WorldWideScience

Sample records for improved knowledge base

  1. How Case-Based Reasoning on e-Community Knowledge Can Be Improved Thanks to Knowledge Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard , Emmanuelle; Lieber , Jean; Nauer , Emmanuel; Cordier , Amélie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper shows that performing case-based reasoning (CBR) on knowledge coming from an e-community is improved by taking into account knowledge reliability. MKM (meta-knowledge model) is a model for managing reliability of the knowledge units that are used in the reasoning process. For this, MKM uses meta-knowledge such as belief, trust and reputation, about knowledge units and users. MKM is used both to select relevant knowledge to conduct the reasoning process, and ...

  2. Patient Safety Based Knowledge Management SECI to Improve Nusrsing Students Competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanggi Wiriatarina Harianto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient safety is an important component of health services quality,and  basic principles of patient care. Nursing students also have a great potential to make an action that could endanger the patient, because hospital is one of student practice area. The purpose of this study was to improve the nursing students competency in patient safety by using knowledge management SECI approached. Method: The study used exploratory survey, and quasy experiment. The samples were some of nursing students of STIKes Muhammadiyah Samarinda who were on internship programme that selected using simple random sampling technique, in total of 54 students. This research’s variables were the knowledge management SECI based-patient safety and nursing student’s competency. The data were collected by using questionnaires and observation. The data were analyze by using Partial Least Square (PLS. Result: The result showed that there were significant influence the implementation of a model patient safety based knowledge management seci on increased competence nursing students. Discussion: Improved student competency in patient safety using SECI knowledge management was carried out in four phases, that is Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization. The result was a new knowledge related to patient safety that able to improve the student’s competency.. Keywords: Patient safety, Knowledge management, SECI, competency

  3. School-Based Educational Intervention to Improve Children's Oral Health-Related Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. How Quality Improvement Practice Evidence Can Advance the Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼRourke, Hannah M; Fraser, Kimberly D

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the evaluation of quality improvement interventions have been made in order to improve the evidence base of whether, to what extent, and why quality improvement interventions affect chosen outcomes. The purpose of this article is to articulate why these recommendations are appropriate to improve the rigor of quality improvement intervention evaluation as a research endeavor, but inappropriate for the purposes of everyday quality improvement practice. To support our claim, we describe the differences between quality improvement interventions that occur for the purpose of practice as compared to research. We then carefully consider how feasibility, ethics, and the aims of evaluation each impact how quality improvement interventions that occur in practice, as opposed to research, can or should be evaluated. Recommendations that fit the evaluative goals of practice-based quality improvement interventions are needed to support fair appraisal of the distinct evidence they produce. We describe a current debate on the nature of evidence to assist in reenvisioning how quality improvement evidence generated from practice might complement that generated from research, and contribute in a value-added way to the knowledge base.

  5. Scotland's Knowledge Network: translating knowledge into action to improve quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A

    2012-11-01

    The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement.

  6. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    %, and 20% of missing values. This expansion in the KB coverage allowed solving complex disease diagnostic queries that were previously unresolvable, without losing the correctness of the answers. However, compared to deductive reasoning, data-intensive plausible reasoning mechanisms yield a significant performance overhead. We observed that plausible reasoning approaches, by generating tentative inferences and leveraging domain knowledge of experts, allow us to extend the coverage of medical knowledge bases, resulting in improved clinical decision support. Second, by leveraging OWL ontological knowledge, we are able to increase the expressivity and accuracy of plausible reasoning methods. Third, our approach is applicable to clinical decision support systems for a range of chronic diseases.

  7. Interactive case-based learning improves resident knowledge and confidence in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Kara N; Tiegs, Ashley W; Uquillas, Kristen; Nachtigall, Margaret; Fino, M Elizabeth; Winkel, Abigail F; Lerner, Veronica

    2017-06-01

    Resident physicians' scores on the REI section of the CREOG exam are traditionally low, and nearly 40% of house staff nation-wide perceive their REI knowledge to be poor. We aimed to assess whether an interactive case-based group-learning curriculum would narrow the REI knowledge gap by improving understanding and retention of core REI concepts under the time constraints affecting residents. A three-hour case-based workshop was developed to address four primary CREOG objectives. A multiple-choice test was administered immediately before and after the intervention and 7 weeks post-workshop, to evaluate both knowledge and confidence. Following the intervention, residents self-reported increased confidence with counseling and treatment of PCOS, ovulation induction cycle monitoring, counseling and treatment of POI, and breaking bad news related to infertility (p < 0.05). The multiple-choice exam was re-administered 7 weeks post-intervention, and scores remained significantly improved compared to pre-workshop scores (p < 0.05). At that time, all residents either strongly agreed (91.7%) or agreed (8.3%) that the case-based interactive format was preferable to traditional lecture-based teaching. In conclusion, a nontraditional curriculum aimed at teaching core REI concepts to residents through interactive case-based learning can be successfully integrated into a residency curriculum, and significantly improves knowledge and confidence of critical concepts in REI.

  8. An assessment of maintainability of elevator system to improve facilities management knowledge-base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti, N. A.; Asmone, A. S.; Chew, M. Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    Elevator system is a highly specialized machinery that requires technicians that have a wider array of knowledge in maintaining the system to be safe and reliable. While attaining reliable data of elevator malfunction become challenges, this study has filled the gap by gathering the management-maintenance issues and operational defects of elevator system. Forty-three types of operation defects were found and the consequence defects and their possible causes of occurrences were discussed. To respond to the prime challenges of maintaining elevator system provided by the industry players’ perspective, a theoretical framework is established as a recommendation to improve knowledge base of defects in elevator system which comprises good practices, and solutions to rectify each defects found. Hence, this research paper has theoretically improved the knowledge base of maintainability of elevator system and provide meaningful guidelines in practical senses to the industry professionals.

  9. Improving Student Teachers' Knowledge-Base in Language Education through Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba, Mathias Bwanika

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of the digital era is redefining education and the pedagogical processes in an unpredictable manner. In the midst of the increased availability of print and online resources, the twenty-first century language teacher educator expects her (or his) student teachers to be reading beings if they are to improve their knowledge-base in…

  10. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  11. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  12. Improving patient knowledge about sacral nerve stimulation using a patient based educational video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppson, Peter Clegg; Clark, Melissa A; Hampton, Brittany Star; Raker, Christina A; Sung, Vivian W

    2013-10-01

    We developed a patient based educational video to address the information needs of women considering sacral nerve stimulation for overactive bladder. Five semistructured focus groups were used to identify patient knowledge gaps, information needs, patient acceptable terminology and video content preferences for a patient based sacral nerve stimulation educational video. Each session was transcribed, independently coded by 2 coders and examined using an iterative method. A 16-minute educational video was created to address previously identified knowledge gaps and information needs using patient footage, 3-dimensional animation and peer reviewed literature. We developed a questionnaire to evaluate participant sacral nerve stimulation knowledge and therapy attitudes. We then performed a randomized trial to assess the effect of the educational video vs the manufacturer video on patient knowledge and attitudes using our questionnaire. We identified 10 patient important domains, including 1) anatomy, 2) expectations, 3) sacral nerve stimulation device efficacy, 4) surgical procedure, 5) surgical/device complications, 6) post-procedure recovery, 7) sacral nerve stimulation side effects, 8) postoperative restrictions, 9) device maintenance and 10) general sacral nerve stimulation information. A total of 40 women with overactive bladder were randomized to watch the educational (20) or manufacturer (20) video. Knowledge scores improved in each group but the educational video group had a greater score improvement (76.6 vs 24.2 points, p <0.0001). Women who watched the educational video reported more favorable attitudes and expectations about sacral nerve stimulation therapy. Women with overactive bladder considering sacral nerve stimulation therapy have specific information needs. The video that we developed to address these needs was associated with improved short-term patient knowledge. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  13. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  14. Use of a web-based education program improves nurses' knowledge of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloian, Barbara J; Lewin, Linda Orkin; O'Connor, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the baseline knowledge and knowledge gained of nurses, nursing students, midwives, and nurse practitioners who completed Breastfeeding Basics, an online educational program. This study reports on an anonymous evaluation of an online breastfeeding education program developed and maintained to promote evidence-based breastfeeding practice. Included in the study were 3736 nurses, 728 nurse practitioners/midwives, and 3106 nursing students from the United States who completed ≥ one pretest or posttest on the Breastfeeding Basics website between April 1999 and December 31, 2011. Baseline scores were analyzed to determine if nurses' baseline knowledge varied by selected demographic variables such as age, gender, professional level, personal or partner breastfeeding experience, and whether they were required to complete the website for a job or school requirement and to determine knowledge gaps. Pretest and posttest scores on all modules and in specific questions with low pretest scores were compared as a measure of knowledge gained. Lower median pretest scores were found in student nurses (71%), males (71%), those required to take the course (75%), and those without personal breastfeeding experience (72%). The modules with the lowest median pretest scores were Anatomy/Physiology (67%), Growth and Development of the Breastfed Infant (67%), the Breastfeeding Couple (73%), and the Term Infant with Problems (60%). Posttest scores in all modules increased significantly (p nurses and nursing students. Gaps exist in nurses' breastfeeding knowledge. Knowledge improved in all areas based on comparison of pretest and posttest scores. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  16. Codifying knowledge to improve patient safety: a qualitative study of practice-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Higginson, Juliet; Oborne, C Alice; Thomas, Rebecca E; Ramsay, Angus I G; Fulop, Naomi J

    2014-07-01

    Although it is well established that health care professionals use tacit and codified knowledge to provide front-line care, less is known about how these two forms of knowledge can be combined to support improvement related to patient safety. Patient safety interventions involving the codification of knowledge were co-designed by university and hospital-based staff in two English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals to support the governance of medication safety and mortality and morbidity (M&M) meetings. At hospital A, a structured mortality review process was introduced into three clinical specialities from January to December 2010. A qualitative approach of observing M&M meetings (n = 30) and conducting interviews (n = 40) was used to examine the impact on meetings and on front-line clinicians and hospital managers. At hospital B, a medication safety 'scorecard' was administered on a general medicine and elderly care ward from September to November 2011. Weekly feedback meetings were observed (n = 18) and interviews with front-line staff conducted (n = 10) to examine how knowledge codification influenced behaviour. Codification was shown to support learning related to patient safety at the micro (front-line service) level by structuring the sharing of tacit knowledge, but the presence of professional and managerial boundaries at the organisational level affected the codification initiatives' implementation. The findings suggest that codifying knowledge to support improvement presents distinct challenges at the group and organisational level; translating knowledge across these levels is contingent on the presence of enabling organisational factors, including the alignment of learning from clinical practice with its governance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it`s specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  18. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it`s specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  19. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF NURSING DOCUMENTATION BASED ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT THROUGH SECI CONCEPT MODEL’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arief Santoso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Documentation of nursing care in Kalianget RSI in 2011 was totaled average 58,1% and in 2012 achieve was still low. According the lowest component was nursing diagnosis. This research aims to improve the performance of nursing care documentation based on knowledge management through the SECI Model’s concept in Garam Kalianget RSI Sumenep District. Method: Design of this research was action research. Population and sample in the research of knowledge, motivation and work responsibility were all nurses total ed 29 people. The dependent variable were knowledge, performance, motivation, work responsibility, and performance after intervention knowledge management (KM and as independent variable in this research was knowledge, performance, and intervention research knowledge management in documentation nursing care. Data were collected by using questionnaires and checklists. Result: The results after the SECI model’s intervention and using Paired t Test with a 95% confidence level of knowledge obtained p = 0.0001 which means that there was a significant knowledge difference between before and after intervention, comparison of performance documenting of nursing care obtained value ρ = 0.004, which means there was a difference significant performance between before and after intervention. Comparison of SBAR effective communication performance values obtained ρ = 0.001, which means there was a significant performance difference between before and after intervention. Discussion: Knowledge management through SECI model’s has important role in improving performance documentation of nursing care and SBAR effective communication. It is recommended to do in forum sharing nurse’s experience or informant in practical communication in periodic, recording, documentation, and keep document well and doing supervision continously especially form nursing care and SBAR effective communication.

  1. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Background Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians? experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mech...

  2. Improving the Knowledge Base in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockler, Michael J.

    Education in the United States for most of the last 50 years has built its knowledge base on a single dominating foundation--behavioral psychology. This paper analyzes the history of behaviorism. Syntheses are presented of the theories of Ivan P. Pavlov, J. B. Watson, and B. F. Skinner, all of whom contributed to the body of works on behaviorism.…

  3. Sphinx: merging knowledge-based and ab initio approaches to improve protein loop prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Claire; Nowak, Jaroslaw; Klostermann, Stefan; Georges, Guy; Dunbar, James; Shi, Jiye; Kelm, Sebastian; Deane, Charlotte M

    2017-05-01

    Loops are often vital for protein function, however, their irregular structures make them difficult to model accurately. Current loop modelling algorithms can mostly be divided into two categories: knowledge-based, where databases of fragments are searched to find suitable conformations and ab initio, where conformations are generated computationally. Existing knowledge-based methods only use fragments that are the same length as the target, even though loops of slightly different lengths may adopt similar conformations. Here, we present a novel method, Sphinx, which combines ab initio techniques with the potential extra structural information contained within loops of a different length to improve structure prediction. We show that Sphinx is able to generate high-accuracy predictions and decoy sets enriched with near-native loop conformations, performing better than the ab initio algorithm on which it is based. In addition, it is able to provide predictions for every target, unlike some knowledge-based methods. Sphinx can be used successfully for the difficult problem of antibody H3 prediction, outperforming RosettaAntibody, one of the leading H3-specific ab initio methods, both in accuracy and speed. Sphinx is available at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/sphinx. deane@stats.ox.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Improving resident's skills in the management of circulatory shock with a knowledge-based e-learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, David; Real, Francis; Alonso, Jose Ramon

    2018-05-01

    Correct clinical management of circulatory shock in emergency departments (ER) and intensive care units (ICU) is critical. In this context, the transmission of professional skills by means of the practical supervision of real cases at the point of care entails important issues that can be widely overcome with the use of computer knowledge-based e-learning tools. Shock-Instructor is a web-based e-learning tool implementing the already tested training program model (TPM) that uses a knowledge base about the evidence found in the clinical practice guidelines about seven types of shock. This tool is expected to reduce the learning times and to improve the skills of hospital residents with regard to both the correct application of the guidelines and patient recovery, suppressing the risks of direct interventions. Shock-Instructor has been used to train residents in the Emergency Department of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona (Spain) in order to reduce the learning cycle without affecting quality. A case-base with the description of 51 cases with shock and a knowledge-base with 137 clinical rules about the treatment of shock were incorporated to the Shock-Instructor system. A group of 33 residents was involved in a randomized controlled trial to check whether the use of Shock-Instructor can significantly improve the skills of clinicians after one week of problem-based training. No significant differences were found in the skill levels of the intervention (IG) and control (CG) groups prior to learning. However, we observed an improvement of the IG clinicians capacity to stabilize patients with shock in better clinical conditions (5% improvement, p = 0.004), and to reduce the risk of death in 19.52% (p = 0.004), after training. First-year residents in IG enhanced 14.3% their sensitivity in the correct application of guidelines (p = 0.01), and 14.9% the mean survival rate of their patients (p = 0.01), after being trained with Shock-Instructor for a week

  5. Improving Nurses' Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion Knowledge, Confidence, and Skills Using a Simulation-Based Blended Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleekai, Nowai L.; Schuster, Catherine A.; Murray, Connie L.; King, Mary Anne; Stahl, Brian R.; Labrozzi, Laura J.; Gallucci, Susan; LeClair, Matthew W.; Glover, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) insertion is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in a hospital, but most nurses receive little formal training in this area. Blended PIVC insertion training programs that incorporate deliberate simulated practice have the potential to improve clinical practice and patient care. Methods The study was a randomized, wait-list control group with crossover using nurses on three medical/surgical units. Baseline PIVC knowledge, confidence, and skills assessments were completed for both groups. The intervention group then received a 2-hour PIVC online course, followed by an 8-hour live training course using a synergistic mix of three simulation tools. Both groups were then reassessed. After crossover, the wait-list group received the same intervention and both groups were reassessed. Results At baseline, both groups were similar for knowledge, confidence, and skills. Compared with the wait-list group, the intervention group had significantly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills upon completing the training program. After crossover, the wait-list group had similarly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills than the intervention group. Between the immediate preintervention and postintervention periods, the intervention group improved scores for knowledge by 31%, skills by 24%, and decreased confidence by 0.5%, whereas the wait-list group improved scores for knowledge by 28%, confidence by 16%, and skills by 15%. Conclusions Results demonstrate significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, confidence, and skills with the use of a simulation-based blended learning program for PIVC insertion. Transferability of these findings from a simulated environment into clinical practice should be further explored. PMID:27504890

  6. From conventional software based systems to knowledge based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, S.

    1995-01-01

    Even if todays nuclear power plants have a very good safety record, there is a continuous search for still improving safety. One direction of this effort address operational safety, trying to improve the handling of disturbances and accidents partly by further automation, partly by creating a better control room environment, providing the operator with intelligent support systems to help in the decision making process. Introduction of intelligent computerised operator support systems has proved to be an efficient way of improving the operators performance. A number of systems have been developed worldwide, assisting in tasks like process fault detection and diagnosis, selection and implementation of proper remedial actions. Unfortunately, the use of Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs), introduces a new dimension to the problem of the licensing process. KBSs, despite the different technology employed, are still nothing more than a computer program. Unfortunately, quite a few people building knowledge based systems seem to ignore the many good programming practices that have evolved over the years for producing traditional computer programs. In this paper the author will try to point out similarities and differences between conventional software based systems, and knowledge based systems, introducing also the concept of model based reasoning. (orig.) (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  7. Does GEM-Encoding Clinical Practice Guidelines Improve the Quality of Knowledge Bases? A Study with the Rule-Based Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Gersende; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the GEM-encoding step could improve the representation of clinical practice guidelines as formalized knowledge bases. We used the 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension, chosen as the knowledge source in the ASTI project. We first clarified semantic ambiguities of therapeutic sequences recommended in the guideline by proposing an interpretative framework of therapeutic strategies. Then, after a formalization step to standardize the terms used to characterize clinical situations, we created the GEM-encoded instance of the guideline. We developed a module for the automatic derivation of a rule base, BR-GEM, from the instance. BR-GEM was then compared to the rule base, BR-ASTI, embedded within the critic mode of ASTI, and manually built by two physicians from the same Canadian guideline. As compared to BR-ASTI, BR-GEM is more specific and covers more clinical situations. When evaluated on 10 patient cases, the GEM-based approach led to promising results. PMID:14728173

  8. Does GEM-encoding clinical practice guidelines improve the quality of knowledge bases? A study with the rule-based formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Georg; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the GEM-encoding step could improve the representation of clinical practice guidelines as formalized knowledge bases. We used the 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension, chosen as the knowledge source in the ASTI project. We first clarified semantic ambiguities of therapeutic sequences recommended in the guideline by proposing an interpretative framework of therapeutic strategies. Then, after a formalization step to standardize the terms used to characterize clinical situations, we created the GEM-encoded instance of the guideline. We developed a module for the automatic derivation of a rule base, BR-GEM, from the instance. BR-GEM was then compared to the rule base, BR-ASTI, embedded within the critic mode of ASTI, and manually built by two physicians from the same Canadian guideline. As compared to BR-ASTI, BR-GEM is more specific and covers more clinical situations. When evaluated on 10 patient cases, the GEM-based approach led to promising results.

  9. Collaborative filtering to improve navigation of large radiology knowledge resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E

    2005-06-01

    Collaborative filtering is a knowledge-discovery technique that can help guide readers to items of potential interest based on the experience of prior users. This study sought to determine the impact of collaborative filtering on navigation of a large, Web-based radiology knowledge resource. Collaborative filtering was applied to a collection of 1,168 radiology hypertext documents available via the Internet. An item-based collaborative filtering algorithm identified each document's six most closely related documents based on 248,304 page views in an 18-day period. Documents were amended to include links to their related documents, and use was analyzed over the next 5 days. The mean number of documents viewed per visit increased from 1.57 to 1.74 (P Collaborative filtering can increase a radiology information resource's utilization and can improve its usefulness and ease of navigation. The technique holds promise for improving navigation of large Internet-based radiology knowledge resources.

  10. An Intervention Based on Video Feedback and Questioning to Improve Tactical Knowledge in Expert Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Ureña, Aurelio; Hernández, César; Del Villar, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study applied an intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, to expert female volleyball players to improve their tactical knowledge. The sample consisted of eight female attackers (26 ± 2.6 years old) from the Spanish National Volleyball Team, who were divided into an experimental group (n = 4) and a control group (n = 4). The video feedback and questioning program applied in the study was developed over eight reflective sessions and consisted of three phases: viewing of the selected actions, self-analysis and reflection by the attacker, and joint player-coach analysis. The attackers were videotaped in an actual game and four clips (situations) of each of the attackers were chosen for each reflective session. Two of the clips showed a correct action by the attacker, and two showed an incorrect decision. Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation with a verbal protocol. The members of the experimental group showed adaptations in long-term memory, significantly improving their tactical knowledge. With respect to conceptual content, there was an increase in the total number of conditions verbalized by the players; with respect to conceptual sophistication, there was an increase in the indication of appropriate conditions with two or more details; and finally, with respect to conceptual structure, there was an increase in the use of double or triple conceptual structures. The intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, in addition to on-court training sessions of expert volleyball players, appears to improve the athletes' tactical knowledge. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Home-based nursing interventions improve knowledge of disease and management in patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Oliveira Azzolin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess patient knowledge of heart failure by home-based measurement of two NOC Nursing Outcomes over a six-month period and correlate mean outcome indicator scores with mean scores of a heart failure Knowledge Questionnaire.METHODS: in this before-and-after study, patients with heart failure received four home visits over a six-month period after hospital discharge. At each home visit, nursing interventions were implemented, NOC outcomes were assessed, and the Knowledge Questionnaire was administered.RESULTS: overall, 23 patients received home visits. Mean indicator scores for the outcome Knowledge: Medication were 2.27±0.14 at home visit 1 and 3.55±0.16 at home visit 4 (P<0.001; and, for the outcome Knowledge: Treatment Regimen, 2.33±0.13 at home visit 1 and 3.59±0.14 at home visit 4 (P<0.001. The correlation between the Knowledge Questionnaire and the Nursing Outcomes Classification scores was strong at home visit 1 (r=0.7, P<0.01, but weak and non significant at visit 4.CONCLUSION: the results show improved patient knowledge of heart failure and a strong correlation between Nursing Outcomes Classification indicator scores and Knowledge Questionnaire scores. The NOC Nursing Outcomes proved effective as knowledge assessment measures when compared with the validated instrument.

  12. What kind of knowledge do small companies need to improve their working environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    towards knowledge-based behaviour. Additionally the time required increases when moving from skill- to knowledge-based behaviour. On the other hand, skill-based behaviour lacks the ability to solve problems and adapt to new situations. In the working environment risk assessment as well as the development...... of management routines are typically knowledge-based activities, whereas the application of good practice is more of skill or rule-based. For small companies, time as well as knowledge is an important constraint for the work environment management. Therefore the conclusion could be to focus on and provide skill......Background One of the main obstacles identified for small companies´ improvement of the working environment is lack of knowledge. Aim To discuss what kind of knowledge is required by small companies if they are to be able to improve their working environment and the pros and cons of different kinds...

  13. Effect of an iPad-Based Intervention to Improve Sexual Health Knowledge and Intentions for Contraceptive Use Among Adolescent Females at School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesheriakova, Veronika V; Tebb, Kathleen P

    2017-11-01

    The use of effective contraception can decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an iPad-based application (app) on improving adolescent girls' sexual health knowledge and on its ability to influence their intentions to use effective contraception. This was a prospective study of girls aged 12 to 18 years recruited from 3 school-based health centers in California. A total of 120 racially/ethnically diverse participants used the iPad app; 54% were sexually active, with only 26% using effective contraception at baseline. The average score on baseline sexual health knowledge assessment was 58%. After using the app, 68% of the sexually active participants reported intention to use effective contraception in the future, and sexual health knowledge improved significantly to 79% ( P iPad-based app is a promising intervention to educate adolescents about sexual health and support them in selecting an effective contraception method.

  14. Knowledge management method for knowledge based BWR Core Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yutaka; Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1989-03-01

    A knowledge management method is proposed to support an except whose knowledge is stored in a knowledge base in the BWR Core Operation Management System. When the alterations in the operation plans are motivated by the expert after evaluating them, the method attempts to find the knowledge which must be modified and to give the expert guidances. In this way the resultant operation plans are improved by modifying values of referenced data. Using data dependency among data, which are defined and referred during inference, data to be modified are retrieved. In generating modification guidances, data reference and definition procedures are classified by syntactic analysis of knowledge. The modified data values are calculated with a sensitivity between the increment in the data to be modified and the resultant one in the performance of operation plans. The efficiency of the knowledge management by the proposed method, when applied to the knowledge based system including 500 pieces of knowledge for BWR control rod programming, is higher than that for interactive use of existing general purpose editors. (author).

  15. Knowledge management method for knowledge based BWR Core Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yutaka; Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge management method is proposed to support an except whose knowledge is stored in a knowledge base in the BWR Core Operation Management System. When the alterations in the operation plans are motivated by the expert after evaluating them, the method attempts to find the knowledge which must be modified and to give the expert guidances. In this way the resultant operation plans are improved by modifying values of referenced data. Using data dependency among data, which are defined and referred during inference, data to be modified are retrieved. In generating modification guidances, data reference and definition procedures are classified by syntactic analysis of knowledge. The modified data values are calculated with a sensitivity between the increment in the data to be modified and the resultant one in the performance of operation plans. The efficiency of the knowledge management by the proposed method, when applied to the knowledge based system including 500 pieces of knowledge for BWR control rod programming, is higher than that for interactive use of existing general purpose editors. (author)

  16. KNOWLEDGE AND XML BASED CAPP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shijie; SONG Laigang

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the intelligent level of system and improve the interactivity with other systems, a knowledge and XML based computer aided process planning (CAPP) system is implemented. It includes user management, bill of materials(BOM) management, knowledge based process planning, knowledge management and database maintaining sub-systems. This kind of nesting knowledge representation method the system provided can represent complicated arithmetic and logical relationship to deal with process planning tasks. With the representation and manipulation of XML based technological file, the system solves some important problems in web environment such as information interactive efficiency and refreshing of web page. The CAPP system is written in ASP VBScript, JavaScript, Visual C++ languages and Oracle database. At present, the CAPP system is running in Shenyang Machine Tools. The functions of it meet the requirements of enterprise production.

  17. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  18. The acknowledge project: toward improved efficiency in the knowledge acquisition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, J.C.; Ramparany, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the ACKnowledge Project (Acquisition of Knowledge). Knowledge Acquisition is a critical and time-consuming phase in the development of expert systems. The ACKnowledge project aims at improving the efficiency of knowledge acquisition by analyzing and evaluating knowledge acquisition techniques, and developing a Knowledge Engineering Workbench that supports the Knowledge Engineer from the early stage of knowledge aquisition up to the implementation of the knowledge base in large and complex application domains such as the diagnosis of dynamic computer networks

  19. Home-based nursing interventions improve knowledge of disease and management in patients with heart failure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolin, Karina de Oliveira; Lemos, Dayanna Machado; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess patient knowledge of heart failure by home-based measurement of two NOC Nursing Outcomes over a six-month period and correlate mean outcome indicator scores with mean scores of a heart failure Knowledge Questionnaire. METHODS: in this before-and-after study, patients with heart failure received four home visits over a six-month period after hospital discharge. At each home visit, nursing interventions were implemented, NOC outcomes were assessed, and the Knowledge Questionnaire was administered. RESULTS: overall, 23 patients received home visits. Mean indicator scores for the outcome Knowledge: Medication were 2.27±0.14 at home visit 1 and 3.55±0.16 at home visit 4 (P<0.001); and, for the outcome Knowledge: Treatment Regimen, 2.33±0.13 at home visit 1 and 3.59±0.14 at home visit 4 (P<0.001). The correlation between the Knowledge Questionnaire and the Nursing Outcomes Classification scores was strong at home visit 1 (r=0.7, P<0.01), but weak and non significant at visit 4. CONCLUSION: the results show improved patient knowledge of heart failure and a strong correlation between Nursing Outcomes Classification indicator scores and Knowledge Questionnaire scores. The NOC Nursing Outcomes proved effective as knowledge assessment measures when compared with the validated instrument. PMID:25806630

  20. Ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients' knowledge with internet-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Katja; Leino-Kilpi, H; Salanterä, S

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for patient education and an evaluation of its outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients' knowledge with Internet-based education and face-to-face education with a nurse. The following hypothesis was proposed: Internet-based patient education (experiment) is as effective as face-to-face education with a nurse (control) in increasing patients' level of knowledge and sufficiency of knowledge. In addition, the correlations of demographic variables were tested. The patients were randomized to either an experiment group (n = 72) or a control group (n = 75). Empirical data were collected with two instruments. Patients in both groups showed improvement in their knowledge during their care. Patients in the experiment group improved their knowledge level significantly more in total than those patients in the control group. There were no differences in patients' sufficiency of knowledge between the groups. Knowledge was correlated especially with patients' age, gender and earlier ambulatory surgeries. As a conclusion, positive results concerning patients' knowledge could be achieved with the Internet-based education. The Internet is a viable method in ambulatory care.

  1. Asthma disease management-Australian pharmacists' interventions improve patients' asthma knowledge and this is sustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Bandana; LeMay, Kate; Emmerton, Lynne; Krass, Ines; Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Deborah; Armour, Carol

    2011-06-01

    To assess any improvements in knowledge of asthma patients after a tailored education program delivered by pharmacists and measure the sustainability of any improvements. To ascertain patients' perceptions about any changes in their knowledge. Ninety-six specially trained pharmacists recruited patients based on their risk of poor asthma control. A tailored intervention was delivered to patients based on individual needs and goals, and was conducted at three or four time points over six months. Asthma knowledge was assessed at the beginning and end of the service, and six and 12 months after it had ended. Patients' perceptions of the impact of the service on their knowledge were explored qualitatively in interviews. The 96 pharmacists recruited 570 patients, 398 (70%) finished. Asthma knowledge significantly improved as a result of the service (7.65 ± 2.36, n=561, to 8.78 ± 2.14, n=393). This improvement was retained for at least 12 months after the service. Patients reported how the knowledge and skills gained had led to a change in the way they managed their asthma. Improvements in knowledge are achievable and sustainable if pharmacists used targeted educational interventions. Pharmacist educational interventions are an efficient way to improve asthma knowledge in the community. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving knowledge management systems with latent semantic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, A.; Plott, C.; LaVoie, N.

    2006-01-01

    Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) offers a technique for improving lessons learned and knowledge management systems. These systems are expected to become more widely used in the nuclear industry, as experienced personnel leave and are replaced by younger, less-experienced workers. LSA is a machine learning technology that allows searching of text based on meaning rather than predefined keywords or categories. Users can enter and retrieve data using their own words, rather than relying on constrained language lists or navigating an artificially structured database. LSA-based tools can greatly enhance the usability and usefulness of knowledge management systems and thus provide a valuable tool to assist nuclear industry personnel in gathering and transferring worker expertise. (authors)

  3. Improving Nurses' Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion Knowledge, Confidence, and Skills Using a Simulation-Based Blended Learning Program: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleekai, Nowai L; Schuster, Catherine A; Murray, Connie L; King, Mary Anne; Stahl, Brian R; Labrozzi, Laura J; Gallucci, Susan; LeClair, Matthew W; Glover, Kevin R

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) insertion is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in a hospital, but most nurses receive little formal training in this area. Blended PIVC insertion training programs that incorporate deliberate simulated practice have the potential to improve clinical practice and patient care. The study was a randomized, wait-list control group with crossover using nurses on three medical/surgical units. Baseline PIVC knowledge, confidence, and skills assessments were completed for both groups. The intervention group then received a 2-hour PIVC online course, followed by an 8-hour live training course using a synergistic mix of three simulation tools. Both groups were then reassessed. After crossover, the wait-list group received the same intervention and both groups were reassessed. At baseline, both groups were similar for knowledge, confidence, and skills. Compared with the wait-list group, the intervention group had significantly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills upon completing the training program. After crossover, the wait-list group had similarly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills than the intervention group. Between the immediate preintervention and postintervention periods, the intervention group improved scores for knowledge by 31%, skills by 24%, and decreased confidence by 0.5%, whereas the wait-list group improved scores for knowledge by 28%, confidence by 16%, and skills by 15%. Results demonstrate significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, confidence, and skills with the use of a simulation-based blended learning program for PIVC insertion. Transferability of these findings from a simulated environment into clinical practice should be further explored.

  4. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation: a framework for knowledge translation and patient outcomes improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane M; Sidani, Souraya

    2007-01-01

    Regularly accessing information that is current and reliable continues to be a challenge for front-line staff nurses. Reconceptualizing how nurses access information and designing appropriate decision support systems to facilitate timely access to information may be important for increasing research utilization. An outcomes-focused knowledge translation framework was developed to guide the continuous improvement of patient care through the uptake of research evidence and feedback data about patient outcomes. The framework operationalizes the three elements of the PARIHS framework at the point of care. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation involves four components: (a) patient outcomes measurement and real-time feedback about outcomes achievement; (b) best-practice guidelines, embedded in decision support tools that deliver key messages in response to patient assessment data; (c) clarification of patients' preferences for care; and (d) facilitation by advanced practice nurses and practice leaders. In this paper the framework is described and evidence is provided to support theorized relationships among the concepts in the framework. The framework guided the design of a knowledge translation intervention aimed at continuous improvement of patient care and evidence-based practice, which are fostered through real-time feedback data about patient outcomes, electronic access to evidence-based resources at the point of care, and facilitation by advanced practice nurses. The propositions in the framework need to be empirically tested through future research.

  5. Comparison of clinical knowledge bases for summarization of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allison B; Sittig, Dean F; Wright, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Automated summarization tools that create condition-specific displays may improve clinician efficiency. These tools require new kinds of knowledge that is difficult to obtain. We compared five problem-medication pair knowledge bases generated using four previously described knowledge base development approaches. The number of pairs in the resulting mapped knowledge bases varied widely due to differing mapping techniques from the source terminologies, ranging from 2,873 to 63,977,738 pairs. The number of overlapping pairs across knowledge bases was low, with one knowledge base having half of the pairs overlapping with another knowledge base, and most having less than a third overlapping. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge bases independently in additional settings, and to identify methods to integrate the knowledge bases.

  6. Improvement of industrial efficiency by knowledge management in maintenance engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mariotoni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows research and studies dealing with the management of knowledge in industrial maintenance engineering, developed in the field of applied research in real industrial companies of Europe, which are the consequences of  having knowledge on islands, as well as measures improvements when there is an adequate knowledge management. The peculiarities which are given in the maintenance of the company departments, knowledge of operators and technicians operating in these areas, is heavily based on their experiences (strong tacit component, what is difficult to measure and articulate, and however, on numerous occasions, this break from the knowledge, can impose a high cost for the industry.

  7. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence-based

  8. Identifying the professional knowledge base for multi-grade teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a small-scale qualitative study of teachers and teaching principals in multi-grade rural schools in Australia, focusing on identifying the professional knowledge base required for teachers in such contexts. Such a knowledge base is essential for improving the quality of multi-grade teaching. Interviews and ...

  9. An avatar based education application to improve patients' knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpeth, Jintana; Du, Huiyun; Clark, Robyn

    2018-06-19

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive, avatar based education application to improve knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms in people who are at risk of a heart attack. Poor knowledge of heart attack symptoms is recognised as a significant barrier to timely medical treatment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that technology can assist in patient education to improve knowledge and self-care. A single-center, non-blinded, two parallel groups, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Seventy patients will be recruited from the coronary care unit of a public hospital. Eligible participants will be randomised to either the usual care or the intervention group (usual care plus avatar-based heart attack education app). The primary outcome of this study is knowledge. Secondary outcomes include response to heart attack symptoms, health service use and satisfaction. Study participants will be followed-up for six months. This study will evaluate the avatar based education app as a method to deliver vital information to patients. Participants' knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms, as well as their health service use, will be assessed to evaluate the intervention effectiveness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of WhatsApp-based discussions in improving residents' knowledge of post-operative pain management: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Sumitra G; Bhawalkar, Pranay

    2017-10-01

    To provide a platform for the dissemination of basic knowledge of pain management, a WhatsApp group was created by residents and consultants. Common clinical scenarios, resident queries, and important instructions to be followed by residents with respect to running the Acute Pain Service were discussed in the group. This study evaluates the benefits of this interaction. This study was approved by the hospital ethics board and was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India. Second- and third-year anesthesia residents were included in a WhatsApp group, along with consultants (board certified anesthesiologists with a special interest in pain). Pain knowledge assessment was performed pre- and post-discussion using a standard 22-point questionnaire. A feedback form, which included self-rated confidence scores (1-10, 10-most confident) and opinions about the 3-month WhatsApp discussion, was collected. Improvements in the documentation in clinical sheets post-discussion were also analyzed. A total of 38 residents were included in the WhatsApp group. An improvement in the percentage of correct answers from 69.1% (pre-discussion) to 73.6% (post-discussion) was observed (P = 0.031). Improvements in the self-rated residents' confidence levels were also noted (P WhatsApp-based discussion was useful. Documentation of the details of epidural blockade in clinical sheets improved from 30% to 100%. The WhatsApp discussion improved residents' knowledge and confidence levels, and also resulted in improved documentation of essential details in the clinical notes. This form of education is promising and should be explored in future studies.

  11. Design of Composite Structures Using Knowledge-Based and Case Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambright, Jonathan Paul

    1996-01-01

    A method of using knowledge based and case based reasoning to assist designers during conceptual design tasks of composite structures was proposed. The cooperative use of heuristics, procedural knowledge, and previous similar design cases suggests a potential reduction in design cycle time and ultimately product lead time. The hypothesis of this work is that the design process of composite structures can be improved by using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Knowledge-Based (KB) reasoning in the early design stages. The technique of using knowledge-based and case-based reasoning facilitates the gathering of disparate information into one location that is easily and readily available. The method suggests that the inclusion of downstream life-cycle issues into the conceptual design phase reduces potential of defective, and sub-optimal composite structures. Three industry experts were interviewed extensively. The experts provided design rules, previous design cases, and test problems. A Knowledge Based Reasoning system was developed using the CLIPS (C Language Interpretive Procedural System) environment and a Case Based Reasoning System was developed using the Design Memory Utility For Sharing Experiences (MUSE) xviii environment. A Design Characteristic State (DCS) was used to document the design specifications, constraints, and problem areas using attribute-value pair relationships. The DCS provided consistent design information between the knowledge base and case base. Results indicated that the use of knowledge based and case based reasoning provided a robust design environment for composite structures. The knowledge base provided design guidance from well defined rules and procedural knowledge. The case base provided suggestions on design and manufacturing techniques based on previous similar designs and warnings of potential problems and pitfalls. The case base complemented the knowledge base and extended the problem solving capability beyond the existence of

  12. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.

  13. Knowledge Based Help desk System in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman; Norzalina Nasirudin; Khairiel Adyani Abdul Ghani; Abdul Aziz Mhd Ramli; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge based (K-based) Help desk system is a knowledge oriented web based system that provides support to business process of the technical service providers. It is a multi-centric system which focuses on end-users, technical workers and higher level management through utilization of knowledge which resides and grows within the system. The objectives of the system are to be a user-friendly, capture technical knowledge for efficient performance and educating users for self reliance. These were achieved through the improvement of the help desk business process and better management of technical knowledge. This system has been tested and implemented in Information Technology Center (IT), Engineering Division (BKJ) and Instrumentation and Automation Center (IAC) at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). Higher levels of user satisfaction and faster growth in technical knowledge repository have been recorded in the system. This paper describes the help desk system in the perspective of management of its technical knowledge contributing to strengthening organizational knowledge asset of Nuclear Malaysia as national nuclear research institution. (Author)

  14. Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2005-03-01

    "Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which

  15. Implementing knowledge into practice for improved neonatal survival; a cluster-randomised, community-based trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Tran Q

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, almost 4 million newborns die during the first 4 weeks of life every year. By increased use of evidence-based knowledge in the healthcare system a large proportion of these neonatal deaths could be prevented. But there is a severe lack of knowledge on effective methods for successful implementation of evidence into practice, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated promising results with increased survival among both mothers and newborns using community-based approaches. In Vietnam evidence-based guidelines on reproductive health were launched in 2003 and revised in 2009. The overall objective of the current project is to evaluate if a facilitation intervention on the community level, with a problem-solving approach involving local representatives if the healthcare system and the community, results in improvements of neonatal health and survival. Methods/Design The study, which has been given the acronym NeoKIP (Neonatal Health - Knowledge Into Practice, took place in 8 districts composed by 90 communes in a province in northern Vietnam, where neonatal mortality rate was 24/1000 in 2005. A cluster randomised design was used, allocating clusters, as defined as a commune and its correponding Commune Health Center (CHC to either intervention or control arm. The facilitation intervention targeted staff at healthcare centres and key persons in the communes. The facilitator role was performed by lay women (Women's Union representatives using quality improvement techniques to initiate and sustain improvement processes targeting identified problem areas. The intervention has been running over 3 years and data were collected on the facilitation process, healthcare staff knowledge in neonatal care and their behaviour in clinical practice, and reproductive and perinatal health indicators. Primary outcome is neonatal mortality. Discussion The intervention is participatory and dynamic

  16. IMPROVING THE TEXTILE’S ENTERPRISES KNOWLEDGE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU Ion Razvan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile enterprises need adequate solutions to face the competition on the global market. Innovation leverages the enterprises competitiveness: however, improving innovation is a task of research providers in the field. The Knowledge Matrix for Innovation (KMI represents an instrument for quantifying the intangible assets of a textile enterprise. Examples of intangible assets are: innovation strategy / culture, informational resources, training methodology, relationships portfolio, IP rights etc. By improving such factors of the KMI, the textile enterprises are going to improve their competitiveness. This main aim is tackled by the Erasmus Plus – VET Project “Matrix of knowledge for innovation and competitiveness in textile enterprises - TexMatrix” (2016-2018. The red line of the project follows the definition of the KMI, the adaptation of the Benchmarking questionnaire and its implementation on the e-learning Tool, the Benchmarking study by consulting of 50 textile enterprises at consortium level, supporting the Guide with new research and innovation management solutions for the enterprises and Blended courses for 95 young trainees, based on the Guide in e-learning format. The project also aims to counsel 100 decision-factors from textile enterprises on the new solutions comprised in the Guide, within 5 Workshops. The e-learning Tool has the URL address: www.advan2tex.eu/portal/ .

