Univ (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Air injection has become popular as an enhanced recovery technology, applicable over a wide variety of reservoir conditions including heavy, medium and light oils. One problem observed in light oil reservoirs is the tendency to desaturate the oil layer downstream of the moving front. This is particularly common in the case of thermal recovery processes. In this experiment designed to study ways to restrict the de-saturation of the oil layer, a modified horizontal producer well, incorporating a `sleeve-back` principal was used. The objective was to replicate the `toe-to-heel` displacement process occurring during heavy oil recovery, wherein downstream oil is essentially immobile due to its high viscosity. The `sleeve-back` of the well was achieved using a co-aligned, two-well assembly, so that the upstream section of the horizontal producer well was active, and continuously adjusted during propagation of the combustion front. The use of this continuous `sleeve-back` operation to control the level of de-saturation in the downstream section of a sand pack was successful as confirmed by the very high oil recovery achieved, equivalent to 93.5 per cent of oil in place. The level of CO{sub 2} production was also very high. The `sleeve-back` of the horizontal producer well made the light oil in-situ combustion more efficient compared to what would be expected in a fully-open well. The `sleeve-back` of the well also produced thermal contours in the sand pack that closely resembled those observed with heavy, highly viscous oil. By sealing-off the otherwise open well in the downstream part of the reservoir, the de-saturation of the oil layer was prevented. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Chinmayee [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun Seon [Sungshin University, Dept. of Interdisciplinary ECO Science, Seoul, 142-732 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Soo [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m{sup 3} of copper and 1.35 kg/m{sup 3} of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching

  20. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m 3 of copper and 1.35 kg/m 3 of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching wastewater

  1. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagata, Stephanie A; Yen, Melodie; McCarron, Angelica; Bautista, Alexa; Lamair-Orosco, Genevieve; Wilson, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Speech samples were acquired daily between 2 and 16 days post stroke, and also at 1 month and 3 months. Speech samples were transcribed and coded using the CHAT system, in order to quantify multiple language domains. A brief aphasia battery was also administered at a subset of five time points during the 3 months. Both patients showed substantial recovery of language function over this time period. Most, but not all, language domains showed improvements, including fluency, lexical access, phonological retrieval and encoding, and syntactic complexity. The time course of recovery was logarithmic, with the greatest gains taking place early in the course of recovery. There is considerable potential for amelioration of language deficits when damage is relatively circumscribed to the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples proved to be an effective, albeit time-consuming, approach to tracking day-by-day recovery in the acute/subacute post-stroke period.

  2. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H. [Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  3. Allogeneic transplantation of programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) improves angiogenesis and tissue recovery in critical limb ischemia (CLI): a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Rouven; Hummitzsch, Lars; Heß, Katharina; Albrecht, Martin; Zitta, Karina; Rusch, Rene; Sarras, Beke; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Jochen; Faendrich, Fred; Groß, Justus

    2018-04-27

    Employing growth factor-induced partial reprogramming in vitro, peripheral human blood monocytes can acquire a state of plasticity along with expression of various markers of pluripotency. These so-called programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) hold great promise in regenerative therapies. The aim of this translational study was to explore and exploit the functional properties of PCMO for allogeneic cell transplantation therapy in critical limb ischemia (CLI). Using our previously described differentiation protocol, murine and human monocytes were differentiated into PCMO. We examined paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins under hypoxia and induction of angiogenesis by PCMO in vitro. Allogeneic cell transplantation of PCMO was performed in a hind limb ischemia mouse model in comparison to cell transplantation of native monocytes and a placebo group. Moreover, we analyzed retrospectively four healing attempts with PCMO in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD; Rutherford classification, stage 5 and 6). Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test or the Student's t test, p < 0.05. Cell culture experiments revealed good resilience of PCMO under hypoxia, enhanced paracrine release of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins and induction of angiogenesis in vitro by PCMO. Animal experiments demonstrated significantly enhanced SO 2 saturation, blood flow, neoangiogenesis and tissue recovery after treatment with PCMO compared to treatment with native monocytes and placebo. Finally, first therapeutic application of PCMO in humans demonstrated increased vascular collaterals and improved wound healing in patients with chronic CLI without exaggerated immune response, malignant processes or extended infection after 12 months. In all patients minor and/or major amputations of the lower extremity could be avoided. In summary, PCMO improve angiogenesis and tissue recovery in chronic

  4. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in recovery from acute exercise coincides with reduced malonyl-CoA (MCoA) content in human muscle. Furthermore, we investigated whether a high-fat diet [65 energy-% (Fat)] would alter the content of MCoA and insulin action...... to be compromised, although to a minor extent, by the Fat diet. Collectively, this study indicates that reduced muscle MCoA content in recovery from exercise may be part of the adaptive response leading to improved insulin action on glucose uptake after exercise in human muscle....

  5. Optimization of induced crystallization reaction in a novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Haiming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus removal and recovery from domestic wastewater is urgent nowadays. A novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic sewage was proposed and optimization of induced crystallization reaction was performed in this study. The results showed that 92.3% of phosphorus recovery via induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was achieved at the optimum process parameters: reaction time of 80 min, seed crystal loads of 60 g/L, pH of 8.5, Ca/P mole ratio of 2.0 and 4.0 L/min aeration rate when the PO43--P concentration was 10 mg/L in the influent, displaying an excellent phosphorus recovery performance. Importantly, it was found that the effect of reaction temperature on induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was slight, thus favoring practical application of phosphorus recovery method described in this study. From these results, the proposed method of induced HAP crystallization to recover phosphorus combined with nutrients removal can be an economical and effective technology, probably favoring the water pollution control and phosphate rock recycle.

  6. Satellite-Based Evaluation of the Post-Fire Recovery Process from the Worst Forest Fire Case in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyun Ryu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The worst forest fire in South Korea occurred in April 2000 on the eastern coast. Forest recovery works were conducted until 2005, and the forest has been monitored since the fire. Remote sensing techniques have been used to detect the burned areas and to evaluate the recovery-time point of the post-fire processes during the past 18 years. We used three indices, Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Gross Primary Production (GPP, to temporally monitor a burned area in terms of its moisture condition, vegetation biomass, and photosynthetic activity, respectively. The change of those three indices by forest recovery processes was relatively analyzed using an unburned reference area. The selected unburned area had similar characteristics to the burned area prior to the forest fire. The temporal patterns of NBR and NDVI, not only showed the forest recovery process as a result of forest management, but also statistically distinguished the recovery periods at the regions of low, moderate, and high fire severity. The NBR2.1 for all areas, calculated using 2.1 μm wavelengths, reached the unburned state in 2008. The NDVI for areas with low and moderate fire severity levels became significantly equal to the unburned state in 2009 (p > 0.05, but areas with high severity levels did not reach the unburned state until 2017. This indicated that the surface and vegetation moisture conditions recovered to the unburned state about 8 years after the fire event, while vegetation biomass and health required a longer time to recover, particularly for high severity regions. In the case of GPP, it rapidly recovered after about 3 years. Then, the steady increase in GPP surpassed the GPP of the reference area in 2015 because of the rapid growth and high photosynthetic activity of young forests. Therefore, the concluding scientific message is that, because the recovery-time point for each component of the forest ecosystem is

  7. An improved, computer-based, on-line gamma monitor for plutonium anion exchange process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, N.G.; Marsh, S.F.

    1987-06-01

    An improved, low-cost, computer-based system has replaced a previously developed on-line gamma monitor. Both instruments continuously profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in the nitrate anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The latest system incorporates a personal computer that provides full-feature multichannel analyzer (MCA) capabilities by means of a single-slot, plug-in integrated circuit board. In addition to controlling all MCA functions, the computer program continuously corrects for gain shift and performs all other data processing functions. This Plutonium Recovery Operations Gamma Ray Energy Spectrometer System (PROGRESS) provides on-line process operational data essential for efficient operation. By identifying abnormal conditions in real time, it allows operators to take corrective actions promptly. The decision-making capability of the computer will be of increasing value as we implement automated process-control functions in the future. 4 refs., 6 figs

  8. Process improvement of reconversion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Chang, I. S.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Woo, M. S.; Hong, S. B.; Choi, J. H.; Chung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, Y. K.; Choi, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The project is for the development of recovery and reusing process of ammonium carbonate(AC) which is generated as a waste liquid from the reconversion facilities to reduce the manufacturing cost and the quantity of the waste liquid, and also for the development of the continuous fludized bed reaction process to promote the economics and safeties of the calcination and reduction process. In this second year report, measured the properties of AC solution and analyzed the AC concentration quantitatively. Examined the properties of AUC to investigate the properties of UO 2 powder which was converted from AUC, prepared with AC solution. Designed and installed the 2 tons-U/year pilot plant. Experimented in powder properties to set up the range of operating conditions. Modeled CFB reactor to estimate the conversion of reactor and to analyze the change of fluorine concentration to carry out the defluorination reaction. Experimented out the optimum conditions of the major operating parameters : solid circulation rate, gas velocity, solid holdup and initial inventory in cold bed to get the referential design data for hot bed. (Author)

  9. Potential for uranium recovery at Nolans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, K.; Ho, E.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in Nolans is higher than is typical of phosphate rock deposits worldwide. This requires appropriate management of the radioactivity during ore processing, but also provides an opportunity for recovery of uranium as a by-product. The recovery must be integrated into the rare earth process, which is the primary focus of the project. Furthermore, the separation of rare earths from the phosphate matrix and the recovery of phosphoric acid or other fertiliser products is also an important consideration. This paper discusses the various process options that are being considered for the development of a process for Nolans that integrates the recovery of phosphate values and uranium as by-products or rare earth processing

  10. An Exogenous Surfactant-Producing Bacillus subtilis Facilitates Indigenous Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous B. subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous B. subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The B. subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous B. subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  11. Levels-of-processing effects on recollection and familiarity during transient global amnesia and after recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of recollection and familiarity deficits and the modulation of recognition memory performance by the depth of encoding (deep vs. shallow) in transient global amnesia (TGA). Ten patients with TGA and 11 control subjects were assessed during the acute stage and after recovery 7 to 19 days later. Both recollection and familiarity were impaired in the acute stage and showed significant, albeit not complete, recovery by the time of the postacute assessment. The patients did, however, show a significant levels-of-processing effect, which was significantly reduced in acute TGA, but not at follow-up. The significant levels-of-processing effect during acute TGA might be linked to recruitment of the prefrontal cortex. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Microarray-based analysis of the lung recovery process after stainless-steel welding fume exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung-Hwa; Yang, Mi-jin; Yang, Young-Su; Park, Han-Jin; Heo, Sun Hee; Lee, Eun-Hee; Song, Chang-Woo; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2009-02-01

    Repeated exposure to welding fumes promotes a reversible increase in pulmonary disease risk, but the molecular mechanisms by which welding fumes induce lung injury and how the lung recovers from such insults are unclear. In the present study, pulmonary function and gene-expression profiles in the lung were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip microarray after 30 days of consecutive exposure to manual metal arc welding combined with stainless-steel (MMA-SS) welding fumes, and again after 30 days of recovery from MMA-SS fume exposure. In total, 577 genes were identified as being either up-regulated or down-regulated (over twofold changes, p process of the lung were up-regulated exclusively in the recovery group. Collectively, these data may help elucidate the molecular mechanism of the recovery process of the lung after welding fume exposure.

