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Sample records for important motivating factor

  1. Identifying important motivational factors for professionals in Greek hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Paleologou, Victoria; Niakas, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify important motivational factors according to the views of health-care professionals in Greek hospitals and particularly to determine if these might differ in the public and private sectors. Methods A previously developed -and validated- instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Three categories of health care professionals, doctors (N = 354), nurses (N = 581) and office workers (N = 418), working in public and private hospitals, participated and motivation was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The range of reported motivational factors was mixed and Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed. The highest ranked motivator for the entire sample, and by professional subgroup, was achievements (P motivators were similar, and only one significant difference was observed, namely between doctors and nurses in respect to co-workers (P motivated by all factors significantly more than their public-hospital counterparts. Conclusion The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care workers. This study showed that intrinsic factors are particularly important and should become a target for effective employee motivation. PMID:19754968

  2. Importance of Motivational Factors among Future Business Persons: Further Evidence from Ghana

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    Peter Kwame Kuutol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Businesses design motivation systems to persuade employees to perform in the most effective way but also to attract potential candidates. The key to create the efficient motivation system is an answer to the question what actually motivate employees. The rationale of this paper is to find which of the motivation factors are seen as the most important by students considered as future business persons either by gender or job possession as set out in the questionnaire. The study was based on the questionnaire distributed to the sample of 462 respondents from Presbyterian University college of Ghana. Respondents were asked to rank thirteen motivation factors in the order of their importance. The findings showed that Good wages and job security were the most important factors for all students as well as good working conditions.   The research recommended the creation of motivation systems for freshly graduated potential employees and freshly graduated employees to me their expectations as well as for planning recruitment strategies focused on future job seekers.

  3. The importance of motivation factors in career development of primary and secondary school professionals

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    Petra Stepišnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the career motivation factors among Slovene teachers. They go hand in hand with two other processes: the psycho-social development of individuals and their family life. We present the results of the empirical research that was carried out on a sample of 360 professionals from primary and secondary schools. We established a scale for determining the importance of motivation factors by asking the professionals to grade their level of agreement with the statements considering the following motivational factors: the legislation and the organization of files in the context of school, the organisational climate and culture at schools, the school management, schools as learning organisations, the need of individuals for career development. We were interested if there exist any differences in the opinions of professionals in primary and secondary schools regarding the importance of individual motivation factors. We were also interested if there exists an interdependence between the final results and the individual variables. The findings are important for professionals and school management in schools that encourage career development. It would be sensible to take these findings into consideration when planning, as well as monitoring career development of school professionals.

  4. Important motivators for buying green products

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    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  5. The Priority Importance of Economic Motivation Factors Against Risks for Green Building Development in Malaysia

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    Mohamed Ghazali Farid Ezanee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green building development is an emerging paradigm for the construction industry practice all around the world. The establishement of Green Building rating tool helps to assess the whole life cycle process in planning to operation in a building. The Malaysian construction industry recognizes buildings that have been assessed using established green building tool such Green Building Index, Green RE or My CREST. Eventhough these rating tools provide motivation factors in its criteria and sub-criteria to promote sustainability in Malaysia buildings, there is still a major doubt to developers in terms of risks that may hinder their investments in green buildings. This paper highlights the priority importance of economic motivation factors against risks in the green building development in Malaysia. The data presented in this paper have been mainly derived from responses received through questionnaires completed by building stakeholders involved in green building developments. In order to determine the priority importance of economic motivation factors and risks identified for green building development, the questionnaire outcomes have been thoroughly assessed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. As a result, lack of government incentive and high capital cost, which classified under green building risks, are the two key factors with highest priority importance that influenced most of the decision making for green building development in Malaysia. The results show green buildings have proliferated as governmental support and incentives with more exampler of higher profit return of investment in enhancing developers preference for green building development.

  6. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

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    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Egelund Holgaard, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational factors; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education.

  7. A study on effective factors on employee motivation

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    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is often considered as collaboration with others and this requires knowing about employers' behavior and the factors influencing their behaviors to motivate them for obtaining some predicted aims. This paper presents a study to detect important factors influencing motivation of some employees who work for a public offices in city of Kashan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 160 randomly selected participants. The questions are divided into two groups of management performance and motivational factors. To evaluate the effect of demographic factors on the quality of respondents' statements, a rating analysis based on Kruskal–Wallis test is used. To measure the effective vote, the motivation levels are divided into three groups of highly motivated, motivated and not motivated and they are analyzed based on rating mean variance with freedman scale. The results indicate that interesting job, job security, good salary and benefits and promotions, etc. are important factors to impact on the employers' motivation. For the newly – employed personal, job security is the most important motivation factor and for old – established employees, job attractive and sense of being considered is the most effective factor.

  8. Identifying Factors for Worker Motivation in Zambia's Rural Health Facilities.

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    Cross, Samuel S; Baernholdt, Dr Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Within Zambia there is a shortage of health workers in rural areas. This study aims to identify motivating factors for retaining rural health workers. Sixty rural health workers completed surveys and 46 were interviewed. They rated the importance of six motivating factors and discussed these and other factors in interviews. An interview was conducted with a Government Human Resources Manager (HR Manager) to elicit contextual information. All six factors were identified as being very important motivators, as were two additional factors. Additional career training was identified by many as the most important factor. Comparison of results and the HR Manager interview revealed that workers lacked knowledge about opportunities and that the HR manager was aware of barriers to career development. The Zambian government might better motivate and retain rural health workers by offering them any combination of identified factors, and by addressing the barriers to career development.

  9. Effective Factors in Job Motivation of Faculty Members of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Based on Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation in 1394

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    Somaie Ziar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The most important factor for success in every organization, s its human resources. Human resources with the power of creativity, imagination, faith and commitment, have a great impact on the performance of the organization. University faculty members are the main pillars of human resources and affect the development of universities to promote academic standing in their communities. In this regard, the role of job motivation of faculty members to further efficiency helps universities. Materials and Methods: To determine the effective factors in job motivation of Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences’ faculty members, we conducted the study based on Herzberg's two factor motivation theory. In this across-sectional study, a sample of 137, (10% of the population in 12 faculties were selected by random and proportional sampling based on size and gender of faculty members. The instrument used was a questionnaire containing 40 of the 11 areas of external factors and an effective two-factor theory of Herzberg's motivation-based job. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha (%86. After collecting data gamma and correlation multipliers Ki-test and logistic regression analysis was carried was with software SPSS16. Results: The internal factors were more important than external factors. Internal factors were more important in younger people. External factors, however, were more important in older people. Three areas, nature of work, professional development and career is also the most importance among the areas of internal factors, respectively. Two areas of occupational safety and connection are the most importance among the external factors. Conclusion: Providing the perfect environment, according to members of academic faculty, job security, moral values, decreasing problems of employment due to age and work experience, training individuals and providing a salary based on ability

  10. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

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    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  11. Food choice motives and the importance of family meals among immigrant mothers.

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    Marquis, Marie; Shatenstein, Bryna

    2005-01-01

    To determine the health and social benefits of the family mealtime, we examined the contribution of immigrant mothers' food motives to the importance placed on family meals, and cultural differences in mothers' food motives and the importance ascribed to family meals. Data were taken from a study on food choice factors among ten- to 12-year-old children from three cultural communities in Montreal. A 24-item, self-administered questionnaire was used to explore food choice motives. Each mother was also asked how important it was for her family to take the time to eat together, and if the child enjoyed sharing meals with his or her family. In all, 209 of the 653 questionnaires distributed were valid; 68 were from Haitian, 75 from Portuguese, and 66 from Vietnamese mothers. Five factors emerging from factor analyses explained 61.67% of the variance. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences between mothers' countries of origin for the importance placed on health, pleasure, familiarity, and ingredient properties (pmotivations emerged as the only significant predictor of the importance given to family meals, whereas for Vietnamese mothers, both health and eating familiar foods were predictors (p<0.05).

  12. Motivation and its importance in learning English

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    Нетесова, Мария Витальевна

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to pay our attention to such a significant problem as motivation in the process of learning a foreign language. The paper is devoted to the very important problem concerning educational process. For most purposes in today, motivation has different reasons why we act in a certain way. We may indeed be motivated by influences as basic as pain and pleasure. The key to understanding motivation is, to some, understanding why it is important to an individual...

  13. Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India.

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    Purohit, Bhaskar; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2014-02-21

    Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job. The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security. To address the issue of motivation, the health departments need to pay close attention to devising management strategies that address not only extrinsic but also intrinsic factors of motivation. The study results may be useful to understand the complicated issue of

  14. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne Schioldann

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find...... that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering......; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education....

  15. Motivation and personality: relationships between putative motive dimensions and the five factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2010-04-01

    There are few multidimensional measures of individual differences in motivation available. The Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire assesses 15 putative dimensions of motivation. The dimensions are based on evolutionary theory and preliminary evidence suggests the motive scales have good psychometric properties. The scales are reliable and there is evidence of their consensual validity (convergence of self-other ratings) and behavioral validity (relationships with self-other reported behaviors of social importance). Additional validity research is necessary, however, especially with respect to current models of personality. The present study tested two general and 24 specific hypotheses based on proposed evolutionary advantages/disadvantages and fitness benefits/costs of the five-factor model of personality together with the new motive scales in a sample of 424 participants (M age=28.8 yr., SD=14.6). Results were largely supportive of the hypotheses. These results support the validity of new motive dimensions and increase understanding of the five-factor model of personality.

  16. What are people looking for? : personality traits and importance of work motivation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.

    2008-01-01

    Based on two different work motivation theories, the relationships between personality traits (Big Five, CSE: core self-evaluation) and the importance of various job aspects was investigated. In Study I (N=118), graduates with high scores on Openness to experience and Agreeableness placed emphasis

  17. Motivational factors influencing nurses to undertake postgraduate hospital-based education.

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    Kinsella, Danny; Fry, Margaret; Zecchin, Alison

    2018-05-01

    Specialist postgraduate education improves patient health outcomes, and assists in meeting the emerging specialisation of nursing practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors that influence nurses' engagement with hospital-based postgraduate education. The research design was descriptive and exploratory, using a survey method. The survey consisted of demographic details, the Participation Reasons Scale (PRS) and open-ended questions. Thirty-four participants (100%) completed the survey. Of the PRS extrinsic and intrinsic factors, Professional Improvement and Development (Factor 1) and Professional Service (Factor 2), both intrinsic factors, ranked the highest. Therefore, this study identified that intrinsic motivation factors influenced engagement with postgraduate specialty programs for early career nurses. These results highlight the importance of intrinsic motivation factors for a nursing workforce and how this can potentially drive behaviour and decision making. A better understanding of motivation factors across a nurse's career could lead to educational strategies that optimise postgraduate program engagement to better support healthcare delivery and a culture of lifelong learning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Intrinsic-extrinsic factors in sport motivation.

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    Pedersen, Darhl M

    2002-10-01

    Participants were 83 students (36 men and 47 women). 10 intrinsic-extrinsic factors involved in sport motivation were obtained. The factors were generated from items obtained from the participants rather than items from the experimenter. This was done to avoid the possible influence of preconceptions on the part of the experimenter regarding what the final dimensions may be. Obtained motivational factors were Social Reinforcement, Fringe Benefits, Fame and Fortune, External Forces, Proving Oneself, Social Benefits, Mental Enrichment, Expression of Self, Sense of Accomplishment, and Self-enhancement. Each factor was referred to an intrinsic-extrinsic dimension to describe its relative position on that dimension. The order of the factors as listed indicates increasing intrinsic motivation. i.e., the first four factors were rated in the extrinsic range, whereas the remaining six were rated to be in the intrinsic range. Next, the participants rated the extent to which each of the various factors was involved in their decision to participate in sport activities. The pattern of use of the motivational factors was the same for both sexes except that men indicated greater use of the Fringe Benefits factor. Overall, the more intrinsic a sport motivation factor was rated, the more likely it was to be rated as a factor in actual sport participation.

  19. Intrinsic Motivating Factors for Academic Success of Young At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Tanyia Perry

    2012-01-01

    Motivation as a factor in academic success is well documented in the literature and an important construct in educational planning. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore motivating factors for at-risk students who successfully graduated from high school. The framework for this study was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs…

  20. The importance of self-determined motivation towards physical activity in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; De Herdt, Amber; Scheewe, Thomas W; Soundy, Andrew; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel

    2013-12-30

    There is a need for theoretically-based research on the motivational processes linked to the commencement and continuation of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia. Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, we investigated the SDT tenets in these patients by examining the factor structure of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between motivation and PA. The secondary aim was to study differences in motivation according to gender, educational level, treatment setting and disease stage. A total of 129 patients (44♀) with schizophrenia agreed to participate. Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient convergence with the original factor for amotivation, external and introjected regulation, while identified and intrinsic regulations loaded on a single factor which we labeled "autonomous regulation". Significant positive correlations were found between the total physical activity score and the subscales amotivation (r = -0.44, P important role in the adoption and maintenance of health promoting behaviors in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Electronic portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective: A qualitative study

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    Rokhsareh Mobarhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic portfolio (e-Portfolio is known as an electronic learning record which collects the learning evidences, reflections and accomplishments. In fact, it tells the story of learning achievements. It is an important tool for students, lecturers, administrators and faculties to monitor the learning outcomes. Similarly to other technologies, e-Portfolio is also considered successful, if it is used by students continuously. Previous researches showed the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in using any technologies. However, lack of motivation has been a major concern for developing any successful online learning environments. The aim of this paper is to explain the e-Portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective. Interviews are conducted with students from one university in Malaysia in order to get better understanding of the phenomena. The target interviewees are bachelor students chosen from different faculties. Based on the qualitative content analysis of the interviews, the motivational factors affecting the continuous use of e-portfolio are coded in eight themes and then they categorized in four main groups of individual, system, social and environmental characteristics. Finally they are classified into intrinsic or extrinsic motivations.

  2. The effects of motivational factors on car use: a multidisciplinary modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steg, L.; Ras, M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Centre for Environmental and Traffic Psychology; Geurs, K. [National Institute of Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    Current transport models usually do not take motivational factors into account, and if they do, it is only implicitly. This paper presents a modelling approach aimed at explicitly examining the effects of motivational factors on present and future car use in the Netherlands. A car-use forecasting model for the years 2010 and 2020 was constructed on the basis of (i) a multinominal regression analysis, which revealed the importance of a motivational variable (viz., problem awareness) in explaining current car-use behavior separate from socio-demographic and socio-economic variables, and (ii) a population model constructed to forecast the size and composition of the Dutch population. The results show that car use could be better explained by taking motivational factors explicitly into account, and that the level of car use forecast might change significantly if changes in motivations are assumed. The question on how motivational factors could be incorporated into current (Dutch) national transport models was also addressed. (author)

  3. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

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    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  4. Motivational factors of adherence to cardiac rehabilitation.

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    Shahsavari, Hooman; Shahriari, Mohsen; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2012-05-01

    Main suggested theories about patients' adherence to treatment regimens recognize the importance of motivation in positive changes in behaviors. Since cardiac diseases are chronic and common, cardiac rehabilitation as an effective prevention program is crucial in management of these diseases. There is always concern about the patients' adherence to cardiac rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe the motivational factors affecting the patients' participation and compliance to cardiac rehabilitation by recognizing and understanding the nature of patients' experiences. The participants were selected among the patients with cardiac diseases who were referred to cardiac rehabilitation in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Iran. The purposive sampling method was used and data saturation achieved after 8 semi-structured interviews. The three main concepts obtained from this study are "beliefs", "supporters" and "group cohesion". In cardiac rehabilitation programs, emphasis on motivational factors affects the patient's adherence. It is suggested that in cardiac rehabilitation programs more attention should be paid to patients' beliefs, the role of patients' supporters and the role of group-based rehabilitation.

  5. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: the importance of illness insight and treatment motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Wierdsma, André I; Blanken, Peter; Bloemendaal, Anthony Ft; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2016-01-01

    Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are related to each other and their compliance with depot medication. Interviews were conducted in 169 outpatients with a psychotic disorder taking depot medication. Four patient groups were defined based on low or high illness insight and on low or high motivation. The associations between depot-medication compliance, motivation, and insight were illustrated using generalized linear models. Generalized linear model showed a significant interaction effect between motivation and insight. Patients with poor insight and high motivation for treatment were more compliant (94%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.821, 3.489) with their depot medication than patients with poor insight and low motivation (61%) (95% CI: 0.288, 0.615). Patients with both insight and high motivation for treatment were less compliant (73%) (95% CI: 0.719, 1.315) than those with poor insight and high motivation. Motivation for treatment was more strongly associated with depot-medication compliance than with illness insight. Being motivated to take medication, whether to get better or for other reasons, may be a more important factor than having illness insight in terms of improving depot-medication compliance. Possible implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  6. [Which factors influence job satisfaction and motivation in an institute of radiology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, M; Imhof, S; Mohr, H; Römpler, M; Kubik-Huch, R A

    2007-08-29

    As empirically shown, increasing job satisfaction and motivations correlates with reduced job fluctuation and costs of absenteeism in an organisation. To provide a motivating environment for employees becomes more important in the health-care system and thus also in radiology. The purpose of our study was therefore to evaluate job satisfaction of our team and to define important influencing factors. For data collection, as standardized questionnaire was designed. As a result of a discussion in a focus group, 9 indicators characterizing job satisfaction and motivation were determined (four-point ordinal scale), in addition there were open questions as well as space for comments. The questionnaires were distributed to all employees at the institute during the study period 11/2005. It was assured in the study design that data analysis was anonymous. For statistical analysis, all replies were coded (scale 1-4) and transferred to an excel sheet. Rate of return was 92% (46/50). In general, employees enjoyed work (mean 3.37 +/- 0.5); no significant difference between physicians, technicians and other staff members were observed. Factors most important for personal motivation were good working climate (3.85 +/- 0.4), good reputation of the institute (3.56 +/- 0.8) and personal recognition (3.54 +/- 0.6). Wage raise (3.01 +/- 0.9) and bonus payments (3.11 +/- 0.9) were rated less important. Communication between groups of employees could be improved (2.78 +/- 0.7). When asked, which factors would improve motivation, common answer included teamwork and communication (n = 9), more participation in planning processes (n = 8), more appreciation (n = 7) and continuing education (n = 5). Profound knowledge of factors influencing job satisfaction and motivation of employees allows for the implementation of targeted strategies for continuous improvement.

  7. Motivation: Approaching an Elusive Concept through the Factors That Shape It

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    Jang, Bong Gee; Conradi, Kristin; McKenna, Michael C.; Jones, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide educators with clear definitions of motivational factors in reading so that instructional planning can capitalize on important distinctions. The authors present definitions of a small set of related motivational concepts (including attitudes, interests, self-efficacy, self-concept, goals, and value)…

  8. ESG Issues among Fund Managers—Factors and Motives

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    Justyna Przychodzen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the motives, behavior, and characteristics shaping mutual fund managers’ willingness to incorporate Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG issues into investment decision making. Using survey evidence from fund managers from five different countries, we demonstrate that this predisposition is the stronger, the shorter their average forecasting horizon and the higher their level of reliance on business risk in portfolio management is. We also find that the propensity to incorporate ESG factors is positively related to an increasing level of risk aversion, an increasing importance of salary change and senior management approval/disapproval as motivating factors as well as length of professional experience in current fund and increasing significance of assessment by superiors in remuneration. Overall, our evidence suggests that ESG diligence among fund managers serves mainly as a method for mitigating risk and is typically motivated by herding; it is much less important as a tool for additional value creation. The prevalent use of ESG criteria in mitigating risk is in contrast with traditional approach, but it is in line with behavioral finance theory. Additionally, our results also show a strong difference in the length of the forecasting horizon between continental European and Anglo-Saxon fund managers.

  9. Wellness Centers in Slovenia: Tourists’ Profiles and Motivational Factors

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    Milica Rančić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wellness and spa tourism has increasingly become an important economic and marketing strategy for hoteliers, resorts and tourist destinations to attract tourist visitations. Deep understanding of consumer profiles and their key motivations within this context is vital in order to sustain the growth of wellness and spa tourism business. This paper presents an exploratory study that seeks to understand the spa and wellness tourists’ motivation during their visits to spa and wellness service centers in Slovenia. The purpose of this research is to examine the characteristics of a healthy-living market segment and its motivational behavior to wellness facilities in Slovenia. The paper provides the broad understanding of wellness and spa tourists’ profiles in Slovenia and the key motivation factors

  10. Individuals' Interest in Preventing Everyday Accidents and Crises: A Swedish Explorative Study of the Importance of Motivation

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    Erika Wall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This explorative study presents an empirical examination of the connection between motivation and the measures individuals take to prevent everyday accidents and prepare for crises. Positional factors (age and gender and situational factors (education, size of locality, and household composition are included because the literature highlights their importance. The study used data gathered in a 2010/2011 poll of randomly selected Swedish residents aged 16–75 (N = 2000; 44.8% response rate. A factor analysis reduced the theoretical model for situational motivation (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000 from four to two dimensions: motivation and amotivation. Subsequent regression analyses statistically confirmed the connection between motivation or amotivation and the extent to which individuals pursue preventative and preparedness measures, even when accounting for positional and situational factors. These findings underscore the need for continued studies of individuals’ incentives to prevent accidents and prepare for crises and for the study of the nuances of (situational motivation and preventive/preparedness measures.

  11. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  12. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  13. THE MOTIVATING FACTORS FOR ENTERING INTO FOREIGN MARKETS-THE CASE OF REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the most important motives that make companies  consider while operating out of their borders into other potential markets. It will also analyze the factors of internal and external environment. Therefore, the goal of this research is to analyze the motives and factors of foreign companies that have already entered Macedonia in any mode of entry by finding out the factors and motives that influenced their decision making while choosing the proper mode for that particular market. As a research methodology for collecting primary data, a structured questionnaire was used with 13 variables- motives for the internationalization of businesses. The SPSS software is used in order to analyze these variables. Cronbach Alfa is used for checking the internal reliability of variables. According to this analysis the following factors: international knowledge and experience of the company, identification of international opportunities, following competitors, international and competitive nature of the industry /the firm are considered as the most important motivating factors for the internationalization of businesses. While the following factors: economic stability, social stability, political stability, infrastructure, access to capital, аnd the level of education influence the modes of entry for companies that entered the Macedonian market.

  14. Is the intrinsic motivation of career choice important for the later professional development of teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of teachers’ professional choice motivation has been proved important for the later professional development. The goal of the present research was to determine the role of the intrinsic motivation in the participants’ decision to become teachers, as well as to establish the importance of intrinsic motivation for their later professional development. We have conducted a quantitative research, within a sample consisted of 118 secondary school teachers, by application of survey method (instrument– questionnaire in the form of Likert-type scale. Statistical analysis has consisted of: hierarchical cluster analysis, descriptive statistics, factor analysis and rank correlation. It was established that the intrinsic motivation takes precedence over the extrinsic motivation in the process of professional choice determination. We have also confirmed the hypothesis claiming that the level of intrinsic motivation correlates with the indicators of professional behavior. Besides, the level of intrinsic motivation is better predictor of the enthusiasm and growth then of the career frustration (Fessler, 1995. Our results are in favor of the teacher education system, where the candidates apply and prepare for the teacher profession from the beginning of the initial education.

  15. Prioritizing Motivational and Satisfactorily Factors of Volunteer Medical and Health Personnel in Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, volunteer forces are among the main members of the healthcare services, particularly in the treatment sector, and play a key role in healthcare and treatment services. Since efficient human resources are the greatest and most important assets of all organizations, they constantly work to train, retain, and get the best of these valuable assets. The main objective of this work was to prioritize the motivational factors and satisfaction of the volunteer forces participating in treatment and health programs in the case of emergencies. Materials and Methods: The study population of this research was all volunteers (N=600 in treatment and health programs of Kerman Province. Using the Morgan Table, 360 subjects were selected. The data-gathering instrument was Andam’s questionnaire of motivational factors with reliability of 0.94, and Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley (2001 questionnaire of satisfaction with reliability of 0.92. To determine research data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied. Moreover, for data analysis inferential statistics tests of Friedman, Mann–Whitney U, and Kruskal–Wallis were used at significance level of P<0.05. Results: The present research revealed that the most and least important motivational factors in volunteers of treatment and health units were purposeful motivation and financial motivation with average rankings of 5.45 and 1.99, respectively. In addition, among the satisfaction factors, the volunteers reported communication with volunteers and organizational communication as the most and least important satisfaction factors, respectively. The results of this research indicated that the female volunteers participated in volunteer activities with greater occupational, support, progress, and social motivations. In addition, single participants had greater occupational, social, and financial motivations towards participation in these activities as compared to married participants

  16. GRADE AS THE MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS

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    Sead Rešić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the motivation for learning mathematics was tested,as well as the effect of grades on the motivation of primary school level students. On a sample of N=100 participants, primary school students, we conducted a survey, the results of which show that the participants are more motivated with extrinsic factors, then intrinsic factors for learning mathematics. Grades are the main factor that has the most influence on the motivation level of students for learning mathematics, because students need good grades for their further education. The results also show that punishment and rewards from parents for bad and good grades has no effect on the motivation level of students

  17. Identifying motivational factors within a multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interview with the manager. The results confirmed that in Romania, employees put great emphasis on extrinsic motivation, a certain income and job security being primary. These results have implications for managers that in order to effectively motivate staff, first, must know their needs and expectations. To identify the main needs and motivational factors we had as a starting point Maslow's pyramid.