  17. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos CRISTEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the existent relation between knowledge society and knowledge based economy. We will identify the main pillars of knowledge society and present their importance for the development of knowledge societies. Further, we will present two perspectives over knowledge societies, respectively science and learning perspectives, that directly affects knowledge based economies. At the end, we will conclude by identifying some important questions that must be answered regarding this new social paradigm.

  18. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  19. Nonstructural urban stormwater quality measures: building a knowledge base to improve their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, André C; Fletcher, Tim D

    2007-05-01

    This article summarizes a research project that investigated the use, performance, cost, and evaluation of nonstructural measures to improve urban stormwater quality. A survey of urban stormwater managers from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States revealed a widespread trend of increasing use of nonstructural measures among leading stormwater management agencies, with at least 76% of 41 types of nonstructural measures being found to be increasing in use. Data gathered from the survey, an international literature review, and a multicriteria analysis highlighted four nonstructural measures of greatest potential value: mandatory town planning controls that promote the adoption of low-impact development principles and techniques; development of strategic urban stormwater management plans for a city, shire, or catchment; stormwater management measures and programs for construction/building sites; and stormwater management activities related to municipal maintenance operations such as maintenance of the stormwater drainage network and manual litter collections. Knowledge gained on the use and performance of nonstructural measures from the survey, literature review, and three trial evaluation projects was used to develop tailored monitoring and evaluation guidelines for these types of measure. These guidelines incorporate a new evaluation framework based on seven alternative styles of evaluation that range from simply monitoring whether a nonstructural measure has been fully implemented to monitoring its impact on waterway health. This research helps to build the stormwater management industry's knowledge base concerning nonstructural measures and provides a practical tool to address common impediments associated with monitoring and evaluating the performance and cost of these measures.

  20. An active learning curriculum improves fellows' knowledge and faculty teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inra, Jennifer A; Pelletier, Stephen; Kumar, Navin L; Barnes, Edward L; Shields, Helen M

    2017-01-01

    Traditional didactic lectures are the mainstay of teaching for graduate medical education, although this method may not be the most effective way to transmit information. We created an active learning curriculum for Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) gastroenterology fellows to maximize learning. We evaluated whether this new curriculum improved perceived knowledge acquisition and knowledge base. In addition, our study assessed whether coaching faculty members in specific methods to enhance active learning improved their perceived teaching and presentation skills. We compared the Gastroenterology Training Exam (GTE) scores before and after the implementation of this curriculum to assess whether an improved knowledge base was documented. In addition, fellows and faculty members were asked to complete anonymous evaluations regarding their learning and teaching experiences. Fifteen fellows were invited to 12 lectures over a 2-year period. GTE scores improved in the areas of stomach ( p active learning curriculum. Scores in hepatology, as well as biliary and pancreatic study, showed a trend toward improvement ( p >0.05). All fellows believed the lectures were helpful, felt more prepared to take the GTE, and preferred the interactive format to traditional didactic lectures. All lecturers agreed that they acquired new teaching skills, improved teaching and presentation skills, and learned new tools that could help them teach better in the future. An active learning curriculum is preferred by GI fellows and may be helpful for improving transmission of information in any specialty in medical education. Individualized faculty coaching sessions demonstrating new ways to transmit information may be important for an individual faculty member's teaching excellence.

  1. Knowledge-Base Application to Ground Moving Target Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adve, R

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year in-house effort to apply knowledge-base control techniques and advanced Space-Time Adaptive Processing algorithms to improve detection performance and false alarm...

  2. Interactive training improves workplace climate, knowledge, and support towards domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Laharnar, Naima; Anger, W Kent; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-07-01

    As Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) affects the workplace, a supportive workplace climate is important. The study evaluated the effectiveness of an "IPV and the Workplace" training on workplace climate towards IPV. IPV training was provided to 14 intervention counties and 13 control counties (receiving training 6 months delayed). Measures included workplace climate surveys, IPV knowledge test, and workplace observations. (i) Training significantly improved supervisor knowledge on IPV and received positive evaluations, (ii) training improved workplace climate towards IPV significantly which was maintained over time, and (iii) after the training, supervisors provided more IPV information to employees and more IPV postings were available in the workplace. The study provides evidence to support on-site interactive, computer based training as a means for improved workplace safety. IPV and the Workplace training effectively increased knowledge and positively changed workplace climate. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:538-548, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The knowledge base of journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svith, Flemming

    In this paper I propose the knowledge base as a fruitful way to apprehend journalism. With the claim that the majority of practice is anchored in knowledge – understood as 9 categories of rationales, forms and levels – this knowledge base appears as a contextual look at journalists’ knowledge......, and place. As an analytical framework, the knowledge base is limited to understand the practice of newspaper journalists, but, conversely, the knowledge base encompasses more general beginnings through the inclusion of overall structural relationships in the media and journalism and general theories...... on practice and knowledge. As the result of an abductive reasoning is a theory proposal, there is a need for more deductive approaches to test the validity of this knowledge base claim. It is thus relevant to investigate which rationales are included in the knowledge base of journalism, as the dimension does...

  4. Development of a tool for knowledge base verification of expert system based on Design/CPN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    1998-02-01

    Verification is a necessary work in developing a reliable expert system. Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it's specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base. Generally, verification process requires computational support by automated tools. For this reason, this study developed a tool for knowledge base verification based on Design/CPN, which is a tool for editing, modeling, and simulating Colored Petri net. This tool uses Enhanced Colored Petri net as a modeling method. By applying this tool to the knowledge base of nuclear power plant, it is noticed that it can successfully check most of the anomalies that can occur in a knowledge base

  5. Online Education Improves Dementia Knowledge: Evidence From an International Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Dementia education disseminated through massive open online courses (MOOCs) has the potential to improve knowledge and care provision among health professionals and lay people. The potential learning effects of a dementia MOOC were assessed using a reliable and valid measure with international volunteers ( N = 3,649) who completed the measure before and after online education. Evaluation of learning effects suggests that the MOOC significantly increased dementia knowledge by at least 17% across six cohorts. Knowledge was improved by the MOOC in three ways: it significantly improved overall understanding of dementia for diverse cohorts; it reduced knowledge disparity within occupational and lay cohorts; and it reduced knowledge disparity across occupational and lay cohorts. The capacity of a dementia MOOC to significantly improve knowledge and reach a wide audience may lead to population-level improvements in understanding about dementia. This may foster improvements in treatment and quality of care for people with dementia.

  6. Knowledge Acquisition Using Linguistic-Based Knowledge Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Most knowledge-based system developmentefforts include acquiring knowledge from one or more sources. difficulties associated with this knowledge acquisition task are readily acknowledged by most researchers. While a variety of knowledge acquisition methods have been reported, little has been done to organize those different methods and to suggest how to apply them...

  7. Knowledge based economy: The role of expert diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diasporas stand out as an economic or cultural avant-garde of transformation. This is especially true for academic and other intellectual Diaspora communities, because science and knowledge creation are global enterprises. Proclivity of knowledge workers to move in order to improve and absorb transnational knowledge through Diaspora networks might be an essential quality of an emerging national economy of a developing country. The article treats the role of expert Diaspora in knowledge based economy, innovation and talent management. Besides presenting the essentials of knowledge based economy and innovation, it discusses the role of expert Diaspora in science, technology and innovation (STI capacity building. Also, the article emphasizes the importance of leadership for talent and its implications for Diaspora. Using WEF statistics, it illustrates negative consequences of the sad policy of “Chaseaway the brightest and the best” for innovative capacity, competitiveness, and prosperity of nations.

  8. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  9. Improving HIV/AIDS Knowledge Management Using EHRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Erik D; Phan, Thao M; Harmon, Glynn; Nauert, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal for the development of EHRs and EHR-related technologies should be to facilitate greater knowledge management for improving individual and community health outcomes associated with HIV / AIDS. Most of the current developments of EHR have focused on providing data for research, patient care and prioritization of healthcare provider resources in other areas. More attention should be paid to using information from EHRs to assist local, state, national, and international entities engaged in HIV / AIDS care, research and prevention strategies. Unfortunately the technology and standards for HIV-specific reporting modules are still being developed. A literature search and review supplemented by the author's own experiences with electronic health records and HIV / AIDS prevention strategies will be used. This data was used to identify both opportunities and challenges for improving public health informatics primarily through the use of latest innovations in EHRs. Qualitative analysis and suggestions are offered for how EHRs can support knowledge management and prevention strategies associated with HIV infection. EHR information, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, and other vital statistics can help public health practitioners to more quickly identify at-risk populations or environments; allocate scarce resources in the most efficient way; share information about successful, evidenced-based prevention strategies; and increase longevity and quality of life. Local, state, and federal entities need to work more collaboratively with NGOs, community-based organizations, and the private sector to eliminate barriers to implementation including cost, interoperability, accessibility, and information security.

  10. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  11. Knowledge representation and knowledge base design for operator advisor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangos, K.M.; Sziano, T.; Tapolcai, L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of knowledge representation, knowledge base handling and design has been described for an Operator Advisor System in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The Operator Advisor System is to be implemented as a part of the 5th and 6th unit. The knowledge of the Operator Advisor system is described by a few elementary knowledge items (diagnostic event functions, fault graph, action trees), weighted directed graphs have been found as their common structure. List-type and relational representation of these graphs have been used for the on-line and off-line part of the knowledge base respectively. A uniform data base design and handling has been proposed which consists of a design system, a knowledge base editor and a knowledge base compiler

  12. Improvement of product design process by knowledge value analysis

    OpenAIRE

    XU, Yang; BERNARD, Alain; PERRY, Nicolas; LAROCHE, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, design activities remain the core issue for global product development. As knowledge is more and more integrated, effective analysis of knowledge value becomes very useful for the improvement of product design processes. This paper aims at proposing a framework of knowledge value analysis in the context of product design process. By theoretical analysis and case study, the paper illustrates how knowledge value can be calculated and how the results can help the improvement of product...

  13. Knowledge collaborative incentive based on inter-organizational cooperative innovation of project-based supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Within project-based supply chain inter-organizational cooperative innovation, the achievement of project value-adding reflects by factors such as project-based organizational effect level, the relationship between project cooperative innovation objectives etc. The purpose is to provide a reliable reference for the contractor reasonably allocate the effect level and resources between the knowledge input and innovation stage and realize the knowledge collaboration for project-based supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the assumption of equal cooperation between project-based organizations, from the view of maximizing project value-adding and the relationship of effect cost between knowledge input and innovation stage in consideration, the knowledge collaborative incentive model for project-based supply chain inter-organizational cooperative innovation was established, and solved through the first-order and second-order approach, then the digital simulation and example analysis were presented. Findings: The results show that, the project management enterprise resorted to adjust project knowledge collaboration incentive intensity and implemented knowledge input-innovation coordinative incentive strategy, not only could achieve project value-adding maximization, but also could realize net earnings Pareto improvement between project management enterprise and contractor. Research limitations/implications: To simplify the knowledge flow among project-based organizations, the knowledge flow in the model hypothesis is presented as knowledge input and knowledge innovation stage, thus it may affect the final analysis results. Originality/value: In construction project practice, knowledge is become more and more important to achieve project value-adding. The research can provide a theoretical guideline for the project-based organizations, such as the contractor, the owner, especially how to utilize their core knowledge.

  14. An Ontology-Based Approach for Knowledge Lifecycle Management within Aircraft Lifecycle Phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the aerospace domain, manufacturers and operators constantly seek to improve their products and processes. Increasingly, knowledge-based applications are developed to support or automate knowledge-intensive engineering tasks, saving time and money. However, engineering knowledge changes over

  15. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  16. Improving performance with knowledge management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangchul

    2018-06-01

    People and organization are unable to easily locate their experience and knowledge, so meaningful data is usually fragmented, unstructured, not up-to-date and largely incomplete. Poor knowledge management (KM) leaves a company weak to their knowledge-base - or intellectual capital - walking out of the door each year, that is minimum estimated at 10%. Knowledge management (KM) can be defined as an emerging set of organizational design and operational principles, processes, organizational structures, applications and technologies that helps knowledge workers dramatically leverage their creativity and ability to deliver business value and to reap finally a competitive advantage. Then, this paper proposed various method and software starting with an understanding of the enterprise aspect, and gave inspiration to those who wanted to use KM.

  17. Effectiveness of a short-course in improving knowledge and skills on evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Villa Josep

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the effectiveness (change in knowledge and skills measured by the Fresno test of a short course in Evidence Based Practice (EBP carried out in a group of family medicine residents Methods Before-after study. Participants' were 152 Family Medicine residents in their second year of the training programme. Settings were Primary Care Teaching Units in Catalonia. Intervention was comprised of a four half-day training course designed to develop the knowledge and skills required to practice evidence-based care. The main outcome measure was change in EBP knowledge and skills, measured using the Spanish version of the Fresno test (score range, 0-212 Results The mean difference between pre-test and post-test was 47.7, a statistically significant result with 95% CI of 42.8-52.5 (p Conclusions The study provides evidence for responsiveness to changes in knowledge and skills in EBP after an educational intervention.

  18. Fuzzy knowledge bases integration based on ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Ternovoy, Maksym; Shtogrina, Olena

    2012-01-01

    the paper describes the approach for fuzzy knowledge bases integration with the usage of ontology. This approach is based on metadata-base usage for integration of different knowledge bases with common ontology. The design process of metadata-base is described.

  19. VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte

    experiments. Thus the program combines professionals’ personal knowledge and practice-based experiences, i.e. combines tacit knowledge with explicit scientifi c knowledge acquisition and sharing. The VIDA and VIDA+ education programs encourage participants to work with both explicit and implicit (tacit...... intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts...

  20. Health promotion via SMS improves hypertension knowledge for deaf South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Jensen Haricharan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signing Deaf South Africans have limited access to health information. As a result, their knowledge about health is limited. Cell phone usage in South Africa is high. This study aimed to assess whether a short message service (SMS-based health promotion campaign could improve Deaf people’s knowledge of hypertension and healthy living. Additionally, the study aimed to assess the acceptability of using SMSs for health promotion targeting Deaf people. Methods A baseline questionnaire assessed participants’ knowledge about hypertension before an SMS-based information campaign was conducted. After the campaign, an exit questionnaire was conducted, containing the same questions as the baseline questionnaire with additional questions about general acceptability and communication preferences. Results were compared between baseline and exit, using McNemar’s test, paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Focus groups aimed to get further information on the impact and acceptability of SMSs. The focus groups were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The campaign recruited 82 participants for the baseline survey, but due to significant loss-to-follow-up and exclusions only 41 participants were included in the analysis of the survey. The majority (60% were men. Eighty percent were employed, while 98% had not finished high school. The campaign showed a statistically significant improvement in overall knowledge about hypertension and healthy living amongst participants. Six individual questions out of 19 also showed a statistically significant improvement. Despite this, participants in focus groups found the medical terminology difficult to understand. Several ways of improving SMS campaigns for the Deaf were identified. These included using using pictures, using ‘signed’ SMSs, combining SMSs with signed drama and linking SMS-campaigns to an interactive communication service that would enable the Deaf to pose

  1. Health promotion via SMS improves hypertension knowledge for deaf South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Hanne Jensen; Heap, Marion; Hacking, Damian; Lau, Yan Kwan

    2017-08-18

    Signing Deaf South Africans have limited access to health information. As a result, their knowledge about health is limited. Cell phone usage in South Africa is high. This study aimed to assess whether a short message service (SMS)-based health promotion campaign could improve Deaf people's knowledge of hypertension and healthy living. Additionally, the study aimed to assess the acceptability of using SMSs for health promotion targeting Deaf people. A baseline questionnaire assessed participants' knowledge about hypertension before an SMS-based information campaign was conducted. After the campaign, an exit questionnaire was conducted, containing the same questions as the baseline questionnaire with additional questions about general acceptability and communication preferences. Results were compared between baseline and exit, using McNemar's test, paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Focus groups aimed to get further information on the impact and acceptability of SMSs. The focus groups were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The campaign recruited 82 participants for the baseline survey, but due to significant loss-to-follow-up and exclusions only 41 participants were included in the analysis of the survey. The majority (60%) were men. Eighty percent were employed, while 98% had not finished high school. The campaign showed a statistically significant improvement in overall knowledge about hypertension and healthy living amongst participants. Six individual questions out of 19 also showed a statistically significant improvement. Despite this, participants in focus groups found the medical terminology difficult to understand. Several ways of improving SMS campaigns for the Deaf were identified. These included using using pictures, using 'signed' SMSs, combining SMSs with signed drama and linking SMS-campaigns to an interactive communication service that would enable the Deaf to pose questions for clarification. Focus groups suggested that

  2. Knowledge-based Telecom Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vinje, Villeman; Nordkvelde, Marius

    2011-01-01

    BI Norwegian School of Management is conducting a national research project entitled “A knowledge-based Norway”. Thirteen major knowledge-based industries in Norway are being analyzed under the auspices of the project. This study assesses the underlying properties of a global knowledge hub to examine the extent to which the Norwegian telecom industry – which encompasses all telecom firms located in Norway regardless of ownership – constitutes a global knowledge hub. It commences with a ge...

  3. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  4. Faculty Communication Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills Around Chronic Non-Malignant Pain Improve with Online Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Anna K; Wood, Gordon J; Rubio, Doris M; Day, Hollis D; Spagnoletti, Carla L

    2016-11-01

    Many physicians struggle to communicate with patients with chronic, non-malignant pain (CNMP). Through the use of a Web module, the authors aimed to improve faculty participants' communication skills knowledge and confidence, use of skills in clinical practice, and actual communication skills. The module was implemented for faculty development among clinician-educators with university faculty appointments, outpatient clinical practices, and teaching roles. Participants completed the Collaborative Opioid Prescribing Education Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (COPE-REMS®) module, a free Web module designed to improve provider communication around opioid prescribing. Main study outcomes were improvements in CNMP communication knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Skills were assessed by comparing a subset of participants' Observed Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) performance before and after the curriculum. Sixty-two percent of eligible participants completed the curriculum in 2013. Knowledge-based test scores improved with curriculum completion (75% vs. 90%; P communication skills on the OSCE improved after the curriculum (mean 67% vs. 79%, P = 0.03). Experienced clinician-educators improved their communication knowledge, attitudes, and skills in managing patients with CNMP after implementation of this curriculum. The improvements in attitudes were sustained at six months. A Web-based curriculum such as COPE-REMS® may be useful for other programs seeking improvement in faculty communication with patients who have CNMP. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A knowledge base architecture for distributed knowledge agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Joel; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    A tuple space based object oriented model for knowledge base representation and interpretation is presented. An architecture for managing distributed knowledge agents is then implemented within the model. The general model is based upon a database implementation of a tuple space. Objects are then defined as an additional layer upon the database. The tuple space may or may not be distributed depending upon the database implementation. A language for representing knowledge and inference strategy is defined whose implementation takes advantage of the tuple space. The general model may then be instantiated in many different forms, each of which may be a distinct knowledge agent. Knowledge agents may communicate using tuple space mechanisms as in the LINDA model as well as using more well known message passing mechanisms. An implementation of the model is presented describing strategies used to keep inference tractable without giving up expressivity. An example applied to a power management and distribution network for Space Station Freedom is given.

  6. Deviation Management: Key Management Subsystem Driver of Knowledge-Based Continuous Improvement in the Henry Ford Production System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J; Copeland, Jacqueline R; Varney, Ruan C

    2017-10-01

    To develop a business subsystem fulfilling International Organization for Standardization 15189 nonconformance management regulatory standard, facilitating employee engagement in problem identification and resolution to effect quality improvement and risk mitigation. From 2012 to 2016, the integrated laboratories of the Henry Ford Health System used a quality technical team to develop and improve a management subsystem designed to identify, track, trend, and summarize nonconformances based on frequency, risk, and root cause for elimination at the level of the work. Programmatic improvements and training resulted in markedly increased documentation culminating in 71,641 deviations in 2016 classified by a taxonomy of 281 defect types into preanalytic (74.8%), analytic (23.6%), and postanalytic (1.6%) testing phases. The top 10 deviations accounted for 55,843 (78%) of the total. Deviation management is a key subsystem of managers' standard work whereby knowledge of nonconformities assists in directing corrective actions and continuous improvements that promote consistent execution and higher levels of performance. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Ken K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.

  8. Researching on knowledge architecture of design by analysis based on ASME code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyi; Zhou Yu; He Shuyan

    2003-01-01

    The quality of knowledge-based system's knowledge architecture is one of decisive factors of knowledge-based system's validity and rationality. For designing the ASME code knowledge based system, this paper presents a knowledge acquisition method which is extracting knowledge through document analysis consulted domain experts' knowledge. Then the paper describes knowledge architecture of design by analysis based on the related rules in ASME code. The knowledge of the knowledge architecture is divided into two categories: one is empirical knowledge, and another is ASME code knowledge. Applied as the basement of the knowledge architecture, a general procedural process of design by analysis that is met the engineering design requirements and designers' conventional mode is generalized and explained detailed in the paper. For the sake of improving inference efficiency and concurrent computation of KBS, a kind of knowledge Petri net (KPN) model is proposed and adopted in expressing the knowledge architecture. Furthermore, for validating and verifying of the empirical rules, five knowledge validation and verification theorems are given in the paper. Moreover the research production is applicable to design the knowledge architecture of ASME codes or other engineering standards. (author)

  9. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  10. Knowledge base and neural network approach for protein secondary structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulika S; Mazumdar, Himanshu S

    2014-11-21

    Protein structure prediction is of great relevance given the abundant genomic and proteomic data generated by the genome sequencing projects. Protein secondary structure prediction is addressed as a sub task in determining the protein tertiary structure and function. In this paper, a novel algorithm, KB-PROSSP-NN, which is a combination of knowledge base and modeling of the exceptions in the knowledge base using neural networks for protein secondary structure prediction (PSSP), is proposed. The knowledge base is derived from a proteomic sequence-structure database and consists of the statistics of association between the 5-residue words and corresponding secondary structure. The predicted results obtained using knowledge base are refined with a Backpropogation neural network algorithm. Neural net models the exceptions of the knowledge base. The Q3 accuracy of 90% and 82% is achieved on the RS126 and CB396 test sets respectively which suggest improvement over existing state of art methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge-based analysis of microarrays for the discovery of transcriptional regulation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Junhee; Kaushal, Amit; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2010-01-18

    The large amount of high-throughput genomic data has facilitated the discovery of the regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes. While early methods for discovery of transcriptional regulation relationships from microarray data often focused on the high-throughput experimental data alone, more recent approaches have explored the integration of external knowledge bases of gene interactions. In this work, we develop an algorithm that provides improved performance in the prediction of transcriptional regulatory relationships by supplementing the analysis of microarray data with a new method of integrating information from an existing knowledge base. Using a well-known dataset of yeast microarrays and the Yeast Proteome Database, a comprehensive collection of known information of yeast genes, we show that knowledge-based predictions demonstrate better sensitivity and specificity in inferring new transcriptional interactions than predictions from microarray data alone. We also show that comprehensive, direct and high-quality knowledge bases provide better prediction performance. Comparison of our results with ChIP-chip data and growth fitness data suggests that our predicted genome-wide regulatory pairs in yeast are reasonable candidates for follow-up biological verification. High quality, comprehensive, and direct knowledge bases, when combined with appropriate bioinformatic algorithms, can significantly improve the discovery of gene regulatory relationships from high throughput gene expression data.

  12. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  13. Simulation-based medical education training improves short and long-term competency in, and knowledge of central venous catheter insertion: A before and after intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Vanessa; Inan, Cigdem; Zingg, Walter; Delhumeau, Cecile; Walder, Bernard; Savoldelli, Georges L

    2016-08-01

    Multimodal educational interventions have been shown to improve short-term competency in, and knowledge of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. To evaluate the effectiveness of simulation-based medical education training in improving short and long-term competency in, and knowledge of CVC insertion. Before and after intervention study. University Geneva Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland, between May 2008 and January 2012. Residents in anaesthesiology aware of the Seldinger technique for vascular puncture. Participants attended a half-day course on CVC insertion. Learning objectives included work organization, aseptic technique and prevention of CVC complications. CVC insertion competency was tested pretraining, posttraining and then more than 2 years after training (sustainability phase). The primary study outcome was competency as measured by a global rating scale of technical skills, a hand hygiene compliance score and a checklist compliance score. Secondary outcome was knowledge as measured by a standardised pretraining and posttraining multiple-choice questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using paired Student's t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Thirty-seven residents were included; 18 were tested in the sustainability phase (on average 34 months after training). The average global rating of skills was 23.4 points (±SD 4.08) before training, 32.2 (±4.51) after training (P Simulation-based medical education training was effective in improving short and long-term competency in, and knowledge of CVC insertion.

  14. The mCME Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an SMS-Based Continuing Medical Education Intervention for Improving Medical Knowledge among Vietnamese Community Based Physicians' Assistants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Gill

    Full Text Available Community health workers (CHWs provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW's clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS-based mobile CME (mCME intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician's Assistants-CBPAs who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations.The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later. Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy.638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%. Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did not improve. Average

  15. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  16. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A. [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  17. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  18. Distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    Some current research in the development and application of distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems technology is addressed. The focus of the current research is the spacecraft ground operations environment. The underlying hypothesis is that, because of the increasing size, complexity, and cost of planned systems, conventional procedural approaches to the architecture of automated systems will give way to a more comprehensive knowledge-based approach. A hallmark of these future systems will be the integration of multiple knowledge-based agents which understand the operational goals of the system and cooperate with each other and the humans in the loop to attain the goals. The current work includes the development of a reference model for knowledge-base management, the development of a formal model of cooperating knowledge-based agents, the use of testbed for prototyping and evaluating various knowledge-based concepts, and beginning work on the establishment of an object-oriented model of an intelligent end-to-end (spacecraft to user) system. An introductory discussion of these activities is presented, the major concepts and principles being investigated are highlighted, and their potential use in other application domains is indicated.

  19. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  20. Machine intelligence and knowledge bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K

    1981-09-01

    The basic functions necessary in machine intelligence are a knowledge base and a logic programming language such as PROLOG using deductive reasoning. Recently inductive reasoning based on meta knowledge and default reasoning have been developed. The creative thought model of Lenit is reviewed and the concept of knowledge engineering is introduced. 17 references.

  1. Contextual-Based Knowledge Creation for Agroindustrial Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Anggraeni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the knowledge creation process in one department, in a higher educational context, and the possible actions to take to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the knowledge creation system in it. We conducted a case study at one department of a university that strives to improve its innovations, in terms of their quantity and quality.We used a soft system methodology to investigate the knowledge creation system in the chosen department. From the study, we conclude that the department can be considered as a learning organization, within which its staff continually create, acquire and transfer knowledge. This department has a learning environment which is conducive, concrete learning processes, and leadership that reinforces learning. In the context of producing agroindustry innovations, the knowledge creation system in this department is considered to be less effective since it frequently happens more at individual or small group levels. To improve its effectiveness, the management may facilitate the institutionalization of knowledge creation processes at every phase of the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge.

  2. Quality Management in the Knowledge Based Economy – Kaizen Method

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Liliana Viorica

    2010-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, organisations are influenced by the quality movement, Kaizen, which plays a strategic role for optimization of organizational capabilities of managers as well as of all the employees. Kaizen represents the philosophy of continuous improvement, until the economic activities inside the organisation reach zero deficiencies. In order to implement in a proper manner Kaizen into the organization, managers must decide what to improve, why to improve, who shall improve...

  3. An Ontology-Based Conceptual Model For Accumulating And Reusing Knowledge In A DMAIC Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, ThanhDat; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile

    2015-09-01

    DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) is an important process used to enhance quality of processes basing on knowledge. However, it is difficult to access DMAIC knowledge. Conventional approaches meet a problem arising from structuring and reusing DMAIC knowledge. The main reason is that DMAIC knowledge is not represented and organized systematically. In this article, we overcome the problem basing on a conceptual model that is a combination of DMAIC process, knowledge management, and Ontology engineering. The main idea of our model is to utilizing Ontologies to represent knowledge generated by each of DMAIC phases. We build five different knowledge bases for storing all knowledge of DMAIC phases with the support of necessary tools and appropriate techniques in Information Technology area. Consequently, these knowledge bases provide knowledge available to experts, managers, and web users during or after DMAIC execution in order to share and reuse existing knowledge.

  4. Weight Calculation for Cases Generated by Tacit Knowledge Explicit Based on RS-FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, it becomes the core competence of persons, groups and organizations to effectively organize and manage tacit knowledge, affecting their sustainable development. Case explicit for tacit knowledge is an effective way to improve their clarity, improve management efficiency. it determines the validity of the case view to calculate legitimately the weights for the case aspects or attributes, and further affect the application benefit of the explicit knowledge. The case view affected seriously by the subjective, obtaining via traditional direct weighting method, and the objectivity of the result is not strong. On the other hand, the objective weights configuration is not only ignored the expert knowledge, but also lead to the acceptance barriers for the body of knowledge to accept the result. Therefore, in this paper, relying on rough set (RS theory, the integrating algorithm of two objective weight configuration is analyzed Systematically, based on conditional entropy and property dependence. Simultaneously, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is studied to take into account the operational experience and knowledge of experts in the field. And then, case attribute RS-FAHP comprehensive weight placement algorithms is designed, based on the integration of subjective and objective thinking. The work mentioned above can improve and perfect the traditional configuration of weights, and support to apply and manage the tacit knowledge explicit cases effectively.

  5. Knowledge-based computer systems for radiotherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, I J; Paluszynski, W

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the first areas of clinical medicine to utilize computers in support of routine clinical decision making. The role of the computer has evolved from simple dose calculations to elaborate interactive graphic three-dimensional simulations. These simulations can combine external irradiation from megavoltage photons, electrons, and particle beams with interstitial and intracavitary sources. With the flexibility and power of modern radiotherapy equipment and the ability of computer programs that simulate anything the machinery can do, we now face a challenge to utilize this capability to design more effective radiation treatments. How can we manage the increased complexity of sophisticated treatment planning? A promising approach will be to use artificial intelligence techniques to systematize our present knowledge about design of treatment plans, and to provide a framework for developing new treatment strategies. Far from replacing the physician, physicist, or dosimetrist, artificial intelligence-based software tools can assist the treatment planning team in producing more powerful and effective treatment plans. Research in progress using knowledge-based (AI) programming in treatment planning already has indicated the usefulness of such concepts as rule-based reasoning, hierarchical organization of knowledge, and reasoning from prototypes. Problems to be solved include how to handle continuously varying parameters and how to evaluate plans in order to direct improvements.

  6. Web-Based Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether web-based instruction (WBI) represents an improved method for helping preservice teachers learn procedural and conceptual knowledge of fractions.. The purpose was to compare the effectiveness of web-based instruction (WBI) with the traditional lecture in mathematics content and methods for the elementary school…

  7. Can improving teachers' knowledge of mathematics lead to gains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is wellknown that the majority of South African learners achieve extremely poorly in Mathematics. Many claim that one of the causes of this poor attainment is teachers' weak knowledge of mathematics, and propose that improving teachers' mathematical knowledge would improve learner attainment. However, the ...

  8. Reconstructing Sessions from Data Discovery and Access Logs to Build a Semantic Knowledge Base for Improving Data Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyao Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Big geospatial data are archived and made available through online web discovery and access. However, finding the right data for scientific research and application development is still a challenge. This paper aims to improve the data discovery by mining the user knowledge from log files. Specifically, user web session reconstruction is focused upon in this paper as a critical step for extracting usage patterns. However, reconstructing user sessions from raw web logs has always been difficult, as a session identifier tends to be missing in most data portals. To address this problem, we propose two session identification methods, including time-clustering-based and time-referrer-based methods. We also present the workflow of session reconstruction and discuss the approach of selecting appropriate thresholds for relevant steps in the workflow. The proposed session identification methods and workflow are proven to be able to extract data access patterns for further pattern analyses of user behavior and improvement of data discovery for more relevancy data ranking, suggestion, and navigation.

  9. Improvement of Self-regulated Learning in Mathematics through a Hypermedia Application: Differences based on Academic Performance and Previous Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma

    2017-12-04

    Self-regulation on behalf of the student is crucial in learning Mathematics through hypermedia applications and is an even greater challenge in these IT environments. Two aims are formulated. First, to analyze the effectiveness of a hypermedia tool in improving perceived knowledge of self-regulatory strategies and the perceived usage of the planning, executing and assessment strategy on behalf of students with low, medium and high levels of academic performance. Second, to analyze the effectiveness of the hypermedia tool in improving perceived usage of the strategy for planning, monitoring and evaluating on behalf of students with a perceived knowledge (low, medium and high). Participants were 624 students (aged 10-13), classified into a treatment group (TG; 391) and a comparative group (CG; 233). They completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge (Perceived Knowledge of Self-Regulatory Strategies) and another one on perceived usage of the strategy for planning, performing and evaluating (Inventory of Self-regulatory Learning Processes). Univariate covariance analyses (ANCOVAs) and Student-t tests were used. ANCOVA results were not statistically significant. However, the linear contrast indicated a significant improvement in perceived knowledge of strategies among the TG with low, medium and high academic performance (p ≤ .001). Results are discussed in the light of past and future research.

  10. Exploration and implementation of ontology-based cultural relic knowledge map integration platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiqiang; Dong, Yiqiang

    2018-05-01

    To help designers to better carry out creative design and improve the ability of searching traditional cultural relic information, the ontology-based knowledge map construction method was explored and an integrated platform for cultural relic knowledge map was developed. First of all, the construction method of the ontology of cultural relics was put forward, and the construction of the knowledge map of cultural relics was completed based on the constructed cultural relic otology. Then, a personalized semantic retrieval framework for creative design was proposed. Finally, the integrated platform of the knowledge map of cultural relics was designed and realized. The platform was divided into two parts. One was the foreground display system, which was used for designers to search and browse cultural relics. The other was the background management system, which was for cultural experts to manage cultural relics' knowledge. The research results showed that the platform designed could improve the retrieval ability of cultural relic information. To sum up, the platform can provide a good support for the designer's creative design.

  11. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  12. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, A B; Wright, A; Krousel-Wood, M; Thomas, E J; McCoy, J A; Sittig, D F

    2015-01-01

    Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes.

  13. Quality Improvement Initiative on Pain Knowledge, Assessment, and Documentation Skills of Pediatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margonary, Heather; Hannan, Margaret S; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Pain treatment begins with a nurse’s assessment, which relies on effective assessment skills. Hospital settings have implemented pain assessment education, but there is limited evidence in pediatric transitional care settings. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) initiative was to develop, implement, and evaluate an evidence-based pain education session with 20 nurses in a pediatric specialty hospital that provides transitional care. Specific aims were to assess nurses’ knowledge and attitudes of pain, and evaluate assessment skills based on nurses’ documentation. A prospective pre-post design with three assessments (baseline, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up) was used. The Shriner’s Pediatric Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain questionnaire and an electronic health record review were completed at each assessment. There was significant improvement in nurses’ knowledge and attitudes of pain after the education session (F[2,6] = 50.281, p nurses significantly increased from 43.1% at baseline to 64.8% at post-intervention, and 67.7% at follow-up (χ²[2] = 20.55, p Nursing interventions for pain increased significantly, from 33.3% at baseline to 84.0% at post-intervention, and stabilized at 80.0% at follow-up (χ²[2] = 8.91, p = 0.012). Frequency of pain reassessments did not show a statistically significant change, decreasing from 77.8% at baseline to 44.0% at post-intervention and 40.0% at follow-up (χ²[2]= 3.538, p = 0.171). Nurses’ pain knowledge and documentation of assessment skills were improved in this QI initiative.

  14. Knowledge Base Editor (SharpKBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The SharpKBE software provides a graphical user interface environment for domain experts to build and manage knowledge base systems. Knowledge bases can be exported/translated to various target languages automatically, including customizable target languages.

  15. Understanding images using knowledge based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascini, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to image understanding focusing on low level image processing and proposes a rule-based approach as part of larger knowledge-based system. The general system has a yerarchical structure that comprises several knowledge-based layers. The main idea is to confine at the lower level the domain independent knowledge and to reserve the higher levels for the domain dependent knowledge, that is for the interpretation

  16. Implementation of multidimensional knowledge translation strategies to improve procedural pain in hospitalized children

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Promislow, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer; Harrison, Denise; Victor, J Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive research, institutional policies, and practice guidelines, procedural pain remains undertreated in hospitalized children. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies have been employed to bridge the research to practice gap with varying success. The most effective single or combination of KT strategies has not been found. A multifaceted KT intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), that included tailored KT strategies was effective in improving ...

  17. The Research of Clinical Decision Support System Based on Three-Layer Knowledge Base Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many clinical decision support systems, a two-layer knowledge base model (disease-symptom of rule reasoning is used. This model often does not express knowledge very well since it simply infers disease from the presence of certain symptoms. In this study, we propose a three-layer knowledge base model (disease-symptom-property to utilize more useful information in inference. The system iteratively calculates the probability of patients who may suffer from diseases based on a multisymptom naive Bayes algorithm, in which the specificity of these disease symptoms is weighted by the estimation of the degree of contribution to diagnose the disease. It significantly reduces the dependencies between attributes to apply the naive Bayes algorithm more properly. Then, the online learning process for parameter optimization of the inference engine was completed. At last, our decision support system utilizing the three-layer model was formally evaluated by two experienced doctors. By comparisons between prediction results and clinical results, our system can provide effective clinical recommendations to doctors. Moreover, we found that the three-layer model can improve the accuracy of predictions compared with the two-layer model. In light of some of the limitations of this study, we also identify and discuss several areas that need continued improvement.

  18. Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction: An Investigation of Agriscience Students' Content Knowledge Based on Student Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous researchers in science education have reported student improvement in areas of scientific literacy resulting from socioscientific issues (SSI)-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to describe student agriscience content knowledge following a six-week SSI-based instructional unit focusing on the introduction of cultured meat…

  19. THE USE OF TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AS DIRECTED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES AND DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario of organizations Process Management aims to perform process in an organized, prioritizing actions through techniques and methods that are linked to the improvement of the organization in the market segment it operates. As a determinant for achieving goals successfully, organizational memory is all important in the management of processes, allowing all areas meet in a systemic way, crediting their information to the various organizational sectors and thus using knowledge to direct an action with a focus planning to achieve strategic organizational goal. The organizational memory can be registered through the development of a knowledge base. The work in question aims to provide a better understanding of the importance of the knowledge base in an organization, to perform appropriate actions, planning, simulating and reaching a decision through meaningful data. Soon after the development of a bibliographic research, a bibliometric study on the proposed topic was accomplished with the main events of the Brazilian scientific areas of production engineering, analyzing how the topic has been addressed by authors in the areas of Process Management and Base Knowledge. The main results so far observed the need for the implementation of knowledge-based models in systems that seek to improve the execution of processes and thus reduce failures and decision-making processes more appropriate.

  20. RESEARCH ON KNOWLEDGE-BASED OPTIMIZATION METHOD OF INDOOR LOCATION BASED ON LOW ENERGY BLUETOOTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of LBS (Location-based Service, the demand for commercialization of indoor location has been increasing, but its technology is not perfect. Currently, the accuracy of indoor location, the complexity of the algorithm, and the cost of positioning are hard to be simultaneously considered and it is still restricting the determination and application of mainstream positioning technology. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of knowledge-based optimization of indoor location based on low energy Bluetooth. The main steps include: 1 The establishment and application of a priori and posterior knowledge base. 2 Primary selection of signal source. 3 Elimination of positioning gross error. 4 Accumulation of positioning knowledge. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can eliminate the signal source of outliers and improve the accuracy of single point positioning in the simulation data. The proposed scheme is a dynamic knowledge accumulation rather than a single positioning process. The scheme adopts cheap equipment and provides a new idea for the theory and method of indoor positioning. Moreover, the performance of the high accuracy positioning results in the simulation data shows that the scheme has a certain application value in the commercial promotion.

  1. Research on Knowledge-Based Optimization Method of Indoor Location Based on Low Energy Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Li, G.; Deng, Y.; Wang, T.; Kang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of LBS (Location-based Service), the demand for commercialization of indoor location has been increasing, but its technology is not perfect. Currently, the accuracy of indoor location, the complexity of the algorithm, and the cost of positioning are hard to be simultaneously considered and it is still restricting the determination and application of mainstream positioning technology. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of knowledge-based optimization of indoor location based on low energy Bluetooth. The main steps include: 1) The establishment and application of a priori and posterior knowledge base. 2) Primary selection of signal source. 3) Elimination of positioning gross error. 4) Accumulation of positioning knowledge. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can eliminate the signal source of outliers and improve the accuracy of single point positioning in the simulation data. The proposed scheme is a dynamic knowledge accumulation rather than a single positioning process. The scheme adopts cheap equipment and provides a new idea for the theory and method of indoor positioning. Moreover, the performance of the high accuracy positioning results in the simulation data shows that the scheme has a certain application value in the commercial promotion.