  13. Genetic control over the processes of postirradiation recovery of a compact chromosome in micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashova, N.Yu.; Groshev, V.V.; Shestakov, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    X-irradiation of Micrococcus radiodurans cells with sublethal doses caused disturbances in the structure of a membrane-bound compact chromosome. Recovery of the compact chromosome occurred during the postirradiation incubation of the wild type cells and cells of the UVS-17 mutant deficient in DNA-polymerase. This process was blocked in cells of rec-30 mutant with the impaired system of genetic recombination: this is indicative of an important role played by rec-30 gene product in the postirradiation recovery of the compact chromosome in M. radiodurans cells

  14. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  15. Process Improvement to Enhance Quality in a Large Volume Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ashley M; Bohannon, Jessica; Porthouse, Lisa; Thompson, Heather; Vago, Tony

    The goal of the perinatal team at Mercy Hospital St. Louis is to provide a quality patient experience during labor and birth. After the move to a new labor and birth unit in 2013, the team recognized many of the routines and practices needed to be modified based on different demands. The Lean process was used to plan and implement required changes. This technique was chosen because it is based on feedback from clinicians, teamwork, strategizing, and immediate evaluation and implementation of common sense solutions. Through rapid improvement events, presence of leaders in the work environment, and daily huddles, team member engagement and communication were enhanced. The process allowed for team members to offer ideas, test these ideas, and evaluate results, all within a rapid time frame. For 9 months, frontline clinicians met monthly for a weeklong rapid improvement event to create better experiences for childbearing women and those who provide their care, using Lean concepts. At the end of each week, an implementation plan and metrics were developed to help ensure sustainment. The issues that were the focus of these process improvements included on-time initiation of scheduled cases such as induction of labor and cesarean birth, timely and efficient assessment and triage disposition, postanesthesia care and immediate newborn care completed within approximately 2 hours, transfer from the labor unit to the mother baby unit, and emergency transfers to the main operating room and intensive care unit. On-time case initiation for labor induction and cesarean birth improved, length of stay in obstetric triage decreased, postanesthesia recovery care was reorganized to be completed within the expected 2-hour standard time frame, and emergency transfers to the main hospital operating room and intensive care units were standardized and enhanced for efficiency and safety. Participants were pleased with the process improvements and quality outcomes. Working together as a team

  16. Walking but not barking improves verb recovery: implications for action observation treatment in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing. Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery.

  17. Process of recovery and reuse of the washing liquids from filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.C.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a backflush procedure intended for a repeated recovery and reuse of the liquid used for washing a 'pre-layer' filter. This type of filter is used for purifying the water of the steam generator circuit in electric energy generating plants equipped with steam turbines. Said 'pre-layer' filter can also be applied in the auxiliary facilities of electric energy generating plants, especially for treating the fuel ponds in nuclear reactors and for radioactive waste processing [fr

  18. STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-09-30

    This sixth and final progress report for DOE Award Number DE-FC26-01BC15317 describes research during the period March 01, 2004 through August 31, 2004 performed at the University of Southern Mississippi on ''Stimuli Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery'' processes. Significantly, terpolymers that are responsive to changes in pH and ionic strength have been synthesized, characterized, and their solution properties have been extensively examined. Terpolymers composed of acrylamide, a carboxylated acrylamido monomer (AMBA), and a quaternary ammonium monomer (AMBATAC) with balanced compositions of the latter two, exhibit increases in aqueous solution viscosity as NaCl concentration is increased. This increase in polymer coil size can be expected upon injection of this type of polymer into oil reservoirs of moderate-to-high salinity, leading to better mobility control. The opposite effect (loss of viscosity) is observed for conventional polymer systems. Additionally polymer mobility characteristics have been conducted for a number of hydrophilic copolymers utilizing an extensional flow apparatus and size exclusion chromatography. This study reveled that oil recovery enhancement through use of polymers in a water flood is due to the polymer's resistance to deformation as it flows through the reservoir. Individual polymers when in aqueous solution form coils. The larger the polymer's coil size, the greater the polymer's resistance to extensional flow and the more effective the polymer is in enhancing oil recovery. Large coil sizes are obtained by increasing the polymer molecular weight and having macromolecular structures that favor greater swelling of the coil by the aqueous solvent conditions (temperature, pH and electrolyte concentration) existing in the reservoir.

  19. International Best Practice Basis for Assessing Recovery Operations. Annex II of Technical Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to identify lessons learned related to post-accident recovery that may further improve preparedness worldwide. This objective assessment of the recovery programme is made according to international best practice. In the practice and assessment of radiation and nuclear safety, international best practice is a process or technique that is likely to consistently produce superior results. An important principle is that a ‘best’ practice can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered and lessons are learned from past experience. The lessons to be learned from the recovery programme as it unfolds in Japan will feed back into improving international best practice in post-accident recovery worldwide. Best practice is used to maintain quality and is a component of quality management systems and standards, such as ISO 9000. It is generally regarded as being the most efficient and effective way to accomplish desired outcomes. The body of best practice is used as a benchmark and for self assessment

  20. RATIONAL RECOVERY MODEL OF DEPOT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT AT THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of the maximum resources recovery of rolling stock repair depot of industrial enterprise with limited resources consumption, which are used in the system is today’s topical question.The main factors that affect the repair depot operation of industrial enterprise are reviewed. The most significant factors, affecting the quality of the repair depot, are emphasized for further study, specifically - the state of the major repair equipment of a sector. There is a need to minimize the impact of the unsatisfactory state of this factor. Methodology. The formed task of major equipment rational repairing in the mathematical sense is based on the solution of a vector optimization problem. In this case the target functions are the monetary funds spending and time expenditure for repairing. Findings. The mathematical model of optimal equipment maintainability of the repair department at the industrial enterprise was developed by the authors. On the example the choice model of optimal path for equipment repairing of enterprise repair department is described. Originality. As a result of the conducted research the repairing system of major equipment of industrial enterprise sectors was improved. As the mathematical model of rational system recovery of industrial enterprise repair depot we recommend apparatus of class problems of vector optimization. Practical value. Using the proposed model of major equipment repair system of the repair depot at the industrial enterprise will improve the quality of the department by increasing the efficiency of primary resources - time and monetary funds - which are spent by the sector in order to repair its techniques.

  1. Case Studies in Continuous Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on improving the SMT assembly process in a low-volume, high-reliability environment with emphasis on fine pitch and BGA packages. Before a process improvement is carried out, it is important to evaluate where the process stands in terms of process capability.

  2. Process for the recovery of alkali metal salts from aqueous solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitner, J.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the recovery of alkakli metal phenates and carboxylates from aqueous solutions thereof, the aqueous solution is spray dried and the drying gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alkali metal salt solution which dissolves the particles of the alkali metal salt that were entrained in the drying gas stream. The salt-free inert gas stream is then dried, heated, and returned to the spray dryer

  3. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W. de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.; Emmelkamp, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the

  4. Recovery of work-related stress: Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the

  5. Development of a stable uranium recovery regulatory framework for uranium recovery activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, M.C.; Abrams, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has historically regulated operations at all uranium and thorium recovery facilities under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Uranium recovery facilities are those plants, or portions of facilities that process uranium- or thorium-bearing material primarily for its source material content. The uranium recovery industry expressed some concerns over several aspects of the NRC's practices, as described in the NRC's guidance documents. In April 1998, the National Mining Association submitted a report to the Commission, that identified specific concerns with NRC's current position and guidance regarding concurrent jurisdiction at uranium mills; dual regulatory authority at in situ leach facilities; the use of mill tailings impoundments for disposal of radioactive material other than 11e.(2) byproduct material; and the ability to process alternate feed material at uranium mills. The NRC staff addressed most of these concerns in two SECY (staff recommendations) papers that were concurrently provided to the Commission, along with a SECY paper on a draft rulemaking plan relating to these and other issues. The issues addressed in these papers included a new rulemaking, disposal of materials other than 11 e.(2) byproduct material, processing of materials other than natural ores, and improved efficiency for regulating in situ leach uranium facilities. The Commission issued final policy decisions on these issues and directions for NRC staff to implement those decisions in July 2000. (author)

  6. Removing oxygen from a solvent extractant in an uranium recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds

  7. Improvements mineral dressing and extraction processes of gold-silver ores from San Pedro Frio Mining District, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez Traslavina, J. J.; Vargas Avila, M. A.; Garcia Paez, I. H.; Pedraza Rosas, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region production gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient. In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtained fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination. (Author)

  8. Recovery process of wall condition in KSTAR vacuum vessel after temporal machine-vent for repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo, E-mail: kpkim@nfri.er.ke; Hong, Suk-Ho; Lee, Hyunmyung; Song, Jae-in; Jung, Nam-Yong; Lee, Kunsu; Chu, Yong; Kim, Hakkun; Park, Kaprai; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Efforts have been made to obtain vacuum condition that is essential for the plasma experiments. • For example, the vacuum vessel should be vented to repair in-vessel components such as diagnostic shutter, and PFC damaged by high energy plasma. • Here, we present the recovery process of wall condition in KSTAR after temporal machine-vent for repair. • It is found that an acceptable vacuum condition has been achieved only by plasma based wall conditioning techniques such as baking, GDC, and boronization. • This study was that the proper recovering method of the vacuum condition should be developed according to the severity of the accident. - Abstract: Efforts have been made to obtain vacuum condition that is essential for the plasma experiments. Under certain situations, for example, the vacuum vessel should be vented to repair in-vessel components such as diagnostic shutter, exchange of window for diagnostic equipment, and PFC damaged by high energy plasma. For the quick restart of the campaign, a recovery process was established to make the vacuum condition acceptable for the plasma experiment. In this paper, we present the recovery process of wall condition in KSTAR after temporal machine-vent for repair. It is found that an acceptable vacuum condition has been achieved only by plasma based wall conditioning techniques such as baking, GDC, and boronization. This study was that the proper recovering method of the vacuum condition should be developed according to the severity of the accident.

  9. The process of recovery for people diagnosed with personality disorder: a case study of The Haven

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the process of recovery for people diagnosed with personality disorder. This is related to the application of the new meaning of recovery from mental illness as explored by members of The Haven which, as the service setting for the study, addresses the problems of a client group that suffers significant social exclusion, known to impact on demand for health and other public services. It aims to examine efforts which attempt to reverse this social exclusion as an aspect ...