  18. Nostalgia motivates pursuit of important goals by increasing meaning in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-01-01

    This research focused on existential and motivational implications of the emotion of nostalgia. Nostalgia (relative to control) increased meaning in life, which, in turn, galvanised intentions to pursue one's most important goal (Experiment 1) and to pursue one's most important, but not least...... in life. Also, this is the first evidence that meaning is associated with specific motivational consequences. Discussion considers the relevance of the findings for the emotion and motivation literatures....... important, goal (Experiment 2). The basic pattern held in two cultures (British and Danish) independently of positive affect. This is the first evidence that nostalgia has specific motivational consequences (i.e., pursuit of more, but not less, important goals) and transmits these consequences via meaning...

  19. In depth analysis of motivational factors at work in the health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Virdi, Sandeep Singh; Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Ghai, Gagandeep Kaur; Singh, Kamaljit; Rana, Chandeep Singh; Singh, J P; Raj, Sahil; Puri, Anju

    2010-01-01

    Motivation of health workers is necessary to generate the organizational commitment towards the patients and the hospital and therefore the knowledge about what motivates and satisfies them is very essential.The aim of the project was to investigate and analyze the various factors that help in motivation of the health workers while performing their clinical duties in the hospital. A simple random study was conducted among 100 employees of our institute, which included doctors, staff nurses and paramedical staff. One hundred employees from Gian Sagar Institute were chosen randomly for the purpose of our study. All the employees were enquired by the questionnaire method as well as by individual interviews regarding the various motivating and demotivating factors at the work place. Detailed enquiries were performed regarding the various aspects concerning the job factors and work satisfaction. All the answers and findings were observed and recorded. Simple non-parametric tests like mean, percentages and chi square tests were employed to analyze the data.The demographic profile of all the employees showed only minor differences which were statistically non-significant. Skills, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, environment, job security and compensation were observed to be the important factors for the motivation of employees. The depth and the extent to which these factors were studied at work in the hospital showed remarkable differences. All the factors studied in this project are essential basis for organizational commitment, but feedback represents the factor with the highest motivation potential especially among the younger population.

  20. In depth analysis of motivational factors at work in the health industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivation of health workers is necessary to generate the organizational commitment towards the patients and the hospital and therefore the knowledge about what motivates and satisfies them is very essential.The aim of the project was to investigate and analyze the various factors that help in motivation of the health workers while performing their clinical duties in the hospital. Materials and Methods: A simple random study was conducted among 100 employees of our institute, which included doctors, staff nurses and paramedical staff. One hundred employees from Gian Sagar Institute were chosen randomly for the purpose of our study. All the employees were enquired by the questionnaire method as well as by individual interviews regarding the various motivating and demotivating factors at the work place. Detailed enquiries were performed regarding the various aspects concerning the job factors and work satisfaction. All the answers and findings were observed and recorded. Results: Statistical Analysis Used: Simple non-parametric tests like mean, percentages and chi square tests were employed to analyze the data.The demographic profile of all the employees showed only minor differences which were statistically non-significant. Skills, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, environment, job security and compensation were observed to be the important factors for the motivation of employees. The depth and the extent to which these factors were studied at work in the hospital showed remarkable differences. Conclusion: All the factors studied in this project are essential basis for organizational commitment, but feedback represents the factor with the highest motivation potential especially among the younger population.

  1. Predictors of employment in schizophrenia: The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L Felice; Llerena, Katiah; Kern, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. A contributing factor that may be relevant but has received little attention in the work rehabilitation literature is motivation. People with schizophrenia show marked deficits in both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation but these deficits have not been directly examined in relation to work outcomes. The present study sought to examine the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and work outcome among a sample of 65 adults with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. One-third of the participants in the study obtained work. Intrinsic motivation related to valuing and feeling useful in a work role significantly predicted who would obtain employment. Extrinsic motivation related to gaining rewards and avoiding obstacles showed a non-significant trend-level relationship such that workers had higher extrinsic motivation than nonworkers. These findings highlight the importance of considering both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in work-related interventions and supported employment for individuals with schizophrenia. The results are discussed in terms of clinical implications for improving rehabilitation and occupational outcomes in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Motivation Factors for Female Entrepreneurship in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cantú Cavada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico. Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico. Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.

  3. The Relative Importance of Motives for International Self-Initiated Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kaye

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the relative importance of the motives and sub-motives which influence a highly educated individual's decision to move across global boundaries. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes a multi-dimensional perspective of mobility, resulting in the development of a range of motives for self-initiated…

  4. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Soleimani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as 0.873 and 12744 with (Sig. =0.000, respectively. The study has detected four important factors including quality of service casualties, sales improvement and advertisement, quality of issuance of insurance policies and quality of work force.

  5. Motivation factors of surgical profile nurses work

    OpenAIRE

    Namajuškaitė, Vaida

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study – investigate the motivation factors of surgical profile nurses work. The objectives of the study: 1. To investigate of satisfaction with work, to identify the motivation positive factors, emotional exhaustion of nurses, which are working in the surgical profile departments and operating-theaters. 2. To investigate negative factors (emotional exhaustion, salary, nursing load). 3. To give the offers for the main problems solutions. Hypothesis – the nurses m...

  6. Evaluating Pharmacists' Motivation and Job Satisfaction Factors in Saudi Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslimane, Nabila; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    High turnover rate among healthcare professionals is a very expensive price that healthcare organizations might pay if they don't have the proper strategies for motivating and satisfying their employees. Healthcare organizations should be able to identify areas that require more attention. Many studies discussed the vital link that bonds job satisfaction with motivation, which has a major impact on productivity, innovation, and overall organizational performance. Our study explored the level of job satisfaction and factors that motivate pharmacists in Saudi hospitals using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. From pharmacy managers' point of view; financial rewards are more important than non-financial incentives and benefits. This contradicts with pharmacists' opinions; who ranked recognition, promotion, job satisfaction, job feedback, autonomy and task significance among the most influential motivators to pharmacists. These results show that managers need to revise their plans and provide further attention to ensure that effective motivation and retention strategies are put in place.

  7. The Effect of Extrinsic Motivational Factors Towards Iba Student Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrid S.; Saerang, David Paul Elia; Rondonuwu, Mariska

    2014-01-01

    The reason students can facing the world of competition because they have a motivation. A thing that help students to get their motivation when they are not get a motivation by themself is through extrinsic motivational factors. There are two objectives of this research are to analyze the effect of extrinsic motivational factors towards student achievement and to identify the most influental factors on student achievement. The method is multiple linear regression analysis to examine the effec...

  8. Teachers' instructional behaviors as important predictors of academic motivation : Changes and links across the school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Bosker, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Learning environments play an important role for students' learning and outcomes. Research indicates that many students show poor academic motivation. Teachers' behavior can function as a protective factor for sustaining students' interest and active engagement in schools. However, the knowledge

  9. Is motivation important to brook trout passage through culverts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Culverts can restrict movement of stream-dwelling fish. Motivation to enter and ascend these structures is an essential precursor for successful passage. However, motivation is challenging to quantify. Here, we use attempt rate to assess motivation of 447 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) entering three culverts under a range of hydraulic, environmental, and biological conditions. A passive integrated transponder system allowed for the identification of passage attempts and success of individual fish. Attempt rate was quantified using time-to-event analysis allowing for time-varying covariates and recurrent events. Attempt rate was greatest during the spawning period, at elevated discharge, at dusk, and for longer fish. It decreased during the day and with increasing number of conspecifics downstream of the culvert. Results also show a positive correlation between elevated motivation and successful passage. This study enhances understanding of factors influencing brook trout motivation to ascend culverts and shows that attempt rate is a dynamic phenomenon, variable over time and among individuals. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate other species’ motivation to pass natural or anthropogenic barriers.

  10. Motivational factors for educational tourism: marketing insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harazneh Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertwined with other structural changes, are policies to increase the number of international students to diversify tourism activities into what is known as educational tourism (edutourism. Of immediate relevance to this article is the implementation of policies and strategies to attract students from all over the world. Unfortunately, these policies are partially implemented opting out important factors, as such this article attempt to conceptualize the motivational factors associated with edu-tourism. Data garnered from foreign students in North Cyprus suggest that cost, quality, environmental, regulatory, cultural, political, safety and social factors are key factors for edu-tourism. The outcome in this study will help policy makers determine the factors that influence the choice of tertiary institutions in North Cyprus associated with a particular geodemographic setup. This will also enable policy makers to create a tailor made persuasive strategies, policies, adverts and messages to increase their market share.

  11. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  12. THE CORRELATION AMONG ATTITUDE, MOTIVATION AND SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT OF COLLEGE STUDENTS ACROSS PERSONALITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Lailatul Khoiriyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the important of understanding about the attitude, motivation and the personality of the students in the English learning process, this research is aimed at finding the relationship between attitude and motivation which are acknowledged as influential factors in speaking achievement across their personality factors. Sixty Non-EFL students of Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University of Malang who take English as their compulsory subject were participated as the research sample. They were the fourth semester undergraduate taking TOEFL and Speaking Course. Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (AMTB, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, speaking test and TOEFL-like test were administered. The results of this research revealed that there was significant correlation among attitude, motivation and speaking achievement of extrovert and Introvert students.

  13. Analyzing EFL Teachers’ Initial Job Motivation and Factors Effecting Their Motivation in Fezalar Educational Institutions in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Koran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher motivation is one of the primary variables of students’ high performance. It is experienced that students whose teachers are highly motivated are more engaged in the learning process. Therefore, it’s mostly the teacher who determines the level of success or failure in achieving institution’s goal in the educational process. Thus, teachers are expected to demonstrate a high job motivation performance by administrations. However, some teachers seem naturally enthusiastic about teaching while others need to be stimulated, inspired and challenged. There are several factors that provide teachers with necessary motivation driven by which they can work effectively. These factors can be emotional, financial, physical or academic. This study is an attempt to find out what motivates teachers to enter this profession, since the reasons of entering this job has significant influence on their commitment to the job, investigate factors which are responsible for high or low motivation of language teachers in Fezalar Educational Institutions (FEI, which is a Turkish private institution that operates in Iraq, and ascertain the degree to which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors impact teachers in their work situation. Based on the review of the recent researches of motivation, in general, and of language teacher motivation, in particular, and relying on the qualitative and quantitative study of the issue, a detailed analysis of some aspects of foreign language teacher motivation is presented in the article. Keywords: teacher motivation, job satisfaction, foreign language teaching, L2 teacher motivation

  14. What Factors Are Associated with Autonomous and Controlled Motivation for Hearing Help-Seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jason; Hickson, Louise; Lind, Christopher

    Hearing impairment is prevalent in older adults. Motivation is important in people's choice to seek help for their hearing and whether to adopt or not adopt hearing aids. To investigate associations between sociodemographic and audiometric characteristics and autonomous and controlled motivation among a sample of hearing help-seekers. A quantitative approach was taken for this cross-sectional cohort study. A total of 253 adult first-time hearing help-seekers were recruited to the study. Participants provided sociodemographic information and completed questionnaires adapted from self-determination theory that measured autonomous motivation (motivation that originates from within the self and is aligned with personal values and beliefs) and controlled motivation (motivation that stems from external pressures such as rewards or punishment, or conflicted inner feelings such as guilt or shame). Participants with higher autonomous motivation scores were younger, wanted hearing aids more, and reported greater hearing difficulty in everyday life than those with lower scores. Participants with higher controlled motivation scores were more often referred to the service by others and wanted hearing aids more than those with lower controlled motivation scores. Controlled motivation scores were not associated with perceptions of hearing difficulty in everyday life. Relationships among motivation and sociodemographic factors highlight the importance of characterizing autonomous and controlled motivation in first-time hearing help-seekers. Attention to personal characteristics in order to understand motivational processes involved in rehabilitation decisions such as hearing aid adoption may aid in consultations. American Academy of Audiology

  15. Factors Influencing Participation in Continuing Professional Development: A Focus on Motivation Among Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; de Boer, Anthonius; Croiset, Gerda; Koster, Andries S; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-01

    The interest in continuing education (CE) for pharmacists has increased because of patient safety issues, advancing science and the quick changes in the profession. Therefore, contemporary pharmaceutical care requires an effective and sustainable system for pharmacists to maintain and improve competencies. Although motivation plays an important role both as a facilitator (desire to learn) and a barrier (lack of motivation), there is little investigated about this specific factor. The aim of the study was to explore what factors influence pharmacists' participation in CE with a focus on motivation. The theoretical framework was self-determination theory (SDT), which describes autonomous motivation (AM) representing motivation from an internal locus of causality, controlled motivation (CM) originating from an external locus of causality, and relative autonomous motivation (RAM) that measures the AM in an individual after correcting for the CM. The relationship between pharmacists' characteristics, especially their motivation (AM, CM and RAM) in CE, and their participation in CE activities was explored using the AMS-questionnaire and the Dutch online portfolio system. RAM was positively correlated with CE participation of pharmacists and explained 7.8% of the variance. The correlations between the independent variables AM and CM and CE hours were negative (-0.301 and -0.476, respectively). Other factors influencing CE participation were pharmacy school (6.8%), traineeship (10.9%), and work experience (7.8%). Pharmacists participated for 27.0 hours on average in CE during 11 months and preferred face-to-face-learning (85.5%) above e-learning (13.8%). Our findings show a positive relationship between RAM and CE participation. The current CE system is probably not conducive to stimulation of AM. Further research is needed to understand the factors that stimulate pharmacists' motivation and participation in CE.

  16. Motivating factors for seeking cosmetic surgery: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Cynthia Figueroa; Champion, Angela; Secor, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The fascination in physical beauty is becoming more and more prevalent in today's society. Beauty in American culture is defined by the media through magazines, television, and music. The perfect career, the perfect family, social status, and high self-esteem all revolve around having an impeccable figure. Research shows that 94% of the covers of women's magazines showcase a woman with a thin physique (A. R., Malkin, K., Wornian, & J. C. Chrisler, 1999). Therefore, it is not surprising that year after year, millions of people elect for cosmetic surgery. According to the , approximately 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed and Americans spent $13.2 billion on these procedures. This is a 457% increase since 1997. As the demand for elective cosmetic surgery continues to rise, it is important for healthcare employees to recognize the motive behind the decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The purpose of this literature review project was to ascertain those factors that influence or motivate patients to seek cosmetic surgery. This project investigated physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors associated with individuals who undergo elective cosmetic surgery. It has been shown that the motivation for cosmetic surgery is based on a combination of psychological and emotional factors. Researchers surmise that body image, teasing history, and self-esteem were associated with motivational factors for those patients who elected to seek cosmetic surgery (T. Soest, I. L. Kvalem, K. C. Skolleborg, & H. E. Roald, 2006). In addition, the researchers concluded that body dysmorphic disorder, education, and culture are also predicting factors in the decision to have cosmetic surgery.

  17. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake: The importance of contextualizing motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Kawabata, Masato; Thomas, Shirley

    2015-09-01

    Motivation is identified as a key antecedent of self-regulated behaviour, such as eating fruit and vegetables. However, inaccurate measurement of this construct may lead to poor prediction of behaviour and inflate the impact of post-motivational factors, such as planning, in models of health behaviour. This study explored the properties of a newly identified measure of motivation, termed behavioural resolve (Rhodes & Horne, 2013, Psychol. Sport Exerc., 14, 455-460), in relation to intention, planning, and fruit and vegetable intake (FVI). Prospective self-report survey. University students living in the United Kingdom completed two online surveys. The first assessed demographic and predictor variables (intention, behavioural resolve, action planning, and coping planning). The second, completed approximately 2 weeks later, measured average daily FVI and perceived experience of obstacles to FVI. At Time 1, there were 195 respondents, with 139 providing follow-up data. All predictor variables were significantly correlated with FVI. Two independent multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both intention and behavioural resolve were significant predictors of FVI, but behavioural resolve explained greater FVI variance (40.1%) than intention (36.4%). Furthermore, action planning showed incremental predictive utility over intention, but not behavioural resolve, in predicting FVI. The results indicated that motivation is an important determinant of FVI for students, with behavioural resolve demonstrating advantages over intention as a measure of this domain and a predictor of FVI behaviour. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. GREEN KEY AS A MOTIVATING FACTOR FOR STAFF LOYALTY AND SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mozgov, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is connected to staff motivation: which kind of motivation tools motivate employees, and does the Green Key motivate employees to work in the organization which is holding this eco label. The main goal of the thesis was determine the influence of the Green Key on motivation and sustainable development. The objectives of the thesis were to find out which motivational factors are present in the current hotel for employees to perform their job better. Which motivational factors are t...

  19. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: The importance of illness insight and treatment motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Noordraven (Ernst); A.I. Wierdsma (André); P. Blanken (Peter); A.F.T. Bloemendaal (Anthony F. T.); C.L. Mulder (Niels)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are

  20. A Pattern to Evaluation of Motivational Factors Affecting Knowledge Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Hajian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the motivational factors affecting the willingness of employees to share knowledge and examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and influences on attitudes toward knowledge sharing and explicit and implicit knowledge sharing intention. Planned behavior pattern is used as a theoretical framework. This research was conducted in two phases. First, factors were identified according to the literature review and exploratory interviews. Then the impact of each factor was evaluated in terms of structural equation modeling. This is an empirical research and the research method is descriptive survey. Data was collected using a questionnaire and interview. The study was on the staff working in administrative units of Tehran Municipality and the number of staff at the time of study was 2230. Cluster sampling method and sample size based on population and using Cochran formula of 328 people determined that 35 persons were not held accountable. To determine the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to 0.824 which was found at a high level. Data was analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed pattern was confirmed. The results showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on the attitude of employees and the attitude influence on tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intention. Also, extrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention. Extrinsic motivational factors influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention and intrinsic motivational factors influence on tacit knowledge sharing intention by the attitude and tacit knowledge sharing intention influence on explicit knowledge sharing intention.

  1. Education as Employee Motivation and Retention Factor of the Companies Operating in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Němečková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial part of the article addresses the human potential of companies as well as the motivation and retention of employees, which play a key role in reaching a company’s commercial and financial goals. The article’s objective is answering questions concerning the importance of employee education as a significant tool of employee motivation and retention. The article’s author has set two hypotheses:H1: It is possible to identify common factors having an impact on employee motivation and retention from job descriptions and position in the management hierarchy’s point of view. It is also possible to find out and name the key factors in motivation and retention preferred by employees in the Czech Republic.H2: The possibility of further education and professional growth is a very important motivational factor for employees.The hypotheses were verified and confirmed through an anonymous questionnaire; the author conducted the research among employees of Czech companies. The research, which was of key importance for data collection, was supplemented by round table discussions with the respondents, helping to confirm and to be more accurate in interpretation of results delivered by the research.A clear result has come of the research; respondents valued further education the most out of sixteen offered benefits provided by employers. The article’s conclusion – referring to the fact of a drop in education investments by companies due to cost cutting pressures (a very dangerous and unhealthy trend from the long-term point of view, according to the article’s author – provides managers with recommendations.

  2. The importance of therapy motivation for patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Björn; Wennberg, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether patients' pretherapy motivation was related to other patient characteristics and whether it predicted retention in psychotherapy. Data were collected within a naturalistic outcome study of various forms of psychotherapy for patients (N = 172) with substance use disorders (SUD). Therapy motivation was measured using the Client Motivation for Therapy Scale (CMOTS), including the variables autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation. Female patients had higher levels of autonomous motivation (d = .53), lower levels of controlled motivation (d = -.32), and lower levels of amotivation (d = -.62). Level of symptoms and impairment was significantly positively correlated with controlled motivation (r = .31). Autonomous motivation was positively correlated with four expectation subscales associated with constructive therapeutic work, whereas amotivation was negatively correlated with three of these subscales. Controlled motivation was positively correlated with the subscales external orientation, defensiveness, and support. In a logistic regression, amotivation stood out as a negative predictor of retention, in terms of starting in psychotherapy after assessment or not. Quite surprisingly, autonomous motivation was not a significant predictor of retention. The present study indicates that amotivation is a risk factor for early dropout among SUD patients. More efforts should be directed at preparing patients for psychotherapy through strengthening motivation.

  3. Factors Affecting Job Motivation from the Viewpoints of Staff and Managers in Semnan Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Alebouyeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Regarding the type of service receivers as well as the technicality of the services provided, these services often bear high complexity and difficulty which can eventually lead to job burnout and shortage of motivation in the staffIn this study, the factors affecting job motivation from the viewpoints of staff and managers of Semnan Welfare Organization have been identified and possible differences have been analyzed. Methods: In the present study, based on Herzberg’s model of job motivation and considering several assessment tools produced according to this model, a draft of a researcher-designed questionnaire was prepared in order to determine the factors affecting job motivation in the staff and managers of the State Welfare Organization in Semnan province. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was determined and approved by 10 experts, 5 managers and 15 staff members of the Semnan Welfare Organization who were selected purposefully, using the Lawsche’s method. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed and approved by test-retest correlation coefficient determination. After informed consent was obtained, all staff and managers conforming to the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study and to complete the questionnaire. Results: In contrast to Herzberg’s theory which considers intrinsic factors as more important than extrinsic factors in causing motivation, our results demonstrated that staff and managers of Semnan Welfare Organization believed extrinsic factors provoked higher motivation. Discussion: The major motivation factors for staff and managers of Semnan Welfare province were somehow related to management practices of managers and staff, both of which are categorized as extrinsic factors.

  4. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  5. Gender differences in (metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors of reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Kolić-Vehovec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish, from the aspect of gender, the degree to which reading comprehension is connected with students' academic achievement, potential gender differences between (metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors of reading comprehension, and to identify the most important predictors of reading comprehension for exploratory and narrative texts. The results of study, which included 380 Slovenian and Croatian students with the average age of 10;6 years, showed that: (i reading comprehension significantly determines academic achievement regardless of students' gender; (ii there are significant gender differences in most of the factors of reading comprehension (girls summarize texts better, have more metacognitive knowledge of reading, show greater reading interest, feel more competent for reading and in general feel better while reading; (iii the predictive value of cognitive, motivational, and emotional predictors differ for exploratory and narrative texts (for exploratory texts metacognitive factors have the greatest predictive value; for narrative texts motivatonal-emotional factors have the greatest predictive value for boys, and metacognitive factors for girls.

  6. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation can be intrinsic, such as satisfaction and feelings of achievement; or extrinsic, such as rewards, punishment, and goal obtainment. The study assessed the motivating factors affecting the job performance of two oil palm companies' ...

  7. Turkish EFL Instructors' Perceived Importance of Motivational Strategies: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuk, Özgehan

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated how important Turkish EFL teachers perceive the ELT motivational strategies that are implemented in adult EFL teaching. 52 EFL instructors working in preparatory schools of foreign languages in four state universities in Turkey participated in the current study. The perceived importance of ELT motivational strategies was…

  8. HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION – AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

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    NICU IOANA ELENA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the people of a company are a strong resource for business and that the human resource function is valuable in assisting the workforce in order to accomplish the objective of the company. The productivity of a company is strongly related to its people and its strategies. Therefore, a powerful human resources management system has started to develop in Romania as well. The people that are hired in companies bring along a wide range of qualifications, abilities and knowledge, which might as well be useless to the company needs. Some of them identify with the company and are motivated in helping reaching goals, while others see the company as a vehicle meant to satisfy their own targets. This paper touches upon the importance of human resources motivation when it comes to accomplishing individual performances and, implicitly attaining organizational performances. Many human resources scientific researchers have discussed the subject of human resources motivation, have sought to understand what prompts people and how they have been motivated. The question ‘Why do we need motivated employees?’ is so often asked by chairmen. Motivated employees help the business survive and they are more productive. When aiming at efficiency, managers must understand what motivates the employees, according to their tasks. Of all the functions of a manager, motivating human resources is probably the most complex.