  2. An empirically based model for knowledge management in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) encompasses strategies, processes, and practices that allow an organization to capture, share, store, access, and use knowledge. Ideal KM combines different sources of knowledge to support innovation and improve performance. Despite the importance of KM in health care organizations (HCOs), there has been very little empirical research to describe KM in this context. This study explores KM in HCOs, focusing on the status of current intraorganizational KM. The intention is to provide insight for future studies and model development for effective KM implementation in HCOs. A qualitative methods approach was used to create an empirically based model of KM in HCOs. Methods included (a) qualitative interviews (n = 24) with senior leadership to identify types of knowledge important in these roles plus current information-seeking behaviors/needs and (b) in-depth case study with leaders in new executive positions (n = 2). The data were collected from 10 HCOs. Our empirically based model for KM was assessed for face and content validity. The findings highlight the paucity of formal KM in our sample HCOs. Organizational culture, leadership, and resources are instrumental in supporting KM processes. An executive's knowledge needs are extensive, but knowledge assets are often limited or difficult to acquire as much of the available information is not in a usable format. We propose an empirically based model for KM to highlight the importance of context (internal and external), and knowledge seeking, synthesis, sharing, and organization. Participants who reviewed the model supported its basic components and processes, and potential for incorporating KM into organizational processes. Our results articulate ways to improve KM, increase organizational learning, and support evidence-informed decision-making. This research has implications for how to better integrate evidence and knowledge into organizations while considering context and the role of

  3. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  4. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A.; Krousel-Wood, M.; Thomas, E. J.; McCoy, J. A.; Sittig, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. Objective We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. Methods We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. Results The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. Conclusions We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes. PMID:26171079

  5. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  7. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  8. Research on the construction of knowledge base for institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ru

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge base (KB in short) is very important for institutes. It can train employees to improve their ability of work. It can supply more information to directors for making right decisions, and can help constructing learning organization to promote innovation. Institutes possess several information systems, but there are some problems such as inadequate use of documents, and connotative knowledge isn't described and communicated. KB of institute is based on programs. It stress integrity, secrecy of programs and authorized access. Libraries have abilities to construct KB, since it's the center of information for the institute. KB of institute includes: KB of training, communion of technique issues, KB of department, personal KB, KB of specialists. Because of low cost many institutes adopt softwares of free codes such as: DSpace, EPrints, Fedodra, CDSware, Greenstone. KB systems are choosed by institutes, depending on types of knowledge, ability of technique, fund and so on. KB is constructed by collecting, sorting, describing key knowledge, connecting, accessing, updating and innovating. Program KB of different places and majors will unite in the future. (author)

  9. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  10. Validation Of Critical Knowledge-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses approach to verification and validation of knowledge-based systems. Also known as "expert systems". Concerned mainly with development of methodologies for verification of knowledge-based systems critical to flight-research systems; e.g., fault-tolerant control systems for advanced aircraft. Subject matter also has relevance to knowledge-based systems controlling medical life-support equipment or commuter railroad systems.

  11. Development of a knowledge-based information management system for plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Hyung Sang; Park, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Roh, Eun Chul; Lee, Byung Ine

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the importance of Plant Maintenance(PM) was highly raised to provide efficient plant operation which highly affects the productivity. For this reason, a number of engineering methodologies, such as Risk-Based Inspection(RBI), Fitness For Service guidelines(FFS), Plant Lifecycle Management(PLM), have been applied to improve the plant operation efficiency. Also, a network-based business operation system, which is called ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning), has been introduced in the field of plant maintenance. However, there was no attempt to connect engineering methodologies to the ERP PM system. In this paper, a knowledge-based information system for the plant operation of steel making company has been proposed. This system, which is named as K-VRS(Knowledge-based Virtual Reality System), provides a connection between ERP plant maintenance module and knowledge-based engineering methodologies, and thus, enables network-based highly effective plant maintenance process. The developed system is expected to play a great role for more efficient and safer plant maintenance

  12. Development of a knowledge-based information management system for plant maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Hyung Sang; Park, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Eun Chul; Lee, Byung Ine [Pohang Iron and Steel Company, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Recently, the importance of Plant Maintenance(PM) was highly raised to provide efficient plant operation which highly affects the productivity. For this reason, a number of engineering methodologies, such as Risk-Based Inspection(RBI), Fitness For Service guidelines(FFS), Plant Lifecycle Management(PLM), have been applied to improve the plant operation efficiency. Also, a network-based business operation system, which is called ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning), has been introduced in the field of plant maintenance. However, there was no attempt to connect engineering methodologies to the ERP PM system. In this paper, a knowledge-based information system for the plant operation of steel making company has been proposed. This system, which is named as K-VRS(Knowledge-based Virtual Reality System), provides a connection between ERP plant maintenance module and knowledge-based engineering methodologies, and thus, enables network-based highly effective plant maintenance process. The developed system is expected to play a great role for more efficient and safer plant maintenance.

  13. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  14. Developing an ontological explosion knowledge base for business continuity planning purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Kalatpour, Omid; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Khotanlou, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial accidents are among the most known challenges to business continuity. Many organisations have lost their reputation following devastating accidents. To manage the risks of such accidents, it is necessary to accumulate sufficient knowledge regarding their roots, causes and preventive techniques. The required knowledge might be obtained through various approaches, including databases. Unfortunately, many databases are hampered by (among other things) static data presentations, a lack of semantic features, and the inability to present accident knowledge as discrete domains. This paper proposes the use of Protégé software to develop a knowledge base for the domain of explosion accidents. Such a structure has a higher capability to improve information retrieval compared with common accident databases. To accomplish this goal, a knowledge management process model was followed. The ontological explosion knowledge base (EKB) was built for further applications, including process accident knowledge retrieval and risk management. The paper will show how the EKB has a semantic feature that enables users to overcome some of the search constraints of existing accident databases.

  15. New Virginia Cooperative Extension website connects citizens with research-based knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension has revamped its online presence with a new and improved website that connects citizens with the research-based knowledge at Virginia's land-grant universities, Virginia Tech and Virginia State University.

  16. Preventing Medication Error Based on Knowledge Management Against Adverse Event

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti, Apriyani Puji; Nursalam, Nursalam; Triharini, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Introductions: Medication error is one of many types of errors that could decrease the quality and safety of healthcare. Increasing number of adverse events (AE) reflects the number of medication errors. This study aimed to develop a model of medication error prevention based on knowledge management. This model is expected to improve knowledge and skill of nurses to prevent medication error which is characterized by the decrease of adverse events (AE). Methods: This study consisted of two sta...

  17. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  18. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....

  19. Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research Results in Ecohealth Projects. This study brings together lead investigators from 11 past and ongoing Ecohealth projects across Latin America who are interested in achieving better development outcomes guided by research results. Their collective ...

  20. Research on the Method of Enterprise Knowledge Management Based on Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Chengyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] It is the key for the research of enterprise knowledge management to improve the efficiency of enterprise knowledge management by using the advantages of Web 2.0, such as its fastness, public participation and strong interaction. [Method/process] Based on the analysis of the characteristics and main technologies of Web 2.0, this paper discussed the role and application of Web 2.0 related technologies in the enterprise knowledge management, and then put forward the enterprise knowledge management methods based on Web 2.0, including knowledge acquisition method, knowledge classification and organization method, knowledge sharing and evaluation method by usingWeb2 .0. [Result/conclusion] Through the introduction of Web 2.0 related technologies into the knowledge management of enterprises, the research provides convenient and low-cost tools and methods for knowledge management related activities, and helps all users to participate in enterprise knowledge management activities quickly and easily.

  1. Nuclear Knowledge Innovations Assimilation: The Impact of Organizational Knowledge Frames and Triple Helix Dynamics of Knowledge Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M. D.; Sultana, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Previous research did not investigate the impact of the TH dynamics of knowledge innovations on the nuclear knowledge innovations adoption/assimilation in the organizational context. Hence, the recommendation of R&D policy reformulation seems too broad. These gaps are the prime motivators for the research. In the organizational context, we posit that TH dynamics of knowledge base innovation serves as complements to managers’ knowledge frames related to a technology innovation. We examine interactions between three knowledge frames—integration frame, opportunism frame, and policy knowledge frame, and two TH dynamics of knowledge innovations—bilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations and trilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations, and their relationship with the assimilation of nuclear knowledge innovations. We aim to research on the issues of the dynamics of knowledge base of innovations involving TH collaborations (university, industry and government) in Bangladesh as a new build nuclear project. As a result, we can find out the impact of TH collaborations on organizational nuclear knowledge innovations management as well as core institutional problems of the knowledge base of innovation systems in terms of R&D policy. Finally, findings identify lack in production of nuclear knowledge innovations and concrete recommendation of R&D policy reformulation. (author

  2. An approach to build a knowledge base for reactor diagnostic system using statistical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kohsaka, Atsuo

    1988-01-01

    In the development of a rule-based expert system, one of the key issues is how to acquire knowledge and to build a knowledge base. When the knowledge base of DISKET was built, which is an expert system for nuclear reactor accident diagnosis developed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, several problems have been experienced. To write rules is a time-consuming task, and it was difficult to keep the objectivity and consistency of rules as the number of rules increased. Certainty factors must be determined often according to engineering judgement, i.e. empirically or intuitively. A systematic approach was attempted to cope with these difficulties and to build efficiently an objective knowledge base. The approach described in this paper is based on the concept that a prototype knowledge base, colloquially speaking an initial guess, should first be generated in a systematic way, then it is modified or improved by human experts for practical use. Factor analysis was used as the systematic way. DISKET system, the procedure of building a knowledge base, and the verification of the approach are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. End user interface and knowledge base editing system of CSPAR: a knowledge-based consultation system for preventive maintenance in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinohara, Yasusi; Terano, Takao; Nishiyama, Takuya

    1988-01-01

    Consultation System for Prevention of Abnormal-event Recurrence (CSPAR) is a knowledge-based system to analyze the same kind of events to a given fault reported on a nuclear power plant and to give users some informations for effective measures preventing them. This report discusses the interfaces of CSPAR for both end-users and knowledge-base editors. The interfaces are highly interactive and multi-window oriented. The features are as follows: (1) The end-user interfaces has Japanese language processing facility, which enables the users to consult CSPAR with various synonims and related terms for knowledge-base handling; (2) The knowledge-base editing system is used by knowledge-base editors for maintaining the knowledge on both plants' equipments and abnormal events sequences. It has facilities for easy maintenance of knowledge-bases, which includes a graphic oriented browser, a knowledge-base retriever, and a knowledge-base checker. (author)

  4. INNOCUOUSNESS + KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT A CONTRIBUTION TO PROCESS IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    García Pulido, Yadrián Arnaldo*1, Castillo Zúñiga, Victor Javier2, Medina León, Alberto3, Medina Nogueira, Daylín4, Mayorga Villamar, Carmen Manuela5

    2017-01-01

    The processes improvement is inherent to the business management. In the competitive current market, the businesses adaptation capacity is fundamental. The continuous improvement becomes into the reason of being of the companies, being adapted to the clients, being more efficient and winning in flexibility in the face of an extremely unstable economy. Several tools have been developed with the objective of improving the processes, however the integration of elements of other knowledge areas h...

  5. Strategies for rehabilitation professionals to move evidence-based knowledge into practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Kastner, Monika; McKibbon, K Ann; Straus, Sharon

    2009-11-01

    Rehabilitation clinicians need to stay current regarding best practices, especially since adherence to clinical guidelines can significantly improve patient outcomes. However, little is known about the benefits of knowledge translation interventions for these professionals. To examine the effectiveness of single or multi-component knowledge translation interventions for improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of rehabilitation clinicians. Systematic review of 7 databases conducted to identify studies evaluating knowledge translation interventions specific to occupational therapists and physical therapists. 12 studies met the eligibility criteria. For physical therapists, participation in an active multi-component knowledge translation intervention resulted in improved evidence-based knowledge and practice behaviors compared with passive dissemination strategies. These gains did not translate into change in clinicians' attitudes towards best practices. For occupational therapists, no studies have examined the use of multi-component interventions; studies of single interventions suggest limited evidence of effectiveness for all outcomes measured. While this review suggests the use of active, multi-component knowledge translation interventions to enhance knowledge and practice behaviors of physical therapists, additional research is needed to understand the impact of these strategies on occupational therapists. Serious research gaps remain regarding which knowledge translation strategies impact positively on patient outcomes.

  6. Maximizing the knowledge base: Knowledge Base+ and the Global Open Knowledgebase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Earney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for the two projects discussed in this article is the simple premise that the current inaccuracies of data in the library supply chain are detrimental to the user experience, limit the ability of institutions to effectively manage their collections and that resolving them is increasingly unsustainable at the institutional level. Two projects, Knowledge Base+ (KB+ in the UK and Global Open Knowledgebase (GOKb in the USA, are working in cooperation with a range of other partners, and adopting a communitycentric approach to address these issues and broaden the scope and utility of knowledge bases more generally. The belief is that only through collaboration at a wide range of levels and on a number of fronts can these challenges be overcome.

  7. Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    1757 I Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation DTIC5 by flELECTE 5David C. Wilkins and Yong...NUMBERSWOKNI PROGRAM RAT TSWOKUI 61153N RR04206 OC 443g-008 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can be...probabilistic rules are shown to be sociopathic and so this problem is very widespread. Sociopathicity has important consequences for rule induction

  8. Advergaming: Application of Knowledge in the Process of the Competitive Advantage Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mráček

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper is involved in the utilization of the knowledge in the process of the competitive advantage improvement by means of the perspective marketing tool - advergaming. The objective of the article is the informing on the possibilities of the use of the knowledge in the field of the advergaming as the possible tool in the marketing communication, leading to the improvement of the competitive advantage of the companies. Scientific aim: Research objective was to identify how knowledge management is used in the Czech companies with respect to their size. Specific aspect of our research was an influence of knowledge management on a decision making process. On the base of results we have identified the requirement of usage of knowledge management in the area of advertgaming. We argue that this is a possible approach improving competitiveness of companies. Methodology/methods: Data for this paper are the data from the research carried out in the Czech companies. This survey focuses on the share of the application of the knowledge management in surveyed companies. 265 companies from the whole Czech Republic, various segments and industries, starting with the tourism, building industry, hotel industry, transport and ending with the manufacturing and distribution of the detergents and the distribution of the medical materials, were involved in the research. The companies were selected randomly. The necessary data were collected from the total number of 265 companies by means of the questionnaire research, and in certain cases the structured interview was used. The synthesis from the individual parts was made, on the basis of which the following conclusions were based. Findings: The paper identifies the method of the use of the knowledge in the advergaming as a possible starting point for the potential model of the utilization of the knowledge in the marketing communication. Conclusions: (limits, implications

  9. Health Care Leadership: Managing Knowledge Bases as Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy

    Communities are composed of many organizations. These organizations naturally form clusters based on common patterns of knowledge, skills, and abilities of the individual organizations. Each of these spontaneous clusters represents a distinct knowledge base. The health care knowledge base is shown to be the natural leader of any community. Using the Central Florida region's 5 knowledge bases as an example, each knowledge base is categorized as a distinct type of stakeholder, and then a specific stakeholder management strategy is discussed to facilitate managing both the cooperative potential and the threatening potential of each "knowledge base" stakeholder.

  10. Development and testing of a CD-ROM program for improving adolescent knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Lynelle M; Bohren, Janet R; Pentiuk, Scott; Baker, Raymond; Yi, Michael; Moyer, M Susan

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to design a theory-based educational program for adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using an interactive multimedia CD-ROM and to test its effectiveness in improving knowledge in IBD. Curriculum-based instruction using educational theory and principles was designed for adolescents on an interactive multimedia CD-ROM. Twenty subjects completed summative evaluation of the CD-ROM measuring gain in knowledge about IBD immediately and 9 months after instruction. Subjects found the CD-ROM to be informative, appealing, and easy to use. The mean baseline score of the adolescents on the Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge questionnaire was 12.2 (standard deviation 5.14, range 3-24). After an average of 30 minutes of self-directed learning, adolescent subjects increased their posttest score to a mean of 19.8, a gain of 7.6 points over baseline (95% confidence interval 5.2-10.1, P < 0.0001). Knowledge of medications, disease complications, and gastrointestinal structure and function was gained and retained upon retesting at 9 months with a mean Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge questionnaire score of 17.5 (standard deviation 3.9, range 12-26), which was still an improvement over the mean pretest knowledge score of 12.2 (P < 0.001). Adolescents with IBD have low baseline knowledge about their disease. A rigorously developed interactive educational tool is now available for instructing adolescent patients about their IBD.

  11. Knowledge based Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, John

    This book is dedicated enterprising people with a technical or a scientific background who consider commercializing ideas and inventions within their field of expertise via a new business activity or a new company. It aims at distilling experiences from many successful and not so successful start......-up ventures from the Technical University of Denmark, 1988 – 2008 into practical, portable knowledge that can be used by future knowledge-based entrepreneurs to set up new companies efficiently or to stay away from it; to do what’s needed and avoid the pitfalls....

  12. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Symeonidou , Danai; Galárraga , Luis; Pernelle , Nathalie; Saïs , Fatiha; Suchanek , Fabian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs of millions of facts. We also show that the conditional keys we mine can improve the quality of entity linking by up to 47 percentage points.

  13. Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... via web-based communities the intersection of culture and rhetoric in web-based communication rhetoric and discourse in the process of communicating knowledge via technology heuristics for knowledge communication from teaching in online forums connections between identity and knowledge communication...... This call for papers invites papers focused on theoretical frameworks or empirical research which highlights the cultural and/or rhetorical aspects of communicating knowledge in web based communities. We are looking for work that brings together methods and perspectives across disciplines...

  14. THE IMPACT OF MOVING TO KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela PACESILA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy underwent profound changes in the last fifteen years, whichdetermined the appearance of a new economy – the knowledge economy.This economy is the result of the knowledge revolution, which gets a greaterand greater importance. Knowledge development is also very important inpublic sector. The knowledge society and its impact in public sectordevelopment is a critical area of study. The knowledge economy in publicsector requires the utilization of the knowledge in order to improve thetransparence, the services delivering to the citizens, for a bettercommunication with the citizens/users/clients and in order to improve theknowing degree of their needs. The transition to the knowledge economy inpublic sector has to take place in a decentralized, non-bureaucratic, cataliticand permissive environment, orientated to the results. In the same time, thepublic organizations must become knowledge based organizations, that havethe responsability and the flexibility to achieve the objectives publicly defined.In order to promote efficiently the development in the knowledge economy,the government must facilitate, instead of breaking, the process of economicchanges and modernizations, according as this modifications create newopportuneness and raised revenues. This must become as fast, selectiveand flexible as the economy and the society with which is mostly in contactand it must adopt the political decisions that serve the best the publicinterest.

  15. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  16. The knowledge-based framework for a nuclear power plant operator advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    An important facet in the design, development, and evaluation of aids for complex systems is the identification of the tasks performed by the operator. Operator aids utilizing artificial intelligence, or more specifically knowledge-based systems, require identification of these tasks in the context of a knowledge-based framework. In this context, the operator responses to the plant behavior are to monitor and comprehend the state of the plant, identify normal and abnormal plant conditions, diagnose abnormal plant conditions, predict plant response to specific control actions, and select the best available control action, implement a feasible control action, monitor system response to the control action, and correct for any inappropriate responses. These tasks have been identified to formulate a knowledge-based framework for an operator advisor under development at Ohio State University that utilizes the generic task methodology proposed by Chandrasekaran. The paper lays the foundation to identify the responses as a knowledge-based set of tasks in accordance with the expected human operator responses during an event. Initial evaluation of the expert system indicates the potential for an operator aid that will improve the operator's ability to respond to both anticipated and unanticipated events

  17. Knowledge-based development in Singapore and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Menkhoff, Thomas; Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter; Chay, Yue Wah

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the question how knowledge is used to benefit the economic development of Singapore and Malaysia. Both countries have followed strict science policies to establish knowledge governance regimes for a knowledge-based economy. On the basis of empirical studies in both countries we show, how ethnic and religious diversity impact on the ability to develop an epistemic culture of knowledge sharing and ultimately an innovative knowledge-based economy.

  18. Impact of a competency based curriculum on quality improvement among internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mark C; Wong, Roger Y

    2014-11-28

    Teaching quality improvement (QI) principles during residency is an important component of promoting patient safety and improving quality of care. The literature on QI curricula for internal medicine residents is limited. We sought to evaluate the impact of a competency based curriculum on QI among internal medicine residents. This was a prospective, cohort study over four years (2007-2011) using pre-post curriculum comparison design in an internal medicine residency program in Canada. Overall 175 post-graduate year one internal medicine residents participated. A two-phase, competency based curriculum on QI was developed with didactic workshops and longitudinal, team-based QI projects. The main outcome measures included self-assessment, objective assessment using the Quality Improvement Knowledge Assessment Tool (QIKAT) scores to assess QI knowledge, and performance-based assessment via presentation of longitudinal QI projects. Overall 175 residents participated, with a response rate of 160/175 (91%) post-curriculum and 114/175 (65%) after conducting their longitudinal QI project. Residents' self-reported confidence in making changes to improve health increased and was sustained at twelve months post-curriculum. Self-assessment scores of QI skills improved significantly from pre-curriculum (53.4 to 69.2 percent post-curriculum [p-value 0.002]) and scores were sustained at twelve months after conducting their longitudinal QI projects (53.4 to 72.2 percent [p-value 0.005]). Objective scores using the QIKAT increased post-curriculum from 8.3 to 10.1 out of 15 (p-value for difference value for difference from pre-curriculum based assessment occurred via presentation of all projects at the annual QI Project Podium Presentation Day. The competency based curriculum on QI improved residents' QI knowledge and skills during residency training. Importantly, residents perceived that their QI knowledge improved after the curriculum and this also correlated to improved QIKAT

  19. Knowledge data base for severe accident management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For the safety enhancement of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), continuous efforts are very important to take in the up-to-date scientific and technical knowledge positively and to reflect them into the safety regulation. The purpose of the present study is to gather effectively the scientific and technical knowledge about the severe accident (SA) phenomena and the accident management (AM) for prevention and mitigation of SA, and to take in the experimental data by participating in the international cooperative experiments regarding the important SA phenomena and the effectiveness of AM. Based on those data and knowledge, JNES is developing and improving severe accident analysis models to maintain the SA analysis codes and the AM knowledge base for assessment of the NPPs in Japan. The activities in fiscal year 2012 are as follows; Analytical study on OECD/NEA projects such as MCCI, SERENA and SFP projects, and support in making regulation for SA. (author)

  20. Knowledge data base for severe accident management of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    For the safety enhancement of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), continuous efforts are very important to take in the up-to-date scientific and technical knowledge positively and to reflect them into the safety regulation. The purpose of the present study is to gather effectively the scientific and technical knowledge about the severe accident (SA) phenomena and the accident management (AM) for prevention and mitigation of SA, and to take in the experimental data by participating in the international cooperative experiments regarding the important SA phenomena and the effectiveness of AM. Based on those data and knowledge, JNES is developing and improving severe accident analysis models to maintain the SA analysis codes and the AM knowledge base for assessment of the NPPs in Japan. The activities in fiscal year 2012 are as follows; Analytical study on OECD/NEA projects such as MCCI, SERENA and SFP projects, and support in making regulation for SA. (author)

  1. Instituting systems-based practice and practice-based learning and improvement: a curriculum of inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Wilper

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME requires that training programs integrate system-based practice (SBP and practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI into internal medicine residency curricula. Context and setting : We instituted a seminar series and year-long-mentored curriculum designed to engage internal medicine residents in these competencies. Methods : Residents participate in a seminar series that includes assigned reading and structured discussion with faculty who assist in the development of quality improvement or research projects. Residents pursue projects over the remainder of the year. Monthly works in progress meetings, protected time for inquiry, and continued faculty mentorship guide the residents in their project development. Trainees present their work at hospital-wide grand rounds at the end of the academic year. We performed a survey of residents to assess their self-reported knowledge, attitudes and skills in SBP and PBLI. In addition, blinded faculty scored projects for appropriateness, impact, and feasibility. Outcomes : We measured resident self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and skills at the end of the academic year. We found evidence that participants improved their understanding of the context in which they were practicing, and that their ability to engage in quality improvement projects increased. Blinded faculty reviewers favorably ranked the projects’ feasibility, impact, and appropriateness. The ‘Curriculum of Inquiry’ generated 11 quality improvement and research projects during the study period. Barriers to the ongoing work include a limited supply of mentors and delays due to Institutional Review Board approval. Hospital leadership recognizes the importance of the curriculum, and our accreditation manager now cites our ongoing work. Conclusions : A structured residency-based curriculum facilitates resident demonstration of SBP and practice-based learning and

  2. Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge,. Attitude and Behavior ... of mobile counseling units by blood banks may help to create a voluntary blood donor. Changes in ..... How to cite this article: Kulkarni PY, Kulkarni AD.

  3. Improving Knowledge Management by Supporting Asynchronous Communications with a Debate Dashboard

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Iandoli; Ivana Quinto; Anna De Liddo; Simon Buckingham Shum

    2013-01-01

    In today economic environment, innovation is considered the primary source of competitive advantage for companies. The advent of Web 2.0 tools has provided organizations with new models and tools to improve collaboration and co-creation of new knowledge assets. In particular, the shift to Open Innovation models has been recognized as a major change in the way companies create and manage innovation. In this paper the authors focus on a particular kind of web-based platforms known as argument m...

  4. Study of Potential Extension For Improving Knowledge Society in Ngadas Village about Medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajmia guswika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Society knowledge in Ngadas village about medicinal plants began to fade, as people do not know the plants that can be consume as a drug around them. However, the treatment by plant utilizing is a traditional medicine that has become a cultural heritage that should be conserved and has been recommended by the WHO as the effort back to nature for the maintenance of public health, prevention and treatment of disease. Wild plant that has potential as a drug in the village Ngadas big enough examples adas, ajeran, akasia duri, anting-anting, alang-alang, patikan kebo, pegagan, semanggi gunung, kersen, krisan, kecubung gunung, tempuyung, etc. The purpose of writing this article is to examine the potential of extension as a efforts on improving knowledge of society. The method used is to review literature of some journal that examines the educational efforts to improve public knowledge. Based on data obtained from reviewing the literature, extension activities proved potentially in increasing knowledge of society. Thus it is needed to do extension in an effort to provide information on the potential of medicinal plants in the Ngadas villages.

  5. Training Methods to Improve Evidence-Based Medicine Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ozyigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based medicine (EBM is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It is estimated that only 15% of medical interventions is evidence-based. Increasing demand, new technological developments, malpractice legislations, a very speed increase in knowledge and knowledge sources push the physicians forward for EBM, but at the same time increase load of physicians by giving them the responsibility to improve their skills. Clinical maneuvers are needed more, as the number of clinical trials and observational studies increase. However, many of the physicians, who are in front row of patient care do not use this increasing evidence. There are several examples related to different training methods in order to improve skills of physicians for evidence based practice. There are many training methods to improve EBM skills and these trainings might be given during medical school, during residency or as continuous trainings to the actual practitioners in the field. It is important to discuss these different training methods in our country as well and encourage dissemination of feasible and effective methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 245-254

  6. Knowledge strategies aiming to improve the intellectual capital of universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejinaru Ruxandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new construct of the intellectual capital structure, based on the multifield theory of knowledge and the concept of nonlinear integrators and to identify the knowledge strategies to enhance the intellectual capital of universities. The paper presents a new approach, based on metaphorical thinking and thermodynamics logic in structuring the intellectual capital, based on the multifield theory of knowledge into its basic building blocks. Considering the two levels of intellectual capital, the paper presents the main knowledge strategies to enhance the university intellectual capital. The basic building blocks of the intellectual capital are: rational, emotional, and spiritual intellectual capital. Each building block is based on the corresponding field of knowledge. There are two significant levels of intellectual capital: potential and operational. Analyzing the university intellectual capital by using this new approach is much more realistic than in the previous approaches. The new approach is based on a thermodynamics paradigm, which means we need to develop new ways of thinking, evaluating, and enhancing the intellectual capital. The paper presents an original approach, based on metaphorical thinking, by considering basic ideas from the energy realm and thermodynamics theory. Also, the paper presents a matrix of possible knowledge strategies to increase the intellectual capital of universities.

  7. An Algebraic Approach to Knowledge Bases Informational Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, B.; Plotkin, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the notion of knowledge from the positions of universal algebra and algebraic logic. We consider first order knowledge which is based on first order logic. We define categories of knowledge and knowledge bases. These notions are defined for the fixed subject of knowledge. The key notion of informational equivalence of two knowledge bases is introduced. We use the idea of equivalence of categories in this definition. We prove that for finite models there is a clear way t...

  8. Using Tags In An Aiml-Based Chatterbot To Improve Its Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mikic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is common to find on the Internet different conversational robots which interact with users simulating a natural language conversation. Among them, we can emphasize the chatterbots based on AIML language. In this paper we present an AIML based chatterbot that shows as its main contribution the use of tags and folksonomies. Thanks to its use, we can generate a context for each conversation, being able to maintain a state for each user in the system, and improving the adaptation capabilities of the bot.

  9. Stochastic abstract policies: generalizing knowledge to improve reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Marcelo L; Freire, Valdinei; Costa, Anna H R

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) enables an agent to learn behavior by acquiring experience through trial-and-error interactions with a dynamic environment. However, knowledge is usually built from scratch and learning to behave may take a long time. Here, we improve the learning performance by leveraging prior knowledge; that is, the learner shows proper behavior from the beginning of a target task, using the knowledge from a set of known, previously solved, source tasks. In this paper, we argue that building stochastic abstract policies that generalize over past experiences is an effective way to provide such improvement and this generalization outperforms the current practice of using a library of policies. We achieve that contributing with a new algorithm, AbsProb-PI-multiple and a framework for transferring knowledge represented as a stochastic abstract policy in new RL tasks. Stochastic abstract policies offer an effective way to encode knowledge because the abstraction they provide not only generalizes solutions but also facilitates extracting the similarities among tasks. We perform experiments in a robotic navigation environment and analyze the agent's behavior throughout the learning process and also assess the transfer ratio for different amounts of source tasks. We compare our method with the transfer of a library of policies, and experiments show that the use of a generalized policy produces better results by more effectively guiding the agent when learning a target task.

  10. Mindtagger: A Demonstration of Data Labeling in Knowledge Base Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeho; Ré, Christopher; Cafarella, Michael

    2015-08-01

    End-to-end knowledge base construction systems using statistical inference are enabling more people to automatically extract high-quality domain-specific information from unstructured data. As a result of deploying DeepDive framework across several domains, we found new challenges in debugging and improving such end-to-end systems to construct high-quality knowledge bases. DeepDive has an iterative development cycle in which users improve the data. To help our users, we needed to develop principles for analyzing the system's error as well as provide tooling for inspecting and labeling various data products of the system. We created guidelines for error analysis modeled after our colleagues' best practices, in which data labeling plays a critical role in every step of the analysis. To enable more productive and systematic data labeling, we created Mindtagger, a versatile tool that can be configured to support a wide range of tasks. In this demonstration, we show in detail what data labeling tasks are modeled in our error analysis guidelines and how each of them is performed using Mindtagger.

  11. Improvement of Managers’ Safety Knowledge through Scientifically Reasonable Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paas Õnnela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety management system has been analysed in 16 Estonian enterprises using the MISHA method (Method for Industrial Safety and Health Activity Assessment. The factor analysis (principal component analysis and varimax with Kaiser analysis has been implemented for the interpretation of the results on safety performance at the enterprises implementing OHSAS 18001 and the ones that do not implement OHSAS 18001. The division of the safety areas into four parts for a better understanding of the safety level and its improvement possibilities has been proven through the statistical analysis. The connections between the questions aimed to clarify the safety level and performance at the enterprises have been set based on the statistics. New learning package “training through the questionnaires” has been worked out in the current paper for the top and middle-level managers to improve their safety knowledge, where the MISHA questionnaire has been taken as the basis.

  12. Demographic factors associated with knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms in a UK population-based survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, C.; Glover, C.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    2000-01-01

    Greater public awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms might result in earlier presentation with improved cure by available treatments, but little is known about the extent of public knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms. We asked a sample of the general population about knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms and assessed demographic characteristics associated with differences in knowledge. A population-based telephone enquiry into knowledge of colorectal cancer-associated symptoms was con...

  13. Data Use for School Improvement : Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Brokerage in Network Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubers, Mireille Desirée; Moolenaar, Nienke; Schildkamp, Kim; Handelzalts, Adam; Pieters, Julius Marie; Daly, A.J.; Daly, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Data teams are used in Dutch secondary education to support schools in data use for school improvement. Such teams are likely to be most effective when knowledge is shared between the data team members and brokered throughout the school. Social network structures may play an important role in this.

  14. Tools for the Knowledge-Based Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2002-01-01

    exist. They include a Master’s degree in knowledge management, a web- or print-based intelligence hub for the knowledge society, collaboration with the Danish intellectual capital reporting project, ongoing research on expertise and ethics in knowledge workers, a comparative study of competence...

  15. Integration of evidence-based knowledge management in microsystems: a tele-ICU experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Teresa A

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's proposed 6 aims to improve health care are timely, safe, effective, efficient, equitable, and patient-centered care. Unfortunately, it also asserts that improvements in these 6 dimensions cannot be achieved within the existing framework of care systems. These systems are based on unrealistic expectations on human cognition and vigilance, and demonstrate a lack of dependence on computerized systems to support care processes and put information at the point of use. Knowledge-based care and evidence-based clinical decision-making need to replace the unscientific care that is being delivered in health care. Building care practices on evidence within an information technology platform is needed to support sound clinical decision-making and to influence organizational adoption of evidence-based practice in health care. Despite medical advances and evidence-based recommendations for treatment of severe sepsis, it remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. It is a complex disease state that has proven difficult to define, diagnose, and treat. Supporting bedside teams with real-time knowledge and expertise to target early identification of severe sepsis and compliance to Surviving Sepsis Campaign, evidence-based practice bundles are important to improving outcomes. Using a centralized, remote team of expert nurses and an open-source software application to advance clinical decision-making and execution of the severe sepsis bundle will be examined.

  16. Knowledge-Management-Based-Nursing Care Model Improves Patient Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninuk Dian Kurniawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary tuberculosis remains prominent as one of public health problems in the world. Patients’ non-compliance to treatment is a significant contributor to drug resistance. This study aimed to develop and to test the efficacy of a nursing care model to prevent non-compliance. Method This study consisted of two phases: phase one, model development, used a descriptive analytic, and phase two, model testing, employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants, comprised both patients and nurses at two health care centres in Surabaya, were recruited by consecutive sampling. Data were collected by interview, self-administered-questionnaires, check-list and focused group discussion. Data analyses were performed using both partial least squares and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results. The model was statistically effective to improve nearly all aspects of patients’ compliance to TB treatment (knowledge, discipline in taking medications regularity of controls, and abilities to monitor the results of treatment with p < 0.05, except for abilities to cope with drug adverse effects (p = 1.000. This is possible because seldom do patients aware of the medication side effects, so their experiences were probably limited. Conclusion. This study concludes that the KM nursing care model was proven effective to improve patients’ adherence to treatment. Future study is suggested to evaluate the impact of the KM nursing care model in bigger population.

  17. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  18. Development and evaluation of intelligent machine tools based on knowledge evolution in M2M environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hoon; Song, Jun Yeob; Lee, Jong Hyun; Cha, Suk Keun

    2009-01-01

    In the near future, the foreseen improvement in machine tools will be in the form of a knowledge evolution-based intelligent device. The goal of this study is to develop intelligent machine tools having knowledge-evolution capability in Machine to Machine (M2M) wired and wireless environment. The knowledge evolution-based intelligent machine tools are expected to be capable of gathering knowledge autonomously, producing knowledge, understanding knowledge, applying reasoning to knowledge, making new decisions, dialoguing with other machines, etc. The concept of the knowledge-evolution intelligent machine originated from the process of machine control operation by the sense, dialogue and decision of a human expert. The structure of knowledge evolution in M2M and the scheme for a dialogue agent among agent-based modules such as a sensory agent, a dialogue agent and an expert system (decision support agent) are presented in this paper, and work-offset compensation from thermal change and recommendation of cutting condition are performed on-line for knowledge-evolution verification

  19. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial...

  20. Medical Students' Knowledge of Fertility Awareness-Based Methods of Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Peter G; Kurz, Sally A; Covert, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation. Two lectures about FABMs and their clinical applications were given during the rotation. Students were given the same questions at the end of the rotation. Each questionnaire consisted of eight questions to assess a student's knowledge of FABMs and two questions to assess the student's confidence in sharing and utilizing that information in a clinical setting. McNemar's test was used to analyze the data. Two hundred seventy-seven students completed a pretest questionnaire and 196 students completed the posttest questionnaire. Medical knowledge improved from an initial test score of 38.99% to final test score of 53.57% ( p  Medical schools may not include FABMs in OB-GYN curriculum; however, to patients, these methods remain a sought after and valid form of family planning. This study shows that brief, focused education can increase medical students' knowledge of and confidence with FABMs of family planning.

  1. Associating current knowledge with that of past experience based on knowledge about automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, E C

    1982-01-01

    Important to the performance of interactive systems is the ability of its members to associate current knowledge with knowledge of past experience. Knowledge association results in greater detail of a current knowledge and is demonstrated through the use of examples. It is based on knowledge about automata and the knowledge structures are in the form of graphs. 11 references.

  2. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Smaldone, Arlene M; Davidson, Patricia R; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge translation and interprofessional collaboration: Where the rubber of evidence-based care hits the road of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, Merrick; Reeves, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation interventions and interprofessional education and collaboration interventions all aim at improving health care processes and outcomes. Knowledge-translation interventions attempt to increase evidence-based practice by a single professional group and thus may fail to take into account barriers from difficulties in interprofessional relations. Interprofessional education and collaboration interventions aim to improve interprofessional relations, which may in turn facilitate the work of knowledge translation and thus evidence-based practice. We summarize systematic review work on the effects of interventions for interprofessional education and collaboration. The current evidence base contains mainly descriptive studies of these interventions. Knowledge is limited regarding the impact on care and outcomes and the extent to which the interventions increase the practice of evidence-based care. Rigorous multimethod research studies are needed to develop and strengthen the current evidence base in this field. We describe a Health Canada-funded randomized trial in which quantitative and qualitative data will be gathered in 20 general internal medicine units located at 5 Toronto, Ontario, teaching hospitals. The project examines the impact of interprofessional education and collaboration interventions on interprofessional relationships, health care processes (including evidence-based practice), and patient outcomes. Routes are suggested by which interprofessional education and collaboration interventions might affect knowledge translation and evidence-based practice.

  4. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  5. Nutrition education and introduction of broad bean-based complementary food improves knowledge and dietary practices of caregivers and nutritional status of their young children in Hula, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Canaan; Belachew, Tefera; Henry, Carol J; Kebebu, Afework; Abegaz, Kebede; Whiting, Susan J

    2014-12-01

    Nutritious complementary foods are needed in countries where undernutrition and stunting are major problems, but mothers may be reluctant to change from traditional gruels. To test whether a recipe-based complementary feeding education intervention would improve knowledge and practice of mothers with young children in Hula, Ethiopia. A baseline survey of 200 eligible, randomly selected mother-child pairs gathered data on sociodemographic characteristics, food security status, knowledge and practices concerning complementary feeding, food group intakes of children aged 6 to 23 months by 24-hour recalls, and children's anthropometric measurements. Twice a month for 6 months, women in the intervention group received an education session consisting of eight specific messages using Alive and Thrive posters and a demonstration and tasting of a local barley and maize porridge recipe containing 30% broad beans. The control group lived in a different area and had no intervention. At 6 months, knowledge and practice scores regarding complementary feeding were significantly improved (p nutrition education over 6 months that included demonstration of a local porridge recipe with broad beans added improved the complementary feeding practices of caregivers and the nutritional status of their young children.

  6. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  7. Knowledge based economy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we assist at a fundamental change from the economy based mainly on resources to the one based mostly on knowledge. The concept has been launched in the last decade of the past century. The knowledge became a production agent and a value creation instrument for whatever country and of course for an entire community like European Union which is constantly concerned by its development and competitiveness. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the present EU preoccupations with the expansion of a knowledge based economy through the 2020 European Development Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive economy, and especially for the Framework Programs (Framework Programme 7 and Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

  8. Knowledge data base for severe accident management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Masao; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Nagasaka, Hideo; Sumida, Susumu; Fukasawa, Masanori; Muta, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    For the reinforcement of the safety of NPPs, the continuous efforts are very important to take in the up-to-date scientific and technical knowledge positively and to reflect them into the safety regulation. The purpose of this present study is to gather effectively the scientific and technical knowledge about the severe accident (SA) phenomena and the accident management (AM) for prevention and mitigation of severe accident, and to take in the experimental data by participating in the international cooperative experiments regarding the important SA phenomena and the effectiveness of accident management. Based on those data and knowledge, JNES is developing and improving severe accident analysis models to maintain the severe accident analysis codes and the accident management knowledge base for assessment of the NPPs in Japan. The activities in fiscal year 2010 are as follows; Experimental study on OECD/NEA projects such as MCCI, SERENA, SFP and international cooperative PSI-ARTIST project, and analytical study on accident management review of new plant and making regulation for severe accident. (author)

  9. An Ensemble Approach to Knowledge-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based planning (KBP utilizes experienced planners’ knowledge embedded in prior plans to estimate optimal achievable dose volume histogram (DVH of new cases. In the regression-based KBP framework, previously planned patients’ anatomical features and DVHs are extracted, and prior knowledge is summarized as the regression coefficients that transform features to organ-at-risk DVH predictions. In our study, we find that in different settings, different regression methods work better. To improve the robustness of KBP models, we propose an ensemble method that combines the strengths of various linear regression models, including stepwise, lasso, elastic net, and ridge regression. In the ensemble approach, we first obtain individual model prediction metadata using in-training-set leave-one-out cross validation. A constrained optimization is subsequently performed to decide individual model weights. The metadata is also used to filter out impactful training set outliers. We evaluate our method on a fresh set of retrospectively retrieved anonymized prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT cases and head and neck IMRT cases. The proposed approach is more robust against small training set size, wrongly labeled cases, and dosimetric inferior plans, compared with other individual models. In summary, we believe the improved robustness makes the proposed method more suitable for clinical settings than individual models.

  10. A knowledge base browser using hypermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocklington, Tony; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    A hypermedia system is being developed to browse CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) knowledge bases. This system will be used to help train flight controllers for the Mission Control Center. Browsing this knowledge base will be accomplished either by having navigating through the various collection nodes that have already been defined, or through the query languages.