  10. A Repeatable Collaboration Process for Exploring Business Process Improvement Alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Amiyo, Mercy; Nabukenya, J.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic nature of organisations has increased demand for business process agility leading to the adoption of continuous Business Process Improvement (BPI). Success of BPI projects calls for continuous process analysis and exploration of several improvement alternatives. These activities are

  11. Recovery of rare earths from used polishes by chemical vapor transport process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Machida, K.; Adachi, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earth oxide polishes are widely used in the glass industry because of its mechanical and chemical polishing action. The Japanese glass industry use 2000 tons per year of the polishes, and a large portion of them are thrown away after their polishing lifetime. A dry recovery processes for rare earths from the used polishes have been investigated by using a chemical vapor transport method via the formation of vapor complexes RAl n Cl 3+3n (R = rare earths). A flow type reactor with various temperature gradients was employed for the process. The used polishes were mixed with active carbon, and chlorinated with N 2 + Cl 2 mixture at 1273 K. Aluminium oxide were also chlorinated at lower temperature and the resulting AlCl 3 were introduced to the reactor. The rare earth chlorides and AlCl 3 were converted to the vapor complexes. These were driven along the temperature gradient, decomposed according to the reverse reaction, and regenerated RCl 3 . About 90 % of the used polish were chlorinated after 2 hours. Rare earth chlorides, AlCl 3 , and FeCl 3 were fully transported after 82 hours. The rare earth chlorides were mainly condensed over the temperature range 1263-903 K. On the other hand, AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 were deposited at the temperature range below 413 K. CaCl 2 and SrCl 2 were hardly transported and remained in the residue. When the temperature gradient with the smaller slope was used, mutual separation efficiencies among the rare earths was improved. The highest CeCl 3 purity of 80% was obtained in the process

  12. Processing of spent nickel catalyst for fat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent nickel catalyst (SNC have the potential of insulting the quality of the environment in a number of ways. The disposal of SNC will have a pollution effect. Optimum recovery of fat from SNC , could save the environment and reduce the oil loss. Hexane has been the solvent of choice for oil extraction. Alternative solvents that are considered safer have been evaluated. Hexane, isopropanol, ethanol, and heptane were examined using soxhlet extraction. While hexane was more efficient in oil recovery from SNC, isopropanol proved to be very good, to clarifying separation of oil from waste material and also provide high solvent recovery compared to other solvents. Isopropanol extraction with chill provided separation of miscella into two phases: lower oil–rich and an upper solvent – rich. It saved much energy of vaporization for distilling. An aqueous extraction process with immiscible solvent assisted was tested. Solvent like hexane added to SNC, and water added later with continuous stirring. The mixture was stirred for about 30 minutes, prior to centrifugation. Aqueous process extracted less amount of oil compared to solvent extraction.El catalizador agotado de níquel (SNC tiene el potencial de dañar la calidad del medio ambiente de diversas formas. El depósito de SNC tendrá un efecto de polución. La recuperación óptima de la grasa a partir del SCN, podría conservar el medio ambiente y reducir la pérdida de aceite. El hexano ha sido el disolvente elegido para la extracción del aceite. También se han evaluado disolventes alternativos que son considerados seguros. Se han examinado hexano, isopropanol, etanol y heptano usando extracción con soxhlet. Mientras que el hexano fue el mas eficaz en la recuperación del aceite, el isopropanol demostró ser muy bueno para aclarar la separación del aceite a partir de la materia residual y también proporcionó una alta recuperación del disolvente en comparación con los otros

  13. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF BIOFUEL ETHANOL RECOVERY USING THE PERVAPORATION SEPARATION TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu [Kocaeli University Chemical Engineering Department Veziroglu Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    The climatic impact of carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have become a major problem. The production of renewable biofuels from biomass has received increasing attention. Because of the economic and environmental benefits of fuel ethanol's use it is considered one of the most important renewable fuels. In ethanol fermentations inhibition of the microorganism by ethanol limits the amount of substrate in the feed that can be converted. In a process high feed concentrations are desirable to minimize the flows. Such high feed concentrations can be realized in integrated processes in which ethanol is recovered by pervaporation from the fermentation broth as it is formed. The hybrid process is an attractive process to increase ethanol production economics and to decrease environmental pollution. The separaiton of alcohol from mixtures with ethanol produced by fermentation is usually carried out by distillation and the energy consumption is very high when azeotropic concentration is reached, which corresponds to 5% water in ethanol/water mixture. The pervaporation process provides an economical alternative to the existing distillation technique. A continous recovery of alcohol could be achieved by using the pervaporation process during fermentation, making the process more energy efficient. In this work, for the purposes of membrane material development for pervaporation; zeolite filled and unfilled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared. Zeolite types were 4A, 13X. The effect of incorporation of nano-sized zeolites prepared in a colloidal form in membranes was also investigated. From the sorption tests it is concluded that, ethanol/water azeotropy can be breaked by pervaporation.

  15. Time course of cognitive recovery after propofol anaesthesia: a level of processing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Kaoua, Bernard; Véron, Anne-Lise H; Lespinet, Véronique C; Claverie, Bernard; Sztark, François

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of recovery of verbal memory after general anaesthesia, as a function of the level (shallow or deep) of processing induced at the time of encoding. Thirty-one patients anaesthetized with propofol and alfentanil were compared with 28 control patients receiving only alfentanil. Memory functions were assessed the day before and 1, 6 and 24 hr after operation. Results show that for the anaesthetized group, shallow processing was impaired for 6 hr after surgery whereas the deeper processing was not recovered even at 24 hr. In addition, no specific effect of age was found.

  16. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  17. The acid aging as alternative process for uranium recovery from silicated ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, M.; Della Testa, A.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of different variables on the extraction uranium efficiency and on the silicate solubility by means of acid aging is studied. The variables studied in bench scale were: acid/ore, oxidizing/ore and liquid/solid relationships; reaction time; temperature and recovery time. The results are discussed and compared with the ones of continuous operation of a semi-pilot plant. A flowsheet of the industrial process application is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  19. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Objectives: Through this grant, Battelle proposes to address Area of Interest (AOI) 1 to develop a bench-scale technology to economically separate, extract, and concentrate mixed REEs from coal ash. U.S. coal and coal byproducts provide the opportunity for a domestic source of REEs. The DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has characterized various coal and coal byproducts samples and has found varying concentrations of REE ranging up to 1,000 parts per million by weight. The primary project objective is to validate the economic viability of recovering REEs from the coal byproduct coal ash using Battelle’s patented closed-loop Acid Digestion Process (ADP). This will be accomplished by selecting coal sources with the potential to provide REE concentrations above 300 parts per million by weight, collecting characterization data for coal ash samples generated via three different methods, and performing a Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA) for the proposed process. The regional availability of REE-laden coal ash, the regional market for rare earth concentrates, and the system capital and operating costs for rare earth recovery using the ADP technology will be accounted for in the TEA. Limited laboratory testing will be conducted to generate the parameters needed for the design of a bench scale system for REE recovery. The ultimate project outcome will be the design for an optimized, closed loop process to economically recovery REEs such that the process may be demonstrated at the bench scale in a Phase 2 project. Project Description: The project will encompass evaluation of the ADP technology for the economic recovery of REEs from coal and coal ash. The ADP was originally designed and demonstrated for the U.S. Army to facilitate demilitarization of cast-cured munitions via acid digestion in a closed-loop process. Proof of concept testing has been conducted on a sample of Ohio-based Middle Kittanning coal and has demonstrated the feasibility of recovering

  20. A Christian faith-based recovery theory: understanding God as sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Shirley M

    2012-12-01

    This article reports the development of a substantive theory to explain an evangelical Christian-based process of recovery from addiction. Faith-based, 12-step, mutual aid programs can improve drug abstinence by offering: (a) an intervention option alone and/or in conjunction with secular programs and (b) an opportunity for religious involvement. Although literature on religion, spirituality, and addiction is voluminous, traditional 12-step programs fail to explain the mechanism that underpins the process of Christian-based recovery (CR). This pilot study used grounded theory to explore and describe the essence of recovery of 10 former crack cocaine-addicted persons voluntarily enrolled in a CR program. Data were collected from in-depth interviews during 4 months of 2008. Audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, and the constant comparative method was used to analyze data resulting in the basic social process theory, understanding God as sponsor. The theory was determined through writing theoretical memos that generated key elements that allow persons to recover: acknowledging God-centered crises, communicating with God, and planning for the future. Findings from this preliminary study identifies important factors that can help persons in recovery to sustain sobriety and program administrators to benefit from theory that guides the development of evidence-based addiction interventions.

  1. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Scyoc, Karl [Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.) Inc., DNV Energy Solutions, 16340 Park Ten Place, Suite 100, Houston, TX 77084 (United States)], E-mail: karl.van.scyoc@dnv.com

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  2. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given

  3. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  4. Social identity, social networks and recovery capital in emerging adulthood: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, E; Best, D; Beckwith, M; Dingle, G A; Lubman, D I

    2015-11-11

    It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on 'personal identity'. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Twenty participants aged 18-21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment services - three detoxification facilities and one psychosocial rehabilitation facility in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a detailed social network interview exploring the substance use of groups in their social networks and measures of quality of life, recovery capital, and social identity. Lower group substance use was associated with higher recovery capital, stronger identification with non-using groups, and greater importance of non-using groups in the social network. Additionally, greater identification with and importance of non-using groups were associated with better environmental quality of life, whereas greater importance conferred on using groups was associated with reduced environmental quality of life. Support was found for the role of social identity processes in reported recovery capital and quality of life. Future research in larger, longitudinal samples is required to improve understanding of social identity processes during treatment and early recovery and its relationship to recovery stability.

  5. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  6. Platinum group metal recovery and catalyst manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Yoo, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.

    1998-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metal such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solution was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400 m{sup 2}/g. The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 10 wt.%. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of 93 % to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its actively is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 63 refs., 38 tabs., 36 figs.

  7. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  8. Eco-friendly copper recovery process from waste printed circuit boards using Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} redox system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarasi, Szabolcs [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, Cluj-Napoca RO-400028 (Romania); Imre-Lucaci, Florica [Babeş-Bolyai University, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 42 Treboniu Laurian Street, Cluj-Napoca RO-400271 (Romania); Egedy, Attila [University of Pannonia, Department of Process Engineering, Egyetem Str. 10, H-8200 Veszprém (Hungary); Imre-Lucaci, Árpád, E-mail: aimre@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, Cluj-Napoca RO-400028 (Romania); Ilea, Petru [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, Cluj-Napoca RO-400028 (Romania)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We developed an ecofriendly mediated electrochemical process for copper recovery. • The recovery of copper was achieved without mechanical pretreatment of the samples. • We identified the optimal flow rate for the leaching and electrowinning of copper. • The copper content of the obtained cathodic deposits was over 99.9%. - Abstract: The present study aimed at developing an original and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) by chemical dissolution with Fe{sup 3+} combined with the simultaneous electrowinning of copper and oxidant regeneration. The recovery of copper was achieved in an original set-up consisting of a three chamber electrochemical reactor (ER) connected in series with a chemical reactor (CR) equipped with a perforated rotating drum. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the optimal flow rate for the dissolution of copper in the CR and to ensure the lowest energy consumption for copper electrodeposition in the ER. The optimal hydrodynamic conditions were provided at 400 mL/min, leading to the 75% dissolution of metals and to a low specific energy consumption of 1.59 kW h/kg Cu for the electrodeposition process. In most experiments, the copper content of the obtained cathodic deposits was over 99.9%.