  9. Motivational factors and performance in soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Chimelo Paim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify what were the motivational factors that made teenagers to choose ADUFSM soccer school, and to verify the difference among the groups, the performance and gain scores at soccer basis. The sample comprised 32 persons, 10 to 16 years old, that practice soccer at ADUFSM. The sample was divided in four groups. The motivational factors inventory (MFI was applied in the beginning of the semester. It was verified, through descriptive statistics, that the stronger motivation for the subjects involvement with soccer was to develop skills (78%, followed by excitation and challenge (72%; affiliation (70% and aptitude (68%. The performance level evaluation in three different phases was done through soccer basis analytical matrix (SBAM, always in game situation. Five observations per subject were made for each base listed in SBAM, and the execution mistakes were identifies. Initially, an ANOVA was used to deal with the data; later, a post-hoc test. The results showed that learning occurred and that there was a significant difference favoring GF10 in the learning gain scores after the treatment.

  10. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HOW IMPORTANT IS MONEY AS AN INCENTIVE TO MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES IN HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR? LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORIN COSMA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence money has on motivating the work force which takes part on both dull and creative tasks. Through a review of the most important findings on the subject, economists’ and psychologists’ theories are presented and discussed. The paper shows how, notwithstanding their high attention received from the business environment in the past, the principal-agent and the price effect theories are being replaced lately with the self determination, psychological contract and reinforcement theories in the configuration process of work incentives. Specific advantages and disadvantages of the use of financial motivators for increasing work performance are further examined and a clear example of how money and more specifically their perception affects the employees’ motivation is given. The results of the study conclude that money has an important role as a hygienic factor in the work environment but they do not represent a panacea for inducing high work motivation and are not enough for assuring the overall success, whether that we are talking about repetitive or creative activities. The late ones are exemplified by the tasks specific to the higher education sector.

  12. Employee motivation in Ghana: A factor structure and measurement tool

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    B. B. Puplampu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reports research on the factor structure of employee motivation as well as provides a tool for measuring the level of employee motivation in Ghanaian organisations. Methodology: The study was designed as exploratory, comparative and cross-sectional. 260 respondents drawn from across the gender, status and job grade hierarchy of 19 organisations participated. The organisations were matched in terms of tenure (over 5years, number of employees (50 or more and geographic location (headquartered in Accra. A 41-item questionnaire on the Level of Motivation (LoM; Characteristics of Employee Motivation (CEM; aspects of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB; Managerial Assumptions about employee behaviour (MA; Contextual Institutional Analysis (IAN and Organisational Leadership Issues (Le was developed and used. The instrument combined fixed response format on a 3-point scale with open-ended responses. Findings: Exploratory Factor Analyses (Varimax Rotation, converging in 26 iterations yielded 6 factors, which account for 60% of the variance. Thematic analyses of both interview and open-ended questionnaire data support the emergent factor structure, providing some tentative indication that employee motivation in the Ghanaian (or indeed African context should be looked at more in an integrated manner rather than in terms of the limiting confines of any one theory of motivation. The 3 items hypothesised to constitute the measure of level of employee motivation loaded neatly onto Factor 6. One-way ANOVA demonstrated no differences in the level of motivation across the organisational samples; this was confirmed by the interview data. Implications/Originality/Value: The implications and value of this research are: that motivation research in Africa does need to focus more on developing an integrated model of employee motivation; also, a simple 3-item but novel tool for measuring the level of employee motivation as well as its

  13. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tongeren-Alers, Margret; van Esch, Maartje; Verdonk, Petra; Johansson, Eva; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2011-01-01

    Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know importance stipulated to motivational factors. Our study investigates new medical students' early specialization preferences and motivational factors. New students at a Dutch medical school (n = 657) filled in a questionnaire about specialty preferences (response rate = 94%; 69.5% female, 30.5% male). The students chose out of internal medicine, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, surgery, gynecology and family medicine, "other" or "I don't know." Finally, they valued ten motivational factors. Forty percent of the medical students reported no specialty preference yet. Taken together, female medical students preferred pediatrics and wished to combine work and care, whereas male students opted for surgery and valued career opportunities. Gender-driven professional preferences in new medical students should be noticed in order to use competencies. Changes in specialty preferences and motivational factors in pre- and post graduates should further assess the role of medical education.

  14. FACTORS AND MOTIVES FOR THE SPIN-OFF PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Khmelev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the factors that encourage managers to use spin offs as a restructuring tool, and about the main motives of spin-off transactions. Attention is focused on the nature of spin-offs. There is a classification of the driving factors of spin-offs from the theoretical viewpoint and the degree of this question elaboration in economic literature. Four factors are marked: industrial, life cycle, company size and support of the parent company. The basic spin-off motives are pointed in this article.

  15. Effective Factors in Enhancing School Managers' Job Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school managers' job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators. "nMethod: For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The questionnaire was collected using motivation theories and observing the findings of previous researches. Then, according to the three-stage Delphi technique, the questionnaire was sent to experts in education. The reliability of instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and total reliability of the test was 0.99; the validity of the instrument was assessed by factor analysis (Construct Validity and its load factor was 0.4 which was high. "nResults: The results from factor analysis shows that the effective factors in enhancing managers' job motivation are as follows: self- actualization (51% including 28 indices; social factor (7/9% including 22 indices; self-esteem (3.2% including 17 indices; job desirable features (2.2% including 4 indices; physiologic (1.8% including 4 indices; and job richness (1.6% including 4 indices. "nConclusions: The results show that the six mentioned factors determine 68% of the total variance of managers' motivation.

  16. Motivation as a factor affecting the efficiency of cognitive processes in elderly patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972 and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school. The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.

  17. Motivational and adaptational factors of successful women engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornsen, Susan Edith

    It is no surprise that there is a shortage of women engineers. The reasons for the shortage have been researched and discussed in myriad papers, and suggestions for improvement continue to evolve. However, there are few studies that have specifically identified the positive aspects that attract women to engineering and keep them actively engaged in the field. This paper examines how women engineers view their education, their work, and their motivation to remain in the field. A qualitative research design was used to understand the motivation and adaptability factors women use to support their decision to major in engineering and stay in the engineering profession. Women engineers were interviewed using broad questions about motivation and adaptability. Interviews were transcribed and coded, looking for common threads of factors that suggest not only why women engineers persist in the field, but also how they thrive. Findings focus on the experiences, insights, and meaning of women interviewed. A grounded theory approach was used to describe the success factors found in practicing women engineers. The study found categories of attraction to the field, learning environment, motivation and adaptability. Sub-categories of motivation are intrinsic motivational factors such as the desire to make a difference, as well as extrinsic factors such as having an income that allows the kind of lifestyle that supports the family. Women engineers are comfortable with and enjoy working with male peers and when barriers arise, women learn to adapt in the male dominated field. Adaptability was indicated in areas of gender, culture, and communication. Women found strength in the ability to 'read' their clients, and provide insight to their teams. Sufficient knowledge from the field advances theory and offers strategies to programs for administrators and faculty of schools of engineering as well as engineering firms, who have interest in recruitment, and retention of female students

  18. IDENTIFYING MOTIVATION FACTOR INVOLVEMENT OF SARAWAK MALAY WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyantie Mohamad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak multilayered cake among Sarawak product signature famous among the local as well as international tourist visiting Sarawak. In fact, Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurs have become very necessary players in the entrepreneurial field specifically in this cottage industries from the early introduction of this business, they have facing various problem in this businesses. Thus, this research aims to build an understanding of motivational factor that encourage Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurial experiences especially in multilayered cake businesses. Using qualitative methods, this research aims to identify the entrepreneurial motivations factors; with regards to start-up motivation by Sarawak Malay women. The finding shows that the motivations that influence Malay women within Kuching, Sarawak areas to start and grow their business are involve self-driven and context driven that motivate them involve in multilayered cakes businesses.

  19. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  20. Motivational factors and stages of change for physical activity among college students in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala; Merrill, Ray M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity levels across the five stages of change for physical activity and to identify motivational factors for physical activity according to these stages of change among college students in Amman, Jordan. Analyses were based on a cross-sectional survey of 431 students, with a mean age of 21.1 (SD=0.16) and 67.5% female. Based on the recommendation that physical activity requires at least 30 minutes of physical activity 3 or more days per week, men were more likely than women to classify themselves in later stages: 7.3% vs. 9.5% in the precontemplation stage, 17.4% vs. 14.7% in the contemplation stage, 50.0% vs. 63.5% in the preparation stage, 9.4% vs. 5.6% in the action stage, and 15.9% vs. 6.7% in the maintenance stage [X2(4) = 14.04, p = 0.0072]. Seven potential motivational items for physical activity were assessed using factor analysis: experience better self-worth, prevent chronic disease, relieve stress, stay in shape, longevity, recreation/fun, and social benefits. Two factor groupings were identified from these items. The first factor included the first five items, labeled as "Physical and Mental". The second factor included the last two items, labeled as "Social and Recreational." "Physical and Mental" items compared with "Social and Recreational" items were most likely to motivate physical activity across the stages of change for physical activity. The strongest motivator of physical activity was to stay in shape. The weakest motivator of physical activity was for social reasons. The influence of the intermediate motivational factors was slightly affected by the students' stage of change for physical activity. Motivators for physical activity did not differ according to sex. These results provide important information about the motivational factors for physical activity for college-aged students in Jordan that can be useful in developing effective physical activity intervention programs.

  1. Characteristics and Motivational Factors of Effective Extension Advisory Leaders: Implications for Building Strong Extension Advisory Councils

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    Joy Kish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and motivational factors of effective Extension advisory leaders. This Delphi study was conducted with a selected group of County Extension Directors and a group of Extension State Advisory Leaders. The study identified 10 characteristics that distinguish an effective Extension advisory leader. Some of these characteristics are explicit and easy to observe, while others are implicit and difficult to directly observe. Therefore, it is practical to use directly observable characteristics of effective advisory leaders when selecting volunteers. Once potential volunteers are spotted in the community, implicit characteristics of effective advisory leaders should be used to further screen them before they are selected. The study also identified the eight most important factors motivating individuals to volunteer as effective advisory leaders. Understanding these motivational factors is helpful for creating an environment for attracting and retaining effective volunteers. Understanding their motivation for volunteer work and creating an environment for them to meet the motivating factors for volunteering will lead to volunteer satisfaction and retention. The findings of this study can be used to build strong Extension advisory councils.

  2. Factors that motivate young pharmacists to work in rural communities in the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzenberger, Peter; Popov, Sergey B; Ostermann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    A number of identified factors can influence clinicians' location of practice decisions; however, little is known about the location decisions of pharmacists. In general, males are more likely to work in rural and remote regions, and students with a rural background are more likely to work in rural communities after graduation. In the Ukraine, pharmaceutical health care is important because a patient's first visit is often to the pharmacy, rather than to a GP. This study sought to understand what motivates Ukraine pharmacy students to practice in rural areas. The first part of the study used a quantitative design with questionnaires based on Füglistaller's model for measuring the motivation of entrepreneurs, because working in a rural Ukraine pharmacy means, in most cases, operating a privately owned pharmacy. The second part was qualitative to verify these results. The students' motivation to work in rural areas after graduation depended on their sex and place of birth, but this was not decisive. More influential were the factors that motivate operating a privately owned pharmacy. Within the group that considered working in a privately owned pharmacy in a rural community, motivation was more intrinsic (eg enjoys helping people), while negative factors were more external (eg financial risk). Students from the National University of Pharmacy in Kharkiv comprise the majority of pharmacists in the Ukraine. They are interested in working in a rural area as long as opportunities align with their individual expectations. The two main factors found that would supply more young graduates to rural areas were: (1) improving rural living conditions; and (2) fostering the mental attitude required for operating a private pharmacy. In addition, decreasing related bureaucracy, and increasing financial and fiscal grants may enhance medical and pharmaceutical health care in rural communities of the Ukraine.Key words: graduate pharmacists, living conditions, motivation, privately

  3. Learner Motivation and Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  4. The important to growing self-efficacy to improve achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benawa, Arcadius

    2018-03-01

    The long-term goal of this research is to accommodate the students’ perceptions of the influence of the lecturer’s leadership in teaching and learning activities and the students’ self-efficacy to the students’ achievement motivation. This research used questionnaires which distributed to the respondents and the data obtained were processed quantitatively with path analysis. The results showed that the significance influence of leadership on the lecturer only accounted for 1.4%, while the effect of self-efficacy of the student is very significant on the students’ achievement motivation, which amounted to 84.5%. The conclusions are that the lecturer leadership has no significant effect on the students’ achievement motivation, but self-efficacy has a great effect. The implication of this conclusion is that important to growing self-efficacy’s students to improve the students’ achievement motivation.

  5. Factors that Motivate Business Faculty to Conduct Research: An Expectancy Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Gupta, Ashok; Hoshower, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used expectancy theory to examine key factors that motivate business faculty to conduct research. The survey results, from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, showed that faculty members who assign higher importance ratings to both the extrinsic and the intrinsic rewards of research exhibit higher research…

  6. Factors which Motivate Job Acceptance and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, Donald S.; May, Deborah C.

    1980-01-01

    The study involving 360 Pennsylvania teachers was designed to identify factors which motivate job acceptance among teachers of severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. The responses of 235 teachers indicated that challenge and practicum experiences were the two most prevalent motivational factors underlying job acceptance. (Author)

  7. Academic performance and talent school: Importance of motivation in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izamara da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The education aimed at more skilled students with traits of giftedness still poses challenges. Factors related to the cognitive development and counseling programs have been the object of growing interest among researchers in this field, such as Guimarães (2007. One of the challenges for them is the relation between motivation, intelligence and high abilities/giftedness. To provide adequate counseling to such special students means to offer them equal opportunities for the development of all their potentiality. The teaching excellence proposed in special programs for the gifted should also be considered as a democratic educational practice since they intend to meet individual needs. Fifty-two high school students from Rio de Janeiro, scholarship holders of the Social Institut, took part in this research, which investigates intrinsic and extrinsic motivational aspects that indicate the strategies used by them to favor the maintenance of the motivational features. The means used was the Scholastic Motivation Scale for Junior High School Students (Escala de Motivação Escolar para Alunos do Ensino Fundamental, developed by Manzini & Martinelli (2006, whose motivational guidance is arranged in 31 questions, 15 on intrinsic motivation and 16 on extrinsic ones. The results point out the intrinsic motivation as the main motivational feature present in these students and show how committed they are to the tasks they have pledged to perform throughout the Social Institut Maria Telles program. The average of the intrinsic motivation obtained from the use of the variable was superior (18.2 in relation to the extrinsic one (13.8, also verifying such result. More than achieving the objectives and attaining the goals in the program, these students have pleasure in studying as their main characteristic. Knowing the motivational aspects of these students helps the choice of strategies, which not only extends the different aspects of motivation but also allows

  8. Motivational and success factors of entrepreneurs: the evidence from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubodrag Rankovic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the study of motivational and success factors of entrepreneurs in Serbia with respect to the basic methodological approach developed by Chu (using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation. The objective of the research was to analyse the motives of entrepreneurs starting their own business and to determine factors that affect the success of SMEs. The empirical research was conducted according to 11 motivational items of entrepreneurs to establish their own business and 17 items affecting entrepreneurs’ success. Four motivational factors are obtained in this research (greater business achievement, independence, intrinsic factor and job security, as well as seven factors affecting entrepreneurs’ success (position in society, interpersonal skills, approval and support, competitive product/ service, leadership skills, always to be informed and business reputation. Based on these results and their comparison with the empirical findings in other countries, it may be concluded that motivational factors of entrepreneurs are generic in developing countries. The results showed that there was a lack of motives concerned with sustainable development of enterprise in a long run. On the other hand, there is a variety of different success factors affecting entrepreneurs, which primarily depend on the current situation in the local environment

  9. Factors influencing the academic motivation of individual college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Ishii, Akira; Nozaki, Kumi; Urakawa, Ayako; Cho, Yuki; Kataoka, Yosky; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Motivation is an important psychological concept in academic learning. Subjects performed jigsaw puzzle and square puzzle sessions (as difficulty variant task) and 80%, 50%, and 20% completion sessions (as completion variant task). After square puzzle or 20% completion sessions, subjective motivation decreased. Although baseline scores on an academic motivation scale were negatively correlated with changes in subjective motivation for the square puzzle session, a positive correlation was observed for the 20% completion session. These suggest that while continual completion of facile task trials may support the motivation of college students with lower academic motivation, attempting difficult task trials may sustain that of those with higher academic motivation.

  10. A comparative gender study of the factors affecting motivation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to identify the key factors of motivation for professional and paraprofessional library staff based on their gender and to identify how they rate the various motivational factors. The descriptive survey method was employed and five university libraries were selected for the study. The respondents ...

  11. Motivation in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  12. College students' drinking motives and social-contextual factors: Comparing associations across levels of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2015-06-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions' drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking-social and conformity motives-showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking-enhancement and coping motives-demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future microlongitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Investigation into Motivation Types and Influences on Motivation: The Case of Chinese Non-English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting students' performance of English learning, which is widely concerned by foreign language teachers and researchers for a long time. However, how to promote students' motivation in learning English by knowing their English learning motivation types at the initial stages and the factors that…

  14. A replication of a factor analysis of motivations for trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan; Fulton, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using a 2013 sample of Minnesota trappers, we employed confirmatory factor analysis to replicate an exploratory factor analysis of trapping motivations conducted by Daigle, Muth, Zwick, and Glass (1998).  We employed the same 25 items used by Daigle et al. and tested the same five-factor structure using a recent sample of Minnesota trappers. We also compared motivations in our sample to those reported by Daigle et el.

  15. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  16. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  17. Workplace, Biographical and Motivation Factors Affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a survey on how workplace, biographical and motivational factors affect the organisational commitment of records officers in federal universities in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling, with equal allocation method, was used to administer questionnaire on 300 sampled participants from ...

  18. Visual-spatial ability is more important than motivation for novices in surgical simulator training: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickum, Marcus; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-02-21

    To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience. Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully.

  19. Motivating Factors for Sustainable Accountant Potentials in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ibrahim Sharifah Norhafiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Transformation Plan (ETP emphasizes that the country has a pool of resources to steer towards Malaysia’s aspirations to become a developed and high-income nation. The ETP Roadmap highlights accountancy, an integral function in all businesses as part of the significant ETP driver. However, Malaysia still lacks the required number of qualified accountants by the year 2020. This challenges higher learning institutions to produce suitable accounting graduates. Despite taking an accounting subject in schools, not all these students later opt to enrol accounting in higher learning institutions as many factors influence their career choices. This study aims to explore these motivating factors. A quantitative approach was applied whereby primary data were collected through a questionnaire survey. Respondents were students from seven elite schools in Melaka. The study found eight motivating factors; family members in the accounting profession, public accountant as a career choice, students’ interest in receiving relevant information, choosing private accountants as a career, parents, school counsellor and career talk. However, only four of these factors were significant to students’ decisions to pursue professional accounting courses. In addition, parents’ influence plays a greater role in motivating students to opt for professional accounting courses as compared to an accounting degree.

  20. Ideation High Performers: A Study of Motivational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergendahl, Magnus; Magnusson, Mats; Björk, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    As innovation today is one of the keys to success for firms, creativity among employees becomes an important asset and the understanding about what motivates employees in ideation is consequently of high interest. This article addresses differences in motivation among high and low performers in ideation and contributes to existing theory by…

  1. Characteristics and Motivational Factors of Effective Extension Advisory Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Teresa Joy

    2011-01-01

    Building an effective Extension advisory leadership system is essential for Cooperative Extension to ensure the existence and relevance of university outreach programs to meet community needs. The purpose of this study has been to explore characteristics and motivational factors of effective Extension advisory leaders for identifying, motivating,…

  2. Factors that motivate and deter rehabilitation educators from participating in distance education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Yolanda V

    2004-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to conduct exploratory research on the motivational levels of rehabilitation educators whose programs have Comprehensive Service Personnel Development (CSPD; Department of Education grant) grants targeted toward distance education. Additionally, the study attempted to identify whether significant factors existed that would inhibit faculty participation in distance education. There were three research questions to examine: (a) Do distance educators and non-distance educators differ significantly in intrinsic motivational factors? (b) Do distance educators and non-distance educators differ significantly in extrinsic motivational factors? and (c) Do distance educators and non-distance educators differ significantly in inhibiting factors? The results showed that rehabilitation faculty with CSPD grants who are distance educators are more extrinsically motivated (such as increase in salary, monetary support for participation, job security, working conditions, technical support, and requirement by department) than non-distance educators. There were no significant differences in levels between distance educators and non-distance educators that are intrinsically motivated (scholarly pursuit, personal research tool, and job satisfaction). There was no significant difference between distance educators and non-distance educators in inhibiting factors.

  3. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  4. Motivational factors affecting informal women entrepreneurs in North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchen Henning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of North-West strive to progress from poverty to prosperity. There is a growing appreciation that the conditions that support women’s ability to start and grow ventures may be different from those that help men and therefore there is a need to examine the motivational factors affecting women’s enterprise development. Aim: The study aimed to identify the motivational factors of women in the Mahikeng area to start informal enterprises, the barriers they experience and their developmental business needs. Setting: The study focussed on informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of Mahikeng in the North-West province. Methods: In total, 80 face-to-face questionnaires were completed with women entrepreneurs. A principal component analysis of 15 items of the total questionnaire was performed on the data to determine which items could be reduced and transformed into new components. Results: ‘Destitute conditions’, ‘Entrepreneurial Spirit’ and ‘Passion for Product’ emerged as the three underlying motivational factors. The component ‘Destitute conditions’ was ranked as the most important reason for starting an informal business. The need to transcend impoverished conditions (a push factor and the need for self-determination (a pull factor were almost equally strong amongst the 80 participants. ‘Lack of financial and business skills’ was ranked as the biggest obstacle to keeping the business running. Ninety-one per cent of the women entrepreneurs reported that they had never received any training from the government or the private sector. Conclusions: Access to basic infrastructure, training, funding and business networks will enable self-efficacy behaviour of women entrepreneurs in the Mahikeng district to move beyond poverty. Recommendations included the establishment of a regional database of informal women entrepreneurs, the improvement of basic

  5. College Students’ Drinking Motives and Social-Contextual Factors: Comparing Associations across Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions’ drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking—social and conformity motives—showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking—enhancement and coping motives—demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future micro-longitudinal studies. PMID:25546143

  6. Employee motivation in Product-Service-System providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors contribute to employee motivation in providers of Product-Service Systems (PSS). Employee motivation determines the quality of the delivered service and is thus an area of great importance for PSS providers. We present rich...... case-based data collected through semi-structured interviews, a survey and secondary sources. The analysis showed the particularly high importance of intrinsic and individual motivation factors such as the fulfilling nature of the work and skill development showing the ownership and pride service...... employees took in their work. Further, the organisation needs to set the context of high employee motivation by enabling flexibility and performance feedback. Our research contributes to the literature by providing a first empirical study of employee motivation in PSS providers and thus providing important...