  11. WE-F-BRB-00: New Developments in Knowledge-Based Treatment Planning and Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Advancements in informatics in radiotherapy are opening up opportunities to improve our ability to assess treatment plans. Models on individualizing patient dose constraints from prior patient data and shape relationships have been extensively researched and are now making their way into commercial products. New developments in knowledge based treatment planning involve understanding the impact of the radiation dosimetry on the patient. Akin to radiobiology models that have driven intensity modulated radiotherapy optimization, toxicity and outcome predictions based on treatment plans and prior patient experiences may be the next step in knowledge based planning. In order to realize these predictions, it is necessary to understand how the clinical information can be captured, structured and organized with ontologies and databases designed for recall. Large databases containing radiation dosimetry and outcomes present the opportunity to evaluate treatment plans against predictions of toxicity and disease response. Such evaluations can be based on dose volume histogram or even the full 3-dimensional dose distribution and its relation to the critical anatomy. This session will provide an understanding of ontologies and standard terminologies used to capture clinical knowledge into structured databases; How data can be organized and accessed to utilize the knowledge in planning; and examples of research and clinical efforts to incorporate that clinical knowledge into planning for improved care for our patients. Learning Objectives: Understand the role of standard terminologies, ontologies and data organization in oncology Understand methods to capture clinical toxicity and outcomes in a clinical setting Understand opportunities to learn from clinical data and its application to treatment planning Todd McNutt receives funding from Philips, Elekta and Toshiba for some of the work presented.

  12. WE-F-BRB-00: New Developments in Knowledge-Based Treatment Planning and Automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in informatics in radiotherapy are opening up opportunities to improve our ability to assess treatment plans. Models on individualizing patient dose constraints from prior patient data and shape relationships have been extensively researched and are now making their way into commercial products. New developments in knowledge based treatment planning involve understanding the impact of the radiation dosimetry on the patient. Akin to radiobiology models that have driven intensity modulated radiotherapy optimization, toxicity and outcome predictions based on treatment plans and prior patient experiences may be the next step in knowledge based planning. In order to realize these predictions, it is necessary to understand how the clinical information can be captured, structured and organized with ontologies and databases designed for recall. Large databases containing radiation dosimetry and outcomes present the opportunity to evaluate treatment plans against predictions of toxicity and disease response. Such evaluations can be based on dose volume histogram or even the full 3-dimensional dose distribution and its relation to the critical anatomy. This session will provide an understanding of ontologies and standard terminologies used to capture clinical knowledge into structured databases; How data can be organized and accessed to utilize the knowledge in planning; and examples of research and clinical efforts to incorporate that clinical knowledge into planning for improved care for our patients. Learning Objectives: Understand the role of standard terminologies, ontologies and data organization in oncology Understand methods to capture clinical toxicity and outcomes in a clinical setting Understand opportunities to learn from clinical data and its application to treatment planning Todd McNutt receives funding from Philips, Elekta and Toshiba for some of the work presented

  13. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Science to Improve Student Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Robert L.

    The majority of Grade 5 students demonstrate limited science knowledge on state assessments. This trend has been documented since 2010 with no evidence of improvement. Because state accountability formulas include proficiency scores and carry sanctions against districts that fail to meet proficiency thresholds, improved student performance in science is an important issue to school districts. The purpose of this study was to explore elementary teachers' perceptions about their students' science knowledge, the strategies used to teach science, the barriers affecting science teaching, and the self-efficacy beliefs teachers maintain for teaching science. This study, guided by Vygotsky's social constructivist theory and Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, was a bounded instrumental case study in which 15 participants, required to be teaching K-5 elementary science in the county, were interviewed. An analytic technique was used to review the qualitative interview data through open coding, clustering, and analytical coding resulting in identified categorical themes that addressed the research questions. Key findings reflect students' limited content knowledge in earth and physical science. Teachers identified barriers including limited science instructional time, poor curricular resources, few professional learning opportunities, concern about new state standards, and a lack of teaching confidence. To improve student content knowledge, teachers identified the need for professional development. The project is a professional development series provided by a regional education service agency for K-5 teachers to experience science and engineering 3-dimensional learning. Area students will demonstrate deeper science content knowledge and benefit from improved science instructional practice and learning opportunities to become science problem solvers and innovative contributors to society.

  14. Awareness, knowledge, and attitude of dentistry students in Kerman towards evidence-based dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446

  15. Knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction technique in computed tomography of lumbar spine lowers radiation dose and improves tissue differentiation for patients with lower back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cheng Hui; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Lin, Chung-Jung; Chiou, Yi-You; Chen, Ying-Chou; Sheu, Ming-Huei; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chiu, Chen Fen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Knowledge-based IMR improves tissue differentiation in CT of L-spine better than hybrid IR (iDose 4 ). • Higher strength IMR improves image qualities of the IVD and IVF in spinal stenosis. • IMR provides diagnostic lower dose CT of L-spine. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic confidence of reduced-dose computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine (L-spine) reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (IMR). Materials and methods: Prospectively, group A consisted of 55 patients imaged with standard acquisition reconstructed with filtered back-projection. Group B consisted of 58 patients imaged with half tube current, reconstructed with hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose 4 ) in Group B1 and knowledge-based IMR in Group B2. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of different regions, the contrast-to-noise ratio between the intervetebral disc (IVD) and dural sac (D-D CNR), and subjective image quality of different regions were compared. Higher strength IMR was also compared in spinal stenosis cases. Results: The SNR of the psoas muscle and D-D CNR were significantly higher in the IMR group. Except for the facet joint, subjective image quality of other regions including IVD, intervertebral foramen (IVF), dural sac, peridural fat, ligmentum flavum, and overall diagnostic acceptability were best for the IMR group. Diagnostic confidence of narrowing IVF and IVD was good (kappa = 0.58–0.85). Higher strength IMR delineated IVD better in spinal stenosis cases. Conclusion: Lower dose CT of L-spine reconstructed with IMR demonstrates better tissue differentiation than iDose 4 and standard dose CT with FBP.

  16. Knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction technique in computed tomography of lumbar spine lowers radiation dose and improves tissue differentiation for patients with lower back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cheng Hui [Department of Medical Imaging, Pojen General Hopsital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chung-Jung, E-mail: bcjlin@me.com [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Yi-You; Chen, Ying-Chou; Sheu, Ming-Huei; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chiu, Chen Fen [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge-based IMR improves tissue differentiation in CT of L-spine better than hybrid IR (iDose{sup 4}). • Higher strength IMR improves image qualities of the IVD and IVF in spinal stenosis. • IMR provides diagnostic lower dose CT of L-spine. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic confidence of reduced-dose computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine (L-spine) reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (IMR). Materials and methods: Prospectively, group A consisted of 55 patients imaged with standard acquisition reconstructed with filtered back-projection. Group B consisted of 58 patients imaged with half tube current, reconstructed with hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose{sup 4}) in Group B1 and knowledge-based IMR in Group B2. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of different regions, the contrast-to-noise ratio between the intervetebral disc (IVD) and dural sac (D-D CNR), and subjective image quality of different regions were compared. Higher strength IMR was also compared in spinal stenosis cases. Results: The SNR of the psoas muscle and D-D CNR were significantly higher in the IMR group. Except for the facet joint, subjective image quality of other regions including IVD, intervertebral foramen (IVF), dural sac, peridural fat, ligmentum flavum, and overall diagnostic acceptability were best for the IMR group. Diagnostic confidence of narrowing IVF and IVD was good (kappa = 0.58–0.85). Higher strength IMR delineated IVD better in spinal stenosis cases. Conclusion: Lower dose CT of L-spine reconstructed with IMR demonstrates better tissue differentiation than iDose{sup 4} and standard dose CT with FBP.

  17. The Implementation of Knowledge Strategy-Based Entrepreneurial Capacity to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of knowledge strategy-based entrepreneurial capacity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage of rurol banking in Central Java province. The sampling method is ‘‘Purposive sampling’’ by considering the characteristics of the population items, namely: operational experience for at least 5 years and representatives of each area of rurol banking in Semarang, Surakarta and Purwokerto. Then, the sample size is 150 of 251 (59.7% of top managers of rurol banking. To analyze the data in this study, it used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, of the, AMOS software package. The findings of this study explain that 1. The first step in promoting a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge sharing is by prioritizing the quality of interaction, willingness and ability. 2. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by knowledge sharing are by prioritizing to actively accept changes and introduction, solve problems together, use and combine new knowledge in operation. 3. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through the knowledge exploitation built by risk-taking are by prioritizing a strong tendency for high-risk projects (with the possibility of gaining high-return, a high courage for the actions necessary to achieve the goal, having an aggressive attitude to optimize the possibility of utilizing existing potential opportunities and enjoying the challenge of the risk situation. 4. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by a pro-active are by prioritizing to anticipate problem more quickly than competitors, future oriented, addressed by technology, launching product selectively and systematically search for new ideas. 5. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by the innovativeness are by prioritizing the speed of developing products

  18. Knowledge translation for nephrologists: strategies for improving the identification of patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Manns, Braden J; Straus, Sharon; Naugler, Christopher; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Braun, Ted C; Levin, Adeera; Klarenbach, Scott; Lee, Patrick F; Hafez, Kevin; Schwartz, Daniel; Jindal, Kailash; Ervin, Kathy; Bello, Aminu; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; McBrien, Kerry; Elliott, Meghan; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    For health scientists, knowledge translation refers to the process of facilitating uptake of knowledge into clinical practice or decision making. Since high-quality clinical research that is not applied cannot improve outcomes, knowledge translation is critical for realizing the value and potential for all types of health research. Knowledge translation is particularly relevant for areas within health care where gaps in care are known to exist, which is the case for some areas of management for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including assessment of proteinuria. Given that proteinuria is a key marker of cardiovascular and renal risk, forthcoming international practice guidelines will recommend including proteinuria within staging systems for CKD. While this revised staging system will facilitate identification of patients at higher risk for progression of CKD and mortality who benefit from intervention, strategies to ensure its appropriate uptake will be particularly important. This article describes key elements of effective knowledge translation strategies based on the knowledge-to-action cycle framework and describes options for effective knowledge translation interventions related to the new CKD guidelines, focusing on recommendations related to assessment for proteinuria specifically. The article also presents findings from a multidisciplinary meeting aimed at developing knowledge translation intervention strategies, with input from key stakeholders (researchers, knowledge users, decision makers and collaborators), to facilitate implementation of this guideline. These considerations are relevant for dissemination and implementation of guidelines on other topics and in other clinical settings.

  19. An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed

  20. Knowledge base for EFL/ESL educators: What does it mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda B. Clelia

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Searching for an appropriate definition of what constitutes knowledge base in the teaching profession has become a central focus of attention for researchers, educators, and accreditation agencies during the last decades. The importance of clarifying such a definition has a double value. On the one hand it has become a determinant factor when assessing if teacher preparation programs are meeting the standards for excellence in education. On the other hand, the issue concerns prospective and experienced teachers themselves as they search for opportunities to acquire such knowledge whose ultimate goal is to improve the quality of their practice. But what exactly does this knowledge embrace and more specifically how does it influence an English language teacher? The purpose of this article is to present a synthesis of the most significant responses to these questions and to invite English language teachers to examine their knowledge framework in the hope that this reflection allows for an enrichment of their practice.

  1. Project-based knowledge in organizing open innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Comacchio, Anna; Pizzi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Enriching understanding of the current theoretical debate on project-based open innovation, ‘Project-based Knowledge in Organizing Open Innovation’ draws on innovation management literature and knowledge-based perspectives to investigate the relationship between knowledge development at project level and the strategic organization of open innovation. Addressing the still open issue of how the firm level should be complemented by studies at the project level of analysis, this book provides theoretical and empirical arguments on the advantages of a more fine-grained level of analysis to understand how firms organize their innovation processes across boundaries. The book also addresses the emerging interest in the management literature on project-based organizations, and on the relevance of project forms of organizing in a knowledge-based economy. Through field research in different industrial settings , this book provides empirical evidence on how firms design open innovation project-by-project and it will ...

  2. Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Regarding Blood Donation. ... PY Kulkarni, AD Kulkarni ... Establishment of mobile counseling units by blood banks may help to create a voluntary blood donor.

  3. Palliative Care: Improving Nursing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Karen; Price, Deborah; Duffy, Elizabeth; Galunas, Laura; Rodgers, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Oncology nurses affect patient care at every point along the cancer journey. This creates the perfect opportunity to educate patients and caregivers about palliative care early and often throughout treatment. However, healthcare providers frequently do not have the knowledge and confidence to engage in meaningful conversations about palliative care.
. The specific aims were to improve oncology nurses' palliative care knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors by providing a palliative care nursing education program. An additional aim was to increase the number of conversations with patients and families about palliative care.
. This project had a pre-/post-test design to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at baseline and one month after implementation of an established education curriculum. The teaching strategy included one four-hour class for oncology RNs with topics about the definition of palliative care, pain and symptom management, and how to have palliative care conversations.
. Results showed a statistically significant difference after the educational intervention for knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The number of conversations with patients and caregivers about palliative and end-of-life care increased significantly.

  4. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  5. Continuous quality improvement: a shared governance model that maximizes agent-specific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkoski, Vanessa; Yoon, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Motivate, Innovate, Celebrate: an innovative shared governance model through the establishment of continuous quality improvement (CQI) councils was implemented across the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC). The model leverages agent-specific knowledge at the point of care and provides a structure aimed at building human resources capacity and sustaining enhancements to quality and safe care delivery. Interprofessional and cross-functional teams work through the CQI councils to identify, formulate, execute and evaluate CQI initiatives. In addition to a structure that facilitates collaboration, accountability and ownership, a corporate CQI Steering Committee provides the forum for scaling up and spreading this model. Point-of-care staff, clinical management and educators were trained in LEAN methodology and patient experience-based design to ensure sufficient knowledge and resources to support the implementation.

  6. Research on knowledge support technology for product innovation design based on quality function knowledge deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the relationship between the process of product innovation design and knowledge, this article proposes a theoretical model of quality function knowledge deployment. In order to link up the product innovation design and the knowledge required by the designer, the iterative method of quality function knowledge deployment is refined, as well as the knowledge retrieval model and knowledge support model based on quality function knowledge deployment are established. In the whole life cycle of product design, in view of the different requirements for knowledge in conceptual design stage, components’ configuration stage, process planning stage, and production planning stage, the quality function knowledge deployment model could link up the required knowledge with the engineering characteristics, component characteristics, process characteristics, and production characteristics in the four stages using the mapping relationship between the function characteristics and the knowledge and help the designer to track the required knowledge for realizing product innovation design. In this article, an instance about rewinding machine is given to demonstrate the practicability and validity of product innovation design knowledge support technology based on quality function knowledge deployment.

  7. Uncertainty management in knowledge based systems for nondestructive testing-an example from ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The use of fuzzy logic, as a framework for uncertainty management, in a knowledge-based system (KBS) for ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steels is described. Parameters that may contain uncertain values are identified. Methodologies to handle uncertainty in these parameters using fuzzy logic are detailed. The overall improvement in the performance of the knowledge-based system after incorporating fuzzy logic is discussed. The methodology developed being universal, its extension to other KBS for nondestructive testing and evaluation is highlighted. (author)

  8. Process fault diagnosis using knowledge-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Advancing technology in process plants has led to increased need for computer based process diagnostic systems to assist the operator. One approach to this problem is to use an embedded knowledge based system to interpret measurement signals. Knowledge based systems using only symptom based rules are inadequate for real time diagnosis of dynamic systems; therefore a model based approach is necessary. Though several forms of model based reasoning have been proposed, the use of qualitative causal models incorporating first principles knowledge of process behavior structure, and function appear to have the most promise as a robust modeling methodology. In this paper the structure of a diagnostic system is described which uses model based reasoning and conventional numerical methods to perform process diagnosis. This system is being applied to emergency diesel generator system in nuclear stations

  9. The Relationship between Agriculture Knowledge Bases for Teaching and Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the agriculture knowledge bases for teaching of agriculture teachers and to see if a relationship existed between years of teaching experience, sources of knowledge, and development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), using quantitative methods. A model of PCK from mathematics was utilized as a…

  10. Capture and Reuse of Knowledge in ICT-based Decisional Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Gheorghe FILIP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care practitioners continually confront with a wide range of challenges, seeking to making difficult diagnoses, avoiding errors, ensuring highest quality, maximizing efficacy and reducing costs. Information technology has the potential to reduce clinical errors and to im-prove the decision making in the clinical milieu. This paper presents a pilot development of a clinical decision support systems (CDSS entitled MEDIS that was designed to incorporate knowledge from heterogeneous environments with the purpose of increasing the efficiency and the quality of the decision making process, and reducing costs based on advances of in-formation technologies, especially under the impact of the transition towards the mobile space. The system aims to capture and reuse knowledge in order to provide real-time access to clinical knowledge for a variety of users, including medical personnel, patients, teachers and students.

  11. Use of a web-based educational intervention to improve knowledge of healthy diet and lifestyle in women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus compared to standard clinic-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Carolan-Olah, Mary; Steele, Cheryl

    2016-08-05

    This study introduced a web-based educational intervention for Australian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim was to improve knowledge on healthy diet and lifestyle in GDM. Evaluation of the intervention explored women's knowledge and understanding of GDM, healthy diet, healthy food, and healthy lifestyle, after using the web-based program compared to women receiving standard clinic-based GDM education. A total of 116 women, aged 18-45 years old, newly diagnosed with GDM, participated (Intervention (n) = 56 and control (n) = 60). Women were randomly allocated to the intervention or control groups and both groups attended a standard GDM education class. Group 1(Intervention) additionally used an online touch screen/computer program. All women completed a questionnaire following the computer program and/or the education class. All questions evaluating levels of knowledge had more than one correct answer and scores were graded from 0 to 1, with each correct component receiving a score, eg. 0.25 per each correct answer in a 4 answer question. Chi-square test was performed to compare the two groups regarding knowledge of GDM. Findings indicated that the majority of women in the intervention group reported correct answers for "types of carbohydrate foods" for pregnant women with GDM, compared to the control group (62.5 % vs 58.3 %, respectively). Most women in both groups had an excellent understanding of "fruits and vegetables" (98.2 % vs 98.3 %), and the majority of women in the intervention group understood that they should exercise daily for 30 min, compared to the control group (92.9 % vs 91.7 %). Both groups had a good understanding across all categories, however, the majority of women in the intervention group scored all correct answers (score = 1) in term of foetal effects (17.9 % vs 13.3 %, respectively), maternal predictors (5.4 % vs 5 %), care requirements (39.3 % vs 23.3 %), GDM perceptions (48.2 % vs 46.7 %) and

  12. EFFECTIVE KNOWLEDGE TESTS AND FEEDBACK IN FUNCTION OF IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Bjelica

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the project ”National frame of qualifications and quality providing in education”, run by the EU Delegation in Montenegro, is improvement of students’ study through effective knowledge tests and feedbacks. Knowledge tests do not only represent a problem of knowledge evaluation, but they significantly determine instructional design of the teaching process. Process of organisation and structuring of an exam, besides feasibility and applicability aspects, also has educative aspects. The knowledge tests should motivate a student to improve their own education as well as to motivate them to further studying. An exam should not be considered as individual method of knowledge evaluation, but as a procedure that will be pervaded with the educative programme. In that sense, availability of good-quality feedback enables the students to self-correct, and the chosen methods of examination have to provide relevant results

  13. Knowledge-Basing Teaching Professions and Professional Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, Signe Hvid

    This paper discusses the demand for knowledge-based practice and two different answers to this demand, namely evidence-based thinking and critical-political thinking. The paper discusses the implications these have for views on knowledge and professional development. The paper presents and discus...

  14. Ebola Crisis: Improving Science-Based Communication and Local ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a long-term goal, the project aims to strengthen journalism associations in Africa through country and regional exchanges using a Web-based platform devoted to science and health journalism. This will help increase access to health knowledge and evidence, improve monitoring and reporting of priority health issues in ...

  15. An improved distance-to-dose correlation for predicting bladder and rectum dose-volumes in knowledge-based VMAT planning for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Phillip D. H.; Carver, Robert L.; Fontenot, Jonas D.

    2018-01-01

    The overlap volume histogram (OVH) is an anatomical metric commonly used to quantify the geometric relationship between an organ at risk (OAR) and target volume when predicting expected dose-volumes in knowledge-based planning (KBP). This work investigated the influence of additional variables contributing to variations in the assumed linear DVH-OVH correlation for the bladder and rectum in VMAT plans of prostate patients, with the goal of increasing prediction accuracy and achievability of knowledge-based planning methods. VMAT plans were retrospectively generated for 124 prostate patients using multi-criteria optimization. DVHs quantified patient dosimetric data while OVHs quantified patient anatomical information. The DVH-OVH correlations were calculated for fractional bladder and rectum volumes of 30, 50, 65, and 80%. Correlations between potential influencing factors and dose were quantified using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (R). Factors analyzed included the derivative of the OVH, prescribed dose, PTV volume, bladder volume, rectum volume, and in-field OAR volume. Out of the selected factors, only the in-field bladder volume (mean R  =  0.86) showed a strong correlation with bladder doses. Similarly, only the in-field rectal volume (mean R  =  0.76) showed a strong correlation with rectal doses. Therefore, an OVH formalism accounting for in-field OAR volumes was developed to determine the extent to which it improved the DVH-OVH correlation. Including the in-field factor improved the DVH-OVH correlation, with the mean R values over the fractional volumes studied improving from  -0.79 to  -0.85 and  -0.82 to  -0.86 for the bladder and rectum, respectively. A re-planning study was performed on 31 randomly selected database patients to verify the increased accuracy of KBP dose predictions by accounting for bladder and rectum volume within treatment fields. The in-field OVH led to significantly more precise

  16. Experiential Knowledge Complements an LCA-Based Decision Support Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yi Teah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A shrimp farmer in Taiwan practices innovation through trial-and-error for better income and a better environment, but such farmer-based innovation sometimes fails because the biological mechanism is unclear. Systematic field experimentation and laboratory research are often too costly, and simulating ground conditions is often too challenging. To solve this dilemma, we propose a decision support framework that explicitly utilizes farmer experiential knowledge through a participatory approach to alternatively estimate prospective change in shrimp farming productivity, and to co-design options for improvement. Data obtained from the farmer enable us to quantitatively analyze the production cost and greenhouse gas (GHG emission with a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. We used semi-quantitative graphical representations of indifference curves and mixing triangles to compare and show better options for the farmer. Our results empower the farmer to make decisions more systematically and reliably based on the frequency of heterotrophic bacteria application and the revision of feed input. We argue that experiential knowledge may be less accurate due to its dependence on varying levels of farmer experience, but this knowledge is a reasonable alternative for immediate decision-making. More importantly, our developed framework advances the scope of LCA application to support practically important yet scientifically uncertain cases.

  17. Towards Modeling False Memory With Computational Knowledge Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin; Kohanyi, Emma

    2017-01-01

    One challenge to creating realistic cognitive models of memory is the inability to account for the vast common-sense knowledge of human participants. Large computational knowledge bases such as WordNet and DBpedia may offer a solution to this problem but may pose other challenges. This paper explores some of these difficulties through a semantic network spreading activation model of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task. In three experiments, we show that these knowledge bases only capture a subset of human associations, while irrelevant information introduces noise and makes efficient modeling difficult. We conclude that the contents of these knowledge bases must be augmented and, more important, that the algorithms must be refined and optimized, before large knowledge bases can be widely used for cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. A CASE-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODEL FACILITATING A SMART BUSINESS NETWORK’S PERFORMANCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chengbo, Wang; Reid, Vivien; Johansen, John

    for improving the competitiveness of a SBN in its endeavor to survive and compete against other SBNs, through adopting a holistic approach to business activities, to provide the SBN members an efficacy tool for knowledge management, and for improving coordination and collaboration with their upstream...... and operational levels. The model is a further exploration of both smart business network and its knowledge management process as well as CBR technology’s new field of application. Research impact: The academic world will benefit by gaining more understanding of the process and format of applying theoretical......Purpose: This paper presents a model, which is through the application of a case-based reasoning (CBR) methodology, to facilitate both effectiveness and efficiency of operational knowledge sharing/ application/ creation/ augmentation within a smart business network (SBN). The model is to be used...

  19. The iSCREEN Electronic Diabetes Dashboard: A Tool to Improve Knowledge and Implementation of Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahanova, Stacy; Tsouka, Alexandra; Palmert, Mark R; Mahmud, Farid H

    2017-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide evidence-based recommendations for patient care but may not be optimally applied in clinical settings. As a pilot study, we evaluated the impact of a computerized, point-of-care decision support system (CDSS) on guideline knowledge and adherence in our diabetes clinic. iSCREEN, a CDSS, integrated with a province-wide electronic health record, was designed based on the Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. Evaluation data were gathered by retrospective chart review and clinician questionnaire prior to and after implementation of iSCREEN. Records of patients with type 1 diabetes, 14 to 18 years of age, were assessed for appropriate screening for complications and comorbidities. To assess guideline adherence, 50 charts were reviewed at 2 time periods (25 before and 25 after launch of iSCREEN). Results revealed improved frequency of appropriate screening for diabetic nephropathy (p=0.03) and retinopathy (p=0.04), accompanied by a decrease in under- and overscreening for these outcomes. To assess guideline knowledge, 58 surveys were collected (31 prior to and 27 after the launch of iSCREEN) from care providers in the field of pediatric diabetes. There was a trend toward improved guideline knowledge in all team members (p=0.06). Implementation of a de novo CDSS was associated with improved rates of appropriate screening for diabetes-related complications. A trend toward improvement in health professionals' knowledge of the guidelines was also observed. Evaluation of this point-of-care computerized decision support tool suggests that it may facilitate diabetes care by optimizing complication screening and CPG knowledge, with the potential for broader implementation. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-agent system for Knowledge-based recommendation of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea RODRÍGUEZ MARÍN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning Object (LO is a content unit being used within virtual learning environments, which -once found and retrieved- may assist students in the teaching - learning process. Such LO search and retrieval are recently supported and enhanced by data mining techniques. In this sense, clustering can be used to find groups holding similar LOs so that from obtained groups, knowledge-based recommender systems (KRS can recommend more adapted and relevant LOs. In particular, prior knowledge come from LOs previously selected, liked and ranked by the student to whom the recommendation will be performed. In this paper, we present a KRS for LOs, which uses a conventional clustering technique, namely K-means, aimed at finding similar LOs and delivering resources adapted to a specific student. Obtained promising results show that proposed KRS is able to both retrieve relevant LO and improve the recommendation precision.Learning Object (LO is a content unit being used within virtual learning environments, which -once found and retrieved- may assist students in the teaching - learning process. Such LO search and retrieval are recently supported and enhanced by data mining techniques. In this sense, clustering can be used to find groups holding similar LOs so that from obtained groups, knowledge-based recommender systems (KRS can recommend more adapted and relevant LOs. In particular, prior knowledge come from LOs previously selected, liked and ranked by the student to whom the recommendation will be performed. In this paper, we present a KRS for LOs, which uses a conventional clustering technique, namely K-means, aimed at finding similar LOs and delivering resources adapted to a specific student. Obtained promising results show that proposed KRS is able to both retrieve relevant LO and improve the recommendation precision.

  1. An intelligent knowledge-based and customizable home care system framework with ubiquitous patient monitoring and alerting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Yu, Chao-Wei; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and integrates an efficient knowledge-based system and a component-based framework to design an intelligent and flexible home health care system. The proposed knowledge-based system integrates an efficient rule-based reasoning model and flexible knowledge rules for determining efficiently and rapidly the necessary physiological and medication treatment procedures based on software modules, video camera sensors, communication devices, and physiological sensor information. This knowledge-based system offers high flexibility for improving and extending the system further to meet the monitoring demands of new patient and caregiver health care by updating the knowledge rules in the inference mechanism. All of the proposed functional components in this study are reusable, configurable, and extensible for system developers. Based on the experimental results, the proposed intelligent homecare system demonstrates that it can accomplish the extensible, customizable, and configurable demands of the ubiquitous healthcare systems to meet the different demands of patients and caregivers under various rehabilitation and nursing conditions.

  2. An Intelligent Knowledge-Based and Customizable Home Care System Framework with Ubiquitous Patient Monitoring and Alerting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Lin Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and integrates an efficient knowledge-based system and a component-based framework to design an intelligent and flexible home health care system. The proposed knowledge-based system integrates an efficient rule-based reasoning model and flexible knowledge rules for determining efficiently and rapidly the necessary physiological and medication treatment procedures based on software modules, video camera sensors, communication devices, and physiological sensor information. This knowledge-based system offers high flexibility for improving and extending the system further to meet the monitoring demands of new patient and caregiver health care by updating the knowledge rules in the inference mechanism. All of the proposed functional components in this study are reusable, configurable, and extensible for system developers. Based on the experimental results, the proposed intelligent homecare system demonstrates that it can accomplish the extensible, customizable, and configurable demands of the ubiquitous healthcare systems to meet the different demands of patients and caregivers under various rehabilitation and nursing conditions.

  3. Automatic Knowledge Base Evolution by Learning Instances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sundong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge base is the way to store structured and unstructured data throughout the web. Since the size of the web is increasing rapidly, there are huge needs to structure the knowledge in a fully automated way. However fully-automated knowledge-base evolution on the Semantic Web is a major challenges, although there are many ontology evolution techniques available. Therefore learning ontology automatically can contribute to the semantic web society significantly. In this paper, we propose ful...

  4. A therapist-focused knowledge translation intervention for improving patient adherence in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Folarin Omoniyi; MacDermid, Joy Christine; MacIntyre, Norma

    2017-01-01

    Nonadherence to treatment remains high among patients with musculoskeletal conditions with negative impact on the treatment outcomes, use of personal and cost of care. An active knowledge translation (KT) strategy may be an effective strategy to support practice change. The purpose of this study was to deliver a brief, interactive, multifaceted and targeted KT program to improve physiotherapist knowledge and confidence in performing adherence enhancing activities related to risk, barriers, assessment and interventions. We utilised a 2-phase approach in this KT project. Phase 1 involved the development of an adherence tool kit following a synthesis of the literature and an iterative process involving 47 end-users. Clinicians treating patients with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited from two Physiotherapy and Occupational therapy national conferences in Canada. The intervention, based on the acronym SIMPLE TIPS was tested on 51 physiotherapists in phase 2. A pre- and post-repeated measures design was used in Phase 2. Graham's knowledge-to-action cycle was used as the conceptual framework. Participants completed a pre-intervention assessment, took part in a 1-h educational session and completed a post-intervention assessment. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of evidence-based treatment adherence barriers, interventions and measures and confidence to perform evidence-based adherence practice activities. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage), Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon Sign-Ranked tests. Barriers and facilitators of adherence were identified under three domains (therapist, patient, health system) in phase 1. Seventy percent of the participants completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that 46.8% of respondents explored barriers including the use of behaviour change strategies and 45.7% reported that they measured adherence but none reported the use of validated outcomes. A significant improvement in

  5. Factors affecting learning of vector math from computer-based practice: Feedback complexity and prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. Heckler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we studied the relative effects of “knowledge of correct response” feedback and “elaborated feedback” (i.e., a general explanation both separately and together. A number of other factors were analyzed, including training time, physics course grade, prior knowledge of vector math, and student beliefs about both their proficiency in and the importance of vector math. We hypothesize a simple model predicting how the effectiveness of feedback depends on prior knowledge, and the results confirm this knowledge-by-treatment interaction. Most notably, elaborated feedback is the most effective feedback, especially for students with low prior knowledge and low course grade. In contrast, knowledge of correct response feedback was less effective for low-performing students, and including both kinds of feedback did not significantly improve performance compared to elaborated feedback alone. Further, while elaborated feedback resulted in higher scores, the learning rate was at best only marginally higher because the training time was slightly longer. Training time data revealed that students spent significantly more time on the elaborated feedback after answering a training question incorrectly. Finally, we found that training improved student self-reported proficiency and that belief in the importance of the learned domain improved the effectiveness of training. Overall, we found that computer based training with static question sequences and immediate elaborated feedback in the form of simple and general explanations can be an effective way to improve student performance on a physics essential skill

  6. Impact of health instructions on improving knowledge and practices of haemophilia A adolescents: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Dakhakhny, A M; Hesham, M A; Hassan, T H; El Awady, S; Hanfy, M M

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, health education has been elevated to a higher standing in healthcare systems in managing chronic illness; yet, this approach has not received sufficient support in developing countries as these societies still tend to the traditional stage of 'treatment after disease'. Adolescence is a critical period and voyage into adulthood can be more challenging for haemophilia teens. For teens with haemophilia, learning to care for their own disorder is a giant step forward in asserting their independence and preparation for adult life. We aimed to determine impact of health instructions on improving knowledge and practices of haemophilia A adolescents. An interventional study was conducted on 50 haemophilia A adolescents at outpatient clinic of Pediatric Hematology Unit of Zagazig University Hospitals. Three tools were used. The first was a structured interview sheet to evaluate patients' knowledge. The second was a clinical checklist to evaluate patients' practices. The third was health instructions program. Tools were developed by the researchers based on a thorough review of related literature and a full understanding of the needs of haemophilic adolescents. Evaluation of health instructions success was based on comparing scores of tool I and tool II before health instructions (pretest) and after health instructions immediately (posttest) and after 2 months (follow-up test). There was a significant improvement in knowledge and practices of haemophilia A adolescents in posttest and follow-up test compared to pretest. Health instructions have an impact on improving knowledge and practices of haemophilia A adolescents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. OC-2-KB: A software pipeline to build an evidence-based obesity and cancer knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossio-Ventura, Juan Antonio; Hogan, William; Modave, François; Guo, Yi; He, Zhe; Hicks, Amanda; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Obesity has been linked to several types of cancer. Access to adequate health information activates people's participation in managing their own health, which ultimately improves their health outcomes. Nevertheless, the existing online information about the relationship between obesity and cancer is heterogeneous and poorly organized. A formal knowledge representation can help better organize and deliver quality health information. Currently, there are several efforts in the biomedical domain to convert unstructured data to structured data and store them in Semantic Web knowledge bases (KB). In this demo paper, we present, OC-2-KB (Obesity and Cancer to Knowledge Base), a system that is tailored to guide the automatic KB construction for managing obesity and cancer knowledge from free-text scientific literature (i.e., PubMed abstracts) in a systematic way. OC-2-KB has two important modules which perform the acquisition of entities and the extraction then classification of relationships among these entities. We tested the OC-2-KB system on a data set with 23 manually annotated obesity and cancer PubMed abstracts and created a preliminary KB with 765 triples. We conducted a preliminary evaluation on this sample of triples and reported our evaluation results.

  8. Knowledge management of eco-industrial park for efficient energy utilization through ontology-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuan; Romagnoli, Alessandro; Zhou, Li; Kraft, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An intelligent energy management system for Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) is proposed. •An explicit domain ontology for EIP energy management is designed. •Ontology-based approach can increase knowledge interoperability within EIP. •Ontology-based approach can allow self-optimization without human intervention in EIP. •The proposed system harbours huge potential in the future scenario of Internet of Things. -- Abstract: An ontology-based approach for Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) knowledge management is proposed in this paper. The designed ontology in this study is formalized conceptualization of EIP. Based on such an ontological representation, a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) for EIP energy management named J-Park Simulator (JPS) is developed. By applying JPS to the solution of EIP waste heat utilization problem, the results of this study show that ontology is a powerful tool for knowledge management of complex systems such as EIP. The ontology-based approach can increase knowledge interoperability between different companies in EIP. The ontology-based approach can also allow intelligent decision making by using disparate data from remote databases, which implies the possibility of self-optimization without human intervention scenario of Internet of Things (IoT). It is shown through this study that KBS can bridge the communication gaps between different companies in EIP, sequentially more potential Industrial Symbiosis (IS) links can be established to improve the overall energy efficiency of the whole EIP.

  9. From Evidence-based Management to Management of Non-knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Leadership and management are increasingly expected to base themselves on evidence, i.e. knowledge. This article does not disagree that knowledge may be beneficial. Yet, based on sociological insights on the complex relation between knowledge and ignorance, the article argues that more knowledge...

  10. The Design of Individual Knowledge Sharing Platform Based on Blog for Online Information Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Zeng; Xiaocheng, Zhong

    Knowledge sharing means that an individual, team and organization share the knowledge with other members of the organization in the course of activities through the various ways. This paper analyzes the obstacle factors in knowledge sharing based on the technical point, and chooses the Blog technology to build a platform for improving knowledge sharing between individuals. The construction of the platform is an important foundation for information literacy education, and it also can be used to achieve online information literacy education. Finally, it gives a detailed analysis of its functions, advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Knowledge-based biomedical word sense disambiguation: comparison of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronson Alan R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD algorithms attempt to select the proper sense of ambiguous terms in text. Resources like the UMLS provide a reference thesaurus to be used to annotate the biomedical literature. Statistical learning approaches have produced good results, but the size of the UMLS makes the production of training data infeasible to cover all the domain. Methods We present research on existing WSD approaches based on knowledge bases, which complement the studies performed on statistical learning. We compare four approaches which rely on the UMLS Metathesaurus as the source of knowledge. The first approach compares the overlap of the context of the ambiguous word to the candidate senses based on a representation built out of the definitions, synonyms and related terms. The second approach collects training data for each of the candidate senses to perform WSD based on queries built using monosemous synonyms and related terms. These queries are used to retrieve MEDLINE citations. Then, a machine learning approach is trained on this corpus. The third approach is a graph-based method which exploits the structure of the Metathesaurus network of relations to perform unsupervised WSD. This approach ranks nodes in the graph according to their relative structural importance. The last approach uses the semantic types assigned to the concepts in the Metathesaurus to perform WSD. The context of the ambiguous word and semantic types of the candidate concepts are mapped to Journal Descriptors. These mappings are compared to decide among the candidate concepts. Results are provided estimating accuracy of the different methods on the WSD test collection available from the NLM. Conclusions We have found that the last approach achieves better results compared to the other methods. The graph-based approach, using the structure of the Metathesaurus network to estimate the relevance of the Metathesaurus concepts, does not perform well

  12. Terminological reference of a knowledge-based system: the data dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stausberg, J; Wormek, A; Kraut, U

    1995-01-01

    The development of open and integrated knowledge bases makes new demands on the definition of the used terminology. The definition should be realized in a data dictionary separated from the knowledge base. Within the works done at a reference model of medical knowledge, a data dictionary has been developed and used in different applications: a term definition shell, a documentation tool and a knowledge base. The data dictionary includes that part of terminology, which is largely independent of a certain knowledge model. For that reason, the data dictionary can be used as a basis for integrating knowledge bases into information systems, for knowledge sharing and reuse and for modular development of knowledge-based systems.

  13. A formative research-guided educational intervention to improve the knowledge and attitudes of seniors towards influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hanley J; Chan, Yin Ying; Ibrahim, Muhamad Alif Bin; Wagle, Anurupa A; Wong, Christina M; Chow, Angela

    2017-11-07

    Adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates in Singapore are low, and factors influencing knowledge and attitudes of seniors towards influenza, pneumonia and their respective vaccines are not well-known. Our study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators towards getting influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations among seniors in Singapore, and subsequently inform the conduct of a relevant community-based educational intervention, as well as evaluate the intervention outcomes. We performed a mixed methods study with two components: Firstly, formative research was conducted among community-dwelling seniors, using focus group discussions (FGDs), to understand their knowledge and attitudes towards influenza, pneumonia and their respective vaccines. Next, a quantitative study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of seniors and the effectiveness of an educational intervention. Four FGDs were organised with 32 participants, who were predominantly female, of lower educational background, and residing in government rental flats. Participants had varying levels of knowledge and many misconceptions about influenza, pneumonia and their respective vaccinations, with concerns about side effects and vaccine effectiveness. The formative research results were used to inform a community-based educational intervention for seniors. Our subsequent evaluation included 604 elderly participants, mainly from lower educational and socio-economic strata, who initially demonstrated poor knowledge scores (median score 5 out of 9, IQR 4-5). Following our intervention, median knowledge score improved to 7 (IQR 6-8) (p seniors which affected their attitudes towards vaccination uptake. Key findings were taken into consideration when implementing the educational intervention. Our community-based intervention was effective in improving knowledge and attitudes, and could be used as a cue to action for short-term behaviour changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing Absorptive Capacity to Improve Internal and External Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla-Gergely RÁCZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.

  15. Competency-based residency training and the web log: modeling practice-based learning and enhancing medical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Hollon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: By using web-based tools in medical education, there are opportunities to innovatively teach important principles from the general competencies of graduate medical education. Objectives: Postulating that faculty transparency in learning from uncertainties in clinical work could help residents to incorporate the principles of practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI in their professional development, faculty in this community-based residency program modeled the steps of PBLI on a weekly basis through the use of a web log. Method: The program confidentially surveyed residents before and after this project about actions consistent with PBLI and knowledge acquired through reading the web log. Results: The frequency that residents encountered clinical situations where they felt uncertain declined over the course of the 24 weeks of the project from a mean frequency of uncertainty of 36% to 28% (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.008; however, the frequency with which residents sought answers when faced with uncertainty did not change (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p=0.39, remaining high at approximately 80%. Residents answered a mean of 52% of knowledge questions correct when tested prior to faculty posts to the blog, rising to a mean of 65% of questions correct when tested at the end of the project (paired t-test, p=0.001. Conclusions: Faculty role modeling of PBLI behaviors and posting clinical questions and answers to a web log led to modest improvements in medical knowledge but did not alter behavior that was already taking place frequently among residents.

  16. A Knowledge Management Model to Improve the Development of Bushfire Communication Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Koon Teng Toh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together two bodies of literature around knowledge management (KM as enterprise integration (EI and organisational ontology and epistemology as philosophy, in order to develop an extended KM approach to the development of bushfire preparedness material in the Australian context. Knowledge Management (KM in enterprise integration (EI practice manifests as process-centric electronic document and records management solutions. Knowledge creation and organisational epistemology is viewed as a social process, but this is often left unrepresented by KM processes. The body of literature on KM tends to focus on organisational functionality and organisational KM that is based on EI ontology tends to be restricted by organisational functionality and process models. We argue that developing the KM-Model using subjectivist epistemology has a significant role in KM and organisational studies for emergency and disaster agencies. As part of the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre (CRC ‘Effective Communication and Communities’ project, bushfire communication materials were collected from all Australian States and Territories and analysed using NVivo, representing a knowledge base. Data sources including semi-structured interviews with bushfire agency staff, residents in bushfire-prone localities. Interview data was analysed using thematic analysis, and emergent themes were represented using UML as a platform independent representation of the extended knowledge domain that is capable of representation in a digital space. This work unites organisational ontology, organisational epistemology and EI; the different manifestations of KM. We theorise about how organisational epistemology itself forms as part of the knowledge, where currently there is a lacking of a satisfactory end-to-end framework. The KM lifecycle, therefore, is extended by incorporating the social research processes as part of organisational epistemology to include external

  17. The Underdetermined Knowledge-Based Theory of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Anders; Håkanson, Lars; W. Liesch, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this note we revisit two core propositions of the knowledge-based view of the firm found in the seminal work of Kogut and Zander: (1) that multinational corporations (MNCs) exist because transfers and re-combinations of knowledge occur more efficiently inside MNCs than between MNCs and third...... parties; and (2) that the threat of opportunism is not necessary, although it may be sufficient, to explain the existence of the MNC. Their knowledge-based view shifted the conceptualization of the firm from an institution arising from market failure and transaction costs economizing to a progeny......-combination of knowledge among their members. Important insights may be gained by applying the concept of epistemic communities implicit in the knowledge-based perspective beyond firm-level hierarchies....