  9. A novel NGL (natural gas liquid) recovery process based on self-heat recuperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Duc Long, Nguyen; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined an innovative self-heat-recuperation technology that circulates latent and sensible heat in the thermal process and applied it to the NGL (natural gas liquid) recovery process. A CGCC (column grand composite curve) was used to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of implementing the heat pump system and self-heat-recuperation technology into a conventional distillation column. The proposed distillation based on self-heat recuperation reduced the energy consumption dramatically by compressing the effluent stream, whose temperature was increased to provide the minimum temperature difference for the heat exchanger, and circulating the stream heat in the process. According to a simulation of the proposed sequence, up to 73.43 and 83.48% of the condenser and reboiler energy, respectively, were saved compared to a conventional column. This study also proposes heat integration to improve the performance of self-heat recuperation. The results showed that the modified sequence saves up 64.35, 100.00 and 31.60% of the condenser energy requirements, reboiler energy requirements and OP (operating cost), respectively, compared to a classical heat pump system, and 90.24, 100.00, and 67.19%, respectively, compared to a conventional column. The use of these sequences to retrofit a distillation column to save energy was also considered. - Highlights: • Innovative self-heat-recuperation technology that circulates latent and sensible heat. • A CGCC (column grand composite curve) is used to assess the thermodynamic feasibility. • The proposed sequence saves up 67.19% of the OP (operating cost). • The proposed sequences can be used to retrofit a distillation column to save energy

  10. Applications of process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Eric Peter

    2016-03-01

    Major changes in the management and funding of healthcare are underway that will markedly change the way radiology studies will be reimbursed. The result will be the need to deliver radiology services in a highly efficient manner while maintaining quality. The science of process improvement provides a practical approach to improve the processes utilized in radiology. This article will address in a step-by-step manner how to implement process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

  11. A low-dose mindfulness intervention and recovery from work: effects on psychological detachment, sleep quality, and sleep duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüslheger, U.R.; Feinholdt, A.; Nübold, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although playing a crucial role for the prevention of long-term health impairment, interventions aiming at the improvement of employees' recovery processes are still scarce. In this study, we therefore investigated the effectiveness of a low-dose mindfulness intervention for recovery from work. In

  12. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery, Annual Report, September 30, 1999-September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-04-04

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  13. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Scott T.; Justice James L.; Taylor, Archie R.

    1999-01-01

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs

  14. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement Workgroup; Notice of Public Meeting...) Process Improvement Work Group. EPA plans to meet its ESA consultation obligations through the pesticide... a pesticide during the registration review process. This meeting of the PRIA Process Improvement...

  15. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  16. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  17. Development and optimisation of process parameters for recovery of uranium from calcia slag and lining material (SLM) by leaching process and subsequent recovery of uranium from the leach liquor generated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Srivastava, Praveen Kumar; Das, Santanu; Kumar, Raj; Roy, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Presently uranium value is recovered by nitric acid dissolution of the SLM, to get uranyl nitrate solution (UNS) and subsequent solvent extraction process. UNS generated After SLM dissolution is very lean in uranium content and create difficulty in solvent extraction. Moreover, NO X is also generated during SLM dissolution in nitric acid. An alternate process was developed where nitric acid is not being used and uranium is being recovered by leaching out the SLM using acetic acid. The process was also optimised for recovery and overall economics of the process by using process effluent AALL (Acetic Acid Leach Liquor) as a leaching agent. The uranium value in the leach liquor was precipitated by using sodium hydroxide. The precipitate was dissolved in nitric acid and the Uranyl Nitrate Solution generated was having Uranium concentration of 15-30 g/l. The alternate process developed will have less effluent generation, less NO X generation and will produce more concentrated UNS in comparison to the nitric acid dissolution process

  18. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. fruiting bodies in aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalu, Devamalini; Show, Pau Loke; Tan, Yee Shin; Muniandy, Sekaran; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2016-09-01

    The feasible use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to establish a viable protocol for the recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. fruiting bodies was evaluated. Cold-stored (4.00±1.00°C) H. erinaceus recorded the highest laccase activities of 2.02±0.04 U/mL among all the processed techniques. The evaluation was carried out in twenty-five ATPSs, which composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with various molecular weights and potassium phosphate salt solution to purify the protein from H. erinaceus. Optimum recovery condition was observed in the ATPS which contained 17% (w/w) PEG with a molecular weight of 8000 and 12.2% (w/w) potassium phosphate solution, at a volume ratio (VR) of 1.0. The use of ATPS resulted in one-single primary recovery stage process that produced an overall yield of 99% with a purification factor of 8.03±0.46. The molecular mass of laccases purified from the bottom phase was in the range of 55-66 kDa. The purity of the partitioned laccase was confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Sipeng; Deng, Kangyao; Qu, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system especially for turbocharged engines is proposed to improve the thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. Simplified recovery processes can be described as follows: superheated steam generated by engine waste heat is injected into the pipe before the turbine to increase the boost pressure of the fresh air; intake valve close timing is adjusted to control the amount of fresh air as the original level, and thus the higher pressure charged air expands in the intake stroke and transfers the pressure energy directly to the crankshaft. In this way, the increased turbine output by the pre-turbine steam injection is finally recovered in the cylinder, which is different from the traditional Rankine cycle. The whole energy transfer processes are studied with thermodynamic analyses and numerical simulations. The results show that the mass flow rate of the injected steam has the biggest influence on the energy transfer processes followed by the temperature of the injected steam. With this in-cylinder waste heat recovery system, the fuel economy of a selected turbocharged diesel engine can be improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point when the injected mass flow ratio is set to be 0.1. - Highlights: • An in-cylinder waste heat recovery system is proposed. • Effects of injected parameters are studied with energy and exergy balance theories. • Variations of operating points on the compressor map are studied in detail. • The fuel economy is improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point

  1. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  2. Recovery of plutonium from solvent wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of potential alternatives to the acid hydrolysis recovery of Pu were investigated. The most promising alternative for short-term use appears to be an anion exchange process that would eliminate the long boiling times and the multiple-pass concentration steps needed with the solvent extraction process because it separates the Pu from the dibutyl phosphate (DBP) while at the same time concentrating the Pu. However, restart of the Primary Recovery Column (PRC) to process this solution would require significant administrative effort. The original boiling recovery by acid hydrolysis followed by solvent extraction is probably the most expedient way to process the Pu-DBP-carbonate solution currently stored in tank 13.5 even with its long processing times and dilute product concentration. Anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution is a more efficient process, but requires restart of the PRC. Extended-boiling acid hydrolysis or anion exchange of a heat stabilized acidified solution provide two well developed alternatives for recovery of the Pu from the tank 13.5 carbonate. Further work defining additional recovery processes is not planned at this time

  3. Mapping social networks in software process improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    Software process improvement in small, agile organizations is often problematic. Model-based approaches seem to overlook problems. We have been seeking an alternative approach to overcome this through action research. Here we report on a piece of action research from which we developed an approach...... to map social networks and suggest how it can be used in software process improvement. We applied the mapping approach in a small software company to support the realization of new ways of improving software processes. The mapping approach was found useful in improving social networks, and thus furthers...... software process improvement....

  4. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  5. Brain plasticity and recovery of cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Čuš

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through its capacity of plastic changes, the adult brain enables successful dealing with new demands of everyday life and recovery after an acquired brain damage either spontaneously or by the help of rehabilitation interventions. Studies which explored the effects of cognitive training in the normal population report on different types of changes in the performance of cognitive tasks as well as different types of changes in brain activation patterns.Following practice, brain activation can change in its extent, intensity or location, while cognitive processes can become more efficient or can be replaced by different processes.After acquired brain damage plastic changes are somewhat different. After the injury, the damaged brain area can either gradually regain its previous function, or different brain regions are recruited to perform that function.Studies of spontaneous and guided recovery of cognitive functions have revealed both types of plastic changes that follow each other, as well as significant correlations between these changes and improvement on the behavioural level.

  6. A conceptional design, cost and sensitivity analysis on adsorption process for uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Noboru

    1986-01-01

    The system model for a conceptional design and cost estimation was studied on a multi-layered fluidizing bed with a pump which used hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) and amidoxime resin (AOR) as adsorbents. The cost effect of some parameters, namely characteristics of adsorbent, operating conditions, price of materials and some others, were estimated, and finally there was shown a direction of improvement and a possibility of cost reduction. The conceptional design and operating condition were obtained from the balance point on expansion ratio, recovery and characteristics of adsorbent. A suitable plan was obtained from the minimum cost condition in some level of the expansion ratio and some parameters. HTO was heavy in density and cheap in price. The main results of the study indicated that the thickness of the bed was 1 m, the linear velocity of seawater was 52 m/hr, the number of bed layers was 4, the construction cost of a 100 t/y plant was 10 billion yen, and the uranium cost was 160 $/1b. AOR had a large adsorption capacity. As the main results, the thickness of bed was 0.08 m, the linear velosity of seawater was 11.6 m, the number of the bed layers was 27, the construction cost of a 100 t/y plant was 15 billion yen, and the uranium cost was 280 $/1b. The size of the 100 t/y plant was about 800 m length x 80 m depth x 30 m height at 80 % of recovery. An increase of adsorption capacity in HTO, and an increase of density and particle size in AOR had the greatest merit for cost reduction. Other effective parameters were the adsorption velocity, the recovery, temperature, the price of adsorbent, the manufacturing cost of instrument, and the rate of interest. The cost of uranium by this process had a possibility of cost reduction to 67 $/1b at HTO and 79 $/1b at AOR. (author)

  7. PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM IMPURE SOLUTIONS THEREOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for the recovery of uraninm values from impure solutions which are obtained, for example, by washing residual uranium salt or uranium metal deposits from stainless steel surfaces using an aqueous or certain acidic aqueous solutions. The solutions include uranyl and oxidized iron, chromium, nickel, and copper ions and may contain manganese, zinc, and silver ions. In accordance with one procedure. the uranyl ions are reduced to the uranous state, and the impurity ions are complexed with cyanide under acidic conditions. The solution is then treated with ammonium hydroxide or alkali metal hydroxide to precipitate uranous hydroxide away from the complexed impurity ions in the solution. Alternatively, an excess of alkali metal cyanide is added to the reduced solution until the solution becomes sufficiently alkaline for the uranons hydroxide to precipitate. An essential feature in operating the process is in maintaining the pH of the solution sufficiently acid during the complexing operation to prevent the precipitation of the impurity metal hydroxides.