  7. Motivational Factors, Gender and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by…

  8. Cognitive and Motivational Factors Associated with Sedentary Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rollo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive time spent in sedentary behavior (SB is associated with numerous health risks. These associations remain even after controlling for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA and body mass index, indicating that efforts to promote leisure time physical activity alone are insufficient. Cognitive and motivation variables represent potentially modifiable factors and have the potential of furthering our understanding of sedentary behavior. Hence, a systematic review was conducted to synthesize and critique the literature on the relationship between cognitive and motivational factors and sedentary behaviors. In April 2016, four electronic databases (Psych info, Pub Med, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science were searched and a total of 4866 titles and abstracts were reviewed. After meeting inclusion criteria, study characteristics were extracted and the methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Downs and Black Checklist. PRISMA guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed. Twenty-five studies (16 cross-sectional, 8 longitudinal and one examining two populations and employing both a cross-sectional and prospective design assessed 23 different cognitive and motivational factors. Seventeen studies were theory-based and 8 did not employ a theoretical model. Results showed that among SB-related cognitions, risk factors for greater sedentary time included having a more positive attitude towards SB, perceiving greater social support/norms for SB, reporting greater SB habits, having greater intentions to be sedentary, and having higher intrinsic, introjected, and external motivation towards SB. Protective factors associated with lower sedentary time included having greater feelings of self-efficacy/control over SB and greater intentions to reduce SB. Among PA-related cognitions, protective factors for lower SB included a more positive attitude towards PA, having greater social support/norms for PA, greater self

  9. Is the intrinsic motivation of career choice important for the later professional development of teachers?

    OpenAIRE

    Marušić, Milica

    2014-01-01

    The nature of teachers’ professional choice motivation has been proved important for the later professional development. The goal of the present research was to determine the role of the intrinsic motivation in the participants’ decision to become teachers, as well as to establish the importance of intrinsic motivation for their later professional development. We have conducted a quantitative research, within a sample consisted of 118 secondary school teach...

  10. Factors Motivating and Hindering Information and Communication Technologies Action Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adile Aşkım Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies Action Competence (ICTAC can be defined as “individuals’ motivation and capacity to voluntarily employ their ICT skills for initiating or taking part in civic actions”. Since academic staff and teachers in ICT related fields have crucial roles in training action-competent individuals, this study aimed to determine the views of preservice teachers and instructors in Computer Education and Instructional Technology (CEIT departments about the motivating and hindering factors regarding ICTAC. Researchers used purposeful sampling technique and identified seven instructors and 16 students attending outlier CEIT departments from four different Turkish state universities. Since there is no contemporary framework on factors motivating or hindering ICTAC, the study was conducted with a qualitative approach and the data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Factors motivating and hindering ICTAC were identified through a content analysis. Findings of the study are believed to guide ICT and ICT education professionals in training students with higher levels of ICTAC and guide the course developers to focus on relevant social responsibility issues

  11. Students' motivation to study dentistry in Malaysia: an analysis using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Muhd Firdaus Che; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2015-06-12

    Malaysia has experienced a significant expansion of dental schools over the past decade. Research into students' motivation may inform recruitment and retention of the future dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore students' motivation to study dentistry and whether that motivation varied by students' and school characteristics. All 530 final-year students in 11 dental schools (6 public and 5 private) in Malaysia were invited to participate at the end of 2013. The self-administered questionnaire, developed at King's College London, collected information on students' motivation to study dentistry and demographic background. Responses on students' motivation were collected using five-point ordinal scales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the underlying structure of students' motivation to study dentistry. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare factor scores for overall motivation and sub-domains by students' and school characteristics. Three hundred and fifty-six final-year students in eight schools (all public and two private) participated in the survey, representing an 83% response rate for these schools and 67% of all final-year students nationally. The majority of participants were 24 years old (47%), female (70%), Malay (56%) and from middle-income families (41%) and public schools (78%). CFA supported a model with five first-order factors (professional job, healthcare and people, academic, careers advising and family and friends) which were linked to a single second-order factor representing overall students' motivation. Academic factors and healthcare and people had the highest standardized factor loadings (0.90 and 0.71, respectively), suggesting they were the main motivation to study dentistry. MANOVA showed that students from private schools had higher scores for healthcare and people than those in public schools whereas Malay students had lower scores for family and friends than those

  12. Role of OCB and demographic factors in the relationship of motivation and employee performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Huei Tan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research seeks to broaden the study by investigating the interplay of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB and demographic factor (gender and organizational tenure on the motivation and employee performance relationship.Design/methodology/approach: Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic and employee performance among (n=368 lecturers in Malaysia. To test the mediating effect of OCB, path analysis was employed. Furthermore, the demographic factors (gender and organizational tenure was tested using the moderated multiple regression analysis.Findings: Significant differences in explaining the variance of employee\tperformance was found between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. In addition, OCB was found perfectly mediating the relationship of extrinsic motivation and employee performance, however, OCB was found partially mediating the relationship between intrinsic motivation and employee performance. Furthermore, gender and organizational tenure do not show any moderate results in the relationship between OCB and employee performance.Research limitations: Study limitations (e.g. cross-sectional research design and biasness and future opportunities are outlined.Practical implications: Argues that the suitable type of motivation in explaining the variances of employee performance. Also, identifies the important of OCB between the motivation and employee performance relationship, thus gender and organizational tenure were not significant to OCB and employee performance relationship.Social implications: HR can help an organization to succeed, provided that the suitable motivations are adopted to monitor lecturer performance and helping behavior. In addition, HR should not emphasize too much of gender and organizational tenure to justify the lecturer performance as the findings show insignificant relationship.Originality/value: This paper identifies and

  13. Reading motivation in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived reading importance factor. The findings of the study are the following: third-graders are more competent and more interested in reading compared to seventh-graders. The same is true for girls in both educational levels. Reading competence , interest and perceived reading importance reflect also in the actual reading behaviour of students – students who are more competent and more interested in reading read more frequently, for longer periods and more often autonomously decide to read compared to their less motivated peers. Higher reading motivation has implications also for higher reading efficiency. Namely, good readers are more competent, show higher interest and perceive reading as more important compared to average and bad readers.

  14. Factors affecting job motivation among health workers: a study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-11-26

    Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers' motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed questionnaire that included 17 motivating factors and 6 demotivating factors and 8 questions to assess the current status of some factors. Validity and reliability of the tool were confirmed. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistical tests. The main motivating factors for health workers were good management, supervisors and managers' support and good working relationship with colleagues. On the other hand, unfair treatment, poor management and lack of appreciation were the main demotivating factors. Furthermore, 47.2% of health workers believed that existing schemes for supervision were unhelpful in improving their performance. Strengthening management capacities in health services can increase job motivation and improve health workers' performance. The findings suggests that special attention should be paid to some aspects such as management competencies, social support in the workplace, treating employees fairly and performance management practices, especially supervision and performance appraisal.

  15. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  16. Perception of the motivational factors for pursuing a career in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Garay Lara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To interpret the perception of the motivational factors presented by students who decide to pursue a career in healthcare in the Faculty of Medicine at the Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception, Chile during 2015. Material and Methods: Through a qualitative design and using a phenomenological approach, a semi-structured interview was applied to 55 new students. They were all pursuing a degree in the fields of Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Dietetics, Physical Therapy or Medical Technology of the School of Medicine at Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile, in 2015. The results were subject to triangulation of informants, and were analyzed using the technique of discourse analysis. Results: Vocation for public service, the career field once graduated or the experience of personal /familiar experiences when facing a health condition are perceived as an important part of the motivational factors for pursuing a degree in healthcare. Family, school where they graduated from or friends are not identified as an influence when deciding what professional field to pursue. This situation is not necessarily linked to a specific area of expertise. Conclusions: Altruism and vocation for public service are perceived as the main conditioning factor when deciding to pursue a degree in healthcare.

  17. The strategic importance of motivational rewards for lower-level employees in the manufacturing and retailing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Arnolds

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges that managers face in executing business strategies to achieve competitive advantage, is the employment of motivational techniques that build wholehearted commitment to operating excellence. Much confusion however still exists on the question of which rewards really motivate employees. This study investigates which rewards motivate lower-level employees (N = 367 in both manufacturing and clothing retail firms. The results show that the most important individual motivational reward for blue-collar employees is paid holidays and for frontline employees, retirement plans. The most important motivational reward category for both blue-collar and frontline employees is fringe benefits (paid holidays, sick leave and housing loans.

  18. Exploring EFL Teachers’ Motivation in Greek State Primary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoena Gemelou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies within the field of educational psychology have addressed the issue of students’ motivation, not as much attention has been given to teacher motivation. The present study aims at examining the factors that motivate EFL teachers working at Greek State Primary and Secondary schools, highlighting the importance of these factors for the improvement and enhancement of the teaching performance. The results of the study indicated that EFL teachers are quite motivated. Motivating factors are mostly intrinsic in nature, while demotivation rises mainly from extrinsic factors. Among the most powerful motivators were the teachers’ relation with their students and the subject matter itself, while frequent educational reforms and poor remuneration were identified as highly demotivating factors. Given that teachers’ motivation directly influences students’ motivation, highly motivated teachers are crucial for an effective educational system. Consequently, an important part of education policy-making should be the enhancement of teacher motivation as well as the reduction or elimination of any factors that impede teachers’ performance.

  19. Could music potentially serve as a functional alternative to alcohol consumption? The importance of music motives among drinking and non-drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Anna; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical powerlessness, frequency of being bullied and bullying others and evenings spent out with friends). It also looked at whether associations between music motives and health-related outcomes remained significant when drinking motives were included among drinkers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were estimated based on data from 4,481 adolescents from Switzerland (mean age 14.5, SD = 0.9). It was confirmed that the four music motives and the four drinking motives obtained by crossing the valence (positive–negative) and the source (internal–external) of expected change in affect form distinct dimensions (i.e. the 8-factor model best fitted the data). Drinkers and non-drinkers differed in the various links between music motives and health-related outcomes. For example, almost all the links between conformity music motives and the health-related outcomes were significant for non-drinkers but not for drinkers. Enhancement music motives, by contrast, were often significant for drinkers but not for non-drinkers. Coping music motives were significant among both drinkers and non-drinkers. These links were basically unchanged when drinking motives were taken into account. This study indicates that music serves important functions in the lives of adolescents, even among those who use alcohol for different motives. This makes listening to music a promising potential alternative to alcohol use.

  20. Is motivation for marathon a protective factor or a risk factor of injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabaev, A; Radel, R; Ben Mahmoud, I; Massiera, B; Deroche, T; d'Arripe-Longueville, F

    2017-12-01

    This research investigated whether and how self-determined motivation predicts perceived susceptibility to injury during competition (marathon). Two correlational studies including 378 (Study 1) and 339 (Study 2) marathon runners were conducted. Participants filled out a questionnaire the day before the race measuring self-determined motivation, perceived susceptibilities to marathon-related injury and to keep running through pain, and control variables. Study 1 showed that self-determined motivation was negatively related to perceived susceptibility to marathon-related injury. Study 2 replicated this finding and showed that this relationship was partially mediated by perceived susceptibility to keep running through pain during the race. Moreover, results indicated that the predictive role of self-determination was mostly driven by controlled forms of motivation, and more particularly external regulation. These results suggest that self-determined motivation for sport is a protective factor of injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quality Instruction as a Motivating Factor in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogunro, Olusegun A.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of quality instruction in motivating students in higher education cannot be overemphasized. Without quality instruction, students' motivation to learn recedes. Five focus groups of graduate students aided the data collection for this study. More than one-third of the 119 participating graduate students involved in this study claimed…

  2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Factors Related to Educators' Pursuit of Doctoral Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Reid, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors for professional doctoral degree attainment among educators. The researcher examined the following intrinsic motivating factors: personal attainment, skill and ability enhancement, and goals. The researcher also included the following extrinsic factors:…

  3. The effects of motivational factors on car use : a multidisciplinary modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Geurs, K; Ras, M

    Current transport models usually do not take motivational factors into account, and if they do, it is only implicitly. This paper presents a modelling approach aimed at explicitly examining the effects of motivational factors on present and future car use in the Netherlands. A car-use forecasting

  4. E-Learning and Social Media Motivation Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Mohd Shafie; Saleh, Nor Shela; Aris, Baharuddin; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Sejzi, Abbas Abjoli; Shamsudin, Nur Amalina

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to probe into the motivational factors toward the usage of e-learning and social media among educational technology postgraduate students in the Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. This study had involved 70 respondents via the means of a questionnaire. Four factors have been studied, named, the factor…

  5. Motivational factors as predictors of student approach to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit

    , little research exploring the possible influences of self-efficacy and test anxiety on study behavior in higher education, and current research stresses the importance of considering both cognitive and motivational factors in higher educational contexts (Dinther et.al., 2010) Increasing our knowledge....... Whether students react with anxiety or with enthusiasm is largely determined by the beliefs that they hold about their own ability. Students are not likely to be drawn towards an active discussion of new meanings if they have little confidence in their own abilities as thinkers. Teachers may think...... that they have no power to influence or enhance the value of a task to the students, but educators naturally play an important role in this process. Presenting the syllabus, setting the stage, and discussing it with the students are fundamental activities that help clarify the objectives and the means...

  6. Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Gagić Snježana; Jovičić Ana; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana

    2014-01-01

    People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough,...

  7. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Influencing Employee Motivation: Lessons from AMREF Health Africa in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morangi Nyambegera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence employee motivation in Kenyan Organizations. The study was guided by the following research questions: (i what are the extrinsic factors that influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? (ii what intrinsic factors influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? A descriptive research design was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample size of 96 respondents. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire developed by the researchers.  A set of descriptive and correlation statistics were adopted for analysis. The study identified several intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation. These included employee achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement, salary structure, the level to which the employees feel appreciated, and the employee perception of their jobs among other factors. The study further, established that the intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation include empowerment and autonomy, employees’ view of their work, organization trust, skill variety requirements among others. The study recommends that the organization should acknowledge and make use of a proper mix of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in their human resource management practices to ensure that employees are well motivated to perform their tasks.

  8. Effects of cutbacks on motivating factors among nurses in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Einarsdottir, Emilia J; Edvardsson, Ingi Runar

    2018-03-01

    When financial cuts are made, staff redundancies and reorganisation in the healthcare system often follow. Little is known how such cutbacks affect work motivation of nurses in primary health care. Examine the effects of cutbacks on motivating factors among nurses in primary health care. A phenomenological approach involving a purposeful sample of ten nurses in primary health care. Average age 44. The participants identified the job itself, autonomy, independence, good communication with co-workers, and the potential for professional training, learning and development as the main internal motivational factors related to their work. However, increased stress and uncertainty, growing fatigue and understaffing were starting to have a negative impact on these internal motivational factors. Moreover, reduced opportunities for professional training and development had negative effects on the participants. Many saw these opportunities as a vital part of recognition for their job performance. Regarding external motivation, the factors identified were job security, salaries and rewards, and interaction with management. The participants expressed their interest in more consultation with managers and most preferred an increased flow of information from managers to staff members during cutbacks. Salaries, professional training opportunities and appreciation were rewards named by participants for a job well done. All agreed that salaries are stronger motivational factors than before cutbacks. In the case of cutbacks, nursing managers should increase consultations with staff and make sure that nurses maintain their independence, autonomy, opportunities for professional training as well as appreciation for job well done. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Motivating and demotivating factors for community health workers: A qualitative study in urban slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew Sunil; Pant, Shradha; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2017-04-01

    Background Community health workers play an important role in delivering health-care services, especially to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. They have been shown to be successful in providing a range of preventive, promotive and curative services. This qualitative study investigated the factors motivating or demotivating community health workers in urban settings in Delhi, India. Methods In this sub-study of the ANCHUL (Ante Natal and Child Healthcare in Urban Slums) implementation research project, four focus-group discussions and nine in-depth interviews were conducted with community health workers and medical officers. Utilizing a reflexive and inductive qualitative methodology, the data set was coded, to allow categories of motivating and demotivating factors to emerge. Results Motivating factors identified were: support from family members for their work, improved self-identity, job satisfaction and a sense of social responsibility, prior experiences of ill health, the opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge, social recognition and status conferred by the community, and flexible work and timings. Negative experiences in the community and at health centres, constraints in the local health system in response to the demand generated by the community health workers, and poor pay demotivated community health workers in this study, even causing some to quit their jobs. Conclusion Community-health-worker programmes that focus on ensuring the technical capacity of their staff may not give adequate attention to the factors that motivate or discourage these workers. As efforts get under way to ensure universal access to health care, it is important that these issues are recognized and addressed, to ensure that community health worker programmes are effective and sustainable.

  10. [Importance of perceived competition and motivation to the mental health of college athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Molina-García, Javier; Alvarez, Octavio

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes the direct and indirect relationships among self-motivation, perceived competition and psychological well-being and ill-being. Data from 491 Spanish college students (299 men and 192 women) who practice sports were collected using a cross-sectional design. Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modeling. Psychological well-being was directly fostered by perceived competition and indirectly by self- motivation. Furthermore, perceived competition was negatively associated with psychological ill-being. Perceived competition and self-motivation are important to the psychological well-being of college students and to avoiding ill-being.

  11. Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Motivation Deficits in Schizophrenia: The ‘Why’ of Motivated Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  12. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivational factors associated with physical activity and quality of life in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2017-12-01

    There has been increasing interest for investigating the role of motivation in physical activity among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Autonomous motivation has been suggested to have a potentially important role in adoption and maintenance of physical activity. However, the knowledge about factors that facilitate autonomous motivation among people with SMI is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with motivation for physical activity as well as the relationships between motivation, physical activity and health-related quality of life in individuals with SMI that were currently physically active. A cross-sectional design was used, and 88 participants were recruited from a public health network promoting physical activity for people with SMI. They answered a questionnaire package consisting of scales measuring psychological need support - psychological need satisfaction - and motivation for physical activity, physical activity and health-related quality of life. The majority of participants reported to be in regular physical activity. Associations between variables were tested according to the self-determination theory process model. Structural equation modelling yielded good fit of the process model to the data. Specifically, a need-supportive environment was positively associated with psychological need satisfaction, while psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with autonomous motivation and mental health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Physical activity was positively associated with autonomous motivation and physical health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with amotivation. This study indicates that individuals with SMI can be regularly physically active when provided with suitable opportunities. Furthermore, the present results suggest that it is vital for health-care practitioners to emphasise creating a need

  14. Russian consumers' motives for food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers' food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the purpose of identifying consumer segments based on these motives. These segments were then profiled using consumption, attitudinal and demographic variables. Face-to-face interviews were used to sample the data, which were analysed with two-step cluster analysis (SPSS). Three clusters emerged, representing 21.5%, 45.8% and 32.7% of the sample. The clusters were similar in terms of the order of motivations, but differed in motivational level. Sensory factors and availability were the most important motives for food choice in all three clusters, followed by price. This may reflect the turbulence which Russia has recently experienced politically and economically. Cluster profiles differed in relation to socio-demographic factors, consumption patterns and attitudes towards health and healthy food.

  15. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals' motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach's α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, Pmotivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers' overall level of motivation with absolute level of compensation was not significantly

  16. Mumpreneurs: Motivational factors for Swedish mothers to start their own businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Boneberger, Diana; Kirilova, Bogomila

    2015-01-01

    The presented master thesis is an exploratory study on the motivational factors of the Swedish Mumpreneurs to start a business. Providing a nuanced and detailed review of the evolution of the literature on female entrepreneurship, the phenomenon of ‘Mumpreneurship’ is being introduced as a new, internationally widespread concept. Following a close look at this particular contestable subject, the study shows how different internal and external factors can influence the motivation of the Swedis...

  17. Animal Models in Sexual Medicine: The Need and Importance of Studying Sexual Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aquino, Elisa; Paredes, Raúl G

    2017-01-01

    Many different animal models of sexual medicine have been developed, demonstrating the complexity of studying the many interactions that influence sexual responses. A great deal of effort has been invested in measuring sexual motivation using different behavioral models mainly because human behavior is more complex than any model can reproduce. To compare different animal models of male and female behaviors that measure sexual motivation as a key element in sexual medicine and focus on models that use a combination of molecular techniques and behavioral measurements. We review the literature to describe models that evaluate different aspects of sexual motivation. No single test is sufficient to evaluate sexual motivation. The best approach is to evaluate animals in different behavioral tests to measure the motivational state of the subject. Different motivated behaviors such as aggression, singing in the case of birds, and sexual behavior, which are crucial for reproduction, are associated with changes in mRNA levels of different receptors in brain areas that are important in the control of reproduction. Research in animal models is crucial to understand the complexity of sexual behavior and all the mechanisms that influence such an important aspect of human well-being to decrease the physiologic and psychological impact of sexual dysfunctions. In other cases, research in different models is necessary to understand and recognize, not cure, the variability of sexuality, such as asexuality, which is another form of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of factors affecting orthodontic treatment motivation of Taiwanese and Thai patients in two hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wariya Laothong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Many factors, including economic, psychosocial statuses and ethnicity, affect patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. The present study compared orthodontic patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation in Taiwanese and Thai patients. We investigated the association between the aforementioned variables and patient characteristics. Materials and methods: We enrolled 250 Thai and 250 Taiwanese patients (age ≥ 20 years from Sunprasitthiprasong and Taipei Medical University Hospitals, respectively, by using self-administered questionnaires. Demographic characteristics were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test, patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation were analyzed using the sample t-test. The association among the variables was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Results: In both hospitals, the main motivation for seeking orthodontic treatment was esthetic concerns; the patients believed that treatment could make them more beautiful. Taiwanese and Thai patients rejected treatment because of high treatment costs and long treatment periods, respectively. A significant association was observed between household income and Thai patients' motivation (p < 0.05. Sex was significantly associated with Thai patients' attitude (p < 0.05. Age, sex, active treatment duration, and marital status were associated with Taiwanese attitude toward treatment (p < 0.05. In addition, age, household income, and information resources were significantly associated with the factors affecting Taiwanese patients' motivation (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ethnicity influenced patients' motivation. Economic status was the main factor affecting Thai patients, whereas many factors affected Taiwanese patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. However, esthetic concerns were a crucial motivation for both groups. Keywords: factors affecting

  19. The Importance of Intangible Incentives to Increasing the Motivation of Enterprise Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchumova Iryna Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying different motivation systems that are used by the staff managers and considering recommendations for building an effective system to stimulate the professional development of staff at today’s enterprises. Impact of both the material and the non-material incentive systems on the staff performance was analyzed. It has been noted that, in the rapid development of the modern world, material motivation is no longer sufficient for the constant interest of workers and for their effective stimulation to productive work. Therefore, the main components of the system of non-material motivation of staff have been determined and analyzed. The most common methods of the non-material motivation used by contemporary companies together with the intangible incentives that workers want to receive were analyzed. Efficiency of the management practices associated with the evaluation of performance of each employee has been substantiated, and it has been specified that the effective staff incentives are one of the most significant factors in the competitiveness of today’s enterprises.

  20. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in the Public Hospitals, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagne, Tesfaye; Beyene, Waju; Berhanu, Negalign

    2015-07-01

    Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. Facility based cross-sectional survey was employed. All health professionals who served at least for 6 months in Ambo, Gedo and Gindeberet hospitals were included. Self-administered Likert scale type questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean motivation calculated as percentage of maximum scale score was used. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were done to see the independent effects of explanatory variables. The overall motivation level of health professionals was 63.63%. Motivation level of health professionals varied among the hospitals. Gindeberet Hospital had lower motivation score as compared to Ambo Hospital (B = -0.54 and 95% CI; -0.08,-0.27). The mean motivation score of health professionals who got monthly financial benefit was significantly higher than those who did not (B = 0.71 and 95% CI; 0.32, 1.10). Environmental factors had higher impact on doctors' motivation compared to nurses' (B = 0.51 and 95% CI; 0.10, 0.92). Supervisor-related factors highly varied in motivation relative to other variables. Motivation of health professionals was affected by factors related to supervisor, financial benefits, job content and hospital location. Efforts should be made to provide financial benefits to health professionals as appropriate especially, to those who did not get any such benefits. Officially recognizing best performance is also suggested.

  1. CONSUMER MOTIVATION AND CONCERN FACTORS FOR ONLINE SHOPPING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Topaloğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding consumer behaviour in online environments is the basic factor to build an effective consumer-retailer relationship structure. The purpose of this study is to explore the influences of different values and concerns affecting search and purchase intentions of consumers and to build an integrated model, which could explain the purchase intentions of consumers in Turkey, where the majority of the population is under the age of 30. An integrated model of motivation and concern factors on the online shopping is developed to test the causal effect variables. Current study points out that hedonic value is a determinant of the consumer intention to search and purchase. Search intention has a direct impact on purchase intention. Utilitarian value does not have a significant impact on the search intention but it does have an important impact on the purchase intention. From the concern factors perspective, security has a significant impact on both search and purchase intentions, whereas there is no impact for privacy.