  18. Emergency radiology elective improves second-year medical students' perceived confidence and knowledge of appropriate imaging utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschied, Jessica R; Knoepp, Ursula S; Hoff, Carrie Nicole; Mazza, Michael B; Klein, Katherine A; Mullan, Patricia B; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    Given recent advances in and wider availability of complex imaging, physicians are expected to understand imaging appropriateness. We introduced second-year medical students to the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria (ACR-AC) in an interactive case-based elective to demonstrate their use in imaging for common emergency department clinical complaints. Prospective pre- and post-test design assessed second-year medical students' performance on case-based knowledge applications and self-assessed confidence related to ACR-AC guidelines compared to second-year students participating in a different concurrent radiology elective. Students participated in a 3-day elective covering the ACR-AC, comparative effective imaging, and risks associated with imaging radiation exposure, with outcomes of perceived confidence using a 5-point Likert scale and knowledge of ACR-AC using case-based multiple choice questions. Analysis included computing mean scores and assessing effect sizes for changes in knowledge. Before the elective, 24 students scored an average of 3.45 questions correct of 8 (43.1%). On course completion, students scored an average of 5.3 questions correct of the same questions (66.3%) (P .85; effect size = 0.008). Students' confidence in ordering appropriate imaging improved nearly 2-fold from a range of 1.9 to 3.2 (on a scale of 1.0 to 5.0) to a range of 3.7 to 4.5. Following a short radiology elective, second-year medical students improved their knowledge of appropriate image utilization and perceived awareness of the indications, contraindications, and effects of radiation exposure related to medical imaging. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  20. Knowledge services in science and technology - improving the university/research centre - company relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Adriana Braz Vendramini Bicca

    2009-01-01

    This research proposes a conceptual model for Knowledge Services Structure applicable to Science and Technology Parks (STP) and targeted to micro, small and medium enterprises, in order to improve the business - university - research centers relationship. The idea emerged from exploratory studies on STP and the observation of a knowledge gap on this subject: academic studies that have proposed support services structures to link companies - university - research centers in STP were not available. The study methodology is composed by: exploratory studies complemented by action research. Five aspects of analysis (knowledge services, business development, ordinary/ S and T infrastructure services, expansion of area, and image / visibility) were chosen; a questionnaire based on the these aspects were elaborated and applied by e-mail (e-survey), using as data-base the IASP associated members for the selection of potential respondents. The questionnaire was answered by STP managers from different countries (Spain, Italy, Portugal, Germany, United Kingdom, China, Brazil, Turkey and Uruguay) and, for a deeper and better answers understanding, presential interviews were conducted in certain European STP. After presentation, analysis and discussion of the results, a conceptual model of knowledge service structure for STP has been made, using as basis the Technology Park of Sao Paulo structure. During the formulation of the conceptual model stage, a brief discussion on the importance of knowing and meet the customer needs meant on the inclusion of a customer-interface in the final model. (author)

  1. A knowledge-based design framework for airplane conceptual and preliminary design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemaat, Wilhelmus A. J.

    The goal of work described herein is to develop the second generation of Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA) into an object-oriented structure which can be used in different environments. One such environment is the third generation of AAA with its own user interface, the other environment with the same AAA methods (i.e. the knowledge) is the AAA-AML program. AAA-AML automates the initial airplane design process using current AAA methods in combination with AMRaven methodologies for dependency tracking and knowledge management, using the TechnoSoft Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This will lead to the following benefits: (1) Reduced design time: computer aided design methods can reduce design and development time and replace tedious hand calculations. (2) Better product through improved design: more alternative designs can be evaluated in the same time span, which can lead to improved quality. (3) Reduced design cost: due to less training and less calculation errors substantial savings in design time and related cost can be obtained. (4) Improved Efficiency: the design engineer can avoid technically correct but irrelevant calculations on incomplete or out of sync information, particularly if the process enables robust geometry earlier. Although numerous advancements in knowledge based design have been developed for detailed design, currently no such integrated knowledge based conceptual and preliminary airplane design system exists. The third generation AAA methods are tested over a ten year period on many different airplane designs. Using AAA methods will demonstrate significant time savings. The AAA-AML system will be exercised and tested using 27 existing airplanes ranging from single engine propeller, business jets, airliners, UAV's to fighters. Data for the varied sizing methods will be compared with AAA results, to validate these methods. One new design, a Light Sport Aircraft (LSA), will be developed as an exercise to use the tool for designing a new airplane

  2. Knowledge-light adaptation approaches in case-based reasoning for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Sanja; Khussainova, Gulmira; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims at delivering a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour-surrounding area. It is a time-consuming trial-and-error process that requires the expertise of a group of medical experts including oncologists and medical physicists and can take from 2 to 3h to a few days. Our objective is to improve the performance of our previously built case-based reasoning (CBR) system for brain tumour radiotherapy treatment planning. In this system, a treatment plan for a new patient is retrieved from a case base containing patient cases treated in the past and their treatment plans. However, this system does not perform any adaptation, which is needed to account for any difference between the new and retrieved cases. Generally, the adaptation phase is considered to be intrinsically knowledge-intensive and domain-dependent. Therefore, an adaptation often requires a large amount of domain-specific knowledge, which can be difficult to acquire and often is not readily available. In this study, we investigate approaches to adaptation that do not require much domain knowledge, referred to as knowledge-light adaptation. We developed two adaptation approaches: adaptation based on machine-learning tools and adaptation-guided retrieval. They were used to adapt the beam number and beam angles suggested in the retrieved case. Two machine-learning tools, neural networks and naive Bayes classifier, were used in the adaptation to learn how the difference in attribute values between the retrieved and new cases affects the output of these two cases. The adaptation-guided retrieval takes into consideration not only the similarity between the new and retrieved cases, but also how to adapt the retrieved case. The research was carried out in collaboration with medical physicists at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, UK. All experiments were performed using real-world brain cancer

  3. Conceptual Pathway Querying of Natural Logic Knowledge Bases from Text Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2013-01-01

    language than predicate logic. Natural logic accommodates a variety of scientific parlance, ontologies and domain models. It also supports a semantic net or graph view of the knowledge base. This admits computation of relationships between concepts simultaneously through pathfinding in the knowledge base...

  4. Risk based knowledge assessments: towards a toolbox for managing key knowledge assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is now well acknowledged that considerable Knowledge Management (KM) issues are faced by national and international nuclear communities. Much of these problems relate to issues of an ageing workforce and the significantly reduced influx of new generation of nuclear engineers and scientists. The management discipline of KM contains a broad spectrum of methods and techniques. However, the effective implementation of a KM strategy requires the selection and deployment of appropriate and targeted approaches that are pertinent to the particular issues of the technical or business area within an organisation. A clear strategy is contingent upon an assessment of what are the knowledge areas and what are the key (knowledge) risk areas. In particular the following issues have to be addressed: 'what knowledge exists?', 'what is the nature and format of that knowledge?' and 'what knowledge is key to our continued, safe, and effective operation?'. Answers to such questions will enable an organisation to prioritise KM effort and employ subsequent KM approaches that are appropriate. Subsequent approaches ranging from the utilisation of information technologies, such as databases; knowledge retention methods; and the setting up of Community of Practices to share knowledge and experience. This paper considers a risk assessment based approach to KM. In so doing the paper extends work previously reported on an approach to conducting knowledge audits by considering the integration of that approach with approaches to (knowledge) risk assessment. The paper also provides a brief review of the various KM approaches that can act to reduce the level of risk faced by an organisation. The paper concludes by reflecting upon the role, value of deploying such a risk based approach. (author)

  5. THE DESIGN OF KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR SURFACE RELATIONS BASED PART RECOGNITION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem ÇİÇEK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new knowledge base for an expert system used in part recognition algorithm has been designed. Parts are recognized by the computer program by comparing face adjacency relations and attributes belonging to each part represented in the rules in the knowledge base developed with face adjacency relations and attributes generated from STEP file of the part. Besides, rule writing process has been quite simplified by generating the rules represented in the knowledge base with an automatic rule writing module developed within the system. With the knowledge base and automatic rule writing module used in the part recognition system, simple, intermediate and complex parts can be recognized by a part recognition program.

  6. A Knowledge Management Approach to Support Software Process Improvement Implementation Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoni, Mariano Angel; Cerdeiral, Cristina; Zanetti, David; Cavalcanti da Rocha, Ana Regina

    The success of software process improvement (SPI) implementation initiatives depends fundamentally of the strategies adopted to support the execution of such initiatives. Therefore, it is essential to define adequate SPI implementation strategies aiming to facilitate the achievement of organizational business goals and to increase the benefits of process improvements. The objective of this work is to present an approach to support the execution of SPI implementation initiatives. We also describe a methodology applied to capture knowledge related to critical success factors that influence SPI initiatives. This knowledge was used to define effective SPI strategies aiming to increase the success of SPI initiatives coordinated by a specific SPI consultancy organization. This work also presents the functionalities of a set of tools integrated in a process-centered knowledge management environment, named CORE-KM, customized to support the presented approach.

  7. Managing Knowledge-Based Resource Capabilities Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Janice E. Carrillo; Cheryl Gaimon

    2004-01-01

    A firm's ability to manage its knowledge-based resource capabilities has become increasingly important as a result of performance threats triggered by technology change and intense competition. At the manufacturing plant level, we focus on three repositories of knowledge that drive performance. First, the physical production or information systems represent knowledge embedded in the plant's technical systems. Second, the plant's workforce has knowledge, including diverse scientific informatio...

  8. APPROACH ON INTELLIGENT OPTIMIZATION DESIGN BASED ON COMPOUND KNOWLEDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianchu; Zhou Ji; Yu Jun

    2003-01-01

    A concept of an intelligent optimal design approach is proposed, which is organized by a kind of compound knowledge model. The compound knowledge consists of modularized quantitative knowledge, inclusive experience knowledge and case-based sample knowledge. By using this compound knowledge model, the abundant quantity information of mathematical programming and the symbolic knowledge of artificial intelligence can be united together in this model. The intelligent optimal design model based on such a compound knowledge and the automatically generated decomposition principles based on it are also presented. Practically, it is applied to the production planning, process schedule and optimization of production process of a refining & chemical work and a great profit is achieved. Specially, the methods and principles are adaptable not only to continuous process industry, but also to discrete manufacturing one.

  9. Knowledge Translation and Interprofessional Collaboration: Where the Rubber of Evidence-Based Care Hits the Road of Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, Merrick; Reeves, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation interventions and interprofessional education and collaboration interventions all aim at improving health care processes and outcomes. Knowledge-translation interventions attempt to increase evidence-based practice by a single professional group and thus may fail to take into account barriers from difficulties in…

  10. Modeling Guru: Knowledge Base for NASA Modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, M. S.; Wojcik, G. S.; van Aartsen, B. H.

    2009-05-01

    Modeling Guru is an on-line knowledge-sharing resource for anyone involved with or interested in NASA's scientific models or High End Computing (HEC) systems. Developed and maintained by the NASA's Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) and the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), Modeling Guru's combined forums and knowledge base for research and collaboration is becoming a repository for the accumulated expertise of NASA's scientific modeling and HEC communities. All NASA modelers and associates are encouraged to participate and provide knowledge about the models and systems so that other users may benefit from their experience. Modeling Guru is divided into a hierarchy of communities, each with its own set forums and knowledge base documents. Current modeling communities include those for space science, land and atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanography. In addition, there are communities focused on NCCS systems, HEC tools and libraries, and programming and scripting languages. Anyone may view most of the content on Modeling Guru (available at http://modelingguru.nasa.gov/), but you must log in to post messages and subscribe to community postings. The site offers a full range of "Web 2.0" features, including discussion forums, "wiki" document generation, document uploading, RSS feeds, search tools, blogs, email notification, and "breadcrumb" links. A discussion (a.k.a. forum "thread") is used to post comments, solicit feedback, or ask questions. If marked as a question, SIVO will monitor the thread, and normally respond within a day. Discussions can include embedded images, tables, and formatting through the use of the Rich Text Editor. Also, the user can add "Tags" to their thread to facilitate later searches. The "knowledge base" is comprised of documents that are used to capture and share expertise with others. The default "wiki" document lets users edit within the browser so others can easily collaborate on the

  11. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P.

    2013-01-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high risk and technically challenging enterprise within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. During the past three decades, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management has been in charge of carrying out one of the largest environmental restoration efforts in the world: the cleanup of the Manhattan Project legacy. In today's corporate world, worker experiences and knowledge that have developed over time represent a valuable corporate asset. The ever-dynamic workplace, coupled with an aging workforce, presents corporations with the ongoing challenge of preserving work-related experiences and knowledge for cross-generational knowledge transfer to the future workforce [5]. To prevent the D and D knowledge base and expertise from being lost over time, the DOE and the Applied Research Center at Florida International University (FIU) have developed the web-based Knowledge Management Information Tool (KM-IT) to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily accessible and usable system. The D and D KM-IT was developed in collaboration with DOE Headquarters (HQ), the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), and the ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] Centers at Savannah River Sites to preserve the D and D information generated and collected by the D and D community. This is an open secured system that can be accessed from https://www.dndkm.org over the web and through mobile devices at https://m.dndkm.org. This knowledge system serves as a centralized repository and provides a common interface for D and D-related activities. It also improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge and promotes the reuse of existing knowledge. It is a community-driven system that facilitates the gathering, analyzing, storing, and sharing of knowledge and information within the D and D community. It assists the DOE D and D community in identifying potential solutions

  12. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street,EC2100, Miami, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high risk and technically challenging enterprise within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. During the past three decades, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management has been in charge of carrying out one of the largest environmental restoration efforts in the world: the cleanup of the Manhattan Project legacy. In today's corporate world, worker experiences and knowledge that have developed over time represent a valuable corporate asset. The ever-dynamic workplace, coupled with an aging workforce, presents corporations with the ongoing challenge of preserving work-related experiences and knowledge for cross-generational knowledge transfer to the future workforce [5]. To prevent the D and D knowledge base and expertise from being lost over time, the DOE and the Applied Research Center at Florida International University (FIU) have developed the web-based Knowledge Management Information Tool (KM-IT) to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily accessible and usable system. The D and D KM-IT was developed in collaboration with DOE Headquarters (HQ), the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), and the ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] Centers at Savannah River Sites to preserve the D and D information generated and collected by the D and D community. This is an open secured system that can be accessed from https://www.dndkm.org over the web and through mobile devices at https://m.dndkm.org. This knowledge system serves as a centralized repository and provides a common interface for D and D-related activities. It also improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge and promotes the reuse of existing knowledge. It is a community-driven system that facilitates the gathering, analyzing, storing, and sharing of knowledge and information within the D and D community. It assists the DOE D and D community in identifying potential solutions

  13. Knowledge-Based Topic Model for Unsupervised Object Discovery and Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenxing; Hua, Gang; Wang, Le; Gao, Xinbo

    Unsupervised object discovery and localization is to discover some dominant object classes and localize all of object instances from a given image collection without any supervision. Previous work has attempted to tackle this problem with vanilla topic models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). However, in those methods no prior knowledge for the given image collection is exploited to facilitate object discovery. On the other hand, the topic models used in those methods suffer from the topic coherence issue-some inferred topics do not have clear meaning, which limits the final performance of object discovery. In this paper, prior knowledge in terms of the so-called must-links are exploited from Web images on the Internet. Furthermore, a novel knowledge-based topic model, called LDA with mixture of Dirichlet trees, is proposed to incorporate the must-links into topic modeling for object discovery. In particular, to better deal with the polysemy phenomenon of visual words, the must-link is re-defined as that one must-link only constrains one or some topic(s) instead of all topics, which leads to significantly improved topic coherence. Moreover, the must-links are built and grouped with respect to specific object classes, thus the must-links in our approach are semantic-specific , which allows to more efficiently exploit discriminative prior knowledge from Web images. Extensive experiments validated the efficiency of our proposed approach on several data sets. It is shown that our method significantly improves topic coherence and outperforms the unsupervised methods for object discovery and localization. In addition, compared with discriminative methods, the naturally existing object classes in the given image collection can be subtly discovered, which makes our approach well suited for realistic applications of unsupervised object discovery.Unsupervised object discovery and localization is to discover some dominant object classes and localize all of object

  14. Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. ... This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity ...

  15. Modeling and knowledge acquisition processes using case-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of acquisition and presentation of the organizational Process Knowledge has considered by many KM researches. In this research a model for process knowledge acquisition and presentation has been presented by using the approach of Case Base Reasoning. The validation of the presented model was evaluated by conducting an expert panel. Then a software has been developed based on the presented model and implemented in Eghtesad Novin Bank of Iran. In this company, based on the stages of the presented model, first the knowledge intensive processes has been identified, then the Process Knowledge was stored in a knowledge base in the format of problem/solution/consequent .The retrieval of the knowledge was done based on the similarity of the nearest neighbor algorithm. For validating of the implemented system, results of the system has compared by the results of the decision making of the expert of the process.

  16. Knowledge productivity : designing and testing a method to diagnose knowledge productivity and plan for enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Our economy has changed from an industrial into a knowledge economy in which knowledge productivity has become the main challenge. The lack of appropriate techniques to reveal knowledge productivity hinders organizations to design effective policies aiming at improving knowledge-based performance.

  17. Development of knowledge acquisition methods for knowledge base construction for autonomous plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sasajima, M.; Kitamura, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Mizoguchi, R.

    1993-03-01

    In order to enhance safety and reliability of nuclear plant operation, it is strongly desired to construct diagnostic knowledge base without lacking, contradiction, and description inconsistency. Nowadays, an advanced method Knowledge Compiler` has been studied to acquire diagnostic knowledge, mainly based on qualitative reasoning technique, without accumulating heuristics by interviews. Until now, 2 methods to suppress the ambiguity observed when qualitative reasoning mechanism were applied to heat transport systems of nuclear power plants: In the first method, qualitative values are allocated to the system variables along with the causality direction, avoiding contradictions among plural variables in each qualitative constraint describing knowledge of deviation propagation, heat balance, or energy conservation. In the second method, all the qualitative information is represented as a set of simultaneous qualitative equations. And, an appropriate subset is selected so that the qualitative solutions of unknowns in this subset can be derived independently of the remaining part. A contrary method is applied for the selected subset to derive local solutions. Then the problem size is reduced by substituting solutions of the subset, in a recursive manner. In the previous report on this research project, complete computer softwares have been constructed based on these methods, and applied to a 2-loop heat transport system of a nuclear power plant. The detailed results are discussed in this report. In addition, an integrated configuration of diagnostic knowledge generation system of nuclear power plants is proposed, based upon the results and new foundings obtained through the research activities so far, and the future works to overcome remaining problems are also identified. (author)

  18. In defense of types in knowledge-based CAAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    There are two basic approaches to representation of design knowledge in knowledge-based CAAD systems, the type-based approach which has a long tradition, and the more recent typeless approach. Proponents of the latter have offered a number of arguments against the type-based approach which...

  19. Knowledge Governance Strategies in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Söderlund, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge governance (KG) aims at strategically influencing knowledge processes by implementing governance mechanisms. Little is known about whether, how, or why such strategies differ among firms. We utilize a large-scale empirical study of 20 organizations to develop a typology of KG strategies...... in project-based organizations; we then explore how these strategies emerge and affect organizational knowledge processes. Six strategies are identified: Protector, Deliverer, Polisher, Explorer, Supporter, and Analyzer. This paper posits a multi-level categorization model to facilitate comparisons among KG...... strategies. We uncover three main drivers of organizations' chosen knowledge governance strategies-namely, attitudes about humans, knowledge, and knowledge control....

  20. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  1. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  2. Information modelling and knowledge bases XXV

    CERN Document Server

    Tokuda, T; Jaakkola, H; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    Because of our ever increasing use of and reliance on technology and information systems, information modelling and knowledge bases continue to be important topics in those academic communities concerned with data handling and computer science. As the information itself becomes more complex, so do the levels of abstraction and the databases themselves. This book is part of the series Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases, which concentrates on a variety of themes in the important domains of conceptual modeling, design and specification of information systems, multimedia information modelin

  3. Knowledge Graphs as Context Models: Improving the Detection of Cross-Language Plagiarism with Paraphrasing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Salvador, Marc; Gupta, Parth; Rosso, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language plagiarism detection attempts to identify and extract automatically plagiarism among documents in different languages. Plagiarized fragments can be translated verbatim copies or may alter their structure to hide the copying, which is known as paraphrasing and is more difficult to detect. In order to improve the paraphrasing detection, we use a knowledge graph-based approach to obtain and compare context models of document fragments in different languages. Experimental results i...

  4. Knowledge-Based Approaches: Two cases of applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT.......Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT....

  5. Knowledge management as a tool for improving business processes: an action research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martínez-Martínez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of Knowledge Management as a tool for improving business processes in a different context from the industrial organizations, as an archaeological museum. Design/methodology/approach: Using data collected from the National Museum of the Sultanate of Oman in Muscat, a methodology for analysis and improvement of processes (the Business Cycle Management Process, CMP is designed and validated. This application is described as an eight phases process based on Six Sigma DMAIC. The model has a characteristic "P" shape. Findings: As the results obtained by the process improvement initiative show, we highlight the relevance of the improvement in all aspects regarding the security in showcases in that context. Research limitations/implications: The complexity of implementing indicators and the partial vision of the project as data were only obtained from a part of one of the companies involved in the construction of the museum. An important implication of this paper is in order to present a methodology to improve the museum processes focusing on the reduction of errors and also adding value for the visitors. Practical implications: The relevance to intervene on certain relevant variables at different levels of management performance is verified. Social implications: Improving the quality of leisure services in order to the identification of certain challenges regarding the nature and competitiveness of cultural services. Originality/value: The current work has served as a repository of knowledge applicable to new similar projects, in which to take into account the peculiarities of each case and in particular the level of quality demanded by the client in a cultural context. It is important to take into account the degree of avoidable dissatisfaction (number of solvable problems that would lead to dissatisfaction, the opportunity for improvement, the reduction of operational waste and the need

  6. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  7. Knowledge-based computer security advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunteman, W.J.; Squire, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The rapid expansion of computer security information and technology has included little support to help the security officer identify the safeguards needed to comply with a policy and to secure a computing system. This paper reports that Los Alamos is developing a knowledge-based computer security system to provide expert knowledge to the security officer. This system includes a model for expressing the complex requirements in computer security policy statements. The model is part of an expert system that allows a security officer to describe a computer system and then determine compliance with the policy. The model contains a generic representation that contains network relationships among the policy concepts to support inferencing based on information represented in the generic policy description

  8. Automated extraction of knowledge for model-based diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Myler, Harley R.; Towhidnejad, Massood; Mckenzie, Frederic D.; Kladke, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of accessing computer aided design (CAD) design databases and extracting a process model automatically is investigated as a possible source for the generation of knowledge bases for model-based reasoning systems. The resulting system, referred to as automated knowledge generation (AKG), uses an object-oriented programming structure and constraint techniques as well as internal database of component descriptions to generate a frame-based structure that describes the model. The procedure has been designed to be general enough to be easily coupled to CAD systems that feature a database capable of providing label and connectivity data from the drawn system. The AKG system is capable of defining knowledge bases in formats required by various model-based reasoning tools.

  9. Knowledge based management of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, U.; Schalm, S.; Pranckeviciute, K.

    1992-01-01

    TechSPEX is a knowledge based advisory system for checking the status of a nuclear plant on compliance with the safety limits and the limiting conditions of operation. These prescripts for safe reactor operation exist as textual information. For the purpose of its operational use an explicit representation formalism is introduced. On this basis, various approaches of text retrieval are realized, condition based surveillance and control is supported too. Knowledge editing and verification modules ease the adaption to changing requirements. TechSPEX has been implemented in PROLOG. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  10. Knowledge-based operator guidance system for Japanese PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Ito, K.; Kawanago, S.; Tani, M.; Murata, R.

    1986-01-01

    A knowledge-based operator support system for nuclear power plant operation is under development. The main theme of the study is the incorporation of operator's cognitive structure as the framework of the knowledge representation and inference control mechanisms. Based upon information collected from interviews, and experiments using a real-time simulator, an operator's model related to diagnostic tasks was developed. A knowledge-based system incorporating the proposed model demonstrated highly efficient problem solving capabilities and the dynamic fitness to operator's perceptual feeling, thereby suggesting the potential importance and practical benefit of such a study

  11. FROM TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTING TO KNOWLEDGE BASED ACCOUNTING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA RADNEANTU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may observe that the rules of traditional economy have changed. The new economy – the knowledge based economy determine also major change in organizations resources, structure, strategic objectives, departments, accounting, goods. In our research we want to underline how the accounting rules, regulations and paradigms have changed to cope with political, economic and social challenges, as well as to the emergence of knowledge based organization. We also try to find out where Romanian accounting is on the hard road of evolution from traditional to knowledge based.

  12. A knowledge-based approach to improving and homogenizing intensity modulated radiation therapy planning quality among treatment centers: an example application to prostate cancer planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, David; Lo, Joseph; Lee, W Robert; Wu, Q Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang; Das, Shiva K

    2013-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning can have wide variation among different treatment centers. We propose a system to leverage the IMRT planning experience of larger institutions to automatically create high-quality plans for outside clinics. We explore feasibility by generating plans for patient datasets from an outside institution by adapting plans from our institution. A knowledge database was created from 132 IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer at our institution. The outside institution, a community hospital, provided the datasets for 55 prostate cancer cases, including their original treatment plans. For each "query" case from the outside institution, a similar "match" case was identified in the knowledge database, and the match case's plan parameters were then adapted and optimized to the query case by use of a semiautomated approach that required no expert planning knowledge. The plans generated with this knowledge-based approach were compared with the original treatment plans at several dose cutpoints. Compared with the original plan, the knowledge-based plan had a significantly more homogeneous dose to the planning target volume and a significantly lower maximum dose. The volumes of the rectum, bladder, and femoral heads above all cutpoints were nominally lower for the knowledge-based plan; the reductions were significantly lower for the rectum. In 40% of cases, the knowledge-based plan had overall superior (lower) dose-volume histograms for rectum and bladder; in 54% of cases, the comparison was equivocal; in 6% of cases, the knowledge-based plan was inferior for both bladder and rectum. Knowledge-based planning was superior or equivalent to the original plan in 95% of cases. The knowledge-based approach shows promise for homogenizing plan quality by transferring planning expertise from more experienced to less experienced institutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M; Grotzer, Tina A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. A significant improvement was found in students' learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students' report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction.

  14. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  15. Bridging the gap: simulations meet knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary W.; Morrison, Clayton T.; Westbrook, David L.; Cohen, Paul R.

    2003-09-01

    Tapir and Krill are declarative languages for specifying actions and agents, respectively, that can be executed in simulation. As such, they bridge the gap between strictly declarative knowledge bases and strictly executable code. Tapir and Krill components can be combined to produce models of activity which can answer questions about mechanisms and processes using conventional inference methods and simulation. Tapir was used in DARPA's Rapid Knowledge Formation (RKF) project to construct models of military tactics from the Army Field Manual FM3-90. These were then used to build Courses of Actions (COAs) which could be critiqued by declarative reasoning or via Monte Carlo simulation. Tapir and Krill can be read and written by non-knowledge engineers making it an excellent vehicle for Subject Matter Experts to build and critique knowledge bases.

  16. NOTE TAKING PAIRS TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ SENTENCE BASED WRITING ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testiana Deni Wijayatiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Students had skill to actualize their imagination and interpret their knowledge through writing which could be combined with good writing structure. Moreover, their writing skill still had low motivation and had not reached the standard writing structure. Based on the background above, this research has purpose to know the influence Note Taking Pairs in improving students‘sentence based writing achievement. The subject of this research was the second semester of English Department in Muhammadiyah University of Semarang. It also used statistic non parametric method to analyze the students‘ writing achievement. The result of this research showed that Note Taking Pairs strategy could improve students‘sentence based writing achievement. Hopefully this research is recommended into learning process to improve students‘writing skill especially in sentence-based writing subject.

  17. The role of knowledge-oriented leadership in knowledge management and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Sadeghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, improving innovative performance is critical for creating com-petitive advantage. On the other hand, availability of information and knowledge can be defined as one the best ways to increase the innovation ability of organizations. Many theorists as well as practitioners emphasize on knowledge management as an enabler in enhancing organizational inno-vation. Hence, This study is carried out in the Fars governor in Iran during the year of 2017 to in-vestigate the relationship between the knowledge-based leadership and knowledge management and innovation performance. This study is descriptive / survey and the data collection is a cross-sectional and data questionnaire is used to collect the required data. Data analysis and hypotheses testing have indicated a significant relationship between knowledge-based leadership and knowledge management and innovation performance in Fars governor. The results also suggest a relationship between knowledge-based leadership and the knowledge management activities with a coefficient of 0.97. In addition, There is also a positive and meaningful relationship between knowledge management and innovation performance with a coefficient of 0.73 and between knowledge-based leadership and innovation performance with a coefficient of 0.73. The results al-so led to the existence of a relationship between knowledge based leadership, knowledge manage-ment practices and innovation performance with a coefficient of 0.7081.

  18. Drug knowledge bases and their applications in biomedical informatics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Elemento, Olivier; Pathak, Jyotishman; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-03

    Recent advances in biomedical research have generated a large volume of drug-related data. To effectively handle this flood of data, many initiatives have been taken to help researchers make good use of them. As the results of these initiatives, many drug knowledge bases have been constructed. They range from simple ones with specific focuses to comprehensive ones that contain information on almost every aspect of a drug. These curated drug knowledge bases have made significant contributions to the development of efficient and effective health information technologies for better health-care service delivery. Understanding and comparing existing drug knowledge bases and how they are applied in various biomedical studies will help us recognize the state of the art and design better knowledge bases in the future. In addition, researchers can get insights on novel applications of the drug knowledge bases through a review of successful use cases. In this study, we provide a review of existing popular drug knowledge bases and their applications in drug-related studies. We discuss challenges in constructing and using drug knowledge bases as well as future research directions toward a better ecosystem of drug knowledge bases. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Use of knowledge-sharing web-based portal in gross and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosaro, Olayemi; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2008-12-01

    Changes in worldwide healthcare delivery require review of current medical school curricula structure to develop learning outcomes that ensures mastery of knowledge and clinical competency. In the last 3 years, Mayo Medical School implemented outcomes-based curriculum to encompass new graduate outcomes. Standard courses were replaced by 6-week clinically-integrated didactic blocks separated by student-self selected academic enrichment activities. Gross and microscopic anatomy was integrated with radiology and genetics respectively. Laboratory components include virtual microscopy and anatomical dissection. Students assigned to teams utilise computer portals to share learning experiences. High-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scans of cadavers prior to dissection were made available for correlative learning between the cadaveric material and radiologic images. Students work in teams on assigned presentations that include histology, cell and molecular biology, genetics and genomic using the Nexus Portal, based on DrupalEd, to share their observations, reflections and dissection findings. New generation of medical students are clearly comfortable utilising web-based programmes that maximise their learning potential of conceptually difficult and labor intensive courses. Team-based learning approach emphasising the use of knowledge-sharing computer portals maximises opportunities for students to master their knowledge and improve cognitive skills to ensure clinical competency.

  20. GrandBase: generating actionable knowledge from Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Susie Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to propose a system for generating actionable knowledge from Big Data and use this system to construct a comprehensive knowledge base (KB, called GrandBase. Design/methodology/approach – In particular, this study extracts new predicates from four types of data sources, namely, Web texts, Document Object Model (DOM trees, existing KBs and query stream to augment the ontology of the existing KB (i.e. Freebase. In addition, a graph-based approach to conduct better truth discovery for multi-valued predicates is also proposed. Findings – Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approaches presented in this study and the potential of GrandBase. The future research directions regarding GrandBase construction and extension has also been discussed. Originality/value – To revolutionize our modern society by using the wisdom of Big Data, considerable KBs have been constructed to feed the massive knowledge-driven applications with Resource Description Framework triples. The important challenges for KB construction include extracting information from large-scale, possibly conflicting and different-structured data sources (i.e. the knowledge extraction problem and reconciling the conflicts that reside in the sources (i.e. the truth discovery problem. Tremendous research efforts have been contributed on both problems. However, the existing KBs are far from being comprehensive and accurate: first, existing knowledge extraction systems retrieve data from limited types of Web sources; second, existing truth discovery approaches commonly assume each predicate has only one true value. In this paper, the focus is on the problem of generating actionable knowledge from Big Data. A system is proposed, which consists of two phases, namely, knowledge extraction and truth discovery, to construct a broader KB, called GrandBase.

  1. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneko, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed [ru

  2. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  3. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P J [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  4. Efforts in improvement of nuclear knowledge and information management in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA was authorised for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy and established INIS in 1970 as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. Countries at different levels of technological development could derive benefits from INIS output products. The use of nuclear technology relies on the accumulation of knowledge in nuclear science and technology, including both technical information in documents and databases, and knowledge in human resources. Nuclear knowledge and information exchange are important for the process of decision-making. The IAEA supports all Members in systematic knowledge preservation and information exchange, who want to transfer their practical experience to the younger generation and to archive important information. Croatia is involved in activities in knowledge and information management since 1994 when she joined INIS. Thanks to development and application of new information technologies within the INIS information management framework, Members improve the collection, production and dissemination of nuclear knowledge and information. (author)

  5. Knowledge Map of Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Jensen, Per Anker; Lindahl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    both the research community and FM-practitioners can develop new models for identifying knowledge needs and gaps and to improve knowledge sharing and knowledge flow and thus the fulfilment of their mission and goals. Knowledge maps can also help in organizing research activities and analysing......Purpose This paper aims to draft a knowledge map of the fragmented and multidisciplinary research of and relevant to FM. Facilities management knowledge map is a tool for presenting what relevant data and knowledge, a.k.a. knowledge, resides in different disciplines. Knowledge mapping is a step...... in creating an inventory of knowledge (i.e. the knowledge base) and developing/improving the processes of knowledge sharing in research, education and practice. Theory Knowledge mapping is discussed in terms of knowledge management. The research is connected to knowledge mapping in the facilities management...

  6. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  7. Knowledge Base Applications to Adaptive Space-Time Processing, Volume 5: Knowledge-Based Tracker Rule Book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ... processing algorithm can be applied. The proactive knowledge-based tracker uses information from other sources such as digital terrain maps, radar clutter and interference maps, and target priority assessments to determine the nature...

  8. Impact of community-based interventions on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Rehana A; Haroon, Sarah; Ahmed, Hashim H; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, women's groups, peer leadership, and street outreach activities in community settings that aimed to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS risk factors and ensure treatment adherence. Our review findings suggest that CBIs to increase HIV awareness and risk reduction are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice outcomes as evidenced by the increased knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.07), protected sexual encounters (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.25), condom use (SMD: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.58), and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96). Analysis shows that CBIs did not have any significant impact on scores for self-efficacy and communication. We found very limited evidence on community-based management for HIV infected population and prevention of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Qualitative synthesis suggests that establishment of community support at the onset of HIV prevention programs leads to community acceptance and engagement. School-based delivery of HIV prevention education and contraceptive distribution have also been advocated as potential strategies to target high-risk youth group. Future studies should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of community delivery platforms for prevention of MTCT, and various emerging models of care to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes.

  9. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: A case-base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, G.C.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Trip, A.; van den Heuvel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning

  10. The research on construction and application of machining process knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tan; Qiao, Lihong; Qie, Yifan; Guo, Kai

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the application of knowledge in machining process design, from the perspective of knowledge in the application of computer aided process planning(CAPP), a hierarchical structure of knowledge classification is established according to the characteristics of mechanical engineering field. The expression of machining process knowledge is structured by means of production rules and the object-oriented methods. Three kinds of knowledge base models are constructed according to the representation of machining process knowledge. In this paper, the definition and classification of machining process knowledge, knowledge model, and the application flow of the process design based on the knowledge base are given, and the main steps of the design decision of the machine tool are carried out as an application by using the knowledge base.

  11. Continuous quality improvement intervention for adolescent and young adult HIV testing services in Kenya improves HIV knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anjuli D; Mugo, Cyrus; Bluemer-Miroite, Shay; Mutiti, Peter M; Wamalwa, Dalton C; Bukusi, David; Neary, Jillian; Njuguna, Irene N; O'Malley, Gabrielle; John-Stewart, Grace C; Slyker, Jennifer A; Kohler, Pamela K

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether continuous quality improvement (CQI) improves quality of HIV testing services for adolescents and young adults (AYA). CQI was introduced at two HIV testing settings: Youth Centre and Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Center, at a national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Primary outcomes were AYA satisfaction with HIV testing services, intent to return, and accurate HIV prevention and transmission knowledge. Healthcare worker (HCW) satisfaction assessed staff morale. T tests and interrupted time series analysis using Prais-Winsten regression and generalized estimating equations accounting for temporal trends and autocorrelation were conducted. There were 172 AYA (Youth Centre = 109, VCT = 63) during 6 baseline weeks and 702 (Youth Centre = 454, VCT = 248) during 24 intervention weeks. CQI was associated with an immediate increase in the proportion of AYA with accurate knowledge of HIV transmission at Youth Centre: 18 vs. 63% [adjusted risk difference (aRD) 0.42,95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.63], and a trend at VCT: 38 vs. 72% (aRD 0.30, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.63). CQI was associated with an increase in the proportion of AYA with accurate HIV prevention knowledge in VCT: 46 vs. 61% (aRD 0.39, 95% CI 0.02-0.76), but not Youth Centre (P = 0.759). In VCT, CQI showed a trend towards increased intent to retest (4.0 vs. 4.3; aRD 0.78, 95% CI -0.11 to 1.67), but not at Youth Centre (P = 0.19). CQI was not associated with changes in AYA satisfaction, which was high during baseline and intervention at both clinics (P = 0.384, P = 0.755). HCW satisfaction remained high during intervention and baseline (P = 0.746). CQI improved AYA knowledge and did not negatively impact HCW satisfaction. Quality improvement interventions may be useful to improve adolescent-friendly service delivery.

  12. Enhancing acronym/abbreviation knowledge bases with semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2007-10-11

    In the biomedical domain, a terminology knowledge base that associates acronyms/abbreviations (denoted as SFs) with the definitions (denoted as LFs) is highly needed. For the construction such terminology knowledge base, we investigate the feasibility to build a system automatically assigning semantic categories to LFs extracted from text. Given a collection of pairs (SF,LF) derived from text, we i) assess the coverage of LFs and pairs (SF,LF) in the UMLS and justify the need of a semantic category assignment system; and ii) automatically derive name phrases annotated with semantic category and construct a system using machine learning. Utilizing ADAM, an existing collection of (SF,LF) pairs extracted from MEDLINE, our system achieved an f-measure of 87% when assigning eight UMLS-based semantic groups to LFs. The system has been incorporated into a web interface which integrates SF knowledge from multiple SF knowledge bases. Web site: http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesurus.

  13. Improved semantic interoperability for content reuse through knowledge organization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS are resources designed to improve the knowledge interoperability, management and retrieval. As increases the web resources, it’s evidenced the lack of KOS, with the consequent impact in the resources interoperability. The KOSS are, by definition, complicated and costly tools, so much in his creation as in his management. The reuse of similar organizational structures is a necessary element in this context. They analyses experiences of reuse of The KOS and signals like the new standards are impinged on this appearance.

  14. Structural design systems using knowledge-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsborn, K.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering information management and the corresponding information systems are of a strategic importance for industrial enterprises. This thesis treats the interdisciplinary field of designing computing systems for structural design and analysis using knowledge-based techniques. Specific conceptual models have been designed for representing the structure and the process of objects and activities in a structural design and analysis domain. In this thesis, it is shown how domain knowledge can be structured along several classification principles in order to reduce complexity and increase flexibility. By increasing the conceptual level of the problem description and representation of the domain knowledge in a declarative form, it is possible to enhance the development, maintenance and use of software for mechanical engineering. This will result in a corresponding increase of the efficiency of the mechanical engineering design process. These ideas together with the rule-based control point out the leverage of declarative knowledge representation within this domain. Used appropriately, a declarative knowledge representation preserves information better, is more problem-oriented and change-tolerant than procedural representations. 74 refs

  15. Novel nonlinear knowledge-based mean force potentials based on machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiwen; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2011-01-01

    The prediction of 3D structures of proteins from amino acid sequences is one of the most challenging problems in molecular biology. An essential task for solving this problem with coarse-grained models is to deduce effective interaction potentials. The development and evaluation of new energy functions is critical to accurately modeling the properties of biological macromolecules. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are derived from statistical analysis of proteins of known structures. Current knowledge-based potentials are almost in the form of weighted linear sum of interaction pairs. In this study, a class of novel nonlinear knowledge-based mean force potentials is presented. The potential parameters are obtained by nonlinear classifiers, instead of relative frequencies of interaction pairs against a reference state or linear classifiers. The support vector machine is used to derive the potential parameters on data sets that contain both native structures and decoy structures. Five knowledge-based mean force Boltzmann-based or linear potentials are introduced and their corresponding nonlinear potentials are implemented. They are the DIH potential (single-body residue-level Boltzmann-based potential), the DFIRE-SCM potential (two-body residue-level Boltzmann-based potential), the FS potential (two-body atom-level Boltzmann-based potential), the HR potential (two-body residue-level linear potential), and the T32S3 potential (two-body atom-level linear potential). Experiments are performed on well-established decoy sets, including the LKF data set, the CASP7 data set, and the Decoys “R”Us data set. The evaluation metrics include the energy Z score and the ability of each potential to discriminate native structures from a set of decoy structures. Experimental results show that all nonlinear potentials significantly outperform the corresponding Boltzmann-based or linear potentials, and the proposed discriminative framework is effective in developing knowledge-based

  16. Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin

    1999-11-01

    The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and

  17. The Ontology of Knowledge Based Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization has been becoming a central of studies in mathematic and has many areas with different applications. However, many themes of optimization came from different area have not ties closing to origin concepts. This paper is to address some variants of optimization problems using ontology in order to building basic of knowledge about optimization, and then using it to enhance strategy to achieve knowledge based optimization.