  8. Surviving ICU: Stories of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewens, Beverley A; Hendricks, Joyce M; Sundin, Deborah

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate stories of recovery through the lens of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Survival from ICUs is increasing, as are associated physical and psychological complications. Despite the significant impact on survivors, there is inadequate support provision in Australia and world-wide for this population. An interpretive biographical approach of intensive care survivors' experiences of recovery. Data were collected during 2014-2015 from diaries, face to face interviews, memos and field notes. Six participants diarized for 3 months commencing 2 months after hospital discharge. At 5 months, participants were interviewed about the content of their diaries and symbols and signifiers in them to create a shared meaning. Analysis of diaries and interviews were undertaken using two frameworks to identify themes throughout participants' stories and provides a unique portrait of recovery through their individual lens. Participants considered their lives had irreparably changed and yet felt unsupported by a healthcare system that had "saved" them. This view through their lens identified turmoil, which existed between their surface and inner worlds as they struggled to conform to what recovery "should be". The novel biographical methods provided a safe and creative way to reveal survivors' inner thoughts and feelings. Participants' considered creating their stories supported their recovery process and in particular enabled them to reflect on their progress. Findings from this study may lead to increased awareness among health care providers about problems survivors face and improved support services more broadly, based on frameworks appropriate for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Chemical process for recovery of uranium values contained in phosphoric mineral lixivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, E.L.H. da; Awwal, M.A.; Coelho, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    A recovery process of uranium values from phosporic mineral lixivia for obtaining uranio oxide concentrate adjusted to specifications of purity for its commercialization the process consists of the adjustment of electromotive force of lixiviem to suitable values for uranium extraction, extraction with organic solvent containing phosphoric acid ester and oxidant reextraction from this solvent with phosphoric acid solution, suggesting a new solvent extraction containing synergetic mixture of di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid and tri-octyl phosphine, leaching this solvent with water and re-extraction/precipitation with ammonium carbonate solution, resulting in the formation of uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium, that by drying and calcination gives the uranium oxide with purity degree for commercialization. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA) that were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  11. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA). These dynamic models were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler (Registered TradeMark) and Aspen Plus(Registered TradeMark) process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  12. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    could probably be implemented with existing facilities and within the relevant time frame. The Research and development effort in the 1980's and early 1990's on chemical methods gained a lot of knowledge and expertise at the research institutes and in the oil companies. The new effort should be based on the existing knowledge, focus on pilot testing and field implementation, and redoing of work should be avoided. A lot of excellent work has been carried out on EOR for the NCS. The following main common challenges for all of the studied EOR methods have been identified and can be grouped in 3 main categories: 1. Recovery process understanding 2. Field recovery predictions 3. Pilots and field trials The recommendations from the enhanced recovery group (TTA3) are the following: ) There is a clear need for increased support for focussed projects over a wide range of EOR methods in order to achieve the high ambitions for reserve replacement and recovery factors that have been set for the NCS fields. The EOR share of the total PETROMAKS programme should be raised significantly above today's 7.5% of the PETROMAKS budge. Furthermore, high priority should be given to pilots on EOR methods and field trials and to launch EOR projects within Demo2000. There is today none EOR projects financed through Demo2000. ) A special initiative is recommended to generate and support projects for improved water flooding by the use of chemical additives (chemical flooding). A workshop seminar should be arranged to discuss specific Research and development projects in the area of water based EOR methods (chemical additives). ) Projects on sweep improvements for gas or WAG injection i.e. Foam Assisted WAG (FAWAG), especially related to field implementation should be encouraged. (Author)

  13. Recovery of copper and water from copper-electroplating wastewater by the combination process of electrolysis and electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Changsheng; Liu, Yanyan; Bi, Jingjing; Xu, Huizhen; Ahmed, Abou-Shady

    2011-05-30

    In this paper, a laboratory-scale process which combined electrolysis (EL) and electrodialysis (ED) was developed to treat copper-containing wastewater. The feasibility of such process for copper recovery as well as water reuse was determined. Effects of three operating parameters, voltage, initial Cu(2+) concentration and water flux on the recovery of copper and water were investigated and optimized. The results showed that about 82% of copper could be recovered from high concentration wastewater (HCW, >400mg/L) by EL, at the optimal conditions of voltage 2.5 V/cm and water flux 4 L/h; while 50% of diluted water could be recycled from low concentration wastewater (LCW, water flux 4 L/h. However, because of the limitation of energy consumption (EC), LCW for EL and HCW for ED could not be treated effectively, and the effluent water of EL and concentrated water of ED should be further treated before discharged. Therefore, the combination process of EL and ED was developed to realize the recovery of copper and water simultaneously from both HCW and LCW. The results of the EL-ED process showed that almost 99.5% of copper and 100% of water could be recovered, with the energy consumption of EL ≈ 3 kW h/kg and ED ≈ 2 kW h/m(3). According to SEM and EDX analysis, the purity of recovered copper was as high as 97.9%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle

  15. Managerial implications for improving continuous production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Vanhatalo, Erik; Bergquist, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    . In this article we highlight SPC and DoE implementation challenges described in the literature for managers, researchers and practitioners interested in continuous production process improvement. The results may help managers support the implementation of these methods and make researchers and practitioners aware......Data analytics remains essential for process improvement and optimization. Statistical process control and design of experiments are among the most powerful process and product improvement methods available. However, continuous process environments challenge the application of these methods...... of methodological challenges in continuous process environments...

  16. Perspectives on Resource Recovery from Bio-Based Production Processes: From Concept to Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Recovering valuable compounds from waste streams of bio-based production processes is in line with the circular economy paradigm, and is achievable by implementing “simple-to-use” and well-established process separation technologies. Such solutions are acceptable from industrial, economic...... and environmental points of view, implying relatively easy future implementation on pilot- and full-scale levels in the bio-based industry. Reviewing such technologies is therefore the focus here. Considerations about technology readiness level (TRL) and Net Present Value (NPV) are included in the review, since TRL...... and NPV contribute significantly to the techno-economic evaluation of future and promising process solutions. Based on the present review, a qualitative guideline for resource recovery from bio-based production processes is proposed. Finally, future approaches and perspectives toward identification...

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  18. A Review of Recovery Mechanisms of Ionically Modified Waterflood in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    . This process has been evaluated as a wettability-modifying agent in carbonates and captured the global research focus in water-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the published research to speed the process of further investigations in this field. The review......Advanced water flooding is a process in which the ionic strength as well as the ionic composition of the injected water is tuned to improve the oil recovery. It has been observed in field trials and in lab core flooding experiments; advanced water flooding has the potential to recover additional oil...

  19. Improving the Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) Delivery Order Award Process: Results of a Process Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    putting all tasks directed towsrds achieving an outcome in aequence. The tasks can be viewed as steps in the process (39:2.3). Using this...improvement opportunity is investigated. A plan is developed, root causes are identified, and solutions are tested and implemented. The process is... solutions , check for actual improvement, and integrate the successful improvements into the process. ?UP 7. Check Improvement Performance. Finally, the

  20. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column

  1. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.M.

    1981-10-06

    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column.

  2. Process heat recovery: hot prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    By updating established technologies to recover heat at higher temperatures and under more corrosive conditions, British industry could recover six to eight million tons of coal equivalent that it currently wastes. Organic liquids in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and simpler designs than steam turbines can increase efficiency. They also eliminate the need for vacuum pumps and permit the use of air cooling. Cooperative government-private industry research programs are exploring the use of ORC engines. Other heat-recovery projects include a Scottish paper mill, a metal decorating and printing plant, a falling-cloud heat exchanger, and heat-pipe development. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  3. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; A. Blacha-Grzechnik; G. Siwiec

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  4. Framework for assessment of organic Micropollutant removals during managed Aquifer recharge and recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Amy, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) is a reliable and proven process, in which water quality can be improved by different physical, biological, and chemical reactions during soil passage. MAR can potentially be included in a multi

  5. Nutritional Improvement and Energy Intake Are Associated with Functional Recovery in Patients after Cerebrovascular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Maria; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition affects the activities of daily living (ADLs) in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the relationship between nutritional improvement, energy intake at admission, and recovery of ADLs. We evaluated 67 patients with cerebrovascular disorders admitted to our rehabilitation hospital between April 2013 and April 2015. These patients received interventions from the rehabilitation nutritional support team according to the following criteria: weight loss of 2 kg or more and body mass index of 19 kg/m(2) or lower. Exclusion criteria included a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, duration of intervention of less than 14 days, or transfer to an acute care hospital because of clinical deterioration. We assessed nutritional status using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and ADL using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, FIM gain, and FIM efficiency. The mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 8.0 years. The numbers of patients in each category of cerebrovascular disorder were 39 with cerebral infarction, 16 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 8 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 4 others. Compared with the counterpart group, the group with an improvement in GNRI had a greater gain in FIM (median 17 and 20, respectively; P = .036) and a higher FIM efficiency (.14 and .22, respectively; P = .020). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that an improvement in GNRI, increasing energy intake at admission, and intracerebral hemorrhage were associated independently with greater FIM efficiency. This study suggested that nutritional improvement and energy intake at admission are associated with recovery of ADL after cerebrovascular disorders. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Next Generation Software Process Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turnas, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... The application of these processes allows for an organization to mature. The software maturity level, and process improvement, of an organization can be measured with the Capability Maturity Model...

  7. Process Improvement for Interinstitutional Research Contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Michael; Logan, Jennifer; Bjorklund, Todd; Whitfield, Jesse; Reed, Peggy; Lesher, Laurie; Sikalis, Amy; Brown, Brent; Drollinger, Sandy; Larrabee, Kristine; Thompson, Kristie; Clark, Erin; Workman, Michael; Boi, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Sponsored research increasingly requires multiinstitutional collaboration. However, research contracting procedures have become more complicated and time consuming. The perinatal research units of two colocated healthcare systems sought to improve their research contracting processes. The Lean Process, a management practice that iteratively involves team members in root cause analyses and process improvement, was applied to the research contracting process, initially using Process Mapping and then developing Problem Solving Reports. Root cause analyses revealed that the longest delays were the individual contract legal negotiations. In addition, the "business entity" was the research support personnel of both healthcare systems whose "customers" were investigators attempting to conduct interinstitutional research. Development of mutually acceptable research contract templates and language, chain of custody templates, and process development and refinement formats decreased the Notice of Grant Award to Purchase Order time from a mean of 103.5 days in the year prior to Lean Process implementation to 45.8 days in the year after implementation (p = 0.004). The Lean Process can be applied to interinstitutional research contracting with significant improvement in contract implementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Embrittlement recovery due to annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eason, E.D.; Wright, J.E.; Nelson, E.E.; Odette, G.R.; Mader, E.V.