  2. Motivation for pilgrimage: using theory to explore motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blackwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion of the motivations for pilgrimage and it will draw upon theories of motivation to explore the continuing attraction of pilgrimage in contemporary times. This discussion is located within the field of Event Management. Event Management is a fast growing discipline which focuses on the design, production and management of planned events, such as festivals, celebrations, conferences, fund-raisers and so on. Clearly pilgrimages, as planned events, fit into this definition. In this context, it is essential to recognise the importance of understanding the motives and needs of event customers so that we can plan to help our customers satisfy their motives. Whilst it might seem abhorrent and commercial to talk of pilgrims as customers, pilgrimages and religious sites have become more and more commodified and increasingly are deemed to need professional management. Key theories of motivation will be compared in order to identify the prime motivating factors underpinning people’s decisions to make pilgrimages.

  3. Factor Structure and Predictive Validity of a Homework Motivation Measure for Use With Middle School Students With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Smith, Zoe R; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Eadeh, Hana-May; Oddo, Lauren E

    2017-08-31

    Many students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit deficits in motivation to pursue long-term goals. Students with ADHD have particular difficulty with motivation to complete homework-related tasks and often fail to complete assignments. Although these problems are common and may impact academic performance, no homework-motivation measures have been validated for use with students with ADHD. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure and predictive validity of a homework-motivation measure based upon the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. A sample of 285 middle school students with ADHD completed the measure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the proposed factor structure and associations with parent and teacher ratings of homework performance. A 2-factor structure emerged, and model fit was excellent. Further, student-rated ability-expectancy beliefs demonstrated significant associations with parent-rated homework problems and performance and with teacher-rated homework performance and percentage of assignments turned in above and beyond ADHD symptoms. Future directions for studying the importance of motivation in students with ADHD are provided, with particular attention to the role that reward sensitivity may play in motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  5. Math Achievement is Important, but Task Values are Critical, Too: Examining the Intellectual and Motivational Factors Leading to Gender Disparities in STEM Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingte eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some STEM occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1 which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2 whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in twelfth grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  6. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  7. Evaluation of the Big-Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Orientations: An Evaluation of Jingle-Jangle Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; McInerney, Dennis; Debus, Raymond L.

    Motivation orientation research consistently finds two factors, Performance and Learning, that overlap substantially with other factors coming from different theoretical perspectives of motivation. Similar to related work in the Big-Five Theory of Personality, researchers posited a Big-Two-Factor Theory of motivation orientation and evaluated the…

  8. attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Key words: Attitude, motivation, female extension agents, job performance. ... profession as factors limiting their job performance include lack of incentives, irregular ... Organization (FAO) survey reports that 95% of agricultural extension services ... Several studies also report the problems with male extension services as ...

  9. Associations Between Parenting Factors, Motivation, and Physical Activity in Overweight African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Pate, Russell R

    2018-02-05

    Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory's psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA). Participants were African American adolescents (N = 148; Mage = 13.6 years; MBMI% = 96.6) and their care-givers (Mage = 43.4 years; MBMI = 37.4) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Parenting factors were measured using self-report surveys, and PA minutes were measured using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Regression analyses indicated that overall models for MVPA (F(11,134) = 4.35; R2 = 0.26) and LPA (F(11,134) = 5.84, R2 = 0.32) were significant. Adolescent motivation for PA (B = 0.58, SE = 0.16) was positively associated with MVPA minutes. Authoritative parenting (B = 15.71, SE = 4.38) and tangible support (B = 8.53, SE = 4.02) were positively associated with adolescent LPA minutes. Unexpectedly, emotional support was negatively associated with both MVPA (B = -0.47, SE = 0.17) and LPA (B = -11.22, SE = 4.79), with follow-up analyses showing this relationship stronger in males. Findings highlight the importance of adolescent motivation for PA onMVPA and positive parenting styles and tangible supports on adolescent LPA in overweight African American youth. Recommendations for integrating these factors within the context of intervention studies are discussed.

  10. Analysis of motivational profiles of satisfaction and importance of physical education in high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Pérez-Quero, Francisco J; Ortiz-Camacho, Maria M; Bracho-Amador, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the motivational profiles of satisfaction with and importance of physical education in high school students and its relation with gender and the practice of sport. The sample comprised 2002 students aged from 12 to 19 who completed the Sport Motivation Scale (Núñez et al., 2006), the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (Baena-Extremera et al., 2012) and the Importance of Physical Education Scale (Moreno et al., 2009). Descriptive analyzes, correlations between the scales, a cluster analysis for profiles, and a MANOVA were conducted to examine differences by gender. Three clusters (profiles) were identified. The first profile identified was "moderate" motivation (n = 463) and was associated with boys who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. The second profile identified was "low" motivation (n = 545) and was associated mainly with girls who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. And lastly the third profile identified was "high" motivation (n = 910), which was found to be greater in boys who practiced physical exercise for more than 3 hours a week.

  11. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivations of employees. Personnel motivation by itself attracts an end, just as profitable and moral, individual and social welfare making.

  14. Exploring the situational motivation of medical specialists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-02-26

    The aim was to obtain insight into the factors in the work environment that motivate or demotivate a medical specialist during his/her working day. A qualitative ethnographic design was used, and a constructivist approach was adopted with the Self-Determination theory of motivation as a framework. Six medical specialists from VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands, recruited through convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling, were shadowed for one day each. Data were transcribed and open-coded. Themes were finalized through discussion and consensus. Sixty hours of observation data identified motivating and demotivating factors categorized into four themes that are important for specialists' motivation. Informational technology issues are demotivating factors. Working with colleagues can be both a motivating and demotivating factor, e.g., filling in for each other through feelings of relatedness was motivating. Being in control of one's planning through feelings of autonomy was motivating. Furthermore, patient care and teaching, especially in combination, stimulated specialists' motivation. Regarding the design of the study, we found that situational motivation is indeed observable. The basic psychological needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness are important for specialists' motivation. Investing in a more motivating, open, transparent, and basic-needs- supportive work environment for medical specialists is necessary. Keywords: Continuing professional development, motivation, medical specialists, self-determination theory, qualitative research.

  15. Motivation for a Second or Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a frequently used word both in our daily work and study, which is an important factor which can greatly influence the achievement of learners’ second language or foreign language acquisition. Speaking of the history of research on “motivation”, Gardner and Lamber and their associates should come first, because they have done the most important work, which made the most outstanding contributors in this field. There are several kinds of motivation, like instrumental motivation and integrative motivation, and intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, and there are some relevant debates between them. Through the current researches on the application of motivation in learning and teaching, we can see how effective the motivational system promoted within cooperative situations is, although there is numbers of different motivational aspects. Maybe more researches should be done, but we can just draw a periodical conclusion that motivation in language learning is a very complicated psychological phenomenon, and it is also the single most influential factor in learning a new language.

  16. Career motivation and burnout among medical students in Hungary - could altruism be a protection factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrffy, Zsuzsa; Birkás, Emma; Sándor, Imola

    2016-07-18

    Burnout is a major issue among medical students. Its general characteristics are loss of interest in study and lack of motivation. A study of the phenomenon must extend beyond the university environment and personality factors to consider whether career choice has a role in the occurrence of burnout. Quantitative, national survey (n = 733) among medical students, using a 12-item career motivation list compiled from published research results and a pilot study. We measured burnout by the validated Hungarian version of MBI-SS. The most significant career choice factor was altruistic motivation, followed by extrinsic motivations: gaining a degree, finding a job, accessing career opportunities. Lack of altruism was found to be a major risk factor, in addition to the traditional risk factors, for cynicism and reduced academic efficacy. Our study confirmed the influence of gender differences on both career choice motivations and burnout. The structure of career motivation is a major issue in the transformation of the medical profession. Since altruism is a prominent motivation for many women studying medicine, their entry into the profession in increasing numbers may reinforce its traditional character and act against the present trend of deprofessionalization.

  17. Electronic cigarette use: comparing smokers, vapers, and dual users on characteristics and motivational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Schoren; Karin Hummel; Hein de Vries

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study examined vaping behaviour, precursors of vaping, and motivational differences between smokers, dual users and vapers. The objectives were to assess a) vaping characteristics and reasons for use, b) differences in motivational factors and behavioural precursors associated with e-cigarette use, and c) socio-demographic and motivational factors associated with electronic cigarette use. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 259 vapers, 135 smokers, and 83 dual u...

  18. Job satisfaction and factors affecting motivation at Posti Oyj

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...

  19. An implementation of TPB method for learning important factors influencing knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Karampour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management incorporates the systematic management of vital knowledge resources and the associated processes of creating, organizing, gathering, utilizing, diffusion and exploiting data. A key challenge emerging is learn to encourage knowledge sharing (KS within firms because knowledge is an organization’s intellectual capital and plays an important role in gaining a competitive advantage. Isolated initiatives for promoting KS and team collaboration without taking into consideration the limitations and constraints of KS can halt any further development in the KM culture of an operation. In this paper, in addition to individual and social factors, an effect of individual perception, which is an important factor for any behavior, is studied. We first identify effective factors in KS behavior through the theory of planned behavior, six factors of trust, knowledge power, organizational motivation, organizational culture, IT and Communities of Practice (COP as effective factors in three categories of behavioral beliefs, subjective norms and perceived behaviors are analyzed for an Iranian research center. The results of this research helps develop KS behavior and enhance performance and creativity of research in this center.

  20. Sociodemographic Factors Differentiating the Consumer and the Motivations for Functional Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the (1) role of gender, age, and education in the evaluation of multidimensional criteria of the purchase of functional products, which were (a) quality and organoleptic attributes, (b) attributes of packaging and labeling, (c) healthful properties, (d) functional components, (e) base product (carrier) and (2) most important motives for the purchase and consumption of functional food among consumers of different sociodemographic profiles. The data were collected in direct interviews. The sample (n = 200) consisted of 137 women and 63 men age 18-60 years. The research tool was a questionnaire divided into 4 sections. The first one included quality attributes. The second one included healthful properties, functional components, and carriers. The third one concerned the motives for purchasing functional food and included the consequences and values. In the fourth section the participants were asked about gender, age, and education. Gender, age, and education differentiated the criteria influencing the decision to purchase functional food. Women, older people (35-60 years), and those with university education attach the greatest importance to naturalness, nutritional value, freshness, food safety, and quality guarantee. Clear differences between men and women appear in the field of functional components, which are significantly more important for women than for men. Gender, age, and education essentially differentiate the preferences for base product (carrier). Young men prefer meat products in the role of functional carriers. In turn, women and older men prefer cereal products as basic functional carriers. Young consumers are more open to high-technology food processing. Motivations are differentiated by age and gender. Young men, as opposed to women and older men, attach less importance to functional and psychological consequences: improvement of health, healthy eating, conscious choice, and health promotion. Women and older

  1. CONSEQUENCES OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ON ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION IN IRAN

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    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine importance of business environment, social status of entrepreneurs, and country external conflicts as predictors of motivation to start a business in an environment, such as that in Iran, in which the economy is highly dependent on government initiatives. Data are collected from 106 MBA students through questionnaires. Respondents are questioned regarding the perceived importance of the business environment, socio-cultural factors (social status, and country external conflicts. The results show that the importance of business environment and country external conflicts contribute considerably to the level of entrepreneurial motivation. Further, the results reveal that social status is not a critical factor in determining the level of motivation to start a business. In particular, business environment is the most important factor in predicting entrepreneurial motivation. The results contribute to the growing body of literature in entrepreneurship and provide some implications for Iranian policy makers to create favourable external environment for potential entrepreneurs.

  2. Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Souares Aurélia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. Methods A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Results Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Conclusion Motivational determinants differed

  3. Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ahmad Azam; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Souares, Aurélia; Malik, Zeeshan; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2010-07-09

    Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Motivational determinants differed across different levels of care, sectors and genders. Nonetheless, the

  4. THE ACADEMIC PERSONNEL MOTIVATION - A FACTOR FOR HIGH QUALITY EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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    Viara Slavianska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper consecutively puts an accent on 1 the quality of higher education as a national priority, 2 the qualification and motivation of the academic staff as factors for offering an educational product of high quality, 3 the strategies, policies and practices for motivating the academic personnel. The necessity of education improvement is adduced, the strategies and politics in the field of academic personnel training are presented, and the possible effects from a wrong approach to employees’ motivation in academic environment are commented.

  5. ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES OF SATISFACTION AND IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

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    Antonio Granero-Gallegos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available he purpose of this study was to analyze the motivational profiles of satisfaction with and importance of physical education in high school students and its relation with gender and the practice of sport. The sample comprised 2002 students aged from 12 to 19 who completed the Sport Motivation Scale (Núñez et al., 2006, the Perception of Success Scale (Martínez et al., 2006, the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (Baena-Extremera et al., 2012 and the Importance of Physical Education Scale (Moreno et al., 2009. Descriptive analyzes, correlations between the scales, a cluster analysis for profiles, and a MANOVA were conducted to examine differences by gender. Three clusters (profiles were identified. The first profile identified was "moderate" motivation (n = 463 and was associated with boys who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. The second profile identified was "low" motivation (n = 545 and was associated mainly with girls who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. And lastly the third profile identified was "high" motivation (n = 910, which was found to be greater in boys who practiced physical exercise for more than 3 hours a week

  6. Surgeons' motivation for choice of workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Lena; Kristiansen, Maria; Rudkjøbing, Andreas; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2012-09-01

    To ensure qualified health care professionals at public hospitals in the future, it is important to understand which factors attract health care professionals to certain positions. The aim of this study was to explore motives for choosing employment at either public or private hospitals in a group of Danish surgeons, as well as to examine if organizational characteristics had an effect on motivation. Eight qualitative interviews were conducted with surgeons from both public and private hospitals sampled using the snowball method. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by means of phenomenological theory. Motivational factors such as personal influence on the job, the opportunity to provide the best possible patient care, challenging work tasks colleagues, and ideological reasons were emphasized by the surgeons as important reasons for their choice of employment. Motivational factors appeared to be strongly connected to the structure of the organization; especially the size of the organization was perceived to be essential. It is worth noting that salary, in contrast to the general belief, was considered a secondary benefit rather than a primary motivational factor for employment. The study revealed that motivational factors are multidimensional and rooted in organizational structure; i.e. organizational size rather than whether the organization is public or private is crucial. There is a need for further research on the topic, but it seems clear that future health care planning may benefit from taking into account the implications that large organizational structures have for the staff working within these organizations. not relevant. not relevant.

  7. The level satisfaction of teachers and motivational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Červ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Employee satisfaction is an area that is relevant in every organization and for this reason management has to pay special attention to this area. A satisfied worker brings better results and invests all their knowledge and abilities into their work. Otherwise they will invest only what is required of them that will not bring success to the organization in achieving their goals. Work satisfaction reflects an individual’s emotional experiences in theenvironment that they are working in. Many times management starts paying attention when it is too late. For this reason, measuring employee satisfaction should occur in each organization. This way appropriate actions and decisions can be made to improve current conditions.Purpose: To investigate employee satisfaction, determine the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction and identify motivational factors. Furthermore, to examine how personal goals of individuals influence their work and to which degree money is a motivator for work.Methods: A descriptive approach was used to examine the the oretical content, interview. An interview was conducted with which data was obtained on employee satisfaction.Results: Employees are satisfied with their work and it gives them a personal challenge, offers satisfaction, a source of income and pleasure. They are motivated by pay, student satisfaction, and successful transference of knowledge to students. Possible dissatisfaction of employees would not influence their effectiveness and work results. They believe that fulfilling their personal goals can influence their satisfaction.Organization: The obtained data will be used by management for improvement. The obtained results will lead management in decision making to increase employee satisfaction.Society: Refresh knowledge from the area of creating employee satisfaction and motivational factors that influences people at work.Originality: The limited number of interview participants and personal acquaintance

  8. The Role and Implication of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition(SLA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩绮

    2018-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors that affect foreign language learning.As it is affected by various factors, it becomes very complicated. Therefore, it is of great significance for foreign language teachers to explore how to motivate their students to become autonomous learners based on the overview of motivation studies in foreign language learning. This paper an?alyzes motivation factors on influencing learners in foreign language learning and explores some suggestions for motivating learn?er's learning.

  9. ENTREPRENEURS' MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloboda Prokić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are playing a major role in the economy of each country on the planet. Theycontribute to national economies by starting up and running small and medium sized enterprises(SMEs, which make more than 95% of the total number of enterprises and which are providing jobsto more than 60% of all employees within each country. The significance of entrepreneurship foreconomic development oblige goverments and all other relevant institutions within each country tocontinue to facilitate its growth by all means necessary. In order to do this, these institutions need tobe familiar with motives of entrepreneurs to start their own business. In this paper, results ofempirical research concerning motivational factors of entrepreneurs in Serbia are presented. Thisresearch presents a continuation of serie of research on this topic which were conducted in severalcountries, by using the same methodological approach.

  10. [Hygiene and motivation factors of nursing work in a cardiology ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somense, Carolina Bueno; Duran, Erika Christiane Marocco

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to identify hygienic and motivational factors in the nursing work according to the Two-Factor Theory, as well as their relation with professional satisfaction/dissatisfaction. This exploratory-descriptive study involved nine nurses from the cardiology ward of a hospital in the interior of the State of São Paulo, between August and September 2013. A self-applied questionnaire was used, including open and closed questions. The data were categorized as hygienic and motivational. Results show the nurses' satisfaction with autonomy, work itself and teamwork, duties, content and responsibilities of the job. Dissatisfaction is related to career growth possibilities; work, political and administrative conditions at the institution, supervision and lack of institutional support. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors include relationships, acknowledgements and remuneration. Nurses' satisfaction is determined by multiple and often controversial factors.

  11. Motivation of dairy farmers to improve mastitis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to explore different motivating factors and to quantify their importance in decisions of farmers on improving mastitis management, 2) to evaluate different quality payment schemes as extra incentive mechanisms for farmers, and 3) to link the motivating factors to

  12. Curricular Factors in Middle School Teachers' Motivation to Become and Remain Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how middle level teachers define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  13. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event- or activity-based, cognitive loads, and cue focality. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research.

  14. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event-, or activity-based), cognitive loads, and processing overlaps. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research. PMID:25018743

  15. Motivational Factors: Drivers Behind Women Entrepreneurs’ Decision to Start an Entrepreneurial Venture in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fosić Ivana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A decision to start a business is not easy because it is result of the economic conditions, cultural context, but also “push” and “pull” factors. In order to determine woman motivational factors, a survey of 1,157 Eastern Croatia respondents was conducted. The purpose of the research was to determine which motivations the potential future entrepreneurs believe trigger women entrepreneurs’ decision to start an entrepreneurial venture. The results show that women are considered to be financially motivated. The fact that real-life women entrepreneurs from previous research have stated slightly different motivations shows that there is room for improvement of entrepreneurship education.

  16. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordalen, Gro; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies ( N = 199; female n = 72; 16-20 years of age) consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes' self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes' quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified), and controlled (introjected and amotivation) regulations in association with self-control offered the

  17. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes:The Importance of Motivation and Self - Control Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Jordalen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory (SDT framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies (N = 199; female n = 72; 16 to 20 years of age consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes’ self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes’ quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified, and controlled (introjected and amotivation regulations in association

  18. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  19. Teachers’ innovative behaviour: the importance of basic psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and occupational self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaeijsen, Andrea; Vermeulen, Marjan; Martens, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Teacher innovative behaviour and professional development are considered important aspects of high quality education. It is often thought that motivation influences teachers’ innovative behaviour and professional development. The main purpose of this study is to gain more insight in motivational

  20. The Importance of Motivation in the Typewriting Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Mary L.

    1976-01-01

    If a typing teacher makes maximum use of intrinsic rewards, it will not be necessary to use many extrinsic motivational devices. The implications of Maslow's "hierarchy of needs" for teachers of adolescents, and the basic motivational principles developed by Rowe are presented. (Author/AJ)

  1. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE ELDERLY

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    Agnes Navarro Cabral da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors for older adults to practice physical activities regularly. The sample consisted of 77 elderly of both genders, aged 55 to 90 years and who were practicing physical activities for at least a month in centers of sports and leisure in the city of Indaiatuba. The inventory IMPRAF-54 (Motivation for the Regular Practice of Physical Activity Inventory was used for data collection. This instrument covers 6 dimensions of motivation for the practice of physical activities: stress control, health, sociability, competitiveness, aesthetic and pleasure. The results showed that the main motivational factor for the elderly is health. After health, sociability, pleasure and control of stress appear tied and, finally, aesthetics and competitiveness. With these results, it is possible to know what encourages older adults to attend classes and to plan for them properly, including their interests and considering them holistically.

  2. A Qualitative Study of Motivating Factors for Pharmacy Student Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Joel; Ginsburg, Diane B

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To understand what motivates student pharmacists to seek a leadership position while in the professional pharmacy program and why these students choose to lead in a particular organization. Methods. A qualitative study was used to answer the research questions. Current student leaders were recruited to participate, and each completed a pre-interview questionnaire and a one-hour interview. All interviews were transcribed, and an interpretive phenomenological approach was used to describe, code, and analyze the experiences. Results. Student leaders were motivated to serve in a leadership position for four reasons: networking opportunities, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy. Additionally, prior leadership experience and influence played major roles in these student leaders' pursuit of a position. Conclusion. Networking, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy are the four primary motivating factors for student leadership while in the professional pharmacy program. Knowing these factors should help direct resources in organizational and college efforts to produce qualified and impactful pharmacist leaders.

  3. 'Wild league' in water polo: An exploration of recreational sports event visit motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope of this study was to identify motivational factors related to specific recreational sport event: 'Wild league' in water polo, which takes place in Dubrovnik, have very long tradition. First goal of the study is to determine the relationship between motivational factors related to this event, as well as with socio-demographic variables. Second goal is to determine the differences in motivational factors, according to several independent variables, mainly related to the previous experiences with sports and touristic destination. The cross-sectional study is conducted. The sample of 125 participants was examined, using the Questionnaire on sports event. All participants were Croatian citizens, excluding those who are born, and currently live in Dubrovnik. Major sports tourism motives of the potential tourists in this sporting event, were obtained. In general, the importance of the benefits of sports and tourist destination prevailed, as compared with their limitations, which appeared as an important factor only in participants who didn't visited Dubrovnik yet. At the participants, pull factors, i.e. advanced sports and travel motives slightly dominated over push motives, but statistically significant only in females, who expressed more sophisticated pulling tourist motives, such as the acquisition of knowledge about the destination. Correlations indicate that previous interest in sport, particularly in water polo and Wild League, are moderate positively associated with pushing motives. Moreover, previous recreationally engaging in sports, as well as destination-related origin, appeared as the important factors for having more emphasized pull motives for visiting this sport event. Level of the education did not appear as important factor in differentiating main type of motives in target population. Results provide initial information about the possibility of profiling potential tourists who could be motivated to visit the destination by this

  4. Attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of female extension agents in Edo State, Nigeria. A random sample of 35 female extension agents was selected for the study. Findings reveal that the majority of the respondents (57.1%) were in the age group of 31 – 40 years and ...

  5. The Impact of Motivation on Employees Effectiveness

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    Andreja Kušar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How does Motivation Impact Employees Effectiveness? Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine how motivation contributes to greater work efficiency. Method: Qualitative method was used, specifically, interviews with five individuals, two leaders and three employees in different organizations. Results: The research study provides findings on how motivation affects theeffective work of employees and how employees are encouraged to maximize work motivation. The results also present which demotivating factors are most present at work. Organization: The findings assist management staff to understand their rolein motivating their employees and how much it is important that leaders themselves should be the most motivated. Society: Results show that employee motivation is very important at the workplace. Because of this, employees have to take care of a good work climate within the organization and for good interpersonal relationships with fellow employees. Originality: Certain motivators were ranked differently in the review of literature, because many respondents in this study favored intangible motivating factors before tangible ones. Limitations/further research: The study is limited to employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. One of the limitations is the time determination, because I was interviewing employees at a specific time (now and not for the past.

  6. Perceived motivational factors for female football players during rehabilitation after sports injury - a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Malin; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Compliance with a rehabilitation program is significant among athletes following a sports injury. It is also one of the main factors that influence the rehabilitation process; moreover, the outcome is also influenced by the athlete's motivation. It is primarily an autonomous motivation, resulting in rehabilitation adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived motivation of female football players during rehabilitation after a sports injury and the extent to which these motivating factors were autonomous. Qualitative interviews, based on a semistructured interview guide with injured female football players undergoing rehabilitation, were analyzed using content analysis. The motivational factors that were described were their set goals, social support as well as external and internal pressures during rehabilitation. The perceived autonomy varied somewhat but overall, they experienced external motivation; therefore, the behavior was not entirely self-determined. Results are expected to provide a better understanding of women football players' motivation in relation to their rehabilitation; hence, physiotherapists and coaches who are part of the rehabilitation process can contribute by increasing the autonomous motivation, thus, improving the compliance and outcome of the rehabilitation.