  18. Hybrid forecasting of chaotic processes: Using machine learning in conjunction with a knowledge-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jaideep; Wikner, Alexander; Fussell, Rebeckah; Chandra, Sarthak; Hunt, Brian R.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2018-04-01

    A model-based approach to forecasting chaotic dynamical systems utilizes knowledge of the mechanistic processes governing the dynamics to build an approximate mathematical model of the system. In contrast, machine learning techniques have demonstrated promising results for forecasting chaotic systems purely from past time series measurements of system state variables (training data), without prior knowledge of the system dynamics. The motivation for this paper is the potential of machine learning for filling in the gaps in our underlying mechanistic knowledge that cause widely-used knowledge-based models to be inaccurate. Thus, we here propose a general method that leverages the advantages of these two approaches by combining a knowledge-based model and a machine learning technique to build a hybrid forecasting scheme. Potential applications for such an approach are numerous (e.g., improving weather forecasting). We demonstrate and test the utility of this approach using a particular illustrative version of a machine learning known as reservoir computing, and we apply the resulting hybrid forecaster to a low-dimensional chaotic system, as well as to a high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaotic system. These tests yield extremely promising results in that our hybrid technique is able to accurately predict for a much longer period of time than either its machine-learning component or its model-based component alone.

  19. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; García-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2010-09-30

    Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA), which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK) to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1) Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA), and 2) Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR). In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1) Data collection and data preparation; 2) acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK) and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB); 3) PKB-guided analysis; 4) support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited); 5) incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6) post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering), applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. This paper presents EbCA and shows the convenience of

  20. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA, which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1 Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA, and 2 Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR. In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1 Data collection and data preparation; 2 acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB; 3 PKB-guided analysis; 4 support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited; 5 incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6 post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering, applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This

  1. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-09-01

    Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking. Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies.

  2. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods: Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results: A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions: The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge

  3. Effective knowledge management as basis for holistic knowledge engineering – Knowledge as the key asset of an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lazović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In knowledge management , human resources are in the foreground and their value is constantly rising. In the eyes of modern managers knowledge is the key asset of an organization. Effective management and management of knowledge processes are central preoccupations of modern managers and, at the same time, the most prominent feature of a knowledge-based organization. Like innovation and creativity, knowledge needs to be encouraged and treated with due care. Commitment to acquisition of new knowledge depends on how the interpersonal relationships are managed in an organization, therefore, those responsible for knowledge processes, the so-called modern knowledge managers, will develop partnership relation- ships with all members of their organization. In the core of such partnerships lie competences of individual employees and their creative application of knowledge. By encouraging learning, discussions and opinion exchange as well as personal and professional growth of their employees, management in knowledge-based organizations is improving the quality of work, and consequently, generation of new knowledge and their organization’s competitive advantage.

  4. Advanced software development workstation. Knowledge base design: Design of knowledge base for flight planning application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    The development process of the knowledge base for the generation of Test Libraries for Mission Operations Computer (MOC) Command Support focused on a series of information gathering interviews. These knowledge capture sessions are supporting the development of a prototype for evaluating the capabilities of INTUIT on such an application. the prototype includes functions related to POCC (Payload Operation Control Center) processing. It prompts the end-users for input through a series of panels and then generates the Meds associated with the initialization and the update of hazardous command tables for a POCC Processing TLIB.

  5. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  6. An IoT Knowledge Reengineering Framework for Semantic Knowledge Analytics for BI-Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilamadhab Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a progressive business intelligence (BI environment, IoT knowledge analytics are becoming an increasingly challenging problem because of rapid changes of knowledge context scenarios along with increasing data production scales with business requirements that ultimately transform a working knowledge base into a superseded state. Such a superseded knowledge base lacks adequate knowledge context scenarios, and the semantics, rules, frames, and ontology contents may not meet the latest requirements of contemporary BI-services. Thus, reengineering a superseded knowledge base into a renovated knowledge base system can yield greater business value and is more cost effective and feasible than standardising a new system for the same purpose. Thus, in this work, we propose an IoT knowledge reengineering framework (IKR framework for implementation in a neurofuzzy system to build, organise, and reuse knowledge to provide BI-services to the things (man, machines, places, and processes involved in business through the network of IoT objects. The analysis and discussion show that the IKR framework can be well suited to creating improved anticipation in IoT-driven BI-applications.

  7. Knowledge management: An abstraction of knowledge base and database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Joel D.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial intelligence application requirements demand powerful representation capabilities as well as efficiency for real-time domains. Many tools exist, the most prevalent being expert systems tools such as ART, KEE, OPS5, and CLIPS. Other tools just emerging from the research environment are truth maintenance systems for representing non-monotonic knowledge, constraint systems, object oriented programming, and qualitative reasoning. Unfortunately, as many knowledge engineers have experienced, simply applying a tool to an application requires a large amount of effort to bend the application to fit. Much work goes into supporting work to make the tool integrate effectively. A Knowledge Management Design System (KNOMAD), is described which is a collection of tools built in layers. The layered architecture provides two major benefits; the ability to flexibly apply only those tools that are necessary for an application, and the ability to keep overhead, and thus inefficiency, to a minimum. KNOMAD is designed to manage many knowledge bases in a distributed environment providing maximum flexibility and expressivity to the knowledge engineer while also providing support for efficiency.

  8. Impacts of Leadership on Project-Based Organizational Innovation Performance: The Mediator of Knowledge Sharing and Moderator of Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing importance of leadership in project-based organizations, innovation is essential for the sustainable development of construction projects. Since few studies have explored the relationship between leadership and innovation in construction projects, this study fills this research gap and makes a significant theoretical contribution to the existing body of literature. Based on a knowledge-rated and resource-based view, this study aims to investigate various effects of different types of leadership on innovation performance in a construction project-based organization. Therefore, a theoretical model was constructed to explore the mediation mechanism and boundary condition of different types of leadership to improve innovation. The theoretical model was validated with empirical data covering project managers and engineers from the project-based organization in China via regression analysis and path analysis. The results show that transformational leadership and transactional leadership have some positively significant effects on knowledge sharing and innovation performance. Meanwhile, knowledge sharing partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and/or transactional leadership and innovation performance. Additionally, by considering different levels of social capital, transformational leadership is likely to have a strong positive impact on innovation performance through knowledge sharing. Our findings ensure a better understanding of the role of leadership, knowledge management, and social capital in the innovation process of construction projects. Therefore, project managers should promote a higher stimulation of a leadership behavior, encouraging knowledge management, and establishing the social capital, thus improving the innovation performance in the project-based organizations in construction projects.

  9. Integration, Provenance, and Temporal Queries for Large-Scale Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge bases that summarize web information in RDF triples deliver many benefits, including support for natural language question answering and powerful structured queries that extract encyclopedic knowledge via SPARQL. Large scale knowledge bases grow rapidly in terms of scale and significance, and undergo frequent changes in both schema and content. Two critical problems have thus emerged: (i) how to support temporal queries that explore the history of knowledge bases or flash-back to th...

  10. Knowledge-based automated radiopharmaceutical manufacturing for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexoff, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the application of basic knowledge engineering principles to the design of automated synthesis equipment for radiopharmaceuticals used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Before discussing knowledge programming, an overview of the development of automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis systems for PET will be presented. Since knowledge systems will rely on information obtained from machine transducers, a discussion of the uses of sensory feedback in today's automated systems follows. Next, the operation of these automated systems is contrasted to radiotracer production carried out by chemists, and the rationale for and basic concepts of knowledge-based programming are explained. Finally, a prototype knowledge-based system supporting automated radiopharmaceutical manufacturing of 18FDG at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is described using 1stClass, a commercially available PC-based expert system shell

  11. A PROCESS-BASED APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Andrej; Bosilj Vukšić, Vesna; Lončar, Anita

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between business process modelling, knowledge management and information systems development projects. The paper’s main objective is to present business rules as the encoded knowledge of corporate business practices. Further, it introduces a rule-based business activity meta-model as a repository in which business knowledge can be captured and traced from their origin in the business environment through to their implementation in information systems. The c...

  12. Improving audio chord transcription by exploiting harmonic and metric knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Rodrigues Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new system for chord transcription from polyphonic musical audio that uses domain-specific knowledge about tonal harmony and metrical position to improve chord transcription performance. Low-level pulse and spectral features are extracted from an audio source using the Vamp plugin

  13. Leadership, Medication Administration, and Knowledge Retention: A Quality Improvement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    A leadership and quality improvement project was undertaken in order to assist undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students in knowledge retention for medication administration during their senior semester in nursing school. Specific changes in curriculum were implemented to assist these undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students at a suburban…

  14. Representability in DL-Lite_R knowledge base exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge base exchange can be considered as a generalization of data exchange in which the aim is to exchange between a source and a target connected through mappings, not only explicit knowledge, i.e., data, but also implicit knowledge in the form of axioms. Such problem has been investigated

  15. Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reyes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.

  16. [Does simulator-based team training improve patient safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentzsch, H; Urban, B; Sandmeyer, B; Hammer, T; Strohm, P C; Lazarovici, M

    2013-10-01

    Patient safety became paramount in medicine as well as in emergency medicine after it was recognized that preventable, adverse events significantly contributed to morbidity and mortality during hospital stay. The underlying errors cannot usually be explained by medical technical inadequacies only but are more due to difficulties in the transition of theoretical knowledge into tasks under the conditions of clinical reality. Crew Resource Management and Human Factors which determine safety and efficiency of humans in complex situations are suitable to control such sources of error. Simulation significantly improved safety in high reliability organizations, such as the aerospace industry.Thus, simulator-based team training has also been proposed for medical areas. As such training is consuming in cost, time and human resources, the question of the cost-benefit ratio obviously arises. This review outlines the effects of simulator-based team training on patient safety. Such course formats are not only capable of creating awareness and improvements in safety culture but also improve technical team performance and emphasize team performance as a clinical competence. A few studies even indicated improvement of patient-centered outcome, such as a reduced rate of adverse events but further studies are required in this respect. In summary, simulator-based team training should be accepted as a suitable strategy to improve patient safety.

  17. An approach to build knowledge base for reactor accident diagnostic system using statistical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohsaka, Atsuo; Yokobayashi, Masao; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Minoru

    1988-01-01

    In the development of a rule based expert system, one of key issues is how to build a knowledge base (KB). A systematic approach has been attempted for building an objective KB efficiently. The approach is based on the concept that a prototype KB should first be generated in a systematic way and then it is to be modified and/or improved by expert for practical use. The statistical method, Factor Analysis, was applied to build a prototype KB for the JAERI expert system DISKET using source information obtained from a PWR simulator. The prototype KB was obtained and the inference with this KB was performed against several types of transients. In each diagnosis, the transient type was well identified. From this study, it is concluded that the statistical method used is useful for building a prototype knowledge base. (author)

  18. Implementation of knowledge-based engineering methodology in hydraulic generator design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic generator design companies are always being exhorted to become more competitive by reducing the lead time and costs for their products for survival. Knowledge-based engineering technology is a rapidly developing technology with competitive advantage for design application to reduce time and cost in product development. This article addresses the structure of the hydraulic generator design system based on the knowledge-based engineering technology in detail. The system operates by creating a unified knowledge base to store the scattered knowledge among the whole life of the design process, which was contained in the expert’s brain and technical literature. It helps designers to make appropriate decisions by supplying necessary information at the right time through query and inference engine to represent the knowledge within the knowledge-based engineering application framework. It also integrates the analysis tools into one platform to help achieve global optimum solutions. Finally, an example of turbine-type selection was given to illustrate the operation process and prove its validity.

  19. Improving knowledge management through the support of image examination and data annotation using DICOM structured reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Salavert; Damian Segrelles Quilis, J; Espert, Ignacio Blanquer; García, Vicente Hernandez

    2012-12-01

    An important effort has been invested on improving the image diagnosis process in different medical areas using information technologies. The field of medical imaging involves two main data types: medical imaging and reports. Developments based on the DICOM standard have demonstrated to be a convenient and widespread solution among the medical community. The main objective of this work is to design a Web application prototype that will be able to improve diagnosis and follow-on of breast cancer patients. It is based on TRENCADIS middleware, which provides a knowledge-oriented storage model composed by federated repositories of DICOM image studies and DICOM-SR medical reports. The full structure and contents of the diagnosis reports are used as metadata for indexing images. The TRENCADIS infrastructure takes full advantage of Grid technologies by deploying multi-resource grid services that enable multiple views (reports schemes) of the knowledge database. The paper presents a real deployment of such Web application prototype in the Dr. Peset Hospital providing radiologists with a tool to create, store and search diagnostic reports based on breast cancer explorations (mammography, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, pre-surgery biopsy and post-surgery biopsy), improving support for diagnostics decisions. A technical details for use cases (outlining enhanced multi-resource grid services communication and processing steps) and interactions between actors and the deployed prototype are described. As a result, information is more structured, the logic is clearer, network messages have been reduced and, in general, the system is more resistant to failures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011-2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test-Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = - 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  1. A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    Chemical engineers depend on process simulation models to determine optimal'' plant configurations which are technically feasible and economically viable. This research was undertaken to develop a comprehensive knowledge based simulation environment IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment) that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant during all phases of process simulation involving fossil energy processes. In summary, the goals of this research are: application of knowledge-based techniques to the process modeling domain for enhancement of productivity; archiving and distribution of the knowledge of the best experts of process modeling; cross-model inference assistance to modelers not familiar with the process; and development of IPSE to serve as an intelligent tutoring system for process simulation. 18 figs.

  2. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  3. Knowledge based system for control rod programming of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge based system has been developed to support designers in control rod programming of BWRs. The programming searches through optimal control rod patterns to realize safe and effective burning of nuclear fuel. Knowledge of experienced designers plays the main role in minimizing the number of calculations by the core performance evaluation code. This code predicts power distibution and thermal margins of the nuclear fuel. This knowledge is transformed into 'if-then' type rules and subroutines, and is stored in a knowledge base of the knowledge based system. The system consists of working area, an inference engine and the knowledge base. The inference engine can detect those data which have to be regenerated, call those subroutine which control the user's interface and numerical computations, and store competitive sets of data in different parts of the working area. Using this system, control rod programming of a BWR plant was traced with about 500 rules and 150 subroutines. Both the generation of control rod patterns for the first calculation of the code and the modification of a control rod pattern to reflect the calculation were completed more effectively than in a conventional method. (author)

  4. A Knowledge-Base for a Personalized Infectious Disease Risk Prediction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarti, Retno; Hederman, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    We present a knowledge-base to represent collated infectious disease risk (IDR) knowledge. The knowledge is about personal and contextual risk of contracting an infectious disease obtained from declarative sources (e.g. Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases). Automated prediction requires encoding this knowledge in a form that can produce risk probabilities (e.g. Bayesian Network - BN). The knowledge-base presented in this paper feeds an algorithm that can auto-generate the BN. The knowledge from 234 infectious diseases was compiled. From this compilation, we designed an ontology and five rule types for modelling IDR knowledge in general. The evaluation aims to assess whether the knowledge-base structure, and its application to three disease-country contexts, meets the needs of personalized IDR prediction system. From the evaluation results, the knowledge-base conforms to the system's purpose: personalization of infectious disease risk.

  5. Does an outcome-based approach to continuing medical education improve physicians' competences in rational prescribing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaily, Hamideh M; Savage, Carl; Vahidi, Rezagoli; Amini, Abolghasem; Dastgiri, Saeed; Hult, Hakan; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Wahlstrom, Rolf

    2009-11-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) is compulsory in Iran, and traditionally it is lecture-based, which is mostly not successful. Outcome-based education has been proposed for CME programs. To evaluate the effectiveness of an outcome-based educational intervention with a new approach based on outcomes and aligned teaching methods, on knowledge and skills of general physicians (GPs) working in primary care compared with a concurrent CME program in the field of "Rational prescribing". The method used was cluster randomized controlled design. All GPs working in six cities in one province in Iran were invited to participate. The cities were matched and randomly divided into an intervention arm for education on rational prescribing with an outcome-based approach, and a control arm for a traditional program on the same topic. Knowledge and skills were assessed using a pre- and post-test, including case scenarios. In total, 112 GPs participated. There were significant improvements in knowledge and prescribing skills after the training in the intervention arm as well as in comparison with the changes in the control arm. The overall intervention effect was 26 percentage units. The introduction of an outcome-based approach in CME appears to be effective when creating programs to improve GPs' knowledge and skills.

  6. Knowledge-based system for automatic MBR control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, J; Meabe, E; Sancho, L; Ferrero, G; Sipma, J; Monclús, H; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2010-01-01

    MBR technology is currently challenging traditional wastewater treatment systems and is increasingly selected for WWTP upgrading. MBR systems typically are constructed on a smaller footprint, and provide superior treated water quality. However, the main drawback of MBR technology is that the permeability of membranes declines during filtration due to membrane fouling, which for a large part causes the high aeration requirements of an MBR to counteract this fouling phenomenon. Due to the complex and still unknown mechanisms of membrane fouling it is neither possible to describe clearly its development by means of a deterministic model, nor to control it with a purely mathematical law. Consequently the majority of MBR applications are controlled in an "open-loop" way i.e. with predefined and fixed air scour and filtration/relaxation or backwashing cycles, and scheduled inline or offline chemical cleaning as a preventive measure, without taking into account the real needs of membrane cleaning based on its filtration performance. However, existing theoretical and empirical knowledge about potential cause-effect relations between a number of factors (influent characteristics, biomass characteristics and operational conditions) and MBR operation can be used to build a knowledge-based decision support system (KB-DSS) for the automatic control of MBRs. This KB-DSS contains a knowledge-based control module, which, based on real time comparison of the current permeability trend with "reference trends", aims at optimizing the operation and energy costs and decreasing fouling rates. In practice the automatic control system proposed regulates the set points of the key operational variables controlled in MBR systems (permeate flux, relaxation and backwash times, backwash flows and times, aeration flow rates, chemical cleaning frequency, waste sludge flow rate and recycle flow rates) and identifies its optimal value. This paper describes the concepts and the 3-level architecture

  7. Development of an Educational Video to Improve HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Prevention among Company Workers in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…

  8. Improving nursing students' breast cancer knowledge through a novel academic and non-profit foundation partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocky, Nina M; McLeskey, Sandra W; McGuire, Deborah; Griffith, Kathleen; Plusen, Abby

    2011-06-01

    The unique partnership between an affiliate of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure(©) foundation and a school of nursing offered faculty the ability to creatively inject breast cancer content into the baccalaureate curriculum. In-house breast cancer experts and external consultants developed seven breast cancer-specific educational Web-based modules to supplement a packed curriculum taught by generalists in a cost-efficient manner. Easily integrated into the baccalaureate program, these modules provided evidence-based breast cancer content to nursing students. Following completion of the modules, baccalaureate students' knowledge of breast cancer improved. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. CRITERIA AND FACTORS USED BY MANAGERS IMPLEMENTING THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED MANAGEMENT IN TOURISM SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    State Cristna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based economy requires both in Romania and internationally, the presence of intelligent organizations, with advanced management capabilities of their collective skills, as sources of performance. As a result, worldwide, more than ever, knowledge is accepted as one of the main sources of competitive advantage. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resource agglomeration. In this context, knowledge-based management approaches are inevitable, arising from systemic complexity that goes beyond the rigid hierarchies and traditional practices and entails the emergence of non-hierarchical organizational structures.

  10. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Antibiotic Use and Resistance - A Latent Class Analysis of a Swedish Population-Based Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vallin

    Full Text Available In 2006, a study investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and resistance in Sweden, indicated high level of knowledge but also areas in need of improvement.(i To provide an update on the knowledge and attitudes to antibiotic use and resistance of the Swedish population, and (ii to identify which groups within the population are in particular need of improved knowledge or attitudes.A questionnaire was sent by post in 2013 to 2,500 randomly-selected individuals aged 18-74, living in Sweden. Latent class analyses were conducted to group respondents based on their responses. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and the probability of belonging to each latent class was assessed.The response rate was 57%. Ninety-four per cent of the responders knew that bacteria could become resistant to antibiotics and the majority answered correctly to the questions regarding antibiotic resistance development. The respondents expressed confidence in doctors who decided not to prescribe antibiotics. Three latent classes related to 'knowledge regarding antibiotic use and resistance', two regarding 'attitudes towards antibiotic accessibility and infection prevention' and three regarding 'attitudes towards antibiotic use and effects' were revealed. Men, younger and more educated people were more knowledgeable but males had a less restrictive attitude. Respondents with high levels of knowledge on antibiotics were more likely to have appropriate restrictive attitudes to antibiotics.Knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance is maintained high and has improved in Sweden compared to 2006. People with lower education and elderly are especially in need of improved knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance.

  11. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  12. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John H.; Glass, Emily; Economides, Gregory; Russell, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This Contractor Report documents research in Intelligent Control using knowledge-based processing in a manner dual to methods found in the classic stochastic decision, estimation, and control discipline. Such knowledge-based control has also been called Declarative, and Hybid. Software architectures were sought, employing the parallelism inherent in modern object-oriented modeling and programming. The viewpoint adopted was that Intelligent Control employs a class of domain-specific software architectures having features common over a broad variety of implementations, such as management of aircraft flight, power distribution, etc. As much attention was paid to software engineering issues as to artificial intelligence and control issues. This research considered that particular processing methods from the stochastic and knowledge-based worlds are duals, that is, similar in a broad context. They provide architectural design concepts which serve as bridges between the disparate disciplines of decision, estimation, control, and artificial intelligence. This research was applied to the control of a subsonic transport aircraft in the airport terminal area.

  13. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Meyer, Adria; Kay, Christi; Allensworth, Diane; Gazmararian, Julie A

    2014-06-26

    Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 - 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 - 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument "Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool" or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p grades and gender, with the most significant decreases for students overweight or obese at baseline (p Students also showed significant increases in performance on the PACER test across grades and cohorts (p improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. The present report

  14. Proposing a Knowledge Base for Teaching Academic Content to English Language Learners: Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…

  15. A Knowledge-based Environment for Software Process Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chaves Lessa Schots

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process performance analysis is a key step for implementing continuous improvement in software organizations. However, the knowledge to execute such analysis is not trivial and the person responsible to executing it must be provided with appropriate support. Aim: This paper presents a knowledge-based environment, named SPEAKER, proposed for supporting software organizations during the execution of process performance analysis. SPEAKER comprises a body of knowledge and a set of activities and tasks for software process performance analysis along with supporting tools to executing these activities and tasks. Method: We conducted an informal literature reviews and a systematic mapping study, which provided basic requirements for the proposed environment. We implemented the SPEAKER environment integrating supporting tools for the execution of activities and tasks of performance analysis and the knowledge necessary to execute them, in order to meet the variability presented by the characteristics of these activities. Results: In this paper, we describe each SPEAKER module and the individual evaluations of these modules, and also present an example of use comprising how the environment can guide the user through a specific performance analysis activity. Conclusion: Although we only conducted individual evaluations of SPEAKER’s modules, the example of use indicates the feasibility of the proposed environment. Therefore, the environment as a whole will be further evaluated to verify if it attains its goal of assisting in the execution of process performance analysis by non-specialist people.

  16. Development of knowledge base system linked to material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Shunichi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Kinugawa, Junichi; Iwata, Shuichi

    2002-01-01

    The distributed material database system named 'Data-Free-Way' has been developed by four organizations (the National Institute for Materials Science, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, and the Japan Science and Technology Corporation) under a cooperative agreement in order to share fresh and stimulating information as well as accumulated information for the development of advanced nuclear materials, for the design of structural components, etc. In order to create additional values of the system, knowledge base system, in which knowledge extracted from the material database is expressed, is planned to be developed for more effective utilization of Data-Free-Way. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has been adopted as the description method of the retrieved results and the meaning of them. One knowledge note described with XML is stored as one knowledge which composes the knowledge base. Since this knowledge note is described with XML, the user can easily convert the display form of the table and the graph into the data format which the user usually uses. This paper describes the current status of Data-Free-Way, the description method of knowledge extracted from the material database with XML and the distributed material knowledge base system. (author)

  17. Improvement of basal conditions knowledge in Antarctica using data assimilation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbeux, C.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Gagliardini, O.

    2017-12-01

    The current global warming seems to have direct consequences on ice-sheet mass loss. Unfortunately, as highlighted in the last IPCC report, current ice-sheets models face several difficulties in assessing the future evolution of the dynamics of ice sheets for the next century. Indeed, projections are still plagued with high uncertainties partially due to the poor representation of occurring physical processes, but also due to the poor initialisation of ice flow models. More specifically, simulations are very sensitive to initial parameters such as the basal friction between ice-sheet and bedrock and the bedrock topography which are still badly known because of a lack of direct observations or large uncertainty on measurements. Improving the knowledge of these two parameters in Greenland and Antarctica is therefore a prerequisite for making reliable projections. Data assimilation methods have been developed in order to overcome this problem such as the Bayesian approach of Pralong and Gudmundsson (2009) or the adjoint method tested by Goldberg and Heimbach (2013) and Perego et al. (2014). The present work is based on two different assimilation algorithms to better constrain both basal drag and bedrock elevation parameters. The first algorithm is entirely based on the adjoint method while the second one uses an iterative method coupling inversion of basal friction based on an adjoint method and through an inversion of bedrock topography using a nudging method. Both algorithms have been implemented in the finite element ice sheet and ice flow model Elmer/Ice and have been tested in a twin experiment showing a clear improvement of both parameters knowledge (Mosbeux et al., 2016). Here, the methods are applied to a real 3D case in East Antarctica and with an ensemble method approach. The application of both algorithms reduces the uncertainty on basal conditions, for instance by providing more details to the basal geometry when compared to usual DEM. Moreover, as in the

  18. Deducing magnetic resonance neuroimages based on knowledge from samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuwei; Liu, Feng; Fan, Mingxia; Li, Xuzhou; Zhao, Zhiyong; Zeng, Zhaoling; Wang, Yi; Xu, Dongrong

    2017-12-01

    Because individual variance always exists, using the same set of predetermined parameters for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be exactly suitable for each participant. We propose a knowledge-based method that can repair MRI data of undesired contrast as if a new scan were acquired using imaging parameters that had been individually optimized. The method employed a strategy called analogical reasoning to deduce voxel-wise relaxation properties using morphological and biological similarity. The proposed framework involves steps of intensity normalization, tissue segmentation, relaxation time deducing, and image deducing. This approach has been preliminarily validated using conventional MRI data at 3T from several examples, including 5 normal and 9 clinical datasets. It can effectively improve the contrast of real MRI data by deducing imaging data using optimized imaging parameters based on deduced relaxation properties. The statistics of deduced images shows a high correlation with real data that were actually collected using the same set of imaging parameters. The proposed method of deducing MRI data using knowledge of relaxation times alternatively provides a way of repairing MRI data of less optimal contrast. The method is also capable of optimizing an MRI protocol for individual participants, thereby realizing personalized MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "THE KNOWLEDGE TRIANGLE" IN A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rus Mircea-Iosif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge-based society is the stage where mankind is found and aims to raise the living standards of population but also to increase the level of knowledge. To achieve this latter goal, the states of the world, and especially those in the European Union, must ensure an adequate funding for its realization, and therefore in 2011 it was decided at EU level the achievement of an Innovation Union, in which are to be involved all the European countries, while to stimulate and finance research and innovation the Horizon 2020 program was proposed. The results of the Program, an ”Innovation Union” have begun to be felt, so in 2011, the major companies headquartered in the European Union increased their investments in R&D by 8.9% compared to 6.1% in 2010. This increase was almost equal to that of the U.S.A. companies (9%, higher than the world average (7.6% and superior to Japanese companies (1.5%. The sectors that used the research-development activity have tended to have increases in employment above average. I believe this information highlights the fact that the European Union may become attractive for research-development and innovation investments even for businesses outside the UE, and this can result in jobs creation and increasing competitivenees of this field of the states of the European Union. In the introductory part of the article, I have briefly presented general notions of the three component activities of the ”knowledge triangle”, in the second part I presented the knowledge society with several features, in the third part, I showed some provisions of the program to stimulate research and innovation Horizon 2020, in the fourth part, I presented an innovation activity connection to private enterprise and entrepreneurial initiative stimulation in the field innovation, and the conclusions shows that research does not stop with achieving the objectives and finding the outcomes research, but is it the background for further

  20. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  1. Concept maps: A tool for knowledge management and synthesis in web-based conversational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ankur; Singh, Satendra; Jaswal, Shivani; Badyal, Dinesh Kumar; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-01-01

    Web-based conversational learning provides an opportunity for shared knowledge base creation through collaboration and collective wisdom extraction. Usually, the amount of generated information in such forums is very huge, multidimensional (in alignment with the desirable preconditions for constructivist knowledge creation), and sometimes, the nature of expected new information may not be anticipated in advance. Thus, concept maps (crafted from constructed data) as "process summary" tools may be a solution to improve critical thinking and learning by making connections between the facts or knowledge shared by the participants during online discussion This exploratory paper begins with the description of this innovation tried on a web-based interacting platform (email list management software), FAIMER-Listserv, and generated qualitative evidence through peer-feedback. This process description is further supported by a theoretical construct which shows how social constructivism (inclusive of autonomy and complexity) affects the conversational learning. The paper rationalizes the use of concept map as mid-summary tool for extracting information and further sense making out of this apparent intricacy.

  2. Effects of video-based, online education on behavioral and knowledge outcomes in sunscreen use: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Idriss, Nayla Z; Kim, Randie H

    2011-05-01

    To compare online video and pamphlet education at improving patient comprehension and adherence to sunscreen use, and to assess patient satisfaction with the two educational approaches. In a randomized controlled trial, 94 participants received either online, video-based education or pamphlet-based education that described the importance and proper use of sunscreen. Sun protective knowledge and sunscreen application behaviors were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after group-specific intervention. Participants in both groups had similar levels of baseline sunscreen knowledge. Post-study analysis revealed significantly greater improvement in the knowledge scores from video group members compared to the pamphlet group (p=0.003). More importantly, video group participants reported greater sunscreen adherence (peducation vehicle more useful and appealing than the pamphlet group (peducational tool for teaching sun protective knowledge and encouraging sunscreen use than written materials. More effective patient educational methods to encourage sun protection activities, such as regular sunscreen use, have the potential to increase awareness and foster positive, preventative health behaviors against skin cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved performance of maternal-fetal medicine staff after maternal cardiac arrest simulation-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Nelli; Eisen, Lewis A; Bayya, Jyothshna V; Dulu, Alina; Bernstein, Peter S; Merkatz, Irwin R; Goffman, Dena

    2011-09-01

    To determine the impact of simulation-based maternal cardiac arrest training on performance, knowledge, and confidence among Maternal-Fetal Medicine staff. Maternal-Fetal Medicine staff (n = 19) participated in a maternal arrest simulation program. Based on evaluation of performance during initial simulations, an intervention was designed including: basic life support course, advanced cardiac life support pregnancy modification lecture, and simulation practice. Postintervention evaluative simulations were performed. All simulations included a knowledge test, confidence survey, and debriefing. A checklist with 9 pregnancy modification (maternal) and 16 critical care (25 total) tasks was used for scoring. Postintervention scores reflected statistically significant improvement. Maternal-Fetal Medicine staff demonstrated statistically significant improvement in timely initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (120 vs 32 seconds, P = .042) and cesarean delivery (240 vs 159 seconds, P = .017). Prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiation and pregnancy modifications application are critical in maternal and fetal survival during cardiac arrest. Simulation is a useful tool for Maternal-Fetal Medicine staff to improve skills, knowledge, and confidence in the management of this catastrophic event. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  4. Knowledge-based reasoning in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time tactical decision generation system for air combat engagements, Paladin, has been developed. A pilot's job in air combat includes tasks that are largely symbolic. These symbolic tasks are generally performed through the application of experience and training (i.e. knowledge) gathered over years of flying a fighter aircraft. Two such tasks, situation assessment and throttle control, are identified and broken out in Paladin to be handled by specialized knowledge based systems. Knowledge pertaining to these tasks is encoded into rule-bases to provide the foundation for decisions. Paladin uses a custom built inference engine and a partitioned rule-base structure to give these symbolic results in real-time. This paper provides an overview of knowledge-based reasoning systems as a subset of rule-based systems. The knowledge used by Paladin in generating results as well as the system design for real-time execution is discussed.

  5. From science to action: Principles for undertaking environmental research that enables knowledge exchange and evidence-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanovic, C; McDonald, J; Hobday, A J

    2016-12-01

    Effective conservation requires knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to enable learning and support evidence-based decision-making. Efforts to improve knowledge exchange have been hindered by a paucity of empirically-grounded guidance to help scientists and practitioners design and implement research programs that actively facilitate knowledge exchange. To address this, we evaluated the Ningaloo Research Program (NRP), which was designed to generate new scientific knowledge to support evidence-based decisions about the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Specifically, we evaluated (1) outcomes of the NRP, including the extent to which new knowledge informed management decisions; (2) the barriers that prevented knowledge exchange among scientists and managers; (3) the key requirements for improving knowledge exchange processes in the future; and (4) the core capacities that are required to support knowledge exchange processes. While the NRP generated expansive and multidisciplinary science outputs directly relevant to the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park, decision-makers are largely unaware of this knowledge and little has been integrated into decision-making processes. A range of barriers prevented efficient and effective knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers including cultural differences among the groups, institutional barriers within decision-making agencies, scientific outputs that were not translated for decision-makers and poor alignment between research design and actual knowledge needs. We identify a set of principles to be implemented routinely as part of any applied research program, including; (i) stakeholder mapping prior to the commencement of research programs to identify all stakeholders, (ii) research questions to be co-developed with stakeholders, (iii) implementation of participatory research approaches, (iv) use of a knowledge broker, and (v) tailored knowledge management

  6. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  7. Knowledge bases for modelisation of industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorre, J.P.; Evrard, J.M.; Dorlet, E.

    1992-01-01

    Our experience in the development of numerous knowledge based control systems for large industrial applications has led us to the expression of a generic problem and to the implementation of the tools to address it. This paper illustrates, with different practical examples that we have encountered, the principal concepts found in the modelling and management of large industrial knowledge bases. We thus arrive at the definition of the formalism to be used. The principles described are now integrated into the tool SPIRAL and are currently being employed in the development of several applications

  8. Knowledge and knowledge bases in the learning process og polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    strategies of which are analysed and compared. These strategies have much in common and can be seen as quite successful. Some common problems also exist in relation to mismatches within and between the different knowledge bases. The differences are none the less interesting to consider. They are due......The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation. The point of departure is the development of a theoretical framework dealing innovation, knowledge and learning. The case is two manufacturing companies in Poland, the learning...

  9. The Coming of Knowledge-Based Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stan; Botkin, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth will come from knowledge-based businesses whose "smart" products filter and interpret information. Businesses will come to think of themselves as educators and their customers as learners. (SK)

  10. Towards product design automation based on parameterized standard model with diversiform knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-04-01

    Product standardization based on CAD software is an effective way to improve design efficiency. In the past, research and development on standardization mainly focused on the level of component, and the standardization of the entire product as a whole is rarely taken into consideration. In this paper, the size and structure of 3D product models are both driven by the Excel datasheets, based on which a parameterized model library is therefore established. Diversiform knowledge including associated parameters and default properties are embedded into the templates in advance to simplify their reuse. Through the simple operation, we can obtain the correct product with the finished 3D models including single parts or complex assemblies. Two examples are illustrated later to invalid the idea, which will greatly improve the design efficiency.

  11. A knowledge-based system for prototypical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieto, Antonio; Minieri, Andrea; Piana, Alberto; Radicioni, Daniele P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a knowledge-based system equipped with a hybrid, cognitively inspired architecture for the representation of conceptual information. The proposed system aims at extending the classical representational and reasoning capabilities of the ontology-based frameworks towards the realm of the prototype theory. It is based on a hybrid knowledge base, composed of a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal ontology) with a typicality based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The resulting system attempts to reconcile the heterogeneous approach to the concepts in Cognitive Science with the dual process theories of reasoning and rationality. The system has been experimentally assessed in a conceptual categorisation task where common sense linguistic descriptions were given in input, and the corresponding target concepts had to be identified. The results show that the proposed solution substantially extends the representational and reasoning 'conceptual' capabilities of standard ontology-based systems.

  12. IGENPRO knowledge-based digital system for process transient diagnostics and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J.A.; Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Applequist, C.A.; Hippely, P.; Kuk, W.; Tsoukalas, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    Verification and validation issues have been perceived as important factors in the large scale deployment of knowledge-based digital systems for plant transient diagnostics and management. Research and development (R and D) is being performed on the IGENPRO package to resolve knowledge base issues. The IGENPRO approach is to structure the knowledge bases on generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first principles and not use the conventional event-basis structure. This allows for generic comprehensive knowledge, relatively small knowledge bases and above all the possibility of T-H system/plant independence. To demonstrate concept feasibility the knowledge structure has been implemented in the diagnostic module PRODIAG. Promising laboratory testing results have been obtained using data from the full scope Braidwood PWR operator training simulator. This knowledge structure is now being implemented in the transient management module PROMANA to treat unanticipated events and the PROTREN module is being developed to process actual plant data. Achievement of the IGENPRO R and D goals should contribute to the acceptance of knowledge-based digital systems for transient diagnostics and management. (author)

  13. IGENPRO knowledge-based digital system for process transient diagnostics and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J.A.; Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1997-01-01

    Verification and validation issues have been perceived as important factors in the large scale deployment of knowledge-based digital systems for plant transient diagnostics and management. Research and development (R ampersand D) is being performed on the IGENPRO package to resolve knowledge base issues. The IGENPRO approach is to structure the knowledge bases on generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first principles and not use the conventional event-basis structure. This allows for generic comprehensive knowledge, relatively small knowledge bases and above all the possibility of T-H system/plant independence. To demonstrate concept feasibility the knowledge structure has been implemented in the diagnostic module PRODIAG. Promising laboratory testing results have been obtained using data from the full scope Braidwood PWR operator training simulator. This knowledge structure is now being implemented in the transient management module PROMANA to treat unanticipated events and the PROTREN module is being developed to process actual plant data. Achievement of the IGENPRO R ampersand D goals should contribute to the acceptance of knowledge-based digital systems for transient diagnostics and management

  14. The Implementation of Integrated Natural Science Textbook of Junior High School be Charged on Character-based Shared Models to Improve the Competence of Learners' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmiwati, S.; Ratnawulan; Yohandri

    2018-04-01

    The process of science learning can take place if there is an attempt to create an active learning atmosphere and can improve the knowledge competence of learners. One of the efforts made is to use learning resources. Textbooks are a learning resource used by learners. This study aims to describe the increase of knowledge’s competence of learners with integrated Natural Science (IPA) textbook of Junior High School (SMP) be charged on character-based shared model. The method used pre-test, post-test design with one group using the class as a research subject. Pre-test was given before treatment to measure student’s initial understanding of the problem, while the post-test was given to measure student’s final understanding.The subject of this research is students of class VII SMP N 13 Padang. Result of gain score is 0,73. The result showed competence student’s knowledge increased significantly and high categorized.

  15. Constructing and Refining Knowledge Bases: A Collaborative Apprenticeship Multistrategy Learning Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tecuci, Gheorghe

    2000-01-01

    This research has developed a theory, methodology and learning agent shell for development of knowledge bases and knowledge-based agents, by domain experts, with limited assistance from knowledge engineers...

  16. Development of a Knowledge Base for Enduser Consultation of AAL-Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, Natalie; Stork, Wilhelm; Rosales, Bruno; Stephan, René; Knaup, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Manufacturer information, user experiences and product availability of assistive living technologies are usually not known to citizens or consultation centers. The different knowledge levels concerning the availability of technology shows the need for building up a knowledge base. The aim of this contribution is the definition of requirements in the development of knowledge bases for AAL consultations. The major requirements, such as a maintainable and easy to use structure were implemented into a web based knowledge base, which went productive in ~3700 consulting interviews of municipal technology information centers. Within this field phase the implementation of the requirements for a knowledge base in the field of AAL consulting was evaluated and further developed.

  17. Knowledge-based interpretation of cranial MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, M.H.; Menhardt, W.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized system is described that can be used to evaluate an MR tomogram automatically to support clinical identification of anatomic and pathologic structures and to aid in planning MR measurements. Knowledge from three domains is used for the interpretation of an MR image: nosologic knowledge, knowledge of MR imaging parameters, and anatomic and morphologic knowledge. Nosologic information is used to generate hypotheses about possible pathologies and their locations, based on the signs and symptoms of the patient. With this information, a sequence of interpretation modules, each able to detect substructures in already detected structures with the aid of techniques from image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence, is generated and executed

  18. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  19. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  20. User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    ’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples......In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies...

  1. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenaus, T.

    2017-10-01

    HEP software today is a rich and diverse domain in itself and exists within the mushrooming world of open source software. As HEP software developers and users we can be more productive and effective if our work and our choices are informed by a good knowledge of what others in our community have created or found useful. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base, hepsoftware.org, was created to facilitate this by serving as a collection point and information exchange on software projects and products, services, training, computing facilities, and relating them to the projects, experiments, organizations and science domains that offer them or use them. It was created as a contribution to the HEP Software Foundation, for which a HEP S&C knowledge base was a much requested early deliverable. This contribution will motivate and describe the system, what it offers, its content and contributions both existing and needed, and its implementation (node.js based web service and javascript client app) which has emphasized ease of use for both users and contributors.

  2. Teacher leadership in mathematics and science: Subject content knowledge and the improvement of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Christopher M.