    1996-01-01

    Embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) can be reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures higher than the normal operating conditions. Although such an annealing process has not been applied to any commercial plants in the United States, one US Army reactor, the BR3 plant in Belgium, and several plants in eastern Europe have been successfully annealed. All available Charpy annealing data were collected and analyzed in this project to develop quantitative models for estimating the recovery in 30 ft-lb (41 J) Charpy transition temperature and Charpy upper shelf energy over a range of potential annealing conditions. Pattern recognition, transformation analysis, residual studies, and the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in the annealing process were used to guide the selection of the most sensitive variables and correlating parameters and to determine the optimal functional forms for fitting the data. The resulting models were fitted by nonlinear least squares. The use of advanced tools, the larger data base now available, and insight from surrogate hardness data produced improved models for quantitative evaluation of the effects of annealing. The quality of models fitted in this project was evaluated by considering both the Charpy annealing data used for fitting and the surrogate hardness data base. The standard errors of the resulting recovery models relative to calibration data are comparable to the uncertainty in unirradiated Charpy data. This work also demonstrates that microhardness recovery is a good surrogate for transition temperature shift recovery and that there is a high level of consistency between the observed annealing trends and fundamental models of embrittlement and recovery processes

  9. Decision support systems for recovery of endangered species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The listing of a species as endangered under the Endangered Species Act invokes a suite of responses to help improve conditions for the recovery of that species, to include identification of stressors contributing to population loss, decision analysis of the impacts of proposed recovery options, and implementation of optimal recovery measures. The ability of a decision support system to quantify inherent stressor uncertainties and to identify the key stressors that can be controlled or eliminated becomes key to ensuring the recovery of an endangered species. The listing of the Snake River sockeye, spring/summer chinook, and fall chinook salmon species in the Snake River as endangered provides a vivid example of the importance of sophisticated decision support systems. Operational and physical changes under consideration at eight of the hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Lower Snake River pose significant financial impacts to a variety of stakeholders involved in the salmon population recovery process and carry significant uncertainties of outcome. A decision support system is presented to assist in the identification of optimal recovery actions for this example that includes the following: creation of datamarts of information on environmental, engineering, and ecological values that influence species survival; incorporation of decision analysis tools to determine optimal decision policies; and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to provide a context for decision analysis and to communicate the impacts of decision policies

  10. Damage Recovery in Carrara Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Brantut, N.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effect of confining pressure on the recovery of elastic wave velocities following deformation episodes in Carrara Marble. Dry Carrara Marble cores were deformed in the ductile regime (Pc = 40 MPa) up to 3% axial strain. After deformation, samples were held at constant stress conditions for extended periods of time (5-8 days) whilst continuously recording volumetric strain and seismic wave velocities. The velocity data were used to invert for microcrack densities using an effective medium approach. Finally, thin sections were produced to characterise the microstructures after recovery. During deformation, elastic wave speeds decreased with increasing strain by more than 30% of the value for the intact rock due to the formation of distributed microcracks. Under constant hydrostatic pressure, wave speeds progressively recovered 12-90% of the initial drop, depending on the applied confining pressure. In contrast, the strain recovery (deformation towards the initial shape of the sample) during holding time is negligible (of the order of 10-4). Tests performed under nonhydrostatic (triaxial) stress conditions during recovery showed some time-dependent creep deformation together with very significant recovery of wave velocities. The recovery is interpreted as a progressive reduction in crack density within the sample. The process is highly dependent on confining pressure, which favours it. We propose that the driving process for wave speed recovery is the time-dependent increase of contact area between crack surfaces due to the formation and growth of asperity contacts. We develop a micromechanical model for crack closure driven by asperity creep, which shows a good fit to the experimental data. Most of the recovery is achieved in the initial few hours, implying it is the fastest recovery or healing process, and thus occurs prior to any chemical healing or mineral precipitation. Our data corroborate field observations of post-seismic fault behavior.

  11. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar......% respectively, with no difference between cultivars, but REN decreased with increasing FYM inputs. Fertilizer N recommendations that allow for previous FYM inputs combined with applications timed to coincide with maximum crop demand (45 DAT), and the use of improved cultivars, could enhance N fertilizer......, popular among the farmers, was investigated using the 15N isotope dilution technique. No differences were found between cultivars with respect to the uptake of NDFS and NDFF, but the improved cultivar yielded 27% more (P¿=¿0.05) grain compared with the traditional cultivar. This was largely due to its...

  12. Natural stone muds as secondary raw materials: towards a new sustainable recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Tori, Alice; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The production of residual sludge is a topical issue, and has become essential to recover and reuse the materials, both for the economics and the environmental aspect. According to environmental EU Directives, in fact ,the stone cutting and processing should characterized by following objectives, targets and actions: the reduction of waste generated, the decreasing of use of critical raw material, the zero landfilling of sludge and decreasing in potential soil contamination, the prevention of transport of dangerous waste, the reduction of energy consumption, the zero impact on air pollution and the cost reduction . There are many industrial sector in which residual sludge have high concentrations of metals and/or elements deemed harmful and therefore hazardous waste. An important goal, for all industrial sectors, is an increase in productivity and a parallel reduction in costs. The research leads to the development of solutions with an always reduced environmental impact. The possibility to decrease the amount of required raw materials and at the same time the reduction in the amount of waste has become the aim for any industrial reality. From literature there are different approaches for the recovery of raw and secondary materials, and are often used for the purpose chemical products that separate the elements constituting the mud but at the same time make additional pollutants. The aim of the study is to find solutions that are environmentally sustainable for both industries and citizens. The present study is focused on three different Piedmont rocks: Luserna, Diorite from Traversella and Diorite from Vico, processed with three different stone machining technologies: cutting with diamond wire in quarry (blocks), in sawmill (slabs) and surface polishing. The steps are: chemical analysis, particle size analysis and mineralogical composition and characterization of the sludge obtained from the various machining operations for the recovery of the metal material by

  13. Reweighted Low-Rank Tensor Completion and its Applications in Video Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    M., Baburaj; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focus on recovering multi-dimensional data called tensor from randomly corrupted incomplete observation. Inspired by reweighted $l_1$ norm minimization for sparsity enhancement, this paper proposes a reweighted singular value enhancement scheme to improve tensor low tubular rank in the tensor completion process. An efficient iterative decomposition scheme based on t-SVD is proposed which improves low-rank signal recovery significantly. The effectiveness of the proposed method is es...

  14. Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium Co-recovery with Irradiated Fast Reactor MOX Fuel by Single Cycle Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaumi Nakahara; Yuichi Sano; Kazunori Nomura; Tadahiro Washiya; Jun Komaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The behavior of Np in single cycle extraction processes using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as an extractant for U, Pu and Np co-recovery was investigated as a part of NEXT (New Extraction System for Transuranium) process. Two approaches for Np co-recovery with U and Pu were carried out with irradiated MOX fuel from fast reactor 'JOYO'; one was the counter current experiment using a feed solution with a high HNO{sub 3} concentration and the other used a scrubbing solution with a high HNO{sub 3} concentration. Experimental results showed that the leakage of Np to the raffinate were 0.986 % and 5.96 % under the condition of high HNO{sub 3} concentration in the feed solution and scrubbing solution, respectively. The simulation results based on these experiments indicated that most of Np could be extracted and co-recovered with U and Pu, just by increasing HNO{sub 3} concentrations in the feed and scrubbing solution on the single cycle extraction process. (authors)

  15. Feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding through horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Abbas, A.M.; El-Sallaly, M. E.; Sayyouh, M. H.; El-Batanony, M. H.; Darwich, T. M.; Desouky, S. M. [Cairo Univ (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    Crude oil production in the Gulf of Suez by polymer, surfactant, and surfactant/polymer flooding from a horizontal well in a scaled five-spot sandpacked model was studied. The suitability of the enhanced oil recovery predictive models, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy, was investigated for their ability to predict the experimental data and to assess the feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding. Good agreement was found between the predicted and experimental values. Experimental results showed that oil recovery was significantly affected by the physical properties of the crude oil and chemical solutions; that oil recovery was higher for a polymer flooding than for a surfactant flooding operation; and that oil recovery was improved by increasing the perforated length ratio up to a value of 0.81. A tendency for oil recovery to decrease was observed when the horizontal well was positioned below or above the central axis path of the formation at the advanced injection stages; and oil recovery by surfactant or polymer flooding was significantly affected by the onset timing of the surfactant or polymer slug injection. The oil-water bank stability in surfactant and polymer flooding processes was found to be dependent on slug size and slug injection time. 23 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  16. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop a knowledge base that is helpful for the design of improved processes for mobilizing and producing oil left untapped using conventional techniques. The main goal was to develop and evaluate mixtures of new or modified surfactants for improved oil recovery. In this regard, interfacial properties of novel biodegradable n-alkyl pyrrolidones and sugar-based surfactants have been studied systematically. Emphasis was on designing cost-effective processes compatible with existing conditions and operations in addition to ensuring minimal reagent loss.

  17. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  18. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  19. Surgical Technical Evidence Review for Elective Total Joint Replacement Conducted for the AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Christopher P; Siletz, Anaar E; Singer, Emily S; Faltermeier, Claire; Hu, Q Lina; Ko, Clifford Y; Golladay, Gregory J; Kates, Stephen L; Wick, Elizabeth C; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    Use of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) can improve patient outcomes, yet national implementation of these pathways remains low. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ; funder), the American College of Surgeons, and the Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patent Safety and Quality have developed the Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery-a national effort to catalyze implementation of practices to improve perioperative care and enhance recovery of surgical patients. This review synthesizes evidence that can be used to develop a protocol for elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). This review focuses on potential components of the protocol relevant to surgeons; anesthesia components are reported separately. Components were identified through review of existing pathways and from consultation with technical experts. For each, a structured review of MEDLINE identified systematic reviews, randomized trials, and observational studies that reported on these components in patients undergoing elective TKA/THA. This primary evidence review was combined with existing clinical guidelines in a narrative format. Sixteen components were reviewed. Of the 10 preoperative components, most were focused on risk factor assessment including anemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, obesity, nutrition, immune-modulating therapy, and opiates. Preoperative education, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, and bathing/ Staphylococcus aureus decolonization were also included. The routine use of drains was the only intraoperative component evaluated. The 5 postoperative components included early mobilization, continuous passive motion, extended duration VTE prophylaxis, early oral alimentation, and discharge planning. This review synthesizes the evidence supporting potential surgical components of an ERP for elective TKA/THA. The AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery aims to guide hospitals and

  20. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2017-11-01

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  1. Psychosis, creativity and recovery: exploring the relationship in a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Barreto, Socorro

    2018-04-26

    Relation between mental illness and creativity is intricate. While many creative people show signs of mental illness, persons with severe mental illness occasionally have creative output beyond the ordinary. We are presenting a patient with psychotic illness whose creative potential took a positive turn during the illness phase and grew further following symptomatic improvement and helped in her recovery process. Observing the contrast related to creative productivity pre and post psychotic phase raises the probability of whether psychotic illness or process might enhance creative potential. The case additionally illustrates how creativity can be a useful method supporting recovery from severe mental illnesses. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Integrated working fluid-thermodynamic cycle design of organic Rankine cycle power systems for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables......Today, some established working fluids are being phased out due to new international regulations on theuse of environmentally harmful substances. With an ever-increasing cost to resources, industry wants toconverge on improved sustainability through resource recovery, and in particular waste heat...

  3. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  4. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud

  5. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  6. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  7. Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2018-05-09

    Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  8. Exploring the effects of ZVI addition on resource recovery in the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puyol, D.; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Segura, Y.

    2018-01-01

    not compensate the costs of ZVI purchase, and (b) ZVI dramatically decreases the P recovery potential in the digestate of the AD systems. This is the first study to experimentally and mathematically describe the effect of ZVI on biogas production/composition and on the fate of phosphorus compounds, and its......The influence of Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) addition on the potential resource recovery during the anaerobic digestion (AD) of domestic waste sludge is assessed. Potentially recoverable resources analyzed were nutrients such as struvite to recover P, and energy as biogas to recover C. Short term...... (biochemical methane potential tests, BMP) and long term (AD1, AD2) experiments are conducted using two types of set-up (batch, continuous). Process data (influent, effluent and biogas) is continuously collected and the dry digested sludge is analyzed by XPS. A mathematical model is developed based...