  7. Association of Intrinsic Motivating Factors and Markers of Physician Well-Being: A National Physician Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hyo Jung; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2017-07-01

    Although intrinsic motivating factors play important roles in physician well-being and productivity, most studies have focused on extrinsic motivating factors such as salary and work environment. To examine the association of intrinsic motivators with physicians' career satisfaction, life satisfaction, and clinical commitment, while accounting for established extrinsic motivators as well. A nationally representative survey of 2000 US physicians, fielded October to December 2011. Outcome variables were five measures of physician well-being: career satisfaction, life satisfaction, high life meaning, commitment to direct patient care, and commitment to clinical practice. Primary explanatory variables were sense of calling, personally rewarding hours per day, meaningful, long-term relationships with patients, and burnout. Multivariate logit models with survey design provided nationally representative individual-level estimates. Among 1289 respondents, 85.8% and 86.5% were satisfied with their career and life, respectively; 88.6% had high life meaning; 54.5% and 79.5% intended to retain time in direct patient care and continue clinical practice, respectively. Sense of calling was strongly positively associated with high life meaning (odds ratio [OR] 5.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.87-9.19) and commitment to direct patient care (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.53-4.07). Personally rewarding hours per day were most strongly associated with career satisfaction (OR 5.28, 95% CI 2.72-10.2), life satisfaction (OR 4.46, 95% CI 2.34-8.48), and commitment to clinical practice (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.87-6.39). Long-term relationships with patients were positively associated with career and life satisfaction and high life meaning. Burnout was strongly negatively associated with all measures of physician well-being. Intrinsic motivators (e.g., calling) were associated with each measure of physician well-being (satisfaction, meaning, and commitment), but extrinsic motivators (e.g., annual

  8. The power paradox : Implicit and explicit power motives, and the importance attached to prosocial organizational goals in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Julie; Slabbinck, Hendrik; Vanderstraeten, Johanna; Brassey, Jacqueline; Dejardin, Marcus; Ramdani, Dendi; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    We examine the fundamental tension between explicit and implicit power motives; and their combined impact on the importance attached to prosocial organizational goals in small businesses (SMEs). We show that key decision-makers with a dominant implicit power motive attach more importance to the

  9. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldegebriel Z

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.  Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05.  Results: Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational

  10. Importance of alcohol-related expectations and emotional expressivity for prediction of motivation to refuse alcohol in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavinskienė, Justina; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of alcohol-dependent patients' emotional expressivity, alcohol-related expectations and socio-demographic factors for prediction of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. The study sample consisted of 136 alcohol-dependent patients (100 men and 36 women) undergoing treatment in Kaunas center for addictive disorders. Only higher expression of negative alcohol-related expectations (std. beta=0.192, P=0.023), higher emotional impulse intensity (std. beta=0.229, P=0.021) and higher expression of positive emotional expressiveness (std. beta=0.021, P=0.020) as well as gender (std. beta=0.180, P=0.049), education (std. beta=-0.137, P=0.038) and alcohol dependency treatment conditions (members of support group after rehabilitation program) (std. beta=0.288, P=0.001; std. beta=0.608, P=0.001) were significant factors for predicting the different level of alcohol-dependent patients motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. Negative alcohol-related expectations, emotional impulse intensity and positive emotional expressiveness were significant even though quite weak triggers for alcohol-dependent patients' different level of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. An assumption could be made that by changing these triggers it is possible to change addictive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Approaches to forming motivational impact in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Григорівна Яковенко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main factors that determine the impact of employee motivation to increase productivity and efficiency of the enterprise are considered, the main tangible and intangible factors of motivation and the process of system implementation aimed at encouraging workers. The proposed system of motivation stimulates the individual worker or workers' collective as a whole to achieve individual and common goals of the company. High rates of changes in the environment predetermine the growing importance of personnel as a factor of competitiveness, because this issue is relevant

  12. The Dominant Factor of Teacher's Role as a Motivator of Students' Interest and Motivation in Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to identify the most dominant factor of the teacher's role as a motivator that influences students' interest and motivation to perform in mathematics achievement. It is conducted in eighth grade of senior high school with 209 students, consisted of five state schools and two private schools from seven regencies in North Sumatera.…

  13. Trait sexual motivation questionnaire: concept and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rudolf; Kagerer, Sabine; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Klucken, Tim; Wehrum-Osinsky, Sina

    2015-04-01

    Trait sexual motivation defines a psychological construct that reflects the long-lasting degree of motivation for sexual activities, which is assumed to be the result of biological and sociocultural influences. With this definition, it shares commonalities with other sexuality-related constructs like sexual desire, sexual drive, sexual needs, and sexual compulsivity. The Trait Sexual Motivation Questionnaire (TSMQ) was developed in order to measure trait sexual motivation with its different facets. Several steps were conducted: First, items were composed assessing sexual desire, the effort made to gain sex, as well as specific sexual behaviors. Factor analysis of the data of a first sample (n = 256) was conducted. Second, the factor solution was verified by a confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 498) and construct validity was demonstrated. Third, the temporal stability of the TSMQ was tested in a third study (n = 59). Questionnaire data. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that trait sexual motivation is best characterized by four subscales: Solitary Sexuality, Importance of Sex, Seeking Sexual Encounters, and Comparison with Others. It could be shown that the test quality of the questionnaire is high. Most importantly for the trait concept, the retest reliability after 1 year was r = 0.87. Our results indicate that the TSMQ is indeed a suitable tool for measuring long-lasting sexual motivation with high test quality and high construct validity. A future differentiation between trait and state sexual motivation might be helpful for clinical as well as forensic research. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. The Power Paradox: Implicit and Explicit Power Motives, and the Importance Attached to Prosocial Organizational Goals in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hermans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the fundamental tension between explicit and implicit power motives; and their combined impact on the importance attached to prosocial organizational goals in small businesses (SMEs. We show that key decision-makers with a dominant implicit power motive attach more importance to the prosocial goals of job creation and taking care of the environment in their businesses. However, we reveal that this positive relationship is moderated by their explicit power motive. Once decision-makers in SMEs consciously seek for power, the positive relationship is neutralized. With these results, we highlight the conceptual and methodological differences between implicit and explicit power motives. We could obtain these results because we developed and validated an innovative implicit motive measure—the Shortened Pictorial Attitude Implicit Association Test (SPA-IAT. Contrary to the currently available implicit motive measures, the SPA-IAT is fast and easy to use and analyze, which makes this novel instrument well suited for research in business settings.

  15. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Choosing Teaching as a Career: Importance of the Type of Motivation in Career Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tomšik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research looks into what are Extrinsic, Intrinsic and Altruistic motives and their importance when students are choosing their career. The study involved 324 teacher trainees in their first year of bachelor studies. The types of motivation when choosing teaching career were studied by SMVUP2-S (Teaching Career Choice Scale. The model of motivation types was supplemented by subscales: Influence by other, Career growth and Alternative choice. Objective of the study was to show the relationship between these variables. Results from the research showed that influence by other and alternative choice of teaching career were in a negative relation with interest and skills/experience that this career requires and students should have.

  17. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  18. Putting Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Charles R.; Decker, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Explores challenges to Frederick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation--a required concept in many administrator preparation programs. Herzberg used modified critical incident (or self-reporting) techniques to illustrate that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction occupied different continua and were not opposed to each other. Criticisms, study…

  19. Fundamental movement skills and motivational factors influencing engagement in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To assess whether subgroups based on children's fundamental movement skills, perceived competence, and self-determined motivation toward physical education vary with current self-reported physical activity, a sample of 316 Finnish Grade 7 students completed fundamental movement skills measures and self-report questionnaires assessing perceived competence, self-determined motivation toward physical education, and current physical activity. Cluster analysis indicated a three-cluster structure: "Low motivation/low skills profile," "High skills/low motivation profile," and "High skills/high motivation profile." Analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster engaged in significantly more physical activity than students of clusters one and two. These results provide support for previous claims regarding the importance of the relationship of fundamental movement skills with continuing engagement in physical activity. High fundamental movement skills, however, may represent only one element in maintaining adolescents' engagement in physical activity.

  20. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.

  1. The Importance of Emotion in Theories of Motivation: Empirical, Methodological, and Theoretical Considerations from a Goal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Julianne C.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schweinle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Despite its importance to educational psychology, prominent theories of motivation have mostly ignored emotion. In this paper, we review theoretical conceptions of the relation between motivation and emotion and discuss the role of emotion in understanding student motivation in classrooms. We demonstrate that emotion is one of the best indicators…

  2. Uncovering the Motivating Factors behind Writing in English in en EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyavuz, Oya; Çakir, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Writing in a language, whether the target or native, is regarded as a complex activity operating on multiple cognitive levels. This study aimed to uncover the factors which motivate teacher trainees of English to write in English in an EFL context. The study also investigated the differences in the ways teacher trainees are motivated in terms of…

  3. Motivational Factors of Companies that Establish Cooperation with Institutes of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giovanni Mazzola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovation is deemed strategic for organizations and nations to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. One of the most effective means for companies to achieve these innovations is through the relationship with universities. Thus, this study aimed to identify the main factors that motivate companies to establish this partnership. Hence, a descriptive study was elaborated, in which respondents are companies that have some level of cooperation with universities and institutes of science and technology. The results obtained show that the main reasons are, according to their importance: (1 to strengthen the technology, (2 to search for new sources of creativity, (3 to obtain expertise in market-oriented technologies, (4 to acquire new technologies; (5 to reach skilled labor, (6 to train their human resources, and (7 to develop new products. Furthermore, this study found that the less important factors are related to social reasons; this finding deserves further investigation in future studies.

  4. Measuring Tourism motivation: Do Scales matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Songshan (Sam)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring tourist motivation has always been a challenging task for tourism researchers. This paper aimed to increase the understanding of tourist motivation measurement by comparing two frequently adopted motivation measurement approaches: self-perception (SP) and importance-rating (IR) approaches. Results indicated that both SP and IR scales were highly reliable in terms of internal consistency. However, respondents tended to rate more positively in the SP scale than in the IR scale. Factor...

  5. The Empirical Research on Civil Servants’ Motivation: Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Bercu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the most important factors with impact on civil servants motivation. The factors affecting motivation are examined and their effects on job satisfaction are explained. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective of the research, we will employ the Maslow-Herzberg combined model. The study was conducted in 21 Town Halls from the IASI County, Romania. Pearson’s correlation and regression analyses were used to establish whether the selected motivational factors were related to civil servants’ job satisfaction. The civil servants who feel that they are important for their organization will pursue goals actively and will increase the efforts to be more competitive at work and perform better. The limits of our research depend on the organizations analysed. The framework provides an explanation of why some factors enhance the civil servants’ motivation, while others not so much.

  6. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  7. Motivational factors as determinants of employee commitment and performance enhancement in profit oriented firms: a survey of selected brewery manufacturing companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sev Joseph Teryima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the Impact of Motivational Factors such as extrinsic, intrinsic rewards and social motivational on employee commitment and performance enhancement in profit oriented firms with a focus on selected Brewery Manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Data for this research is obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The sample size for the study is 280 from six (6 Brewery firms. Multiple Regression test was used in testing the two (2 formulated hypotheses. The study findings revealed that motivational factors such as Intrinsic, extrinsic and social motivation have a good relationship with employee commitment and performance enhancement in profit oriented firms especially Brewery manufacturing companies. Other findings were that lack of motivational incentives will lead to employee frustration in these companies. The study recommends that adequate and consistent provision of intrinsic, extrinsic and social motivational incentive packages to staff to facilitate employee commitment and high performance attainment is important at all times. The study also recommended that, establishing organizational objectives and goals by companies is a good starting point by management to know the essential motivational incentives that should be granted to employees for productivity attainment.

  8. Consumer motivations for sustainable consumption:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...

  9. A Study on Motivational Factors of Students in German Language Teaching Department at Trakya University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2009-01-01

    There are many definitions, views and theories for motivation. This study aims to state expressly what type of motivation factors according to the students' grades affects the students of German Language Teaching Departments (Turkey) negatively or positively. How the external and internal factors affect the students of German Language Teaching…

  10. Chinese women's motivation to receive future screening: the role of social-demographic factors, knowledge and risk perception of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; He, Guo-Ping; Choi, K C; Yang, Sheng-Bo

    2013-04-01

    This paper adopted Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing their motivation to receive future screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 167 Chinese women (142 women were willing to receive a screening in the future and 25 women were not) in 2007 to collect women's socio-demographic information and sexual history, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and Protection Motivation Theory measures. The majority of women stated they intended to receive future screening and response efficacy was significantly associated with their intention. However, no significant association was observed between sexual history and protection motivation. Using multivariate analysis, cancer in relatives (odds ratio, OR = 9.97, 95% CI [1.44-436.3], p = 0.010), a perception that visiting a doctor regularly is important to health (OR = 9.85, 95% CI [1.61-999.9], p = 0.009)), and ever attending for cervical screening during the previous three years (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.23-11.02], p = 0.016) were significantly associated with women' motivation to receive future screening. The findings of this study highlight the important role of women's beliefs in the value of cervical screening and previous screening experience in motivating them to receive a screening. Education intervention is needed to provide information and raise public awareness about the importance of cervical screening to women's health. Culture-related beliefs and social motivational processes in addition to those specified by PMT need to be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana: a factor analysis of motivations and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mensah-Ansah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and five small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana were surveyed to determine their motivation for owning/operating a small tourism business and the challenges they encounter. Tourism accommodation business owners indicated factors such as maintaining lifestyle, being their own bosses, capitalising on a business opportunity, generation of retirement income influence the decision to own/operate a small tourism accommodation businesses. These variables can be categorized as non-economic and economic factors. It was found that though the owners were motivated by commercial enterprise goals, these are subordinated to the pursuit of socially driven lifestyle motivation factors. Small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana perceive the non-availability of skilled hospitality personnel and limited access to structured hospitality training programmes as the greatest challenge facing their industry.

  12. Identify the Important Decision Factors of Online Shopping Adoption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailatul HIJRAH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify factors encouraging a consumer to engage in online shopping activities. The expected contribution of this study is for online entrepreneurs, in order to develop the most suitable business strategy, so that it will be clearly identified and sorted out which factors are the most important and the main motivation of Indonesian consumers to shop via online by using responses from respondents who usually shop online and offline in 3 cities in Indonesia, Jakarta, Surabaya and Samarinda. The research instruments were developed by conducting FGDs on relevant groups, either academics, online shopping activists, suppliers and courier businessmen in Jakarta, Surabaya and Samarinda Cities in effort to extract any information that encourages consumers to online shopping. After conducting FGD, the researcher produced 48 items proposed for factor analysis and after extracted to form eleven constructs, some items were removed because they had less loading factors. The eleven constructs or dimensions are trust, risk, consumer factors, website factors, price, service quality, convenience, subjective norm, product guarantee, variety of products and lifestyle. The implications of this study provide valuable insights about consumer decisions to online shopping or not online shopping.

  13. A Preliminary Investigation into Motivational Factors Associated with Older Adults' Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave; Clarkson, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the relative importance of older problem gamblers' motives for gambling. A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the past year Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS), was completed by a…

  14. Investigation of the Motivation Parameters in Health Care Establishments

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    Osman Durmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that influence the motivation of employees in the health sector with the aim of finding articles and research are examined. As far as can be seen in reviews in this field, various studies have been conducted in different countries. The specific findings of this research were concluded. When these findings are examined, particularly in the area of Health ‘Management’ and ‘working conditions’ had positive effect on the motivation of health personnel was observed. However, the tools of economic motivation, tools to motivate health employees, psychosocial factors have been identified as the most important managerial tools and organizational tools to motivate.

  15. Motivation and Training Initiation: Evidence from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielniczuk, Emilia; Laguna, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the self-determination theory and the model of action phases, the present study aims to provide insight into motivational factors that are important for training initiation. It investigates the relations between three types of motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation) and training initiation: intention to initiate new…

  16. Motivation factors for suicidal behavior and their clinical relevance in admitted psychiatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct.To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance.By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS was constructed to measure the features. Data included assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric and personality disorders, suicide intent, depressive symptomatology, overt aggression, recent life events (RLEs and methods of SB, collated from structured interviews. Association of identified features with clinical variables was examined by correlation analyses and MANCOVA.Factor analyses elicited a 4-factor solution composed of Interpersonal-testing (IT, Interpersonal-change (IC, Self-renunciation (SR and Self-sustenance (SS. These factors were classified according to two distinctions, namely interpersonal vs. intra-personal directedness, and the level of assumed influence by SB or the relationship to prevailing emotions. Analyses revealed meaningful links between patient features and clinical variables. Interpersonal-motivations (IT and IC were associated with overt aggression, low suicidality and RLE discord or conflict, while SR was associated with depression, high suicidality and RLE separation or death. Borderline personality disorder showed association with IC and SS. When self-strangulation was set as a reference SB method, self-cutting and overdose-taking were linked to IT and SS, respectively.The factors extracted in this study largely corresponded to factors from previous studies, implying that they may be useful in a wider clinical context. The association of these features with SB-related factors suggests that they constitute an integral part

  17. Perceived motivational factors for female football players during rehabilitation after sports injury – a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Malin; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Compliance with a rehabilitation program is significant among athletes following a sports injury. It is also one of the main factors that influence the rehabilitation process; moreover, the outcome is also influenced by the athlete’s motivation. It is primarily an autonomous motivation, resulting in rehabilitation adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived motivation of female football players during rehabilitation after a sports injury and the extent to which these motivating factors were autonomous. Qualitative interviews, based on a semistructured interview guide with injured female football players undergoing rehabilitation, were analyzed using content analysis. The motivational factors that were described were their set goals, social support as well as external and internal pressures during rehabilitation. The perceived autonomy varied somewhat but overall, they experienced external motivation; therefore, the behavior was not entirely self-determined. Results are expected to provide a better understanding of women football players’ motivation in relation to their rehabilitation; hence, physiotherapists and coaches who are part of the rehabilitation process can contribute by increasing the autonomous motivation, thus, improving the compliance and outcome of the rehabilitation. PMID:29740552

  18. Developing Automatic Student Motivation Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destarianto, P.; Etikasari, B.; Agustianto, K.

    2018-01-01

    Achievement motivation is one of the internal factors in encouraging a person to perform the best activity in achieving its goals. The importance of achievement motivation must be possessed as an incentive to compete so that the person will always strive to achieve success and avoid failure. Based on this, the system is developed to determine the achievement motivation of students, so that students can do self-reflection in improving achievement motivation. The test results of the system using Naïve Bayes Classifier showed an average rate of accuracy of 91,667% in assessing student achievement motivation. By modeling the students ‘motivation generated by the system, students’ achievement motivation level can be known. This class of motivation will be used to determine appropriate counseling decisions, and ultimately is expected to improve student achievement motivation.

  19. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students’ Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie H. Shroff

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application for learning. Background:\tAlthough the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant model, it largely remains incomplete as it does not take into consideration the motivation factors and/or outside influences in the adoption of new technology. Methodology: A Mobile Application Motivation Instrument (MAMI was developed from a comprehensive review of literature on intrinsic motivation and verified using a formalized card sorting procedure. Four intrinsic motivation scales were developed: perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT. Consequently, a scale to assess students’ behavioral intention (BIU to use mobile applications was developed using existing scales from prior TAM instruments. Contribution: Incorporating the motivational factors into TAM may provide better explanation and prediction of student acceptance and usage of mobile applications. A potential contribution of this study is the development of a reliable and valid instrument that could be further used by a growing community of researchers, instructional designers, and instructors. Findings: Data were collected from 193 participants to test the causal relationship of perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application, using a structural equation modeling approach. The structural path model indicated that perceived competence (COM, perceived challenge (CHA, perceived choice (CHO, and perceived interest (INT had a significant influence on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU a mobile application for learning. Implications of this study

  20. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  1. Motivation and Perception of Tourists as Push and Pull Factors to Visit National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Jumrin; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Push-pull theoretical framework is a popular theory to explain the reason why the tourists decide to visit the destination rather than other place, the kind of experience they want to get and the type of activity they want to do. In this paper, it is explained the motivation as push factors and the perception as pull factors of the tourist in deciding the destination based on previous literature and research using descriptive method. The framework asumed that tourists are motivated to fulfill their needs, including to reduce the psychological imbalance and to gain recognition of social status. National Park is one of destination based on nature or commonly knowns as ecotourism. In choosing the destination, the tourists tend to classify their alternative choice based on several criteria, such as the domination perception of tourist from one destination (pull factor), self motivation (push factor) and the available time and money (situational constraints).

  2. Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagić Snježana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.

  3. Development of a Survey to Examine the Factors that Motivate Secondary Education Teachers' Use of Problem-based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Huei-Chen

    In this quantitative study, a survey was developed and administered to middle and high school teachers to examine what factors motivated them to implement problem-based learning (PBL). Using Expectancy-Value Theory by Eccles et al. (1983) and Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci (2000b) as the theoretical framework, this instrument measured respondents' perceived competence, support for autonomy and relatedness, and value and cost they placed on implementing PBL. Data analyses indicated that the instrument had good reliability. A 3-factor structure was established by exploratory factor analysis which confirmed the construct validity of the instrument. Value of PBL to teachers and their students was the most dominant factor that motivated teachers to implement it. The second most important factor was their self-efficacy and anxiety about failing this pedagogy, and the third factor was teachers' perceived autonomy, and support from schools and colleagues. Regression models showed the predictive power of the factors on teachers' intention to implement PBL, with their perceptions of the value of PBL being the strongest predictor. Results also indicate that teachers with PBL experience perceived significantly higher levels of competence and support from peers, and placed a higher level of value and perceived less cost in implementing PBL than teachers who had not implemented PBL. Teachers' formal training in PBL played a significant role in positively influencing their perceptions of competence and the value of PBL, and reduced their perceived cost of implementing PBL. This, in turn, enhanced teachers' intention of practicing PBL. For teachers who had previously taught with PBL, their responses to two open-ended questions in this instrument corresponded with the theoretical framework of this study and triangulated well with the quantitative data. These teachers highly valued PBL and they recognized the challenges associated with its implementation. These teachers

  4. [Effects and the associated factors of the 2016 China Motivational Healthy Walking Program among occupational population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W; Zhao, Y F; Yang, X Z; Li, Y C; Li, Z X; Wang, L H

    2018-05-06

    Objective: To examine the effects and associated factors of the China Motivational Healthy Walking Program among occupational population. Methods: The 2016 China Motivational Healthy Walking Program recruited 29 224 participants from 139 demonstration areas for comprehensive prevention and control of chronic and non-communicable disease at national level and 70 at provincial level. Intervention on walking was carried out by adopting group and individual motivating measures. Walking steps were recorded by electronic pedometer. We used percent of days achieving 10 000 steps (P10 000), percent of days fulfilling continuous walking (PCW), and proportion of valid walking (PVW) steps to reflect walking quantity, pattern and quality of participants. Motivation intensity was measured by summing up scores of each motivating activity. Questionnaire-based online survey collected information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors and chronic diseases. This study finally included 12 368 individuals in the analysis. Multilevel logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of group and individual motivating measures on walking activity and corresponding associated factors. Results: Age of the study sample was (41.2±8.99) years, and 58.17% (7 194) of them were female. After 100-day intervention, the P10 000, PCW and PVW of all participants were 93.89%±14.42%,92.01%±15.97% and 81.00%±7.45%, respectively. The mean P10 000 and PCW increased with rising group-motivated scores, self-motivated scores and individual-activity scores ( Pmotivated scores and self-motivated scores (both Pmotivated scores and self-motivated scores tended to have more likelihood of high-level of P10 000 and PCW. Age, sex, smoking status, education attainment and alcohol drinking were associated with P10 000 and PCW ( PMotivational Healthy Walking Program had positive effect on promoting healthy walking among occupational population. Group-motivated and self-motivated activities

  5. Motivation as the main factor of management labour efficiency /

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Sh. Urmanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personnel often becomes a factor, which provides successful, long-term functioning and a good reputation to an enterprise under modern conditions of fast change in the market environment. Nowadays, the owners of many enterprises are faced with the problems of nonefficient use of different kinds of resources, in particular, labour resources by management personnel that is caused by decreasing personnel labour productivity, decreasing the level of personnel responsibility and interest in results of its activity. That is why the principal feature of entrepreneurship is a priority attention to the management personal activity as the base for enterprise successful work. The experience of advanced world economies proves that every management task in any field of an activity can be fulfilled due to management entities’ interest in their fulfilment that determines the issue of labour motivation for management personnel as actual. The paper examines some theoretical and practical aspects of labour motivation for management personnel. The authors analyze the action of material and nonmaterial motivation mechanism of personnel labour at an enterprise; the solutions concerning its improvement are proposed.