    This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence

  3. Analytical Features: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Audio Feature Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachet François

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feature generation system designed to create audio features for supervised classification tasks. The main contribution to feature generation studies is the notion of analytical features (AFs, a construct designed to support the representation of knowledge about audio signal processing. We describe the most important aspects of AFs, in particular their dimensional type system, on which are based pattern-based random generators, heuristics, and rewriting rules. We show how AFs generalize or improve previous approaches used in feature generation. We report on several projects using AFs for difficult audio classification tasks, demonstrating their advantage over standard audio features. More generally, we propose analytical features as a paradigm to bring raw signals into the world of symbolic computation.

  4. Knowledge-based Fragment Binding Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Grace W.; Altman, Russ B.

    2014-01-01

    Target-based drug discovery must assess many drug-like compounds for potential activity. Focusing on low-molecular-weight compounds (fragments) can dramatically reduce the chemical search space. However, approaches for determining protein-fragment interactions have limitations. Experimental assays are time-consuming, expensive, and not always applicable. At the same time, computational approaches using physics-based methods have limited accuracy. With increasing high-resolution structural data for protein-ligand complexes, there is now an opportunity for data-driven approaches to fragment binding prediction. We present FragFEATURE, a machine learning approach to predict small molecule fragments preferred by a target protein structure. We first create a knowledge base of protein structural environments annotated with the small molecule substructures they bind. These substructures have low-molecular weight and serve as a proxy for fragments. FragFEATURE then compares the structural environments within a target protein to those in the knowledge base to retrieve statistically preferred fragments. It merges information across diverse ligands with shared substructures to generate predictions. Our results demonstrate FragFEATURE's ability to rediscover fragments corresponding to the ligand bound with 74% precision and 82% recall on average. For many protein targets, it identifies high scoring fragments that are substructures of known inhibitors. FragFEATURE thus predicts fragments that can serve as inputs to fragment-based drug design or serve as refinement criteria for creating target-specific compound libraries for experimental or computational screening. PMID:24762971

  5. Two-dimensional knowledge-based volumetric reconstruction of the right ventricle documents short-term improvement in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Johannes P; Knight, Daniel S; Kaier, Thomas; Gallimore, Adele; Denton, Christopher P; Schreiber, Benjamin E; Handler, Clive; Coghlan, John G

    2017-06-01

    Data are scarce about short-term right ventricular changes in pulmonary hypertension. Two-dimensional knowledge-based reconstruction of the right ventricle with 2D echocardiography (2DKBR) has been shown to be a valid alternative to Cardiac MRI. In this longitudinal study 25 pulmonary hypertension patients underwent 2DKBR of the right ventricle, assessment of NT-proBNP levels and functional class at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 6.1 months. Patients were followed up clinically for a further mean of 8.2 months. The majority of patients had connective tissue disease (CTD) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=15) or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH; n=6). A total of 15 patients underwent an intervention, either new targeted therapy, escalation of targeted therapy or pulmonary endarterectomy. A total of 10 clinically stable patients were routinely followed up without any change in therapy. There were significant improvements in the right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (111±29 mL/m² vs 100±36 mL/m²; P=.038), end-systolic volume index (72±23 mL/m² vs 61±25 mL/m²; P=.001), and ejection fraction (35±10% vs 40±9%; P=.030). Changes in NT-proBNP levels correlated strongest with changes in end-systolic volume index (r=-.77; P=right ventricle was associated with clinical worsening. In a CTD and CTEPH dominated patient population significant reverse remodeling and improvement of ejection fraction occurred despite a short follow-up and was paralleled by significant changes in NT-proBNP levels. Further right ventricular dilatation was associated with worse clinical outcome. 2DKBR is a feasible substitute for Cardiac MRI to follow-up right ventricular indices in pulmonary hypertension. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Identification of Managerial Competencies in Knowledge-based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Königová Martina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Managerial competencies identification and development are important tools of human resources management that is aimed at achieving strategic organizational goals. Due to current dynamic development and changes, more and more attention is being paid to the personality of managers and their competencies, since they are viewed as important sources of achieving a competitive advantage. The objective of this article is to identify managerial competencies in the process of filling vacant working positions in knowledge-based organizations in the Czech Republic. The objective was determined with reference to the Czech Science Foundation GACR research project which focuses on the identification of managerial competencies in knowledge-based organizations in the Czech Republic. This identification within the frame of the research project is primarily designed and subsequently realised on the basis of content analysis of media communications such as advertisements - a means through which knowledge- based organizations search for suitable candidates for vacant managerial positions. The first part of the article deals with theoretical approaches to knowledge-based organizations and issues on competencies. The second part evaluates the outcomes of the survey carried out, and also summarizes the basic steps of the application of competencies. The final part summarizes the benefits and difficulties of applying the competency-based approach as a tool of efficient management of organizations for the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage.

  7. Placing people in the same room is not enough: An interprofessional education intervention to improve collaborative knowledge of people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Christian

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates a continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) intervention designed to improve the skills and knowledge related to managing people with disabilities (PWD) in the educational, healthcare, and social insurance systems, and to improve shared knowledge and promote inter-organisational collaboration. The intervention comprised both on-site and online courses where participants could design their own curriculum based on their perceived needs. A longitudinal survey study was conducted with questions about knowledge of other organisations' work with PWD, knowledge concerning disability policies, competence in meeting PWD, shared values across organisations, and inter-organisational collaboration. Participants' knowledge about disability, disability policy, and how other organisations work with PWD significantly increased after the intervention. Changes in shared values, attitude towards inter-organisational collaboration, or effects on actual collaboration could not be determined. The results suggest that CIPE interventions where participants are allowed to form customised curriculums may increase general knowledge about disability among professionals. Results on knowledge of and collaboration with other organisations were less conclusive, where this may be explained by an educational setting that included little interaction between course participants. To promote professional exchange and experiential learning activities, contextualized educational settings that place more focus on interaction between participants may be advised.

  8. Semantic computing and language knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Houfeng; Yu, Shiwen

    2017-09-01

    As the proposition of the next-generation Web - semantic Web, semantic computing has been drawing more and more attention within the circle and the industries. A lot of research has been conducted on the theory and methodology of the subject, and potential applications have also been investigated and proposed in many fields. The progress of semantic computing made so far cannot be detached from its supporting pivot - language resources, for instance, language knowledge bases. This paper proposes three perspectives of semantic computing from a macro view and describes the current status of affairs about the construction of language knowledge bases and the related research and applications that have been carried out on the basis of these resources via a case study in the Institute of Computational Linguistics at Peking University.

  9. Knowledge Governance in Project-Based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna; Müller, Ralf

    This paper conceptualizes knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs) and its methodological approaches for empirical investigation. Three key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced. These contributions include a defini......This paper conceptualizes knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs) and its methodological approaches for empirical investigation. Three key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced. These contributions include...... a definition of KG in PBOs, a conceptual framework to investigate KG and a methodological framework for empirical inquiry into KG in PBO settings. Our definition highlights the contingent nature of KG processes in relation to their organizational context. The conceptual framework addresses macro- and micro...

  10. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGEBASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  11. Knowledge-based simulation using object-oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoran, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations have become a powerful mechanism for understanding and modeling complex phenomena. Their results have had substantial impact on a broad range of decisions in the military, government, and industry. Because of this, new techniques are continually being explored and developed to make them even more useful, understandable, extendable, and efficient. One such area of research is the application of the knowledge-based methods of artificial intelligence (AI) to the computer simulation field. The goal of knowledge-based simulation is to facilitate building simulations of greatly increased power and comprehensibility by making use of deeper knowledge about the behavior of the simulated world. One technique for representing and manipulating knowledge that has been enhanced by the AI community is object-oriented programming. Using this technique, the entities of a discrete-event simulation can be viewed as objects in an object-oriented formulation. Knowledge can be factual (i.e., attributes of an entity) or behavioral (i.e., how the entity is to behave in certain circumstances). Rome Laboratory's Advanced Simulation Environment (RASE) was developed as a research vehicle to provide an enhanced simulation development environment for building more intelligent, interactive, flexible, and realistic simulations. This capability will support current and future battle management research and provide a test of the object-oriented paradigm for use in large scale military applications.

  12. DECK: Distance and environment-dependent, coarse-grained, knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakser Ilya A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational approaches to protein-protein docking typically include scoring aimed at improving the rank of the near-native structure relative to the false-positive matches. Knowledge-based potentials improve modeling of protein complexes by taking advantage of the rapidly increasing amount of experimentally derived information on protein-protein association. An essential element of knowledge-based potentials is defining the reference state for an optimal description of the residue-residue (or atom-atom pairs in the non-interaction state. Results The study presents a new Distance- and Environment-dependent, Coarse-grained, Knowledge-based (DECK potential for scoring of protein-protein docking predictions. Training sets of protein-protein matches were generated based on bound and unbound forms of proteins taken from the DOCKGROUND resource. Each residue was represented by a pseudo-atom in the geometric center of the side chain. To capture the long-range and the multi-body interactions, residues in different secondary structure elements at protein-protein interfaces were considered as different residue types. Five reference states for the potentials were defined and tested. The optimal reference state was selected and the cutoff effect on the distance-dependent potentials investigated. The potentials were validated on the docking decoys sets, showing better performance than the existing potentials used in scoring of protein-protein docking results. Conclusions A novel residue-based statistical potential for protein-protein docking was developed and validated on docking decoy sets. The results show that the scoring function DECK can successfully identify near-native protein-protein matches and thus is useful in protein docking. In addition to the practical application of the potentials, the study provides insights into the relative utility of the reference states, the scope of the distance dependence, and the coarse-graining of

  13. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process.

  14. Improved microarray-based decision support with graph encoded interactome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneleen Daemen

    Full Text Available In the past, microarray studies have been criticized due to noise and the limited overlap between gene signatures. Prior biological knowledge should therefore be incorporated as side information in models based on gene expression data to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis in cancer. As prior knowledge, we investigated interaction and pathway information from the human interactome on different aspects of biological systems. By exploiting the properties of kernel methods, relations between genes with similar functions but active in alternative pathways could be incorporated in a support vector machine classifier based on spectral graph theory. Using 10 microarray data sets, we first reduced the number of data sources relevant for multiple cancer types and outcomes. Three sources on metabolic pathway information (KEGG, protein-protein interactions (OPHID and miRNA-gene targeting (microRNA.org outperformed the other sources with regard to the considered class of models. Both fixed and adaptive approaches were subsequently considered to combine the three corresponding classifiers. Averaging the predictions of these classifiers performed best and was significantly better than the model based on microarray data only. These results were confirmed on 6 validation microarray sets, with a significantly improved performance in 4 of them. Integrating interactome data thus improves classification of cancer outcome for the investigated microarray technologies and cancer types. Moreover, this strategy can be incorporated in any kernel method or non-linear version of a non-kernel method.

  15. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  16. Presentation planning using an integrated knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Yigal; Miller, Lawrence; Sondheimer, Norman

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of user interface research aimed at bringing together multiple input and output modes in a way that handles mixed mode input (commands, menus, forms, natural language), interacts with a diverse collection of underlying software utilities in a uniform way, and presents the results through a combination of output modes including natural language text, maps, charts and graphs. The system, Integrated Interfaces, derives much of its ability to interact uniformly with the user and the underlying services and to build its presentations, from the information present in a central knowledge base. This knowledge base integrates models of the application domain (Navy ships in the Pacific region, in the current demonstration version); the structure of visual displays and their graphical features; the underlying services (data bases and expert systems); and interface functions. The emphasis is on a presentation planner that uses the knowledge base to produce multi-modal output. There has been a flurry of recent work in user interface management systems. (Several recent examples are listed in the references). Existing work is characterized by an attempt to relieve the software designer of the burden of handcrafting an interface for each application. The work has generally focused on intelligently handling input. This paper deals with the other end of the pipeline - presentations.

  17. A knowledge-based approach for recognition of handwritten Pitman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a knowledge-based approach for the recognition of PSL strokes. Information about location and the direction of the starting point and final point of strokes are considered the knowledge base for recognition of strokes. The work comprises preprocessing, determination of starting and final points, ...

  18. Formal Support for Development of Knowledge-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Reif, Wolfgang; Ten Teije, Annette

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an approach for developing reliable knowledge-based systems. Its main contributions are: Specification is done at an architectural level that abstracts from a specific implementation formalism. The model of expertise of CommonKADS distinguishs different types of knowledge and

  19. [Preparation and effect of a behavioral science-based education program for sleep improvement among medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masumi; Adachi, Yoshiko; Hayama, Junko; Yamagami, Toshiko

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate a simple education program that is effective for sleep improvement among medical students who will be medical doctors in the future. The education program applied in the present study was developed for sleep improvement based on behavioral science and changes in knowledge and sleeping habits were observed. Subjects were 6th-year medical students of 2002 and 2003. Students of 2002 attended a program including a 90-minute lecture and a 2-week practice learning session, and students of 2003 attended only the lecture. In the lecture, behavior therapy for chronic insomnia was explained using a booklet. In the practice learning session, students set a target behavior for improvement and conducted self-monitoring of their sleep and the targeted behavior. Changes in knowledge about sleep, attitude toward the therapy, sleep, and sleep-related habits were observed and compared between the 2 groups of subjects immediately and 2-weeks after the lecture. It was found that after both programs subjects had more knowledge about sleep than before. In the program including practice learning session, subjects' attitude for managing patients changed from before the lecture to after the lecture, and after the practice learning session. It was found that more than half of the students thought that they could provide sleep guidance based on the behavior therapy. Regarding the subjects' sleep, significant improvements were observed for "having nightmares upon falling asleep," "sleepiness during daytime," "sense of getting a sound sleep," and "mood upon waking up." Regarding sleep-related habits, significant improvements were observed for "taking a nap," "dozing off," and "eating breakfast." On the other hand, only the lecture subjects improved irregularity of bedtime and sleeping time. Although an increase in knowledge and improvement of sleep were observed among students who attended only the lecture, a further increase in knowledge and improvement

  20. Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness of Knowledge Exchange between Knowledge Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Information technology increasingly influences the way we work and live. Contemporary businesses demonstrate significant concerns on how increasing amounts of available information can be converted into knowledge. An increasing need for new knowledge concerning the development of new services which

  1. A selective review of knowledge-based approaches to database design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Azman Noah

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of real world knowledge or specialised knowledge has not been addressed by the majority of the systems reviewed. ODA has real world knowledge provided by using a thesaurus-type structure to represent generic models. Only NITDT includes the specialised knowledge in its knowledge base. NITDT classified its knowledge into application specific, domain specific and general knowledge. However the literature does not discuss in detail how this knowledge is applied during the design session. One of the key factors that distinguish computer-based expert systems from human experts is that the latter apply not only their specialised expertise to a problem but also their general knowledge of the world. NITDT is the only system reviewed here that holds any form of internal domain specific knowledge, which can be easily augmented, enriched and updated, as required. This knowledge allows the designer to be an active participant along with the user in the design process and significantly eases the user task. The inclusion of real world knowledge and specialised knowledge is an area that must be further addressed before intelligent tools are able to offer a realistic level of assistance to the human designers.

  2. Knowledge-Based Reinforcement Learning for Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudenko, Daniel; Grzes, Marek

    experts have developed heuristics that help them in planning and scheduling resources in their work place. However, this domain knowledge is often rough and incomplete. When the domain knowledge is used directly by an automated expert system, the solutions are often sub-optimal, due to the incompleteness of the knowledge, the uncertainty of environments, and the possibility to encounter unexpected situations. RL, on the other hand, can overcome the weaknesses of the heuristic domain knowledge and produce optimal solutions. In the talk we propose two techniques, which represent first steps in the area of knowledge-based RL (KBRL). The first technique [1] uses high-level STRIPS operator knowledge in reward shaping to focus the search for the optimal policy. Empirical results show that the plan-based reward shaping approach outperforms other RL techniques, including alternative manual and MDP-based reward shaping when it is used in its basic form. We showed that MDP-based reward shaping may fail and successful experiments with STRIPS-based shaping suggest modifications which can overcome encountered problems. The STRIPSbased method we propose allows expressing the same domain knowledge in a different way and the domain expert can choose whether to define an MDP or STRIPS planning task. We also evaluated the robustness of the proposed STRIPS-based technique to errors in the plan knowledge. In case that STRIPS knowledge is not available, we propose a second technique [2] that shapes the reward with hierarchical tile coding. Where the Q-function is represented with low-level tile coding, a V-function with coarser tile coding can be learned in parallel and used to approximate the potential for ground states. In the context of data mining, our KBRL approaches can also be used for any data collection task where the acquisition of data may incur considerable cost. In addition, observing the data collection agent in specific scenarios may lead to new insights into optimal data

  3. A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoda, H.; Yamada, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis is proposed in which both event-oriented and function-oriented knowledge are used. For the proposed system to be of practical use, these two types of knowledge are represented by mutually nested four frames, i.e. the component, causality, criteriality, and simulator frames, and production rules. The system provides fast inference capability for use as both a production system and a formal reasoning system, with uncertainty of knowledge taken into account in the former. Event-oriented knowledge is used in both diagnosis and guidance and function-oriented knowledge, in diagnosis only. The inference capability required is forward chaining in the former and resolution in the latter. The causality frame guides in the use of event-oriented knowledge, whereas the criteriality frame does so for function-oriented knowledge. Feedback nature of the plant requires the best first search algorithm that uses histories in the resolution process. The inference program is written in Lisp and the plant simulator and the process I/O control programs in Fortran. Fast data transfer between these two languages is realized by enhancing the memory management capability of Lisp to control the numerical data in the global memory. Simulation applications to a BWR plant demonstrated its diagnostic capability

  4. A knowledge base system for multidisciplinary model-based water management, Summit on Environmentel Modelling and Software, 3rd Biennial meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, Burlington, Vermont, USA, July 9-12, 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassahun, A.; Scholten, H.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the quality of multidisciplinary model-based water management studies and provide guidance on best practices, a user-friendly guidance and quality assurance knowledge-based system has been built within the EU funded HarmoniQuA project. The knowledge base system provides experts and

  5. Improvement of NPP training to ensure a transfer of critical knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaisnys, P.; Bieth, M.; Kosilov, A.; Lipar, M.

    2007-01-01

    , training hours, etc.) and does not consider the quality of training delivered. Common issu e at the majority of nuclear power plants is the training of plant managers. Training programs for managers and supervisors are not always differentiated to focus on the competencies needed for particular jobs or levels of management. In many nuclear facilities there is a lack of formal programme to give all management and supervisory staff the full range of supervisory skills required to effectively manage the plant. Some managerial elements are missing in the training programmes, in particular, knowledge retention and transfer issues, the observation skills and identification of human performance deficiencies. The information presented in the paper may be useful for the managers of the nuclear utilities and power plants to benefit from the experience of nuclear industry in the proper management of human resources to ensure the proper qualification of personnel and preservation of nuclear knowledge and experience for the sake of safe operation of nuclear utilities. The additional objective of the paper is to attract the attention of the nuclear industry to the IAEA OSMIR Data Base where the vast information on the subject is accumulated. The issues associated with knowledge transfer and personnel competencies identified by the OSARTs as well as the best practices in this area may serve as a good support in the development of training and knowledge management programmes for new nuclear facilities and improvement of the training programmes for nuclear facilities under operation. (author)

  6. Integrated knowledge base tool for acquisition and verification of NPP alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and knowledge base verification are important activities in developing knowledge-based systems such as alarm processing systems. In this work, we developed the integrated tool, for knowledge acquisition and verification of NPP alarm processing systems, by using G2 tool. The tool integrates document analysis method and ECPN matrix analysis method, for knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification, respectively. This tool enables knowledge engineers to perform their tasks from knowledge acquisition to knowledge verification consistently

  7. Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students' knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Silmara; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Furquim de Andrade, Claudia Regina

    2013-02-25

    Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students' prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students' performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students' short and long-term knowledge retention.

  8. A knowledge-base verification of NPP expert systems using extended Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Won; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    The verification phase of knowledge base is an important part for developing reliable expert systems, especially in nuclear industry. Although several strategies or tools have been developed to perform potential error checking, they often neglect the reliability of verification methods. Because a Petri net provides a uniform mathematical formalization of knowledge base, it has been employed for knowledge base verification. In this work, we devise and suggest an automated tool, called COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net), for detecting incorrectness, inconsistency, and incompleteness in a knowledge base. The scope of the verification problem is expanded to chained errors, unlike previous studies that assumed error incidence to be limited to rule pairs only. In addition, we consider certainty factor in checking, because most of knowledge bases have certainty factors

  9. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  10. An experiential approach to improving the integration of knowledge during EIA in transport planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: julio.soria-lara@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Transport Research Unit, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    The integration of knowledge from stakeholders and the public at large is seen as one of the biggest process-related barriers during the scoping phase of EIA application in transport planning. While the academic literature offers abundant analyses, discussions and suggestions how to overcome this problem, the proposed solutions are yet to be adequately tested in practice. In order to address this gap, we test the effectiveness of a set of interventions and trigger mechanisms for improving different aspects of knowledge integration. The interventions are tested in an experiential study with two sequential cases, representing “close-to-real-life” conditions, in the context of two cities in Andalusia, Spain. In general terms, the participants perceived that the integration of knowledge improved during the simulation of the EIA scoping phase. Certain shortcomings were also discussed, fundamentally related to how the time spent during the scoping phase was crucial to lead an effective learning process between the involved people. The study concludes with a reflection on the effectiveness of the tested interventions according to similarities and differences obtained from the two experiential case studies, as well as with a discussion of the potential to generate new knowledge through the use of experiential studies in EIA practice. - Highlights: • It tests a set of interventions and mechanisms to improve the integration of knowledge. • The scoping phase of EIA is simulated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. • Two sequential case studies are used.

  11. An experiential approach to improving the integration of knowledge during EIA in transport planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A.; Bertolini, Luca; Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2016-01-01

    The integration of knowledge from stakeholders and the public at large is seen as one of the biggest process-related barriers during the scoping phase of EIA application in transport planning. While the academic literature offers abundant analyses, discussions and suggestions how to overcome this problem, the proposed solutions are yet to be adequately tested in practice. In order to address this gap, we test the effectiveness of a set of interventions and trigger mechanisms for improving different aspects of knowledge integration. The interventions are tested in an experiential study with two sequential cases, representing “close-to-real-life” conditions, in the context of two cities in Andalusia, Spain. In general terms, the participants perceived that the integration of knowledge improved during the simulation of the EIA scoping phase. Certain shortcomings were also discussed, fundamentally related to how the time spent during the scoping phase was crucial to lead an effective learning process between the involved people. The study concludes with a reflection on the effectiveness of the tested interventions according to similarities and differences obtained from the two experiential case studies, as well as with a discussion of the potential to generate new knowledge through the use of experiential studies in EIA practice. - Highlights: • It tests a set of interventions and mechanisms to improve the integration of knowledge. • The scoping phase of EIA is simulated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. • Two sequential case studies are used.

  12. Proximity and Distance in Knowledge Relationships : From Micro to Structural Considerations based on Territorial Knowledge Dynamics (TKDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespo, Joan; Vicente, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Crespo J. and Vicente J. Proximity and distance in knowledge relationships: from micro to structural considerations based on territorial knowledge dynamics (TKDs), Regional Studies. Among the key parameters identified in territorial knowledge dynamics (TKDs), this paper focuses on the balance and

  13. Knowledge base technology: a developer view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ginkul

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In present paper we have endeavoured to tell about some reasonings, conclusions and pricticals results, to which we have come being busy with one of most interesting problems of modern science. This paper is a brief report of the group of scientists from the Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence Systems about their experience of work in the field of knowledge engineering. The researches in this area was started in our Laboratory more than 10 years ago, i.e. about in the moment, when there was just another rise in Artificial Intelligence, caused by mass emerging of expert systems. The tasks of knowledge engineering were being varied, and focal point of our researches was being varied too. Certainly, we have not solved all the problems, originating in this area. Our knowledge still has an approximate nature, but nevertheless, the outcomes obtained by us seem rather important and interesting. So, we want to tell about our experience in building of knowledge-based systems, and expert systems, in particular.

  14. Knowledge based systems for intelligent robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the construction of large space platforms, such as space stations, has to be carried out in the outer space environment. As it is extremely expensive to support human workers in space for large periods, the only feasible solution appears to be related to the development and deployment of highly capable robots for most of the tasks. Robots for space applications will have to possess characteristics which are very different from those needed by robots in industry. The present investigation is concerned with the needs of space robotics and the technologies which can be of assistance to meet these needs, giving particular attention to knowledge bases. 'Intelligent' robots are required for the solution of arising problems. The collection of facts and rules needed for accomplishing such solutions form the 'knowledge base' of the system.

  15. An Ebola virus-centered knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R.; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae viruses, is a NIAID category A, lethal human pathogen. It is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is a severe hemorrhagic fever and has a cumulative death rate of 41% in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. There is an ever-increasing need to consolidate and make available all the knowledge that we possess on EBOV, even if it is conflicting or incomplete. This would enable biomedical researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and help develop tools for efficient diagnosis and effective treatment. In this article, we present our approach for the development of an Ebola virus-centered Knowledge Base (Ebola-KB) using Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies. We retrieve and aggregate knowledge from several open data sources, web services and biomedical ontologies. This knowledge is transformed to RDF, linked to the Bio2RDF datasets and made available through a SPARQL 1.1 Endpoint. Ebola-KB can also be explored using an interactive Dashboard visualizing the different perspectives of this integrated knowledge. We showcase how different competency questions, asked by domain users researching the druggability of EBOV, can be formulated as SPARQL Queries or answered using the Ebola-KB Dashboard. Database URL: http://ebola.semanticscience.org. PMID:26055098

  16. An Ebola virus-centered knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae viruses, is a NIAID category A, lethal human pathogen. It is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is a severe hemorrhagic fever and has a cumulative death rate of 41% in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. There is an ever-increasing need to consolidate and make available all the knowledge that we possess on EBOV, even if it is conflicting or incomplete. This would enable biomedical researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and help develop tools for efficient diagnosis and effective treatment. In this article, we present our approach for the development of an Ebola virus-centered Knowledge Base (Ebola-KB) using Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies. We retrieve and aggregate knowledge from several open data sources, web services and biomedical ontologies. This knowledge is transformed to RDF, linked to the Bio2RDF datasets and made available through a SPARQL 1.1 Endpoint. Ebola-KB can also be explored using an interactive Dashboard visualizing the different perspectives of this integrated knowledge. We showcase how different competency questions, asked by domain users researching the druggability of EBOV, can be formulated as SPARQL Queries or answered using the Ebola-KB Dashboard. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Causal knowledge and reasoning in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagmayer, Y.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Normative causal decision theories argue that people should use their causal knowledge in decision making. Based on these ideas, we argue that causal knowledge and reasoning may support and thereby potentially improve decision making based on expected outcomes, narratives, and even cues. We will

  18. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  19. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  20. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  1. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A striking feature of the knowledge management (KM literature is that the standard list of KM processes either subsumes or overlooks the process of knowledge seeking. Knowledge seeking is manifestly under-theorised, making the need to address this gap in KM theory and practice clear and urgent.Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking.Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies.Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing.Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies. 

  2. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY): impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lindsay A; Huisingh, Carrie E; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) telemedicine program on at-risk patients' knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY. New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE) at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients' CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2-4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar's test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized. At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions). Those who were unemployed (odds ratio =0.63, 95% confidence interval =0.42-0.95, P=0.026) or had lower education (odds ratio =0.55, 95% confidence interval =0.29-1.02, P=0.058) were less likely to improve their knowledge after adjusting for age, sex, race, and prior glaucoma diagnosis. This association was attenuated after further adjustment for other patient-level characteristics. Ninety-eight percent (n=501) of patients reported being likely to have a CEE within the next 2 years, whereas 63% (n=326) had a CEE in the previous 2 years. Patient satisfaction with EQUALITY was high (99%). Improved knowledge about glaucoma and a high intent to

  3. Managing visitor sites in Svalbard: from a precautionary approach towards knowledge-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Fangel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased tourism in the Arctic calls for more knowledge to meet management challenges. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the effects of human use on vegetation, fauna and cultural heritage in Svalbard, and it addresses the need for site-specific knowledge for improved management. This paper draws upon scientific studies, knowledge held by management authorities and local people, the Governor's database on visitors and visited sites and our own data from landing sites we visited. There is a certain level of basic knowledge available, allowing us to roughly grade the vulnerability of sites. However, there is a thorough lack of site-specific data related to the management of single locations or groups of similar locations. Future research needs to address specific on-site challenges in the management of visitor sites. Relevant management models and measures are discussed. We contend that a shift away from a blanket application of the precautionary principle and towards a more integrated, site-specific and evidence-based management plan will contribute to more trusted and reliable, and thereby acceptable among stakeholders, decisions in the management of growing tourism activity in Svalbard.

  4. Study on the knowledge base system for the identification of typical target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the research on target knowledge base, target database, texture analysis, shape analysis, this paper proposed a new knowledge based method for typical target identification from remote sensing image. By extracting the texture characters and shape characters, joining with spatial analysis in GIS, reasoning according to the prior knowledge in the knowledge base, this method can identify and ex- tract typical target from remote sensing images. (authors)

  5. Knowledge-based network ties in early rapidly internationalising small firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masango, Shingairai Grace; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2014-01-01

    strong knowledge-based contacts. The ERISF acts as the source that provides the technical information and knowledge, which is then adopted by their network partners. This means that the ERISF’s product and technological capabilities drive the international knowledge creation process. The findings provide...... a holistic characterisation of the concept of knowledge in ERISF internationalisation. Within their interorganisational relationships, ERISFs are involved in knowledge creation, knowledge transfer and knowledge adoption activities. Network ties developed in existing knowledge pools are extended to new...

  6. PDA: A coupling of knowledge and memory for case-based reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, S.; Walls, J.; Blevins, E.

    1988-01-01

    Problem solving in most domains requires reference to past knowledge and experience whether such knowledge is represented as rules, decision trees, networks or any variant of attributed graphs. Regardless of the representational form employed, designers of expert systems rarely make a distinction between the static and dynamic aspects of the system's knowledge base. The current paper clearly distinguishes between knowledge-based and memory-based reasoning where the former in its most pure sense is characterized by a static knowledge based resulting in a relatively brittle expert system while the latter is dynamic and analogous to the functions of human memory which learns from experience. The paper discusses the design of an advisory system which combines a knowledge base consisting of domain vocabulary and default dependencies between concepts with a dynamic conceptual memory which stores experimental knowledge in the form of cases. The case memory organizes past experience in the form of MOPs (memory organization packets) and sub-MOPs. Each MOP consists of a context frame and a set of indices. The context frame contains information about the features (norms) common to all the events and sub-MOPs indexed under it.

  7. Nutrition training improves health workers' nutrition knowledge and competence to manage child undernutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-09-24

    Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health workers' nutrition knowledge, counseling skills, and child undernutrition management practices. We conducted a literature search on nutrition interventions from PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and World Health Organization regional databases. The outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, nutrition-counseling skills, and undernutrition management practices of health workers. Due to heterogeneity, we conducted only descriptive analyses. Out of 3910 retrieved articles, 25 were selected as eligible for the final analysis. A total of 18 studies evaluated health workers' nutrition knowledge and showed improvement after training. A total of 12 studies with nutrition counseling as the outcome variable also showed improvement among the trained health workers. Sixteen studies evaluated health workers' child undernutrition management practices. In all such studies, child undernutrition management practices and competence of health workers improved after the nutrition training intervention. In-service nutrition training improves quality of health workers by rendering them more knowledge and competence to manage nutrition-related conditions, especially child undernutrition. In-service nutrition training interventions can help to fill the gap created by the lack of adequate nutrition training in the existing medical and nursing education system. In this way, steps can be taken toward improving the overall nutritional status of the child population.

  8. A Representation System User Interface for Knowledge Base Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Fikes, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A major strength of frame-based knowledge representation languages is their ability to provide the knowledge base designer with a concise and intuitively appealing means expression. The claim of intuitive appeal is based on the observation that the object -centered style of description provided by these languages often closely matches a designer's understanding of the domain being modeled and therefore lessens the burden of reformulation involved in developing a formal description. To be effe...

  9. SPRINT RA 230: Methodology for knowledge based developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallsgrove, R.; Munro, F.

    1991-01-01

    SPRINT RA 230: A Methodology for Knowledge Based Developments, funded by the European Commission, was set up to investigate the use of KBS in the engineering industry. Its aim was to find out low KBS were currently used and what people's conceptions of them was, to disseminate current knowledge and to recommend further research into this area. A survey (by post and face to face interviews) was carried out under SPRINT RA 230 to investigate requirements for more intelligent software. In the survey we looked both at how people think about Knowledge Based Systems (KBS), what they find useful and what is not useful, and what current expertise problems or limitations of conventional software might suggest KBS solutions. (orig./DG)

  10. Using a knowledge-based planning solution to select patients for proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Alexander R; Dahele, Max; Tol, Jim P; Kuijper, Ingrid T; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2017-08-01

    Patient selection for proton therapy by comparing proton/photon treatment plans is time-consuming and prone to bias. RapidPlan™, a knowledge-based-planning solution, uses plan-libraries to model and predict organ-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume-histograms (DVHs). We investigated whether RapidPlan, utilizing an algorithm based only on photon beam characteristics, could generate proton DVH-predictions and whether these could correctly identify patients for proton therapy. Model PROT and Model PHOT comprised 30 head-and-neck cancer proton and photon plans, respectively. Proton and photon knowledge-based-plans (KBPs) were made for ten evaluation-patients. DVH-prediction accuracy was analyzed by comparing predicted-vs-achieved mean OAR doses. KBPs and manual plans were compared using salivary gland and swallowing muscle mean doses. For illustration, patients were selected for protons if predicted Model PHOT mean dose minus predicted Model PROT mean dose (ΔPrediction) for combined OARs was ≥6Gy, and benchmarked using achieved KBP doses. Achieved and predicted Model PROT /Model PHOT mean dose R 2 was 0.95/0.98. Generally, achieved mean dose for Model PHOT /Model PROT KBPs was respectively lower/higher than predicted. Comparing Model PROT /Model PHOT KBPs with manual plans, salivary and swallowing mean doses increased/decreased by <2Gy, on average. ΔPrediction≥6Gy correctly selected 4 of 5 patients for protons. Knowledge-based DVH-predictions can provide efficient, patient-specific selection for protons. A proton-specific RapidPlan-solution could improve results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A collaborative filtering-based approach to biomedical knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Jake; Gakkhar, Sitanshu; Gottlieb, Michael; Rashnavadi, Tahereh; Lin, Santina; Siu, Celia; Smith, Maia; Jones, Martin R; Krzywinski, Martin; Jones, Steven J M; Wren, Jonathan

    2018-02-15

    The increase in publication rates makes it challenging for an individual researcher to stay abreast of all relevant research in order to find novel research hypotheses. Literature-based discovery methods make use of knowledge graphs built using text mining and can infer future associations between biomedical concepts that will likely occur in new publications. These predictions are a valuable resource for researchers to explore a research topic. Current methods for prediction are based on the local structure of the knowledge graph. A method that uses global knowledge from across the knowledge graph needs to be developed in order to make knowledge discovery a frequently used tool by researchers. We propose an approach based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) that is able to combine data from across the knowledge graph through a reduced representation. Using cooccurrence data extracted from published literature, we show that SVD performs better than the leading methods for scoring discoveries. We also show the diminishing predictive power of knowledge discovery as we compare our predictions with real associations that appear further into the future. Finally, we examine the strengths and weaknesses of the SVD approach against another well-performing system using several predicted associations. All code and results files for this analysis can be accessed at https://github.com/jakelever/knowledgediscovery. sjones@bcgsc.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Improving the fundamentals of care for older people in the acute hospital setting: facilitating practice improvement using a Knowledge Translation Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechula, Rick; Kitson, Alison; Marcoionni, Danni; Page, Tammy; Zeitz, Kathryn; Silverston, Heidi

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports on a structured facilitation program where seven interdisciplinary teams conducted projects aimed at improving the care of the older person in the acute sector. Aims  To develop and implement a structured intervention known as the Knowledge Translation (KT) Toolkit to improve the fundamentals of care for the older person in the acute care sector. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) frontline staff can be facilitated to use existing quality improvement tools and techniques and other resources (the KT Toolkit) in order to improve care of older people in the acute hospital setting; (ii) fundamental aspects of care for older people in the acute hospital setting can be improved through the introduction and use of specific evidence-based guidelines by frontline staff; and (iii) innovations can be introduced and improvements made to care within a 12-month cycle/timeframe with appropriate facilitation. Methods  Using realistic evaluation methodology the impact of a structured facilitation program (the KT Toolkit) was assessed with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of how a range of tools, techniques and strategies may be used by clinicians to improve care. The intervention comprised three elements: the facilitation team recruited for specific knowledge, skills and expertise in KT, evidence-based practice and quality and safety; the facilitation, including a structured program of education, ongoing support and communication; and finally the components of the toolkit including elements already used within the study organisation. Results  Small improvements in care were shown. The results for the individual projects varied from clarifying issues of concern and planning ongoing activities, to changing existing practices, to improving actual patient outcomes such as reducing functional decline. More importantly the study described how teams of clinicians can be facilitated using a structured program to conduct practice improvement activities

  13. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  14. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  15. Improving safety-related knowledge, attitude and practices of nurses handling cytotoxic anticancer drug: pharmacists' experience in a general hospital, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Chan Huan; Sooaid, Nor Suhada; Yun, Cheng Yi; Sriraman, Malathi

    2013-01-01

    An increasing trend of cytotoxic drug use, mainly in cancer treatment, has increased the occupational exposure among the nurses. This study aimed to assess the change of nurses' safety-related knowledge as well as attitude levels and subsequently to assess the change of cytotoxic drug handling practices in wards after a series of pharmacist-based interventions. This prospective interventional study with a before and after design requested a single group of 96 nurses in 15 wards actively providing chemotherapy to answer a self-administered questionnaire. A performance checklist was then used to determine the compliance of all these wards with the recommended safety measures. The first and second assessments took 2 months respectively with a 9-month intervention period. Pharmacist-based interventions included a series of technical, educational and administrative support measures consisting of the initiation of closed-system cytotoxic drug reconstitution (CDR) services, courses, training workshops and guideline updates. The mean age of nurses was 32.2∓6.19 years. Most of them were female (93.8%) and married (72.9%). The mean knowledge score of nurses was significantly increased from 45.5∓10.52 to 73.4∓8.88 out of 100 (p<0.001) at the end of the second assessment. Overall, the mean practice score among the wards was improved from 7.6∓5.51 to 15.3∓2.55 out of 20 (p<0.001). The pharmacist-based interventions improved the knowledge, attitude and safe practices of nurses in cytotoxic drug handling. Further assessment may help to confirm the sustainability of the improved practices.

  16. Home-based family intervention increases knowledge, communication and living donation rates: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S Y; Luchtenburg, A E; Timman, R; Zuidema, W C; Boonstra, C; Weimar, W; Busschbach, J J V; Massey, E K

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to develop and test an educational program to support well-informed decision making among patients and their social network regarding living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). One hundred sixty-three patients who were unable to find a living donor were randomized to standard care or standard care plus home-based education. In the education condition, patients and members of their social network participated in home-based educational meetings and discussed renal replacement therapy options. Patients and invitees completed pre-post self-report questionnaires measuring knowledge, risk perception, communication, self-efficacy and subjective norm. LDKT activities were observed for 6 months postintervention. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly more improvements in knowledge (p communication (p = 0.012) compared with the control group. The invitees showed pre-post increases in knowledge (p decision making and promotes access to LDKT. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  18. A model for reusing service knowledge based on an empirical case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    between the service and design phases. Interviews with engineering designers and service engineers were conducted. Knowledge arising from servicing the drilling equipment that was identified as relevant for service engineers was compared to that relevant for engineering designers. Furthermore......, the mechanisms involved in the transfer of knowledge between service and design were investigated. Knowledge about changes, issues and improvements generated during service was found to be relevant to both groups; however, engineering designers were interested in knowledge of equipment at a component level...

  19. Knowledge workers and knowledge-intense organizations, Part 2: Designing and managing for productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D; Sorrells-Jones, J

    1999-09-01

    Our economy is shifting from a hard goods and material products base to one in which knowledge is the primary mode of production. Organizations are experimenting with designs that support knowledge work by clustering individuals with different but complementary skills in focused teams. The goal is to increase applied knowledge that furthers the organization's strategic intent. The team-based knowledge work model holds promise for healthcare organizations that are under pressure to use knowledge to improve clinical care, integrate care across disciplines and settings, and accept accountability for costs. However, the shift from the traditional bureaucratic model to the flexible team-based design mandates changes in the design of the organization, the role of leadership, and the attributes of the teams and team members. In Part 2 of this three-part series, the authors explore the necessary design changes and the new roles for leadership, teams, and their members. Additionally, implications for healthcare clinicians, particularly nurses, are discussed.

  20. Continuing medical education effect on physician knowledge: effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Educational Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordage, Georges; Carlin, Brian; Mazmanian, Paul E

    2009-03-01

    Physicians are continuously engaging in continuing medical education (CME) activities. Whether CME activities actually improve their knowledge and whether multiple media, instructional techniques, and exposures are better than single experiences are questions that are still under discussion. The Johns Hopkins Evidence-based Practice Center for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of CME (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence Report) from which the guideline panel used 28 (+/- 2) studies to answer these questions about improvements in knowledge. The studies were selected based on the presence of an adequate control group from an initial pool of 136 studies on CME. Despite the heterogeneity of the studies reviewed and the low quality of the evidence, the results from the majority of the studies (79%) showed that CME activities were associated with improvements in physician knowledge. The evidence gathered about the use of media and instructional techniques and the frequency of exposure suggests that multimedia, multiple instructional techniques, and multiple exposures be used whenever possible in CME. Future studies of CME should include assessment of applied knowledge, and should incorporate programmatic and collaborative studies of CME.

  1. A diagnostic expert system for NPP based on hybrid knowledge approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. The structural and functional knowledge is represented by three fundamental primitives and five types of functions respectively. The behavioral knowledge is represented using constraints. The inference procedure is based on the human problem solving behavior modeled in HYPOSS. For the validation of HYPOSS, several tests have been performed based on the data produced by a plant simulator. The results of validation studies showed a good applicability of HYPOSS to the anomaly diagnosis of nuclear power plant

  2. Competencies for Central American SMEs in the Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge-based economy not only affects well developed countries but ... to the information and communication technologies (ICT) related competencies, as technologies plays a key and growing role in managing knowledge and exchange.