  9. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  10. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  11. Lithium-ion battery performance improvement based on capacity recovery exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddahech, Akram; Briat, Olivier; Vinassa, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Experiments on combined power-cycling/calendar aging of high-power lithium battery. •Recovery phenomenon on battery capacity when we stop power-cycling. •Full discharge at rest time is a potential source for battery life prolongation. •Temperature impact on capacity recovery and battery aging. -- Abstract: In this work, the performance recovery phenomenon when aging high-power lithium-ion batteries used in HEV application is highlighted. This phenomenon consists in the increase on the battery capacity when power-cycling is stopped. The dependency of this phenomenon on the stop-SOC value is demonstrated. Keeping battery at a fully discharged state preserves a large amount of charge from the SEI-electrolyte interaction when they are in the positive electrode during rest time. Results from power cycling and combined aging, calendar/power-cycling, of a 12 A h-commercialized lithium-ion battery, at two temperatures (45 °C and 55 °C), are presented and obtained results are discussed

  12. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Russell [Southern Company Services, Incorporated, Birmingham, AL (United States); Dombrowski, K. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Bernau, M. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Morett, D. [AECOM Technical Services, Austin, TX (United States); Maxson, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hume, S. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  13. Improving the efficiency of longwall face recoveries by managing the geotechnical threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hill; Rob Thomas [Strata Engineering (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    The project objective was to develop credible industry guidelines for the specification of effective ground control strategies, so as to minimise the likely geotechnical threats relating to the safety, operational costs and production delays associated with the recovery and relocation of a longwall face. The project commenced with an industry survey of longwall relocation practice. The resulting database covers issues such as the geotechnical environment, support practices and ground control experiences, including any difficulties encountered. Fieldwork aimed at geotechnical characterisation covered a range of environments in NSW and Queensland, drawing also on existing data from a number of mines. Longwall take-off monitoring data was obtained from 24 face recoveries across all the major coalfields. The fieldwork identified a number of critical features of the geotechnical environment, support design and mining geometry that have a pronounced impact on ground control during take-off. A cantilever model of roof behaviour at the take-off point was developed and validated by the data collected. The roof cantilever acts to transfer load to the solid abutment, the primary support element. Four parameters were identified as the main geotechnical hazards, namely: low roof competency (ie weak roof); an adverse weighting environment; geological structure; and horizontal stress concentrations at the gate ends (generally the maingate). Four aspects of the geometry and process were seen to be particularly significant, in terms of their impact on roof stability and the success of the overall operation, namely: the ability to maintain powered support resistance during bolt-up and take-off; the direction in which the powered supports are removed; the impact of take-off chutes; and the speed of the powered support removal process.

  14. Optimization-based design of waste heat recovery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano

    /or selected. This dissertation focuses on the chemical product and process systems used for waste heat recovery. Here, chemical products are working fluids, which are under continuous development and screening to fulfill regulatory environmental protection and safe operation requirements. Furthermore......, for the recovery of low-grade waste heat, new fluids and processes are needed to make the recovery technically and economically feasible. As the chemical product is influential in the design of the process system, the design of novel chemical products must be considered with the process system. Currently, state...... product and process system in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Today, some of the most important chemical product design problems are solvents and working fluids. Solvents are a vital part in the recovery of valuable resources in separation processes or waste water treatment. Working fluids...

  15. Technical and economic analysis of natural ga decompression: recovery of both electricity and process frigories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracastoro, G.V.; Perino, M.

    1996-01-01

    The most significant results of the economic analysis on natural gas decompression, specifically referring to EniChem's newly built plant in Porto Marghera, are shown in this article. The analysis was carried out in the framework of rational utilization of energy in compliance with Law No.9 of January 9, 1991. In order to optimize the final use of energy, the service rendered being equal (natural gas was decompressed owing to safety and technical reasons), a possible solution was found, i.e. to replace thermodynamic lamination by an expansion process in a two-stage turbine expansor (recovery of physical energy in pressure). Thanks to this new solution, the above mentioned recovery operation can be integrated by recovering the frigories associated with the availability of the fluid stream (physical energy in temperature) at the outlet of the generator, in order to supply the refrigerating quantity needed to carry out some phases of the steam-cracking process, which takes place in an area lying close to the new decompression plant

  16. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D. [Gas Technology Institute; Bischoff, B.; Ciora, [Media and Process Technology; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina

  17. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  18. Implementing a customer focused continual business improvement program to improve the maintenance process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Fisher, C.; Beres, T.; Brooks, S.; Forbes, S.; Krause, M.; McAuley, K.; Wendorf, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Global market pressures and increasing competition demands that successful companies establish a continual business improvement program as part of implementing its business strategy. Such programs must be driven by the definition of quality from the customer's perspective. This customer quality focus often requires a change in all aspects of the business including products, services, processes and culture. This paper will describe how Atomic Energy of Canada Limited implemented a Continual Business Improvement Program in their Nuclear Laboratories Business Unit. In particular, to review how the techniques were applied to improve the maintenance process and the status of the project. Customer (internal users of the processes at CRL) feedback has shown repeatedly there is dissatisfaction of the maintenance process. Customers complain about jobs not getting done to schedule or being deferred. A project has been launched with the following goals: to improve the maintenance process customer satisfaction and increase trades wrench time by 30 minutes / trade / day. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) methodology was applied to find out the Root Cause(s) of the problem, provide solutions, and implement improvements. The expected Operational Benefits include: Executing work efficiently to quality standards and business performance of the site, improve maintenance efficiencies, reduce cycle time for maintenance process and improve process yield, and improve customer and employee satisfaction. (author)

  19. Relationship between DNA repair and cell recovery: Importance of competing biochemical and metabolic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ankeren, S.C.; Wheeler, K.T.; Kansas Univ., Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the inhibition of repair of radiation-induced DNA damage and the inhibition of recovery from radiation-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD) by hypertonic treatment was compared in 9L/Ro rat brain tumor cells. Fed plateau phase cultures were γ-irradiated with 1500 rad and then immediately treated for 20 min with a 37 0 C isotonic (0.15 M) or hypertonic (0.50 M) salt solution. The kinetics of repair of radiation-induced DNA damage as assayed using alkaline filter elution were compared to those of recovery from radiation-induced PLD as assayed by colony formation. hypertonic treatment of unirradiated cells produced neither DNA damage nor cell kill. Post-irradiation hypertonic treatment inhibited both DNA repair and PLD recovery, while post-irradiation istonic treatment inhibited neither phenomenon. However, by 2 h after irradiation, the amount of DNA damage remaining after a 20 min hypertonic treatment was equivalent to that remaining after a 20 min isotonic treatment. In contrast, cell survival after hypertonic treatment remained 2 logs lower than after isotonic treatment even at times up to 24 h. These results suggest that the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage per per se is not causally related to recovery from radiation-induced PLD. However, the data are consistent with the time of DNA repair as an important parameter in determining cell survival and, therefore, tend to support the hypothesis that imbalances in sets of competing biochemical or metabolic processes determine survival rather than the presence of a single class of unrepaired DNA lesions. (orig.)

  20. Accident and Off-Normal Response and Recovery from Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Processing Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALDERMAN, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the process of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the K Basins through its subsequent packaging, drymg, transportation and storage steps, the SNF Project must be able to respond to all anticipated or foreseeable off-normal and accident events that may occur. Response procedures and recovery plans need to be in place, personnel training established and implemented to ensure the project will be capable of appropriate actions. To establish suitable project planning, these events must first be identified and analyzed for their expected impact to the project. This document assesses all off-normal and accident events for their potential cross-facility or Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) process reversal impact. Table 1 provides the methodology for establishing the event planning level and these events are provided in Table 2 along with the general response and recovery planning. Accidents and off-normal events of the SNF Project have been evaluated and are identified in the appropriate facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) or in the transportation Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). Hazards and accidents are summarized from these safety analyses and listed in separate tables for each facility and the transportation system in Appendix A, along with identified off-normal events. The tables identify the general response time required to ensure a stable state after the event, governing response documents, and the events with potential cross-facility or SNF process reversal impacts. The event closure is predicated on stable state response time, impact to operations and the mitigated annual occurrence frequency of the event as developed in the hazard analysis process

  1. Recovery of PMOSFET NBTI under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yan-Rong; Yang Yi; Cao Cheng; He Wen-Long; Zheng Xue-Feng; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a serious reliability issue, and the interface traps and oxide charges play an important role in the degradation process. In this paper, we study the recovery of NBTI systemically under different conditions in the P-type metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET), explain the various recovery phenomena, and find the possible processes of the recovery. (paper)

  2. Comparison of the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the tested functions was observed in both groups. However, in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits the degree of recovery of most language functions and some cognitive functions was higher. A significantly greater correlation was revealed within language and cognitive functions, as well as between language functions and other aspects of cognition in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits than in patients with aphasia following a stroke. Our results show that patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits have a different recovery pattern and a different pattern of correlation between language and cognitive functions compared to patients with aphasia following a stroke. (1) Better understanding of the differences in recovery of language and cognitive functions in patients who have suffered strokes and those who have experienced traumatic brain injury. (2) Better understanding of the relationship between language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. (3) Better understanding of the factors influencing recovery.

  3. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic

  4. [Sustainable process improvement with application of 'lean philosophy'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouppe van der Voort, Marc B V; van Merode, G G Frits; Veraart, Henricus G N

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement is increasingly being implemented, particularly with the aid of 'lean philosophy'. This management philosophy aims to improve quality by reducing 'wastage'. Local improvements can produce negative effects elsewhere due to interdependence of processes. An 'integrated system approach' is required to prevent this. Some hospitals claim that this has been successful. Research into process improvement with the application of lean philosophy has reported many positive effects, defined as improved safety, quality and efficiency. Due to methodological shortcomings and lack of rigorous evaluations it is, however, not yet possible to determine the impact of this approach. It is, however, obvious that the investigated applications are fragmentary, with a dominant focus on the instrumental aspect of the philosophy and a lack of integration in a total system, and with insufficient attention to human aspects. Process improvement is required to achieve better and more goal-oriented healthcare. To achieve this, hospitals must develop integrated system approaches that combine methods for process design with continuous improvement of processes and with personnel management. It is crucial that doctors take the initiative to guide and improve processes in an integral manner.