  6. Analysis of the factors motivating HCV-infected patients to accept interferon therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to analyze factors motivating the acceptance of interferon (IFN therapy and to clarify the prevalence of oral mucosal diseases in hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected Japanese patients treated with IFN. Findings A total of 94 HCV-infected patients who were admitted to our hospital for IFN therapy were asked questions regarding their motivation to accept IFN therapy and were investigated for the presence of oral lichen planus (OLP before and during IFN treatment. Recommendation and encouragement from other people were the most common factors motivating the acceptance of IFN therapy (49/94, 52.13%. The other motivators were independent decision (30.85%, economic reasons (5.32%, and others. According to multivariate analysis, three factors – sex (male, retreatment after previous IFN therapy, and independent decision to accept IFN therapy - were associated with patients after curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The adjusted odds ratios for these three factors were 26.06, 14.17, and 8.72, respectively. The most common oral mucosal lesions included OLP in 11 cases (11.70%. One patient with OLP had postoperative squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The rate of sustained virological response (SVR was 45.45% in cases with OLP and 54.55% in cases without OLP. There were no patients who discontinued IFN therapy because of side effects such as oral mucosal diseases. Conclusions We should give full explanation and recommend a course of treatment for a patient to accept IFN therapy. The system to support liver disease as well as oral diseases is also necessary for patient treated for IFN therapy.

  7. Closing the Communal Gap: The Importance of Communal Affordances in Science Career Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Thoman, Dustin B; Smith, Jessi L; Diekman, Amanda B

    2015-12-01

    To remain competitive in the global economy, the United States (and other countries) is trying to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by graduating an additional 1 million people in STEM fields by 2018. Although communion (working with, helping, and caring for others) is a basic human need, STEM careers are often (mis)perceived as being uncommunal. Across three naturalistic studies we found greater support for the communal affordance hypothesis, that perceiving STEM careers as affording greater communion is associated with greater STEM career interest, than two alternative hypotheses derived from goal congruity theory. Importantly, these findings held regardless of major (Study 1), college enrollment (Study 2), and gender (Studies 1-3). For undergraduate research assistants, mid-semester beliefs that STEM affords communion predicted end of the semester STEM motivation (Study 3). Our data highlight the importance of educational and workplace motivational interventions targeting communal affordances beliefs about STEM.

  8. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  9. Show me the money: incorporating financial motives into the gambling motives questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Kristianne

    2014-12-01

    Although research has only recently begun to measure what motivates all levels of gambling involvement, motives could offer a theoretically interesting and practical way to subtype gamblers in research and for responsible gambling initiatives. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is one measure that weaves together much of the gambling motives literature, but it has been criticized for neglecting financial reasons for gambling. This study uses a series of factor analyses to explore the effect of adding nine financial motives to the GMQ in a heterogeneous sample of 1,014 adult past-year gamblers. After trimming trivial financial motives, the penultimate factor analysis of the 15 GMQ items and four financial motives led to a four-factor solution, with factors tapping enhancement, social, coping and financial motives, as predicted. A final factor analysis performed on a modified GMQ-F (i.e., 16 items, including a financial subscale) revealed the same four factors, and hierarchical regression showed that the financial motives improve the GMQ-F's prediction of gambling frequency. This study provides evidence that omitting financial motives is a clear gap in the GMQ, yet suggests that the GMQ is a promising tool that can be conceptually and empirically strengthened with the simple addition of financial items.

  10. Study of Factors of Marriage Motivation among Single people with Andwithout Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Dadkhah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Talking about needs, it means to consider the reasons of human behavior. Because such behavior starts with one or several needs which will cause to develop different societies according to the degree of civilization, and also social-cultural factors treat differently with blinds, so these different circumstances can create different needs and motivation for them. Methods: On this basis, in order to measure marriage motivation, a, questionnaire made by researcher using Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which contains 45 questions. The participants consisted of 76 blind (In Isfahan, by using stratified sampling method and 76 normal. The two groups in respect to age, sex, education level employment and income level were matched. Results: Statistical analysis of results showed that a significant difference exists in respect and self-sufficient factors of marriage motivation between two groups (P<0.05. Discussion: With respect to the results, it seems that blind people contrary to relatively deprivation that they face, willing to act upon their own internal values. Therefore any problem in their marriage motivation can be due to their interactions with others.

  11. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  12. Motivational factors influencing the homeowners’ decisions between residential heating systems: An empirical analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Carl Christian; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Heating demand accounts for a large fraction of the overall energy demand of private households in Germany. A better understanding of the adoption and diffusion of energy-efficient and renewables-based residential heating systems (RHS) is of high policy relevance, particularly against the background of climate change, security of energy supply and increasing energy prices. In this paper, we explore the multi-dimensionality of the homeowners’ motivation to decide between competing RHS. A questionnaire survey (N=2440) conducted in 2010 among homeowners who had recently installed a RHS provides the empirical foundation. Principal component analysis shows that 25 items capturing different adoption motivations can be grouped around six dimensions: (1) cost aspects, (2) general attitude towards the RHS, (3) government grant, (4) reactions to external threats (i.e., environmental or energy supply security considerations), (5) comfort considerations, and (6) influence of peers. Moreover, a cluster analysis with the identified motivational factors as segmentation variables reveals three adopter types: (1) the convenience-oriented, (2) the consequences-aware, and (3) the multilaterally-motivated RHS adopter. Finally, we show that the influence of the motivational factors on the adoption decision also differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and features of the home. - Highlights: ► Study of the multi-dimensionality of the motivation to adopt residential heating systems (RHS). ► Principal component and cluster analysis are applied to representative survey data for Germany. ► Motivation has six dimensions, including rational decision-making and emotional factors. ► Adoption motivation differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and of the home. ► Many adopters are driven by existing habits and perceptions about the convenience of the RHS

  13. Motivational Factors on Adopting Modular Coordination Concept in Industrialized Building System (IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Riduan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular coordination (MC is recognized as a tool towards rationalization and industrialization. The implementation of MC concept in the design stage may improve the constructability and construction time. However, the implementation of MC in Industrialized Building System (IBS implementation is still low compare to other developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Sweden and Japan. This paper examined the interrelationship between motivational factors of stakeholders in adopting MC concept using Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM. Questionnaire survey was engaged in this study to identify significant motivational factors. Then, semi-structure interviews were used to collect qualitative data. ISM was adopted to build relationship between factors and develop an initial model to promote the adoption of MC in IBS construction. Seven (7 significant motivational factors were identified in this research namely 1 ‘stakeholder’s commitment’, 2 ‘reduce site disruption’, 3 ‘increase productivity’, 4 ‘high skilled workers’, 5 ‘site sustainability (environment, economy and social benefits’ 6 ‘standardization’ and 7 ‘enabling ‘open building’ concept’. The result using Matrice d’Impacts Croises Multiplication Applique an Clasment (MICMAC shows that there are three factors can be categorized as Independent / Driving Factors namely ‘stakeholder’s commitment’, ‘standardization’ and ‘enabling “open building” concept’. These factors should be explored in details to enhance the adoption of IBS in Malaysia. The findings provide a very good platform for a further research in formulating an efficient solution to promote MC concept adoption among the stakeholders. This scenario will improve the deliverables of IBS construction and eliminate negative perception in its implementation.

  14. A formal anthropological view of motivation models of problematic MMO play: achievement, social, and immersion factors in the context of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse

    2013-04-01

    Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N = 252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play.

  15. The Analysis of the Impact of Two Factors-Motivation and Attitude in Adult Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper is mainly about how the two affective factors-motivation and attitude influence adults’foreign language learning. The topic is discussed from the aspect of some factors which indirectly influence adults ’language learning through influ-encing their learning motivation. Also positive attitude will promote adult foreign language learning.

  16. Are intrinsic motivational factors of work associated with functional incapacity similarly regardless of the country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, A; Pahkin, K; Huuhtanen, P; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Theorell, T; Kalimo, R

    2005-10-01

    Many psychosocial models of wellbeing at work emphasise the role of intrinsic motivational factors such as job autonomy, job complexity, and innovativeness. However, little is known about whether the employees of multinational enterprises differ from country to country with regard to intrinsic motivational factors, and whether these factors are associated with wellbeing similarly in the different countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the level of intrinsic motivational factors and their impact on functional incapacity in different countries in a multinational corporation. In 2000, data were collected from a globally operating corporation with a questionnaire survey. The participants were 13 795 employees (response rate 59%; 56% under age 45; 80% men; 61% blue collar employees), who worked in similar industrial occupations in five countries (Canada, China, Finland, France, and Sweden). The Chinese employees reported higher autonomy and lower complexity at work than the employees from the other countries. After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and physical work environment, job autonomy, and job complexity at work were associated with functional incapacity in most countries, whereas in China the impact was significantly stronger. In Finland and in China employees with low innovativeness at work were more prone to functional incapacity than corresponding employees in other countries. The level of intrinsic motivational factors varied between the Chinese employees and those in other countries. In line with theoretical notions, the relation between intrinsic motivational factors of work and functional incapacity followed a similar pattern in the different countries. However, these country specific results show that a culture specific approach to employee wellbeing should also be applied.

  17. The motivation for special interests in individuals with autism and controls: Development and validation of the special interest motivation scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Rachel; Roth, Ilona; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2016-06-01

    Clinical observations and first person accounts of living with autism suggest that individuals with autism are highly motivated to engage in special interests, and that these interests remain important throughout life. Previous research assessing special interests has mainly focused on parental reports of children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). To better understand the significance of and motivations for engaging in special interests it is essential to use self-report ratings. This paper aims to systematically explore the motivations for engagement in special interests, and whether these differ in adults with ASC, first-degree relatives and general population controls. The Special Interest Motivation Scale (SIMS) was developed to assess motivation to engage in special interests. The internal structure of this scale was evaluated using factor analysis, and mean scores on the SIMS factors were subsequently compared across individuals with autism, parents and general population controls. Factor analysis indicated a 20-item SIMS containing five factors assessing Personal life values and goals; Intrinsic interest and knowledge; Prestige; Engagement and "flow" and Achievement. Individuals with autism were more motivated by Intrinsic interest and knowledge and by Engagement and flow than controls. The 20-item SIMS is a quick to administer measure that provides a reliable description of motivation to engage in special interests. This study indicates that individuals with ASC are highly motivated to engage in their special interest, and are more motivated than controls by intrinsic motivational factors, some of which are associated with positive affect. This has implications for research and clinical practice. Autism Res 2016, 9: 677-688. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessing motivation orientations in schizophrenia: Scale development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Shanna; Lavaysse, Lindsey M.; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation deficits are common in several disorders including schizophrenia, and are an important factor in both functioning and treatment adherence. Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a leading macro-theory of motivation, has contributed a number of insights into how motivation is impaired in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, self-report measures of motivation appropriate for people with severe mental illness (including those that emphasize SDT) are generally lacking in literature. To fill this gap,...

  19. Autonomy, Affiliation, and Ability: Relative Salience of Factors that Influence Online Learner Motivation and Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chung Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.

  20. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  1. Motivationally-Informed Interventions for At-Risk STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaee, Ameneh Mahrou; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have confirmed that students' motivation is one of the most important factors educators can target to improve learning (Williams & Williams, 2011). This study explored the role which student's motivation played in the retention of first-time, full-time freshman (FTFTF) STEM majors at University (U) (blinded). Student motivational…

  2. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  3. The motivation in two different industries companies—manufacture and service—in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN, YI-TING

    2011-01-01

    The importance of motivation has been noticed in the recent decades. It is because motivation has the function of enhancing the efficiency of the company’s operation without increase the cost. However, motivation is a complicated issue that many researchers are challenging. Since there are many factors that can influence the attitude and decision of motivation, researchers need to probe into the reasons. For example, what factors are the needs of individuals as well as what affects the indivi...

  4. Influence of Social Factors and Motives on Commitment of Sport Events Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Sharififar; Zahra Jamalian; Reza Nikbakhsh; Zahra Nobakht Ramezani

    2011-01-01

    In sport, human resources management gives special attention to method of applying volunteers, their maintenance, and participation of volunteers with each other and management approaches for better operation of events celebrants. The recognition of volunteers- characteristics and motives is important to notice, because it makes the basis of their participation and commitment at sport environment. The motivation and commitment of 281 volunteers were assessed using the org...

  5. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  6. Attention in natural scenes: Affective-motivational factors guide gaze independently of visual salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Walper, Daniel; Wittmann, Bianca C; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In addition to low-level stimulus characteristics and current goals, our previous experience with stimuli can also guide attentional deployment. It remains unclear, however, if such effects act independently or whether they interact in guiding attention. In the current study, we presented natural scenes including every-day objects that differed in affective-motivational impact. In the first free-viewing experiment, we presented visually-matched triads of scenes in which one critical object was replaced that varied mainly in terms of motivational value, but also in terms of valence and arousal, as confirmed by ratings by a large set of observers. Treating motivation as a categorical factor, we found that it affected gaze. A linear-effect model showed that arousal, valence, and motivation predicted fixations above and beyond visual characteristics, like object size, eccentricity, or visual salience. In a second experiment, we experimentally investigated whether the effects of emotion and motivation could be modulated by visual salience. In a medium-salience condition, we presented the same unmodified scenes as in the first experiment. In a high-salience condition, we retained the saturation of the critical object in the scene, and decreased the saturation of the background, and in a low-salience condition, we desaturated the critical object while retaining the original saturation of the background. We found that highly salient objects guided gaze, but still found additional additive effects of arousal, valence and motivation, confirming that higher-level factors can also guide attention, as measured by fixations towards objects in natural scenes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The roles of perceived teacher support, motivational climate, and psychological need satisfaction in students' physical education motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Williams, Lavon

    2008-04-01

    Research illustrates the positive roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and mastery climate and the negative role of performance climate in student motivation in physical education. Less research has examined perceptions of relationships within this setting (i.e., perceived teacher support and relatedness) and their role in student motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the mediating roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness in the relationship between social contextual factors and motivation in physical education students (N = 508). Results from structural equation modeling showed that perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness partially mediated the relationship between perceived teacher support and self-determined motivation and that mastery climate related directly to self-determined motivation. The results highlight the importance of perceived teacher support, mastery climate, and relatedness to motivation in physical education.

  8. Mobile phone usage of young adults: The impact of motivational factors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Biljon, J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the impact of motivational factors on mobile phone use profiles and the influence thereof on the design of mobile phones. It aims to provide an alternative to the current feature driven design perspectives...

  9. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  10. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Academic Motivation Scale with Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.

  12. FORMS AND MOTIVATIONS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ramona SÂRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the identification of forms of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and analyzes factors influencing FDI motivation. Designing a coherent program to encourage foreign direct investment is based on knowledge of the factors that determine international companies to resort to this type of development: these companies resort to foreign direct investment if they have ownership advantages and internationalization, while another country has locational advantages to the company's home country. Thus, identifying the factors that influence the motivation of FDI is important both at the microeconomic level, local, local authorities and macroeconomic, national, government to develop measures for multiplying FDI .

  13. Motivational Factors Affecting the Integration of a Learning Management System by Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gautreau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Online courses taught using a learning management system are common in higher education. Teaching online requires a new set of skills, knowledge, and professional growth. Faculty development programs often overlook factors that promote or inhibit the use of technologies among professors. This study identified the motivation factors that faculty consider relevant to their personal decision to adopt a learning management system. A needs assessment evaluation methodology was applied to investigate two research questions. The first question analyzed the demographics of the participants in this study including gender, age, tenure status, department, and years of experience using a technology and using an LMS. The second research question investigated the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivate faculty to adopt a learning management system in their instruction. Participants (N = 42 were tenured and tenure track faculty instructing at a four-year public university in California.

  14. Motivation and Self-Management Behavior of the Individuals With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Jung; Jeong, Younhee

    2016-01-01

    Self-management behavior is an important component for successful pain management in individuals with chronic low back pain. Motivation has been considered as an effective way to change behavior. Because there are other physical, social, and psychological factors affecting individuals with pain, it is necessary to identify the main effect of motivation on self-management behavior without the influence of those factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation on self-management in controlling pain, depression, and social support. We used a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive design with mediation analysis and included 120 participants' data in the final analysis. We also used hierarchical multiple regression to test the effect of motivation, and multiple regression analysis and Sobel test were used to examine the mediating effect. Motivation itself accounted for 23.4% of the variance in self-management, F(1, 118) = 35.003, p motivation was also a significant factor for self-management. In the mediation analysis, motivation completely mediated the relationship between education and self-management, z = 2.292, p = .021. Motivation is an important part of self-management, and self-management education is not effective without motivation. The results of our study suggest that nurses incorporate motivation in nursing intervention, rather than only giving information.

  15. Motivation in rehabilitation and acquired brain injury: can theory help us understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusec, Andrea; Velikonja, Diana; DeMatteo, Carol; Harris, Jocelyn E

    2018-04-25

    In acquired brain injury (ABI) populations, low motivation to engage in rehabilitation is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. Motivation in ABI is thought to be influenced by internal and external factors. This is consistent with Self-determination Theory, which posits that motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. This paper discusses the benefit of using Self-determination Theory to guide measurement of motivation in ABI. Using a narrative review of the Self-determination Theory literature and clinical rehabilitation research, this paper discusses the unique role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has in healthcare settings and the importance of understanding both when providing rehabilitation in ABI. Based on the extant literature, it is possible that two independently developed measures of motivation for ABI populations, the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust Motivation Questionnaire-Self and the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire, may assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in ABI may be two equally important but independent factors that could provide a comprehensive understanding of motivation in individuals with ABI. This increased understanding could help facilitate behavioural approaches in rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Conceptualization of motivation in ABI would benefit from drawing upon Self-determination Theory. External factors of motivation such as the therapeutic environment or social support should be carefully considered in rehabilitation in order to increase engagement. Assessing motivation as a dual rather than a global construct may provide more precise information about the extent to which a patient is motivated.

  16. Motivational assessment of non-treatment buprenorphine research participation in heroin dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papke, Gina; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-06-01

    Heroin abuse remains an important public health problem, particularly in economically disadvantaged areas. Insight into this problem is gained from interviewing addicted individuals. However, we lack systematic data on factors that motivate heroin users to participate in non-treatment research that offers both financial incentives (compensation) and non-financial incentives (e.g., short-term medication). To better understand the relative importance of several types of personal motivations to participate in non-treatment buprenorphine research, and to relate self-motivations to social, economic, demographic and drug use factors. Heroin dependent volunteers (N=235 total; 57 female and 178 male; 136 African American, 86 Caucasian, and 13 Other) applied for non-therapeutic buprenorphine research in an urban outpatient setting from 2004 to 2008. We conducted a semi-structured behavioral economic interview, after which participants ranked 11 possible motivations for research participation. Although the study was repeatedly described as non-treatment research involving buprenorphine, participants often ranked some treatment-related motivations as important (wanting to reduce/stop heroin use, needing a medication to get stabilized/detoxify). Some motivations correlated with income, heroin use, and years since marketing of buprenorphine. Two dimensions emerged from principal component analysis of motivation rankings: (1) treatment motivation vs. greater immediate needs and (2) commitment to trying alternatives vs. a more accepting attitude toward traditional interventions. In summary, heroin addicts' self-motivations to engage in non-therapeutic research are complex--they value economic gain but not exclusively or primarily--and relate to variables such as socioeconomic factors and drug use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relative importance of different types of rewards for employee motivation and commitment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleeshah Nujjoo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ perceptions of rewards are related to their affective commitment and intrinsic motivation, which have been associated with staff turnover.Research purpose: The study sought to establish the relationship between intrinsic and different extrinsic rewards with intrinsic motivation and affective commitment.Motivation for the study: South African organisations are grappling with employee retention. Literature shows that employees who are more motivated and committed to their organisation are less likely to quit. Rewards management strategies serve to create a motivated and committed workforce. Using the correct types of rewards can thus provide a competitive advantage.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. Questionnaire data of 399 South African employees were analysed using bivariate correlations and multiple regression.Main findings: Three main findings emerged. Firstly, there is a relationship between all types of rewards investigated and the two outcome variables. Secondly, this relationship is stronger for intrinsic than for extrinsic rewards and thirdly, monetary rewards do not account for the variance in intrinsic motivation above that of non-monetary rewards.Practical/managerial implications: Rewards management strategies should focus on job characteristics and designs to increase staff intrinsic rewards and include non-monetary rewards, such as supportive leadership, to encourage employees’ intrinsic motivation and affective commitment.Contribution/value-add: This research demonstrated the important role different rewards, particularly intrinsic non-monetary rewards, play in creating a committed and motivated workforce. The insights gained from this study can promote organisational effectiveness. Suggestions of how to expand on and refine the current study are addressed.

  19. High school student's motivation to engage in conceptual change-learning in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlia, Lily

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated motivational factors that are related to engaging in conceptual change learning. While previous studies have recognized the resistance of students' scientific conception to change, few have investigated the role that non-cognitive factors might play when students are exposed to conceptual change instruction. Three research questions were examined: (a) What instructional strategies did the teacher use to both promote students' learning for conceptual change and increase their motivation in learning science? (b) What are the patterns of students' motivation to engage in conceptual change learning? And (c) what individual profiles can be constructed from the four motivational factors (i.e., goals, values, self-efficacy, and control beliefs) and how are these profiles linked to engagement (i.e., behavioral and cognitive engagement) in conceptual change learning of science? Eleven twelfth grade students (senior students) and the teacher in which conceptual change approach to teaching was used in daily activities were selected. Data collection for this study included student's self-reported responses to the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), classroom observation of students and the teacher, and structured interviews. Analysis of these data resulted in a motivational factor profile for each student and cross case analysis for entire group. Results from this study indicate that each student has different motivation factors that are mostly influenced individual student to learn science. Among these motivation factors, task value and control beliefs were most important for students. The implication of these findings are that teachers need to encourage students to find learning for conceptual change a valuable task, and that students need to find applications for their new conceptions within their everyday lives. In addition, teachers need to encourage students to develop learning strategies for conceptual understanding

  20. From prediction error to incentive salience: mesolimbic computation of reward motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2011-01-01

    Reward contains separable psychological components of learning, incentive motivation and pleasure. Most computational models have focused only on the learning component of reward, but the motivational component is equally important in reward circuitry, and even more directly controls behavior. Modeling the motivational component requires recognition of additional control factors besides learning. Here I will discuss how mesocorticolimbic mechanisms generate the motivation component of incentive salience. Incentive salience takes Pavlovian learning and memory as one input and as an equally important input takes neurobiological state factors (e.g., drug states, appetite states, satiety states) that can vary independently of learning. Neurobiological state changes can produce unlearned fluctuations or even reversals in the ability of a previously-learned reward cue to trigger motivation. Such fluctuations in cue-triggered motivation can dramatically depart from all previously learned values about the associated reward outcome. Thus a consequence of the difference between incentive salience and learning can be to decouple cue-triggered motivation of the moment from previously learned values of how good the associated reward has been in the past. Another consequence can be to produce irrationally strong motivation urges that are not justified by any memories of previous reward values (and without distorting associative predictions of future reward value). Such irrationally strong motivation may be especially problematic in addiction. To comprehend these phenomena, future models of mesocorticolimbic reward function should address the neurobiological state factors that participate to control generation of incentive salience. PMID:22487042

  1. Sustaining motivation for continuous improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore possibilities for improving motivation for participation in Continuous Improvement (CI). Due to a number of issues, for example, challenges with measuring outcomes of CI activities on performance, the inherent slower, incremental rather than big bang...... activities is an important issue for managers. The paper begins with a short description of CI, with an emphasis on barriers to successful implementation cited in the literature. Thereafter, a number of widely-acknowledged-albeit perhaps somewhat dated-theories of motivation are explored in relation...... to the elements of CI in practice. Based on their own experiences with CI implementation in numerous action-research based studies, the authors propose a scenario for motivating CI participation through emphasis on factors common to the presented motivational theories. The paper ends with insights into future...