  3. The impact of critical appraisal workshops on residents' evidence based medicine skills and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr JA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Justine A Nasr,1,2 John Falatko,1 Alexandra Halalau1,2 1Internal Medicine Department, Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA; 2Internal Medicine Department, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA Objective: To assess the impact of four evidence based medicine (EBM critical appraisal education workshops in improving residents’ EBM knowledge and skills. Methods: The eligible participants in the workshops were 88 residents-in-training, postgraduate years one through four, rotating through the outpatient internal medicine clinic. Four EBM workshops, consisting of 3 days each (30 minutes daily, were taught by our faculty. Topics covered included critical appraisal of randomized controlled trials, case-control and cohort studies, diagnosis studies, and systematic reviews. Results: As a program evaluation, anonymous pre-workshop and post-workshop tests were administered. Each of the four sets of tests showed improvement in scores: therapy from 58% to 77% (42% response rate, harm from 65% to 73% (38% response rate, diagnosis from 49% to 68% (49% response rate, and systematic review from 57% to 72% (30% response rate. Conclusion: We found that teaching EBM in four short workshops improved EBM knowledge and critical appraisal skills related to the four topics. Keywords: evidence based medicine, medical education, assessment methods, graduate, instructional design, curriculum development, curriculum evaluation

  4. Arranging ISO 13606 archetypes into a knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2014-01-01

    To enable the efficient reuse of standard based medical data we propose to develop a higher level information model that will complement the archetype model of ISO 13606. This model will make use of the relationships that are specified in UML to connect medical archetypes into a knowledge base within a repository. UML connectors were analyzed for their ability to be applied in the implementation of a higher level model that will establish relationships between archetypes. An information model was developed using XML Schema notation. The model allows linking different archetypes of one repository into a knowledge base. Presently it supports several relationships and will be advanced in future.

  5. RN-to-BSN Students' Quality Improvement Knowledge, Skills, Confidence, and Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Peggy; Dolansky, Mary A; DeBrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Petty, Gayle M

    2017-12-01

    Little evidence demonstrates that RN-to-baccalaureate nursing (BSN) graduates have met The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice-specifically, evidence of the graduates' organizational and systems leadership related to quality care and patient safety. This BSN Essentials reflects the QSEN quality improvement (QI) competency. The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and test an assessment strategy to measure RN-to BSN students' QI competence and their perception of QI knowledge and skills. Students (N = 59) from six RN-to-BSN programs participated in a Qualtrics survey e-mailed during the last semester of their program. The majority of students (60%) reported that they did not experience QI content in their program. Scores on QI knowledge, skills, and systems thinking were low, yet the students self-reported that they were confident in their ability to perform QI. This pilot study provides an assessment strategy to measure students' competence related to QI. Nursing education has an opportunity to integrate and measure QI competence to ensure that nurses have the knowledge and skills to continually improve patient care. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):737-740.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. An Ontology-Based Knowledge Modelling for a Sustainability Assessment Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Konys

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment has received more and more attention from researchers and it offers a large number of opportunities to measure and evaluate the level of its accomplishment. However, proper selection of a particular sustainability assessment approach, reflecting problem properties and the evaluator’s preferences, is a complex and important issue. Due to an existing number of different approaches dedicated to assessing, supporting, or measuring the level of sustainability and their structure oriented on the particular domain usage, problems with accurate matching frequently occur. On the other hand, the efficiency of sustainability assessment depends on the available knowledge of the ongoing capabilities. Additionally, actual research trends confirm that knowledge engineering gives a method to handle domain knowledge practically and effectively. Unfortunately, literature studies confirm that there is a lack of knowledge systematization in the sustainability assessment domain, however. The practical application of knowledge-based mechanisms may cover this gap. In this paper, we provide formal, practical and technological guidance to a knowledge management-based approach to sustainability assessment. We propose ontology as a form of knowledge conceptualization and using knowledge engineering, we make gathered knowledge publicly available and reusable, especially in terms of interoperability of collected knowledge.

  7. Jointly learning word embeddings using a corpus and a knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Maehara, Takanori; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi

    2018-01-01

    Methods for representing the meaning of words in vector spaces purely using the information distributed in text corpora have proved to be very valuable in various text mining and natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, these methods still disregard the valuable semantic relational structure between words in co-occurring contexts. These beneficial semantic relational structures are contained in manually-created knowledge bases (KBs) such as ontologies and semantic lexicons, where the meanings of words are represented by defining the various relationships that exist among those words. We combine the knowledge in both a corpus and a KB to learn better word embeddings. Specifically, we propose a joint word representation learning method that uses the knowledge in the KBs, and simultaneously predicts the co-occurrences of two words in a corpus context. In particular, we use the corpus to define our objective function subject to the relational constrains derived from the KB. We further utilise the corpus co-occurrence statistics to propose two novel approaches, Nearest Neighbour Expansion (NNE) and Hedged Nearest Neighbour Expansion (HNE), that dynamically expand the KB and therefore derive more constraints that guide the optimisation process. Our experimental results over a wide-range of benchmark tasks demonstrate that the proposed method statistically significantly improves the accuracy of the word embeddings learnt. It outperforms a corpus-only baseline and reports an improvement of a number of previously proposed methods that incorporate corpora and KBs in both semantic similarity prediction and word analogy detection tasks. PMID:29529052

  8. Improving Young Entrepreneurship Education and Knowledge Management in SMEs by Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, Ileana

    2014-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a great importance in Europe, but the dynamic nature of market has created a competitive incentive among companies requiring them to improve their critical area of knowledge management (KM) and corresponding skills to create new business. More entrepreneurs, more innovation and growth are necessary…

  9. [Use of PubMed to improve evidence-based medicine in routine urological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, M; Kluth, L A; Shariat, S F; Chun, F K; Fisch, M; Dahm, P

    2013-03-01

    Applying evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice is the basis of patient-centered medicine and knowledge of accurate literature acquisition skills is necessary for informed clinical decision-making. PubMed is an easy accessible, free bibliographic database comprising over 21 million citations from the medical field, life-science journals and online books. The article summarizes the effective use of PubMed in routine urological clinical practice based on a common case scenario. This article explains the simple use of PubMed to obtain the best search results with the highest evidence. Accurate knowledge about the use of PubMed in routine clinical practice can improve evidence-based medicine and also patient treatment.

  10. Strategic HRM in Building Micro-Foundations of Organizational Knowledge-Based Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Strategic HRM research has a strong potential to further our understanding of how organizational knowledge processes influence performance at various analytical levels. Drawing on ability–motivation–opportunity research and linking it to knowledge sharing behaviors, we discuss the micro......-foundations in the link between strategic HRM practices and knowledge-based organizational performance. We thus describe a research agenda for future micro-foundational research that links strategic HRM and knowledge-based performance....

  11. Knowledge-based information systems in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Watada, Junzo; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This book contains innovative research from leading researchers who presented their work at the 17th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES 2013, held in Kitakyusha, Japan, in September 2013. The conference provided a competitive field of 236 contributors, from which 38 authors expanded their contributions and only 21 published. A plethora of techniques and innovative applications are represented within this volume. The chapters are organized using four themes. These topics include: data mining, knowledge management, advanced information processes and system modelling applications. Each topic contains multiple contributions and many offer case studies or innovative examples. Anyone that wants to work with information repositories or process knowledge should consider reading one or more chapters focused on their technique of choice. They may also benefit from reading other chapters to assess if an alternative technique represents a more suitable app...

  12. Knowledge-Oriented Physics-Based Motion Planning for Grasping Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Ud Din, Muhayy; Akbari, Aliakbar; Rosell Gratacòs, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Grasping an object in unstructured and uncertain environments is a challenging task, particularly when a collision-free trajectory does not exits. High-level knowledge and reasoning processes, as well as the allowing of interaction between objects, can enhance the planning efficiency in such environments. In this direction, this study proposes a knowledge-oriented physics-based motion planning approach for a hand-arm system that uses a high-level knowledge-based reasoning to partition the wor...

  13. Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students’ knowledge retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondon Silmara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Methods Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students’ prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method, short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students’ performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Results Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. Conclusions The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students’ short and long-term knowledge retention.

  14. Effectiveness of an Evidence-Based Quality Improvement Approach to Cultural Competence Training: The Veterans Affairs' "Caring for Women Veterans" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Annie B; Hamilton, Alison B; Frayne, Susan M; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Carney, Diane; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Goldstein, Karen M; Romodan, Yasmin; Sadler, Anne G; Yano, Elizabeth M; Yee, Ellen F; Vogt, Dawne

    2016-01-01

    Although providing culturally sensitive health care is vitally important, there is little consensus regarding the most effective strategy for implementing cultural competence trainings in the health care setting. Evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI), which involves adapting evidence-based practices to meet local needs, may improve uptake and effectiveness of a variety of health care innovations. Yet, to our knowledge, EBQI has not yet been applied to cultural competence training. To evaluate whether EBQI could enhance the impact of an evidence-based training intended to improve veterans affairs health care staff gender sensitivity and knowledge (Caring for Women Veterans; CWV), we compared the reach and effectiveness of EBQI delivery versus standard web-based implementation strategies of CWV and assessed barriers and facilitators to EBQI implementation. Workgroups at four diverse veterans affairs health care sites were randomized to either an EBQI or standard web-based implementation condition (SI). All EBQI sites selected a group-based implementation strategy. Employees (N = 84) completed pretraining and posttraining assessments of gender sensitivity and knowledge, and focus groups/interviews were conducted with leadership and staff before and after implementation. Reach of CWV was greater in the EBQI condition versus the SI condition. Whereas both gender sensitivity and knowledge improved in the EBQI condition, only gender sensitivity improved in the SI condition. Qualitative analyses revealed that the EBQI approach was well received, although a number of barriers were identified. Findings suggest that EBQI can enhance the uptake and effectiveness of employee trainings. However, the decision to pursue EBQI must be informed by a consideration of available resources.

  15. A Conceptualization of Knowledge Governance in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiorac, Anna; Müller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes and defines knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Two key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced, as distinguished from knowledge management and organizational learning concepts. The con......This paper conceptualizes and defines knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Two key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced, as distinguished from knowledge management and organizational learning concepts....... The conceptual framework addresses macro- and micro-level elements of KG and their interaction. Our definition of KG in PBOs highlights the contingent nature of KG processes in relation to their organizational context. These contributions provide a novel platform for understanding KG in PBOs....

  16. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  17. An integrated knowledge-based and optimization tool for the sustainable selection of wastewater treatment process concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, A.; Cheali, Peam; Gómez, V.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has involved an interest in improving the alternative treatment selection process. In this study, an integrated framework including an intelligent knowledge-based system and superstructure-based optimization has been developed and applied...... to a real case study. Hence, a multi-criteria analysis together with mathematical models is applied to generate a ranked short-list of feasible treatments for three different scenarios. Finally, the uncertainty analysis performed allows for increasing the quality and robustness of the decisions considering...... benefit and synergy is achieved when both tools are integrated because expert knowledge and expertise are considered together with mathematical models to select the most appropriate treatment alternative...

  18. KNOWLEDGE BASE AND EFL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS: A COLOMBIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamith Fandiño

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, Colombian pre-service EFL Teacher Education Programs (TEPs should study what constitutes the core knowledge base for language teachers to be effective in their profession. These programs must refrain from simply conceptualizing knowledge base as the acquisition of the basic skills required for teaching, the competency of educators in their subject matter area, and the use of pedagogical skills. Instead, they should strive to reflect on what Colombian language teachers need to know about teaching and learning, and study how their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes inform their practices. A starting point to do so is to interpret the variety of proposals that have been generated through the years in the field. This paperoffers a review of what teacher knowledge base is, presents an overview of how Colombian EFL TEPs are working on teacher knowledge,and suggests some strategies to envision a more complete framework of reference for teacher formation in Colombia.

  19. Wilderness First Aid Training as a Tool for Improving Basic Medical Knowledge in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Lindsay B; Douglas, William S; Lena, Sean R; Ratner, Kyle G; Crothers, Daniel; Zondervan, Robert L; Radis, Charles D

    2015-12-01

    The challenges presented by traumatic injuries in low-resource communities are especially relevant in South Sudan. This study was conducted to assess whether a 3-day wilderness first aid (WFA) training course taught in South Sudan improved first aid knowledge. Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) Schools designed the course to teach people with limited medical knowledge to use materials from their environment to provide life-saving care in the event of an emergency. A pre-test/post-test study design was used to assess first aid knowledge of 46 community members in Kit, South Sudan, according to a protocol approved by the University of New England Institutional Review Board. The course and assessments were administered in English and translated in real-time to Acholi and Arabic, the two primary languages spoken in the Kit region. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analyses were conducted. Results included a statistically significant improvement in first aid knowledge after the 3-day training course: t(38)=3.94; Pfirst of its kind in South Sudan, provides evidence that a WFA training course in South Sudan is efficacious. These findings suggest that similar training opportunities could be used in other parts of the world to improve basic medical knowledge in communities with limited access to medical resources and varying levels of education and professional experiences.

  20. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arredondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating

  1. Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, J; Strathdee, S A; Cepeda, J; Abramovitz, D; Artamonova, I; Clairgue, E; Bustamante, E; Mittal, M L; Rocha, T; Bañuelos, A; Olivarria, H O; Morales, M; Rangel, G; Magis, C; Beletsky, L

    2017-11-08

    Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar's tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers' ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001) in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91%) and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%), heroin (8 to 71%), and methamphetamine (7 to 70%). The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96%) (p < 0.001), marijuana (16 to 91%), heroin (11 to 91%), and methamphetamine (11 to 89%). In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-4). Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating formal laws to policing practice. To close such gaps, PEP initiatives

  2. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Ruxandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU. Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis; ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention; spontaneous breathing trials; catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention; decubitus ulcer prevention; and early enteral nutrition. Methods and design We will conduct a pragmatic cluster randomized active control trial in 15 community ICUs and one academic ICU in Ontario, Canada. The intervention is a multifaceted videoconferenced educational and problem-solving forum to organize knowledge translation strategies, including comparative audit and feedback, educational sessions from content experts, and dissemination of algorithms. Fifteen individual ICUs (clusters will be randomized to receive quality improvement interventions targeting one of the best practices during each of six study phases. Each phase lasts four months during the first study year and three months during the second. At the end of each study phase, ICUs are assigned to an intervention for a best practice not yet received according to a random schedule. The primary analysis will use patient-level process-of-care data to measure the intervention's effect on rates of adoption and adherence of each best practice in the targeted ICU clusters versus controls. Discussion This study design evaluates a new system for knowledge translation and quality improvement across six common ICU problems. All participating ICUs receive quality improvement initiatives during every study phase, improving buy-in. This study design

  3. Employee knowledge of value-based insurance design benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrikson, Nora B; Anderson, Melissa L; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Fishman, Paul; Grossman, David C

    2014-08-01

    Value-based insurance designs (VBD) incorporate evidence-based medicine into health benefit design. Consumer knowledge of new VBD benefits is important to assessing their impact on health care use. To assess knowledge of features of a VBD. The eligible study population was employees receiving healthcare benefits in an integrated care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. In 2010, participants completed a web-based survey 2 months after rollout of the plan, including three true/false questions about benefit design features including copays for preventive care visits and chronic disease medications and premium costs. Analysis was completed in 2012. Knowledgeable was defined as correct response to all three questions; self-reported knowledge was also assessed. A total of 3,463 people completed the survey (response rate=71.7%). The majority of respondents were female (80.1%) Caucasians (79.6%) aged 35-64 years (79.0%), reflecting the overall employee population. A total of 45.7% had at least a 4-year college education, and 69.1% were married. About three quarters of respondents correctly answered each individual question; half (52.1%) of respondents answered all three questions correctly. On multivariate analysis, knowledge was independently associated with female gender (OR=1.80, 95% CI=1.40, 2.31); Caucasian race (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.28, 2.32); increasing household income (OR for ≥$100,000=1.86, 95% CI=1.29, 2.68); nonunion job status (OR compared to union status=1.63, 95% CI=1.17, 2.26); and high satisfaction with the health plan (OR compared to low satisfaction=1.26; 95% CI=1.00, 1.57). Incomplete knowledge of benefits is prevalent in an employee population soon after VBD rollout. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Community intervention to improve knowledge and practices on commonly used drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Karkee, S B; Shrestha, N; Prasad, R R; Bhuju, G B; Das, P L; Chataut, B D

    2010-01-01

    World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that about half of all medicines are inappropriately prescribed, dispensed and sold and about half of all patients fail to take their medicines properly. The overall objective of the study was improving use of medicines in the community by creating awareness among different target groups. It was a pre-post comparison of intervention implemented at the community level in purposively selected Bhaktapur District of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The study was conducted in the private schools of the study district. Twelve schools were randomly selected. Thereafter, students from 6-9 grades were listed from the selected schools. Then 15% of the total students in each grade were randomly selected to get six students from each grade of the each school, totaling 288 students. The households of the selected students served as the sample households for the study. Thus, there were 288 households sampled for the study. The intervention and the targeted intermediary groups consisted of a. training of schools teachers b. training of journalists c. interactive discussions of trained school teachers with school children using key messages and c. communication of key messages through the local F.M. radio, newspaper/magazine. There was a significant increase in correct knowledge on action of antibiotics and excellent knowledge on the methods of administration of antibiotics of households after the intervention. Similarly, there was a significant increase in knowledge on cough as a disease and a significant decrease in the use of cough medicines after intervention. There was also a significant increase in excellent knowledge on the sources of vitamins and a significant decrease in the use of vitamin/tonics after the intervention. The participation of intermediary groups eg. school teachers, journalists and school children in the implementation of intervention were successful. The groups have fulfilled the commitments in implementing the plan of

  5. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  6. A Holistic School-Based Nutrition Program Fails to Improve Teachers' Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…

  7. EEVADO-ontology based construction of a knowledge based system for handling radiation emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of handling a radiation emergency is to protect the site personnel and public in the off-site areas. Hence it is required to assess the accident to develop the protective action recommendations for the site personnel, members of the public and emergency workers. An explanation facility is required to analyze the emergency situation and make needful decision. Algorithmic based software cannot provide this support as it does not have any such facility. A knowledge based system (KBS) obviously would act as a special purpose intelligent agent on behalf or at the behest of the emergency organization. Knowledge of the KBS has been elicited on the basis of ontology, a set of definitions of classes, objects, attributes, relations and constraints. Ontology provides a vocabulary for the expression of domain knowledge. The present paper discusses the development and utility of a knowledge based system - EEVADO (Emergency Evaluation and Dosimetry). The present software is verified and validated by ontology and by conducting Desktop Exercise in training program on Emergency Preparedness. (author)

  8. Scaffolding knowledge building in a Web-based communication and cultural competence program for international medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Leila R; Russell, M Lynn; Nelles, Laura J; Smith, Cathy M

    2009-10-01

    Professional behaviors, tacitly understood by Canadian-trained physicians, are difficult to teach and often create practice barriers for IMGs. The purpose of this design research study was to develop a Web-based program simulating Canadian medical literacy and culture, and to evaluate strategies of scaffolding individual knowledge building. Study 1 (N = 20) examined usability and pedagogic design. Studies 2 (N = 39) and 3 (N = 33) examined case participation patterns. Model design was validated in Study 1. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated high levels of participation, on unprompted third tries, on knowledge tests. Recursive patterns were strongest on Reflective Exercises. Five strategies scaffolded knowledge building: (1) video simulations, (2) contextualized resources, (3) concurrent feedback, (4) Reflective Exercises, and (5) commentaries prompting "reflection on reflection." Scaffolded design supports complex knowledge building. These findings are concurrent with educational research on the importance of recursion and revision of knowledge for improvable and relational understanding.

  9. Malaysia Transitions toward a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills…

  10. An ontological knowledge based system for selection of process monitoring and analysis tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    monitoring and analysis tools for a wide range of operations has made their selection a difficult, time consuming and challenging task. Therefore, an efficient and systematic knowledge base coupled with an inference system is necessary to support the optimal selection of process monitoring and analysis tools......, satisfying the process and user constraints. A knowledge base consisting of the process knowledge as well as knowledge on measurement methods and tools has been developed. An ontology has been designed for knowledge representation and management. The developed knowledge base has a dual feature. On the one...... procedures has been developed to retrieve the data/information stored in the knowledge base....

  11. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN KNOWLEDGE - BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Elena Parpandel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a knowledge - based society, organizations undergo permanent changes and transformations, and the key factor of such changes is intellectual capital regarded as one of the most critical, yet most strategic values an organization might own. Analyzing intelectual capital and knowledge society over the last decades has primarily emerged in private companies, whereas at present there is an increasing concern in all the fields of activity. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance of intellectual capital as a source of innovation and novelty used to create competitive advantages for organizations in the era of knowledge where man must rely on intellect, intuition and creativity. The present paper is an exploratory endeavour based on the qualitative method as various information sources are resorted to in order to conceptualize the terms of intellectual capital and knowledge society: specialty literature, case studies, mass-media articles, reports of in-field organizations etc. Organizations should use all the tangible or non-tangible resources they have in order to secure their success and also to build a knowledge society which involves going a long way, based on an ample, complex process where innovation has a major role and a global nature.

  12. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  13. Knowledge Based Understanding of Radiology Text

    OpenAIRE

    Ranum, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A data acquisition tool which will extract pertinent diagnostic information from radiology reports has been designed and implemented. Pertinent diagnostic information is defined as that clinical data which is used by the HELP medical expert system. The program uses a memory based semantic parsing technique to “understand” the text. Moreover, the memory structures and lexicon necessary to perform this action are automatically generated from the diagnostic knowledge base by using a special purp...

  14. A protein relational database and protein family knowledge bases to facilitate structure-based design analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine

    2010-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.

  15. Using Knowledge-Based Systems to Support Learning of Organizational Knowledge: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.

  16. Beyond Apprenticeship: Knowledge Brokers and Sustainability of Apprentice-Based Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge learning and diffusion have long been discussed in the literature on the dynamics of industrial clusters, but recent literature provides little evidence for how different actors serve as knowledge brokers in the upgrading process of apprentice-based clusters, and does not dynamically consider how to preserve the sustainability of these clusters. This paper uses empirical evidence from an antique furniture manufacturing cluster in Xianyou, Fujian Province, in southeastern China, to examine the growth trajectory of the knowledge learning system of an antique furniture manufacturing cluster. It appears that the apprentice-based learning system is crucial during early stages of the cluster evolution, but later becomes complemented and relatively substituted by the role of both local governments and focal outsiders. This finding addresses the context of economic transformation and provides empirical insights into knowledge acquisition in apprentice-based clusters to question the rationality based on European and North American cases, and to provide a broader perspective for policy makers to trigger and sustain the development of apprentice-based clusters.

  17. MapSentinel: Can the Knowledge of Space Use Improve Indoor Tracking Further?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi Jia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating an occupant’s location is arguably the most fundamental sensing task in smart buildings. The applications for fine-grained, responsive building operations require the location sensing systems to provide location estimates in real time, also known as indoor tracking. Existing indoor tracking systems require occupants to carry specialized devices or install programs on their smartphone to collect inertial sensing data. In this paper, we propose MapSentinel, which performs non-intrusive location sensing based on WiFi access points and ultrasonic sensors. MapSentinel combines the noisy sensor readings with the floormap information to estimate locations. One key observation supporting our work is that occupants exhibit distinctive motion characteristics at different locations on the floormap, e.g., constrained motion along the corridor or in the cubicle zones, and free movement in the open space. While extensive research has been performed on using a floormap as a tool to obtain correct walking trajectories without wall-crossings, there have been few attempts to incorporate the knowledge of space use available from the floormap into the location estimation. This paper argues that the knowledge of space use as an additional information source presents new opportunities for indoor tracking. The fusion of heterogeneous information is theoretically formulated within the Factor Graph framework, and the Context-Augmented Particle Filtering algorithm is developed to efficiently solve real-time walking trajectories. Our evaluation in a large office space shows that the MapSentinel can achieve accuracy improvement of 31 . 3 % compared with the purely WiFi-based tracking system.

  18. Nonlinear Knowledge in Kernel-Based Multiple Criteria Programming Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongling; Tian, Yingjie; Shi, Yong

    Kernel-based Multiple Criteria Linear Programming (KMCLP) model is used as classification methods, which can learn from training examples. Whereas, in traditional machine learning area, data sets are classified only by prior knowledge. Some works combine the above two classification principle to overcome the defaults of each approach. In this paper, we propose a model to incorporate the nonlinear knowledge into KMCLP in order to solve the problem when input consists of not only training example, but also nonlinear prior knowledge. In dealing with real world case breast cancer diagnosis, the model shows its better performance than the model solely based on training data.

  19. An evaluation of The Great Escape: can an interactive computer game improve young children's fire safety knowledge and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Schwebel, David C; Bell, Melissa; Stewart, Julia; Davis, Aaron L

    2012-07-01

    Fire is a leading cause of unintentional injury and, although young children are at particularly increased risk, there are very few evidence-based resources available to teach them fire safety knowledge and behaviors. Using a pre-post randomized design, the current study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer game (The Great Escape) for teaching fire safety information to young children (3.5-6 years). Using behavioral enactment procedures, children's knowledge and behaviors related to fire safety were compared to a control group of children before and after receiving the intervention. The results indicated significant improvements in knowledge and fire safety behaviors in the intervention group but not the control. Using computer games can be an effective way to promote young children's understanding of safety and how to react in different hazardous situations.

  20. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  1. Knowledge based support for multiagent control and automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support in multiagent based control and diagnosis. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism have been used...

  2. The Particularities of the Economic Crisis in the Knowledge-Based Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of the informational society and the requirements for the transition towards the knowledge based society. The informational society and the advantages it brings are described. The concepts of informatics system and informational system are described. Their roles and functions are identified. The functioning principles of the informatics systems are presented. The factors that lead to the evolution from the informational society towards the knowledge based one are identified and analyzed. The main trends in the knowledge based society are identified. For each of these trends we identify the short and long run effects and the implied consumptions of resources. Knowledge is seen in the new society as the main source of competitive advantage. Ways of transmitting knowledge are presented. The efficiency and applicability are discussed. In the knowledge based society the end-users have higher expectations regarding the products and services than before. The paper discusses the factors that lead to the structural re-equilibration in the knowledge based society. Research concepts are developed in the direction of adapting informatics applications to the target group exigencies. The paper details the quality characteristics of computer applications that are tailored to the requirements of the target group and a quality system for such applications is presented. The paper examines the benefits obtained by adapting computer applications to the target group exigencies.

  3. Irrelevance Reasoning in Knowledge Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation considers the problem of reasoning about irrelevance of knowledge in a principled and efficient manner. Specifically, it is concerned with two key problems: (1) developing algorithms for automatically deciding what parts of a knowledge base are irrelevant to a query and (2) the utility of relevance reasoning. The dissertation describes a novel tool, the query-tree, for reasoning about irrelevance. Based on the query-tree, we develop several algorithms for deciding what formulas are irrelevant to a query. Our general framework sheds new light on the problem of detecting independence of queries from updates. We present new results that significantly extend previous work in this area. The framework also provides a setting in which to investigate the connection between the notion of irrelevance and the creation of abstractions. We propose a new approach to research on reasoning with abstractions, in which we investigate the properties of an abstraction by considering the irrelevance claims on which it is based. We demonstrate the potential of the approach for the cases of abstraction of predicates and projection of predicate arguments. Finally, we describe an application of relevance reasoning to the domain of modeling physical devices.

  4. In Pursuit of Natural Logics for Ontology-Structured Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2015-01-01

    We argue for adopting a form of natural logic for ontology-structured knowledge bases with complex sentences. This serves to ease reading of knowledge base for domain experts and to make reasoning and querying and path-finding more comprehensible. We explain natural logic as a development from tr...

  5. Case-based e-learning to improve the attitude of medical students towards occupational health, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, P B A; de Graaf, L; Radon, K; de Boer, A G; Bos, N R; van Dijk, F J H; Verbeek, J H A M

    2012-04-01

    Undergraduate medical teaching in occupational health (OH) is a challenge in universities around the world. Case-based e-learning with an attractive clinical context could improve the attitude of medical students towards OH. The study question is whether case-based e-learning for medical students is more effective in improving knowledge, satisfaction and a positive attitude towards OH than non-case-based textbook learning. Participants, 141 second year medical students, were randomised to either case-based e-learning or text-based learning. Outcome measures were knowledge, satisfaction and attitude towards OH, measured at baseline, directly after the intervention, after 1 week and at 3-month follow-up. Of the 141 participants, 130 (92%) completed the questionnaires at short-term follow-up and 41 (29%) at 3-month follow-up. At short-term follow-up, intervention and control groups did not show a significant difference in knowledge nor satisfaction but attitude towards OH was significantly more negative in the intervention group (F=4.041, p=0.047). At 3-month follow-up, there were no significant differences between intervention and control groups for knowledge, satisfaction and attitude. We found a significant decrease in favourable attitude during the internship in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in knowledge or satisfaction between case-based e-learning and text-based learning. The attitude towards OH should be further investigated as an outcome of educational programmes.

  6. Knowledge formations in Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    organization are no longer based on relationships between strong independent disciplines, but rather on a number of ‘themes’ or ‘subject areas’ that should be combined and tied together during the students PBL-studies. As such, the curriculum organized knowledge, as well as student’s reflections of various...

  7. ISPE: A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical engineers use mathematical simulators to design, model, optimize and refine various engineering plants/processes. This procedure requires the following steps: (1) preparation of an input data file according to the format required by the target simulator; (2) excecuting the simulation; and (3) analyzing the results of the simulation to determine if all specified goals'' are satisfied. If the goals are not met, the input data file must be modified and the simulation repeated. This multistep process is continued until satisfactory results are obtained. This research was undertaken to develop a knowledge based system, IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment), that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant to perform a variety tasks related to process simulation. ASPEN, a widely used simulator by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) was selected as the target process simulator in the project. IPSE, written in the C language, was developed using a number of knowledge-based programming paradigms: object-oriented knowledge representation that uses inheritance and methods, rulebased inferencing (includes processing and propagation of probabilistic information) and data-driven programming using demons. It was implemented using the knowledge based environment LASER. The relationship of IPSE with the user, ASPEN, LASER and the C language is shown in Figure 1.

  8. Development of a knowledge-based system for loop diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.Y.; Tang, H.C.; Chen, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    An accident diagnostic system is developed as an attempt to provide a useful aid for the operators of an experimental loop or a nuclear power plant in the case of emergency condition. Because the current practices in the system diagnosis are not satisfactory, there is an increasing demand on the establishment of various operator decision support systems. The knowledge based system is a new and promising technique which can be used to fulfill this demand. With the capability of automatic reasoning and by incorporating the information about system status, the knowledge based system can simulate the process of human thinking and serve as a good decision support system. This knowledge based decision support system can be helpful for both a fast, violent accident and a slowly developed accident. Specifically, a fast diagnostic report can be provided for a fast and violent accident of which time is the main concern and a complete diagnostic report can be provided for a slowly developed accident of which complexity is the main concern. Such a knowledge based decision support system also provides many other equally important advantages, such as the elimination of human error, the automatic validation of signal readings, the establishment of human error, the automatic validation of signal readings, and the establishment of a simulation environment

  9. Dynamic reasoning in a knowledge-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand S.; Foo, Norman Y.

    1988-01-01

    Any space based system, whether it is a robot arm assembling parts in space or an onboard system monitoring the space station, has to react to changes which cannot be foreseen. As a result, apart from having domain-specific knowledge as in current expert systems, a space based AI system should also have general principles of change. This paper presents a modal logic which can not only represent change but also reason with it. Three primitive operations, expansion, contraction and revision are introduced and axioms which specify how the knowledge base should change when the external world changes are also specified. Accordingly the notion of dynamic reasoning is introduced, which unlike the existing forms of reasoning, provide general principles of change. Dynamic reasoning is based on two main principles, namely minimize change and maximize coherence. A possible-world semantics which incorporates the above two principles is also discussed. The paper concludes by discussing how the dynamic reasoning system can be used to specify actions and hence form an integral part of an autonomous reasoning and planning system.

  10. Using a Multimedia Tool to Improve Cardiac Auscultation Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David T; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S; Gruppen, Larry D; Lang, Angela L; Grum, Cyril M; Judge, Richard D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Today's medical school graduates have significant deficits in physical examination skills. Medical educators have been searching for methods to effectively teach and maintain these skills in students. The objective of this study was to determine if an auscultation curriculum centered on a portable multimedia CD-ROM was effective in producing and maintaining significant gains in cardiac auscultatory skills. DESIGN Controlled cohort study PARTICIPANTS All 168 third-year medical students at 1 medical school in an academic medical center. INTERVENTIONS Students were tested before and after exposure to 1 or more elements of the auscultation curriculum: teaching on ward/clinic rotations, CD-ROM comprehensive cases with follow-up seminars, and a CD-ROM 20-case miniseries. The primary outcome measures were student performance on a 10-item test of auscultation skill (listening and identifying heart sound characteristics) and a 30-item test of auscultation knowledge (factual questions about auscultation). A subset of students was tested for attenuation effects 9 or 12 months after the intervention. RESULTS Compared with the control group (1 month clinical rotation alone), students who were also exposed to the CD-ROM 20-case miniseries had significant improvements in auscultation skills scores (P auscultation knowledge beyond the miniseries alone (P auscultation skills. Students' auscultation knowledge diminished one year after the intervention, but auscultation skills did not. CONCLUSION In addition to the standard curriculum of ward and conference teaching, portable multimedia tools may help improve quality of physical examination skills. PMID:11722691

  11. Knowledge and method base for shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, E.G.; Breidert, J. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Engineering Design, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    It is often impossible for design engineers to decide whether it is possible to use shape memory alloys (SMA) for a particular task. In case of a decision to use SMA for product development, design engineers normally do not know in detail how to proceed in a correct and beneficial way. In order to support design engineers who have no previous knowledge about SMA and to assist in the transfer of results from basic research to industrial practice, an essential knowledge and method base has been developed. Through carefully conducted literature studies and patent analysis material and design information could be collected. All information is implemented into a computer supported knowledge and method base that provides design information with a particular focus on the conceptual and embodiment design phase. The knowledge and method base contains solution principles and data about effects, material and manufacturing as well as design guidelines and calculation methods for dimensioning and optimization. A browser-based user interface ensures that design engineers have immediate access to the latest version of the knowledge and method base. In order to ensure a user friendly application, an evaluation with several test users has been carried out. Reactions of design engineers from the industrial sector underline the need for support related to knowledge on SMA. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fuer Konstrukteure ist es haeufig schwierig zu entscheiden, ob sich der Einsatz von Formgedaechtnislegierungen (FGL) fuer eine bestimmte Aufgabe eignet. Fuer den Fall, dass FGL fuer die Produktentwicklung genutzt werden sollen, besitzen Ingenieure zumeist nur unzureichende Detailkenntnisse, um Formgedaechtnislegierungen richtig und in vorteilhafter Weise anwenden zu koennen. Zur Unterstuetzung von Konstrukteuren, die ueber kein Vorwissen und keine Erfahrungen zu FGL verfuegen und zum Transfer von Forschungsergebnissen in die industrielle Praxis, ist eine

  12. Towards a New Generation of Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Design and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno; Conant, Richard T.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Jones, James W.; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Keating, Brian A.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration. We propose an implementation strategy that would link a "pre-competitive" space for model development to a "competitive space" for knowledge product development and through private-public partnerships for new data infrastructure. Specific model improvements would be based on further testing and evaluation of existing models, the development and testing of modular model components and integration, and linkages of model integration platforms to new data management and visualization tools.

  13. Nurses' knowledge and perception of delirium screening and assessment in the intensive care unit: Long-term effectiveness of an education-based knowledge translation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickin, Sharon L; White, Sandra; Knopp-Sihota, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of education on nurses' knowledge of delirium, knowledge and perception of a validated screening tool, and delirium screening in the ICU. A quasi-experimental single group pretest-post-test design. A 16 bed ICU in a Canadian urban tertiary care centre. Nursing knowledge and perception were measured at baseline, 3-month and 18-month periods. Delirium screening was then assessed over 24-months. During the study period, 197 surveys were returned; 84 at baseline, 53 at 3-months post education, and 60 at the final assessment period 18-months post intervention. The significant improvements in mean knowledge scores at 3-months post intervention (7.2, SD 1.3) were not maintained at 18-months (5.3, SD 1.1). Screening tool perception scores remained unchanged. Improvements in the perception of utility were significant at both time periods (p=0.03, 0.02 respectively). Physician value significantly improved at 18-months (p=0.01). Delirium screening frequency improved after education (pperception and physician value improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  15. A knowledge management-based intranet: asset or EBM liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimnagh, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the presentation given at the British Computer Society Primary Health Care Specialist Group annual conference 2004. It outlines the four years of experience gained in implementing a knowledge management-based intranet across a local health community. Consideration is given to definitions of knowledge management and evidence-based medicine. The paper outlines the potential impacts and actual results over the four-year period, with reference to the wider issues involved.

  16. Curriculum providing cognitive knowledge and problem-solving skills for anesthesia systems-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-12-01

    Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency.

  17. Increasing knowledge of best practices for occupational therapists treating post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect: results of a knowledge-translation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Salbach, Nancy M; Ahmed, Sara; Menon, Anita; Ogourtsova, Tatiana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the feasibility of delivering a multi-modal knowledge translation intervention specific to the management of acute post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect; and (ii) the impact of the knowledge translation intervention on occupational therapists' knowledge of evidence-based unilateral spatial neglect problem identification, assessment and treatment, and self-efficacy related to evidence-based practice implementation. A 3-period (pre-post) repeated measures design. Acute care occupational therapists treating patients with post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect were recruited from two major Canadian cities. Participants completed two pre-intervention assessments, took part in a day-long interactive multi-modal knowledge translation intervention and a subsequent 8-week follow-up, and completed a post-intervention assessment. Knowledge of evidence-based problem identification, assessment and treatment of unilateral spatial neglect, and self-efficacy to perform evidence-based practice activities were measured using standard scales. The intervention was tested on 20 occupational therapists. Results indicate a significant improvement in knowledge of best practice unilateral spatial neglect management (p knowledge translation intervention is feasible and can significantly improve occupational therapists' knowledge of unilateral spatial neglect best practices and self-efficacy. The findings should help advance best practices specific to the management of post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect as well as informing knowledge translation studies in other areas of practice.

  18. The Latent Structure of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Fraley, R. Chris; Groh, Ashley M.; Steele, Ryan D.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Bost, Kelly K.; Veríssimo, Manuela; Coppola, Gabrielle; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that attachment representations abstracted from childhood experiences with primary caregivers are organized as a cognitive script describing secure base use and support (i.e., the "secure base script"). To date, however, the latent structure of secure base script knowledge has gone unexamined--this despite…

  19. A Knowledge Based Approach to VLSI CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Avail-and/or Dist ISpecial L| OI. SEICURITY CLASIIrCATION OP THIS IPA.lErllm S Daene." A KNOwLEDE BASED APPROACH TO VLSI CAD’ Louis L Steinberg and...major issues lies in building up and managing the knowledge base of oesign expertise. We expect that, as with many recent expert systems, in order to

  20. KNOWLEDGE-BASED OBJECT DETECTION IN LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boochs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This “understanding” enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL, used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists’ knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  1. Knowledge-Based Object Detection in Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, F.; Karmacharya, A.; Marbs, A.

    2012-07-01

    Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This "understanding" enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL), used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists' knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  2. Building knowledge city in transformation era : Knowledge-based urban development in Beijing in the context of globalisation and decentralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lu, Bo

    This study examines knowledge-based urban development in Beijing with the objective of revealing the impact of the 'synergetic' forces of globalisation and local government intervention on knowledge-based urban development in the context of the coexisting processes of globalisation and

  3. A knowledge-based diagnosis system for welding machine problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnieres, P. de; Boutes, J.L.; Calas, M.A.; Para, S.

    1986-06-01

    This paper presents a knowledge-based diagnosis system which can be a valuable aid in resolving malfunctions and failures encountered using the automatic hot-wire TIG weld cladding process. This knowledge-based system is currently under evaluation by welding operators at the Framatome heavy fabricating facility. Extension to other welding processes is being considered

  4. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona – Diana Leon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly more literature mention that in the current competitive environment, knowledge have become the main source of the competitive advantages, while recent researches regarding economic growth and development have defined knowledge as being the most critical resource of the emerging countries.Therefore, the organizations interest for knowledge has increased, the latter being defined as knowledge management process in order to meet existing needs, to identify and exploit existing and/or acquired knowledge and developing new opportunities.In other words, knowledge management facilitates productive information usage, intelligence growth, storing intellectual capital, strategic planning, flexible acquisition, collection of best practices, increasing the likelihood of being successful as well as a more productive collaboration within the company.In order to benefit from all these advantages, it is required the usage of specific tools including models and systems to stimulate the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge held by each employee and the organization as a whole.

  5. NetWeaver for EMDS user guide (version 1.1): a knowledge base development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes use of the NetWeaver knowledge base development system. Knowledge representation in NetWeaver is based on object-oriented fuzzy-logic networks that offer several significant advantages over the more traditional rulebased representation. Compared to rule-based knowledge bases, NetWeaver knowledge bases are easier to build, test, and maintain because...

  6. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  7. Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

    2012-04-01

    Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be

  8. Knowledge-based operation guidance system for nuclear power plants based on generic task methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)

  9. ROMANIA AND THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY: INNOVATION THE SOURCE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Holban (Oncioiu) Ionica; Oncioiu Florin Razvan

    2008-01-01

    The is already a vast literature on the role of knowledge in economic growth butthere is need to clarify the meaning and scope of this term and define the Romanianperspective on the relationship between knowledge-based economy and growth. This paper focuses on innovation systems in Romania as the key challenge and meanfor embracing growth based on knowledge-based economy.

  10. The Effects of Smartphone-based Nebulizer Therapy Education on Parents' Knowledge and Confidence of Performance in Caring for Children with Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Min, Hae Young

    This study aimed to identify the effects of smartphone-based nebulizer therapy education on the