  5. Inpatient preanalytic process improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Phipps, Ron; Del Guidice, Robert; Middleton, Lavinia P; Bingham, John; Prejean, Cheryl; Johnson-Hamilton, Martha; Philip, Pheba; Le, Ngoc Han; Muses, Waheed

    2013-12-01

    Phlebotomy services are a common target for preanalytic improvements. Many new, quality engineering tools have recently been applied in clinical laboratories. However, data on relatively few projects have been published. This example describes a complete application of current, quality engineering tools to improve preanalytic phlebotomy services. To decrease the response time in the preanalytic inpatient laboratory by 25%, to reduce the number of incident reports related to preanalytic phlebotomy, and to make systematic process changes that satisfied the stakeholders. The Department of Laboratory Medicine, General Services Section, at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) is responsible for inpatient phlebotomy in a 24-hour operation, which serves 689 inpatient beds. The study director was project director of the Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine's Quality Improvement Section and was assisted by 2 quality technologists and an industrial engineer from MD Anderson Office of Performance Improvement. After implementing each solution, using well-recognized, quality tools and metrics, the response time for blood collection decreased by 23%, which was close to meeting the original responsiveness goal of 25%. The response time between collection and arrival in the laboratory decreased by 8%. Applicable laboratory-related incident reports were reduced by 43%. Comprehensive application of quality tools, such as statistical control charts, Pareto diagrams, value-stream maps, process failure modes and effects analyses, fishbone diagrams, solution prioritization matrices, and customer satisfaction surveys can significantly improve preset goals for inpatient phlebotomy.

  6. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Second annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.

    1995-03-01

    This project is directed at reducing water production and increasing oil recovery efficiency. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without sacrificing hydrocarbon production. Environmental considerations also provide a significant incentive to reduce water production during oilfield operations. This three-year project has two technical objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. Topics covered in this report include (1) comparisons of the use of gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates as blocking agents; (2) propagation of aluminum-citrate-HPAM gels through porous rock; (3) gel properties in fractured systems; (4) gel placement in unfractured anisotropic flow systems; and (5) an investigation of why some gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability.

  7. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  8. Speed of recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicki, Jennifer; Berglund, Derek D; Momoh, Enesi; Disla, Shanell; Horn, Brandon; Giveans, M Russell; Levy, Jonathan C

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the time taken to achieve maximum improvement (plateau of recovery) and the degree of recovery observed at various time points (speed of recovery) for pain and function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. An institutional shoulder surgery registry query identified 627 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between 2006 and 2015. Measured range of motion, patient satisfaction, and patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed for preoperative, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals. Subgroup analysis was performed on the basis of tear size by retraction grade and number of anchors used. As an entire group, the plateau of maximum recovery for pain, function, and motion occurred at 1 year. Satisfaction with surgery was >96% at all time points. At 3 months, 74% of improvement in pain and 45% to 58% of functional improvement were realized. However, only 22% of elevation improvement was achieved (P rotation. Smaller tears had higher motion and functional scores across all time points. Tear size did not influence pain levels. The plateau of maximum recovery after rotator cuff repair occurred at 1 year with high satisfaction rates at all time points. At 3 months, approximately 75% of pain relief and 50% of functional recovery can be expected. Larger tears have a slower speed of recovery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Business Processes Improvement in e-Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Rejman Petrovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a model to improve business processes in e-supply chains involves the use of a process approach to and a methodology for information systems development and includes the definition of the requirement, logical key process modeling with the defined information flow within the logical subsystem, logical data modeling, the logical network and data distribution modeling, and the logical interface modeling in order to meet different users´ needs. In doing so, a variety of methods and techniques for the different development stages of management information systems are used, namely: the business process management, the business process performance management and the analytic hierarchy process as a method for multiple-criteria decision making. This paper analyzes business processes and different types of supply chains in the automotive industry, as the representative of complex systems. Based on the selected key business processes and key performance indicators of business processes, the analytic hierarchy process model is developed, followed by their optimization. The result is the management information system model intended to improve the key business processes in e-supply chains. The research results show that the performance improvement of business processes in e-supply chains, the application of the model to improve the key business processes and the application of Web-based information and communication solutions affect the efficiency and quality of e-supply chains.

  10. Engaged Research in Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived.......This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived....

  11. Next generation software process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Turnas, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Software is often developed under a process that can at best be described as ad hoc. While it is possible to develop quality software under an ad hoc process, formal processes can be developed to help increase the overall quality of the software under development. The application of these processes allows for an organization to mature. The software maturity level, and process improvement, of an organization can be measured with the Cap...

  12. Competing Values in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the article is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on software process improvement (SPI). Is cultural congruence between an organization and an adopted process model required? How can the level of congruence between an organizational culture and the values...... and assumptions underlying an adopted process model be assessed? How can cultural incongruence be managed to facilitate success of software process improvement? Design/methodology/approach The competing values framework and its associated assessment instrument are used in a case study to establish......-step process, SPI managers establish and compare culture profiles and decide how to address identified problems. To that end the text analysis technique is offered as a web service that allows for analysis of all text-based process models and standards, and of internal process documentation. Originality...

  13. A recovery journey for people with personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Heather; Ramon, Shulamit; Morant, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The study investigates the process of recovery for people diagnosed with personality disorder, a client group that suffers significant social exclusion known to impact on demand for health and other public services. It aims to examine efforts that attempt to reverse this social exclusion as an aspect of the recovery process. and The following study aims to (1) explore what recovery means to people with personality disorder; (2) develop a conceptual model of recovery in personality disorder; and (3) evaluate the contribution of the setting (The Haven) to recovery practice. The study uses a Participatory Action Research (PAR) design. Data was collected from 66 participants by focus groups and individual interviews. A map based on thematic analysis of data collected during the study is proposed of the recovery journey for people with this diagnosis, shown as a pyramid that represents a hierarchy of progress, from building trust through stages of recovery to social inclusion. The findings offer contributions to knowledge in terms of the service design and propose a new model of recovery in personality disorder. This is defined as a journey of small steps highlighting recovery as a process rather than a goal, leading to the emergence of the new concept of transitional recovery.

  14. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutzke, Martin A.; Cooper, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  15. Self-reported postoperative recovery in children after tonsillectomy compared to tonsillotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mats; Nilsson, Ulrica; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine; Idvall, Ewa; Ericsson, Elisabeth

    2017-05-01

    Tonsil surgery is associated with significant morbidity during recovery. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) are the golden standard for the planning and follow-up of delivered care, which should also be an axiom for children. The current aims were to describe self-reported postoperative recovery in children after tonsil surgery, and to compare tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy in this respect. In total, 238 children (4-12 years old) with a history of obstructive problems and/or recurrent tonsillitis, and undergoing tonsil surgery were included. Forty-eight per cent were operated with partial tonsil resection/tonsillotomy (TT) and 52% with total tonsillectomy (TE), all in day surgery. Postoperative recovery was assessed on days 1, 4 and 10 using the validated self-rating instrument PRiC, Postoperative Recovery in Children. This includes 23 items covering different aspects of recovery after tonsil surgery. A higher score indicates worse status in the respective items. Daily life activities (sleeping, eating and playing), physical symptoms (e.g., headache, stomach ache, sore throat, otalgia, dizziness, nausea, defecation, urination), and emotional aspects (sadness, frightening dreams) were affected during the recovery period. The TE-girls showed higher scores than the boys regarding stomach ache, defecation and dizziness. Children above 6 years of age reported higher values for the physical comfort variables, while the younger group showed worse emotional states. Postoperative recovery improved from day 1-10 in all surgical groups. The TE-group showed lower recovery compared to the TT-group (p < 0.01-0.001) in most items. The goal of postoperative management is to minimize or eliminate discomfort, facilitating the recovery process and avoiding complications. Children are able to describe their recovery, and thus, PRiC seems to be able to serve as a PROM to obtain patient-centered data after tonsil surgery. The recovery process after TT causes less postoperative

  16. Conditioning in laser skin resurfacing - betulin emulsion and skin recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. /sup 57/Co Moessbauer study of the recovery process of electron-irradiated gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, I.; Nasu, S.; Fujita, F.E.

    1988-03-15

    The recovery process of Au--10-at. ppm-Co alloy after electron irradiation at 78 K was investigated by means of /sup 57/Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy. Three satellite lines were observed and assigned to the small interstitial(I)--Co complexes, the micro-I-loops containing Co atoms and the divacancy-Co complexes, respectively. A fairly strong binding energy between the interstitial and Co atoms in small I-Co complexes, most probably larger than 0.2 eV, was deduced

  18. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled material, substance, energy, and cost flows of a waste refinery process. • Ca. 56% of 1 Mg dry waste input can be recovered as bioliquid yielding 6.2 GJ biogas. • Nutrients and carbon recovery in the bioliquid was estimated to 81–89%. • The biogenic carbon in the input waste was 63% of total carbon based on 14 C analyses. • The quality of the digestate may be critical with respect to use on land. - Abstract: Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials are offered by waste refineries where a bioliquid is produced from enzymatic treatment of mixed waste. In this study, potential flows of materials, energy, and substances within a waste refinery were investigated by combining sampling, analyses, and modeling. Existing material, substance, and energy flow analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2 GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and biogenic carbon recovery was estimated to be between 81% and 89% of the input. Biogenic and fossil carbon in the mixed household waste input was determined to 63% and 37% of total carbon based on 14 C analyses. Additional recovery of metals and plastic was possible based on further process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives such as direct incineration

  19. Recovery efter depression set fra et patientperspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is argued that in the year 2020 depression will be one of the world's greatest health burdens. Object: The purpose of the study is to gain deeper knowledge of the depressive patient's experience of recovery from depression and to understand what effort this process require...... their integrity intact and the most important factor in the recovery process is the relationship to others. Keywords: major depressive disorder, patients’ perspective, qualitative research, recovery, social recovery......Abstract Background: It is argued that in the year 2020 depression will be one of the world's greatest health burdens. Object: The purpose of the study is to gain deeper knowledge of the depressive patient's experience of recovery from depression and to understand what effort this process requires...... phenomenological approach. Findings: Four main themes were identified: 1) Experience of change, 2) Loss of integrity, 3) Redefinition of identity and 4) Coping of the future. Conclusion: Depression changes the individual and no simple procedure can lead to recovery. The informants struggle with keeping...

  20. Development of Measures to Assess Personal Recovery in Young People Treated in Specialist Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mary; Jeffries, Fiona W; Acuna-Rivera, Marcela; Warren, Fiona; Simonds, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Recovery has become a central concept in mental health service delivery, and several recovery-focused measures exist for adults. The concept's applicability to young people's mental health experience has been neglected, and no measures yet exist. Aim The aim of this work is to develop measures of recovery for use in specialist child and adolescent mental health services. On the basis of 21 semi-structured interviews, three recovery measures were devised, one for completion by the young person and two for completion by the parent/carer. Two parent/carer measures were devised in order to assess both their perspective on their child's recovery and their own recovery process. The questionnaires were administered to a UK sample of 47 young people (10-18 years old) with anxiety and depression and their parents, along with a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome and a measure of self-esteem. All three measures had high internal consistency (alpha ≥ 0.89). Young people's recovery scores were correlated negatively with scores on a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome (r = -0.75) and positively with self-esteem (r = 0.84). Parent and young persons' reports of the young person's recovery were positively correlated (r = 0.61). Parent report of the young person's recovery and of their own recovery process were positively correlated (r = 0.75). The three measures have the potential to be used in mental health services to assess recovery processes in young people with mental health difficulties and correspondence with symptomatic improvement. The measures provide a novel way of capturing the pare