  2. The relative importance of different types of rewards for employee motivation and commitment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleeshah Nujjoo

    2012-11-01

    Research purpose: The study sought to establish the relationship between intrinsic and different extrinsic rewards with intrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Motivation for the study: South African organisations are grappling with employee retention. Literature shows that employees who are more motivated and committed to their organisation are less likely to quit. Rewards management strategies serve to create a motivated and committed workforce. Using the correct types of rewards can thus provide a competitive advantage. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. Questionnaire data of 399 South African employees were analysed using bivariate correlations and multiple regression. Main findings: Three main findings emerged. Firstly, there is a relationship between all types of rewards investigated and the two outcome variables. Secondly, this relationship is stronger for intrinsic than for extrinsic rewards and thirdly, monetary rewards do not account for the variance in intrinsic motivation above that of non-monetary rewards. Practical/managerial implications: Rewards management strategies should focus on job characteristics and designs to increase staff intrinsic rewards and include non-monetary rewards, such as supportive leadership, to encourage employees’ intrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Contribution/value-add: This research demonstrated the important role different rewards, particularly intrinsic non-monetary rewards, play in creating a committed and motivated workforce. The insights gained from this study can promote organisational effectiveness. Suggestions of how to expand on and refine the current study are addressed.

  3. Relation between Motivational Factors, Age, and Gender of Individuals Participating in a Swimming Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodriguez Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between motivational factors, sex and age on the participants at a project of swimming. The study included 107 subjects (71% of the total of active participants in the project, of which 51 were men and 56 women, aged between 18 and 63 years (36,27 ± 10,67. The sample was divided into four age categories (18-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years and 50 and over and by sex. To know the reasons that lead people to engage physical exercise, self-report questionnaire Motives for the Practice of Physical Exercises (AMPEF, adapted by and Pintanel Niñerola Capdevila (2004 was applied. The results of the individual analysis showed that the factors: positive health and prevention; well-being and fun; muscular strength and endurance are important reasons for both men and women in all age categories, with values ≥ 7 (between 1 to 10. There were no significant differences in the total score between variables. The data reported are consistent with those reported in the literature. It is concluded that the main reasons for people to be physically active are: health, fun, well-being and improvement of physical, also found significant differences in the reasons relating to the challenge and competition between men and women, results also agree with previous publications.

  4. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Kelly H; Gabriele, Jeanne M; Tate, Deborah F; Dignan, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous mot...

  6. Lack of motivation: a new modifiable risk factor for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Klara; Namagondlu, Girish; Samad, Nasreen; McKitty, Khadija; Fan, Stanley L

    2015-03-01

    Can we identify modifiable risk factors for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD)? We aimed to determine whether housing standard, PD exchange technique or patient motivation might be modifiable risks for peritonitis. We also explored the relationship between lack of motivation and depression. Nurse home visits assessed PD exchange technique, environment and patient motivation. Motivation scores were correlated separately with an Apathy Evaluation Score and a depression score using PHQ-9 questionnaires. Home hygiene, exchange technique and motivation were above average in 53%, 56% and 60%, respectively in 104 patients undergoing PD. After 15 months, 25.9% patients developed peritonitis but nurses' ratings of homes and exchange techniques were not predictive. Low patient motivation was predictive. Patients rated to have above or below median motivation had significantly different Apathy Scores (p = 0.0002). Unmotivated depressed patients were significantly more likely to develop peritonitis compared to motivated depressed patients. Lack of motivation predicted peritonitis particularly if associated with depression. Further studies are required focusing on specific motivation scoring schemes and the psychosocial support that might lead to better outcomes. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. Employees motivation in two wood industry companies in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Jelačić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analysed the motivating and demotivating factors amongst employees in two wood processing companies in Croatia. Research was conducted over the year 2014 and 2015, during the economic recovery of the companies and Croatian economy in general. Research was conducted with a survey using a questionnaire containing six questions with multiple choice statements. The questions were closed-ended, and respondents used the Likert four-level scale of importance for each statement. A total of 180 employees were surveyed, and results were statistically processed by using the χ2 - test and cluster analysis. This study established that the motivation factors most important to employees between researched companies are significantly different. Employees were most concerned about social needs. Also, employees consider psychological circumstances of work to be very important. Employees’ overall motivation can be linked to higher efficiency and higher quality production and business results, and such research should be conducted more often.

  8. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...... theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled...

  9. Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis of the motivational influencing individuals’ decisions about participating in intramural sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rickel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.

  10. Motivations for adolescent participation in leisure-time physical activity: international differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Chen, Rusan; Kololo, Hania; Petronyte, Gintare; Haug, Ellen; Roberts, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Although there are substantial international differences in adolescent physical activity (PA), cross-country motivational differences have received limited attention, perhaps due to the lack of measures applicable internationally. Identical self-report measures assessing PA and motivations for PA were used to survey students ages 11, 13, and 15 from 7 countries participating in the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study representing 3 regions: Eastern Europe, Western Europe and North America. Multigroup comparisons with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling examined the stability of factors across regions and regional differences in relations between PA and motives for PA. Three PA motivation factors were identified as suitable for assessing international populations. There were significant regional, gender, and age differences in relations between PA and each of the 3 PA motives. Social and achievement motives were positively related to PA. However, the association of PA with health motivations varied significantly by region and gender. The patterns suggest the importance of social motives for PA and the possibility that health may not be a reliable motivator for adolescent PA. Programs to increase PA in adolescence need to determine which motives are effective for the particular population being targeted.

  11. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional

  12. Evaluating Motivational Barriers of Talented Students & Providing Motivational Strategies in Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mirzaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Human capital is regarded as an important tool for development. In fact, human talents involve one of the important human resources in Iran sporadically in higher education and research institutions. Within the measures taken in this regard in Iran, establishing the Office of Gifted and Talented can be mentioned aiming to identify the top talents. Therefore, the role of university as an organization, in which scholars are engaged in scientific activities, is taken significantly in to account. The present study aims to investigate the barriers and factors motivating the students are in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Method : This qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. The study Sample was via convenience sampling method and the study data was gleaned by a semi-structured interview with 30 persons. Moreover, the study data was analyzed by framework analysis. Results : The findings of this study involve the two original codes of motivational barriers as well as motivational factors. In the first section motivational barriers with three codes including structural problems, poor communication, performance problems as well as 8 minor codes were proposed. Moreover, in The second secti o n of this study, motivational strategies were mentioned intended to ameliorate the functioning of the Office in terms of the individuals, attitude participating in this study. Conclusion : The Talented Office necessitates to be reformed identify the top talents and to alter such talents into elite talents.

  13. Contemporary Constructivist Practices in Higher Education Settings and Academic Motivational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Dorit

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the relationships between college students' pre-entry factors, self-efficacy and motivation for learning, and the perceived constructivist learning in traditional lecture-based courses and seminars (SM). The study included 411 undergraduate third-year college students. Several scales were administered to the…

  14. The importance of motivation and emotion for explaining human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güss, C Dominik; Dörner, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Lake et al. discuss building blocks of human intelligence that are quite different from those of artificial intelligence. We argue that a theory of human intelligence has to incorporate human motivations and emotions. The interaction of motivation, emotion, and cognition is the real strength of human intelligence and distinguishes it from artificial intelligence.

  15. Evaluation of the Big Two-Factor Theory of Academic Motivation Orientations: An Evaluation of the Jingle-Jangle Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Hinkley, John W.; Debus, Raymond L.

    2003-01-01

    Collected test-retest data from 606 students in grades 3 through 6 in Australia to evaluate a Big Two-Factor Theory of academic motivation orientation. Findings provide reasonable support for the Big Two-Factor theory but suggest it is still useful to collect data from different motivation scales. (SLD)

  16. Employee motivation: quality versus business concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, R A; Kazemek, E A

    1986-03-01

    The traditional factors that influence employee motivation and morale remain important in healthcare organizations. However, the nursing staff tends to be more self-motivated than many employees in other occupations because of values that are intrinsic to the nursing profession. When the humanist values of the nursing profession conflict or compete with business values, erosion of nursing morale and motivation may result with attendant employee "burnout" that undermines the organization's business objectives. There are several steps that both management and nursing educators can take to lessen the cultural conflict and avert motivational breakdowns. The future may teach us that an ideal blend of business and humanist values may result in a situation where good business decisions are good humanist decisions, and vice versa.

  17. Social motivation and health in college club swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Austin R; Ramos, William D

    2018-03-22

    Participation in recreational sport clubs on campus is a popular student activity nationwide. These sport-based organizations provide a host of benefits within recognized dimensions of health and wellness. Understanding participants' motives for engaging in these types of activities can provide insight in design and delivery and enhance participant health. This study focuses on outcomes related to the social motivations for participation in a recreational sport swim club and their potential relationship to social health. Current members of recreational swimming clubs were contacted for participation in the study from March-April 2016. A Leisure Motivation Scale (LMS) survey was sent electronically to 196 collegiate swim clubs nationwide. Aggregate and multivariate analyses from 1011 responses were conducted to examine the social motivation and motivational differences of participants. Social motivations emerged as the predominate motivational construct, indicating important implications for social health improvement through participation. Demographically, results indicated no statistically significant differences in social motivation factors based on participant gender, and statistically significant differences within participant race, university affiliation and practice frequency. Impacts of these findings are important for practitioners and participants when evaluating the potential these programs have to influence participant social health.

  18. Student Motivation to Study Abroad and Their Intercultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip H.; Hubbard, Ann; Lawton, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    To date, student motivation for electing to study abroad has not been incorporated into study abroad research as a potential factor influencing intercultural development. The authors of this study hypothesize that a student's motivation for studying abroad plays an important role in influencing the program a student selects and in determining what…

  19. Identifying the important factors in simulation models with many factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Simulation models may have many parameters and input variables (together called factors), while only a few factors are really important (parsimony principle). For such models this paper presents an effective and efficient screening technique to identify and estimate those important factors. The

  20. Drivers of Employee Motivation: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Azeem, Sabeen

    2016-01-01

    Employee Motivation is a growing area of importance for the Human Resource Departments organizations of all sizes. Managing the workforce efficiently and effectively has become crucial in order to achieve excellent output from the employees which would lead to the attainment of organizational goals. This study aims to understand the influence of multiple motivational factors on employee motivation of employees of Bank A. Additionally, the mediating role of job satisfaction is elaborated which...

  1. Motivating Factors of Florida Community and State College Information Technology Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Wendy Louise

    2013-01-01

    In this study the core job characteristics that contribute to the internal motivational factors and job satisfaction of information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida were investigated. Fifty-four information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida completed the Job…

  2. Using Expectancy Theory to quantitatively dissociate the neural representation of motivation from its influential factors in the human brain: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Akshay; Blitzer, David N; Lefco, Ray W; Barter, Joseph W; Haynes, M Ryan; Colalillo, Sam A; Ly, Martina; Zink, Caroline F

    2018-05-08

    Researchers have yet to apply a formal operationalized theory of motivation to neurobiology that would more accurately and precisely define neural activity underlying motivation. We overcome this challenge with the novel application of the Expectancy Theory of Motivation to human fMRI to identify brain activity that explicitly reflects motivation. Expectancy Theory quantitatively describes how individual constructs determine motivation by defining motivation force as the product of three variables: expectancy - belief that effort will better performance; instrumentality - belief that successful performance leads to particular outcome, and valence - outcome desirability. Here, we manipulated information conveyed by reward-predicting cues such that relative cue-evoked activity patterns could be statistically mapped to individual Expectancy Theory variables. The variable associated with activity in any voxel is only reported if it replicated between two groups of healthy participants. We found signals in midbrain, ventral striatum, sensorimotor cortex, and visual cortex that specifically map to motivation itself, rather than other factors. This is important because, for the first time, it empirically clarifies approach motivation neural signals during reward anticipation. It also highlights the effectiveness of the application of Expectancy Theory to neurobiology to more precisely and accurately probe motivation neural correlates than has been achievable previously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motivation to study dental professions in one London Dental Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsi, A; Asimakopoulou, K; Donaldson, N; Gallagher, J

    2014-02-01

    While past research has explored dental students' motivation to study, there is limited understanding in the reasons behind career choice for hygienists/therapists and dental nurses. The aim of this study was to investigate simultaneously the views of students of dentistry, hygiene/therapy and dental nursing in King's College London and explore similarities or differences in career choice. All first-year students were invited to the questionnaire survey, exploring motivation to study using a 23-item instrument. Data were analysed using SPSS v18; statistical analysis included one-way analyses of variance and factor analysis. The overall response rate to the study was 75% (n = 209). Ten out of 23 factors were considered important by more than 80% of respondents, with 'job security' (93.8%), 'desire to work with people' (88%) and 'degree leading to recognised job' (87.5%) being top three. Analysis suggested that 52% of the total variation in motivating influences was explained by four factors: 'features of the job' (26%), 'education/skills' (11%), 'public service' (8%) and 'careers-advising' (7%); at group level 'features of the job' were significantly more important for the direct entrants to dentistry (P = 0.001). The findings suggest that across groups students were motivated to study by common influences reflecting altruistic, but also pragmatic and realistic motives, while 'features of the job' were more important for the direct entrants to dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. From prediction error to incentive salience: mesolimbic computation of reward motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Kent C

    2012-04-01

    Reward contains separable psychological components of learning, incentive motivation and pleasure. Most computational models have focused only on the learning component of reward, but the motivational component is equally important in reward circuitry, and even more directly controls behavior. Modeling the motivational component requires recognition of additional control factors besides learning. Here I discuss how mesocorticolimbic mechanisms generate the motivation component of incentive salience. Incentive salience takes Pavlovian learning and memory as one input and as an equally important input takes neurobiological state factors (e.g. drug states, appetite states, satiety states) that can vary independently of learning. Neurobiological state changes can produce unlearned fluctuations or even reversals in the ability of a previously learned reward cue to trigger motivation. Such fluctuations in cue-triggered motivation can dramatically depart from all previously learned values about the associated reward outcome. Thus, one consequence of the difference between incentive salience and learning can be to decouple cue-triggered motivation of the moment from previously learned values of how good the associated reward has been in the past. Another consequence can be to produce irrationally strong motivation urges that are not justified by any memories of previous reward values (and without distorting associative predictions of future reward value). Such irrationally strong motivation may be especially problematic in addiction. To understand these phenomena, future models of mesocorticolimbic reward function should address the neurobiological state factors that participate to control generation of incentive salience. © 2012 The Author. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Values as Motivation Factors of Economic Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lačný

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a reflection on the structure of values functioning as motivators of economic behaviour. Considering the principle of rational egoism the author describes three segments of crucial values, which seem to be fundamental, as a matter of the contemporary Euro-American economic value system – freedom and justice; responsibility and confidence; progress, prosperity and rationality. An important methodological basis of presented reflection is the Ethics of social consequences – dynamically developing consequentialist ethical theory, responding to the challenges arising in the field of applied ethics in the framework of efforts to solve practical problems of today's world.

  6. The Importance of Motivation Theories for Understanding Washback to the Learner

    OpenAIRE

    WATANABE, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The present paper portrays three theories of motivation in the expectation that it will help to understand the washback effect of language tests on learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The three theories that are identified involve attribution theories of motivation, flow, and functional theories of motivation. The characteristics of these theories are described in a way in which they may help understand the meaning of the recent attempt by the Japanese Ministry of Education to innov...

  7. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  8. Helping Your Partner with Chronic Pain: The Importance of Helping Motivation, Received Social Support, and Its Timeliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Sara; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Josephy, Haeike; Bernardes, Sonia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2018-02-02

    Like all intentional acts, social support provision varies with respect to its underlying motives. Greater autonomous or volitional motives (e.g., enjoyment, full commitment) to help individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) are associated with greater well-being benefits for the latter, as indexed by improved satisfaction of their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The present study investigates the processes explaining why partners' autonomous or volitional helping motivation yields these benefits. A total of 134 couples, where at least one partner had chronic pain, completed a 14-day diary. Partners reported on their daily helping motives, whereas ICPs reported on their daily received support, timing of help, need-based experiences, and pain. On days when partners provided help for volitional motives, ICPs indicated receiving more help, which partially accounted for the effect of autonomous helping motivation on ICP need-based experiences. Timing of help moderated the effects of daily received support on ICP need-based experiences. Findings highlight the importance of ICPs of receiving support in general and the role of timing in particular, which especially matters when there is little support being received. © 2018 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Factores psicosociales motivacionales y estado de salud Motivational psychosocial factors and health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Joaquín Vázquez Díaz

    2010-03-01

    and psychosocial demands that require professionals who work there, seriously impacting on their productivity, quality of life and mental health. This also represents a negative impact on users of those services. Therefore, it is necessary to identify psychosocial factors associated with mental health professionals HSO, the objective of this work. We evaluated professionals in Health (Nursing, Clinical Assistants and Education (Senior technicians in Early Childhood Education, Psychologists, Teachers, Educators, Social Workers, etc. belonging to different centers of Andalusia Public Administration. The evaluation of psychosocial factors of worker motivation was performed using a scale developed by "ourselves". The assessment of a mental health questionnaire was conducted with the 28-item Goldberg (GHQ-28. The results showed that 79.2% of the participants had more than 7 points in the GHQ-28. Among the motivational factors found to be more binding (in order of highest to lowest: p46 ( "My professional development allows me to reconcile my personal life", r = -0.33, p13 ( "Work has more advantages than disadvantages", r=-0,314, p18 ( "I am privy to the successes and failures of the results of my work", r = -0,282, p25 ("I feel part of a team, p32 ("The boss solves the problems effectively ", r = -0,269, p26 ("I can easily express my opinions in my workplace ", r = -0,262. We conclude that psychosocial variables account for motivational factors to be considered in defining the health status of HSO professionals.

  10. MOTIVATING FACTORS AND THE MODES OF ENTRY IN OTHER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  11. A comparison of South African and German extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Snelgar

    2017-04-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to investigate similarities and differences concerning extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in the workplace between German and South African cultures by examining individuals with working experience and tertiary education specifically. In addition, the research investigated differences in the motivation of respondents with regard to demographics such as gender, age and income. Setting: The setting took place in South Africa and Germany. Methods: In the study, exploratory factor analysis was utilised to prove validity of Cinar, Bektas and Aslan’s two-dimensional measure of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Moreover, analysis of variance and t-tests were used to show differences among demographic variables. Descriptive statistics such as means, central tendency and Cronbach’s alpha were also utilised. Results: The results revealed preferences for intrinsic motivational factors for the whole sample with higher levels of intrinsic motivation for the South African respondents compared to German respondents. Demographic characteristics played a minor role in determining levels of intrinsic motivation within individuals. Culture, however, played the biggest role in determining one’s levels of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Conclusion: These findings play an important role in explaining differences in motivation between the two countries Germany and South Africa. It highlights the important role that cultural differences play in shaping one’s form of motivation.

  12. Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking and Motivation to Quit among Street Food Sellers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Thanh Thi Le

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study involving 1733 food providers at outlets was conducted in 29 districts in Hanoi capital, Vietnam, in 2015. The prevalence of smoking amongst food sellers was determined to be 8.5% (25% for men and 0.8% for women. The enforcement of the smoke-free policy remains modest, since only 7.9% observed outlets complied with the law, providing a room designated for smokers. Although approximately 80% of the participants were aware of the indoor smoke-free regulations in public places, such as restaurants and food stores, 40.2% of smokers reported no intention of quitting smoking. A percentage of 37.6% of current smokers reported that despite having intentions to quit, they did not receive any form of support for smoking cessation. Being male and having hazardous drinking habits and a poor quality of life were all factors that were significantly associated with smoking status. Additionally, having awareness of smoking’s adverse effects and being frequently supervised by the authority were associated with a greater motivation to quit. This study highlights the importance of an accompanying education and smoking cessation program in addition to the frequent inspection and reinforcement of smoke-free policy in food stores. This research extends on our knowledge of smoking prevalence and its factors related to smoking events and motivation to quit among street food outlets. Overall

  13. Context matters: the experience of 14 research teams in systematically reporting contextual factors important for practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Scammon, Debra L; Waitzman, Norman J; Cronholm, Peter F; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, David L; Solberg, Leif I; Hsu, Clarissa; Tai-Seale, Ming; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Shih, Sarah C; Fetters, Michael D; Wise, Christopher G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hauser, Diane; McMullen, Carmit K; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Tirodkar, Manasi A; Schmidt, Laura; Donahue, Katrina E; Parchman, Michael L; Stange, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to advance the internal and external validity of research by sharing our empirical experience and recommendations for systematically reporting contextual factors. Fourteen teams conducting research on primary care practice transformation retrospectively considered contextual factors important to interpreting their findings (internal validity) and transporting or reinventing their findings in other settings/situations (external validity). Each team provided a table or list of important contextual factors and interpretive text included as appendices to the articles in this supplement. Team members identified the most important contextual factors for their studies. We grouped the findings thematically and developed recommendations for reporting context. The most important contextual factors sorted into 5 domains: (1) the practice setting, (2) the larger organization, (3) the external environment, (4) implementation pathway, and (5) the motivation for implementation. To understand context, investigators recommend (1) engaging diverse perspectives and data sources, (2) considering multiple levels, (3) evaluating history and evolution over time, (4) looking at formal and informal systems and culture, and (5) assessing the (often nonlinear) interactions between contextual factors and both the process and outcome of studies. We include a template with tabular and interpretive elements to help study teams engage research participants in reporting relevant context. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of identifying and reporting contextual factors. Involving diverse stakeholders in assessing context at multiple stages of the research process, examining their association with outcomes, and consistently reporting critical contextual factors are important challenges for a field interested in improving the internal and external validity and impact of health care research.

  14. Factors affecting the nurses’ motivation for participating in the in-service training courses: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sajjadnia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the vital role of nurses and the effects of scientific advances on nursing care, providing high quality nursing services is not possible without participating in the in-service training programs and becoming familiar with the new techniques. This study aimed to determine the motivational factors influencing the participation in the in-service training courses among nurses working in the teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Method: This was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study. A sample of 216 nurses working in the teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was selected using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The required data were collected using a questionnaire determining the motivational factors influencing the nurses’ participation in the in-service training courses, including personal factors, organizational factors, and those related to the profession and the training courses planning. SPSS 18.0 and some statistical tests including ANOVA, Independent-Samples T-Test, as well as Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used to analyze the collected data. Results: The results showed that the mean score of nurses’ motivation for participating in the in-service training programs was 3.41±0.5. Also, the highest and lowest means of motivational factors affecting the studied nurses’ participation in the in-service courses were associated with the factors related to the profession (3.75 ± 0.71, and those related to the training courses planning (3.20 ± 0.59, respectively. In addition, there were significant associations between the personal factors (p=0.037 and factors related to the profession (p=0.047 and the studied nurses’ positions, between the organizational factors and their employment status (p=0.007, and between the factors related to the training courses planning and the

  15. Participation motivation in martial artists in the west midlands region of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth W; Mackay, Ken S; Peters, Derek M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the participation motivations and the perceived importance of certain participation factors in martial artists in the West Midlands, England, UK. A 28-item adapted version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire with additional demographic questions was distributed to 30 martial arts clubs in the West Midlands region. Eight questions that assessed the perceived importance for participation of progression through grades, learning self defence skills, technical ability of instructors, cost of participating, development of confidence, underpinning philosophy and instructional style were included. Seventy-five questionnaires were returned from a total of 11 clubs from across representing practitioners in Tai Chi, Karate, Kung fu, Aikido, Jeet Kune Do, British Free Fighting, Taekwon-Do and Jujitsu. Results indicated that the rank order in terms of participation motives was: 1-Affiliation; 2-Friendship; 3-Fitness; 4-Reward/status; 5-Competition; 6-Situational and 7-Skill development. Participants who trained for more than 4 hours per week placed greater importance on the underpinning philosophy of the martial art. Findings suggest that whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The 'style' of the instructor is of paramount importance for enhancing student motivation to participate. High volume practitioners would appear to be fully immersed in the holistic appreciation of the martial art through increased value placed on its underpinning philosophy. Key PointsWhilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training.The four most important participation motivations evident were 'Affiliation', 'Fitness', 'Skill Development' and 'Friendship'.The three least influential motives were 'Rewards/status; 'Situational' and 'Competition'. " There were no significant gender or experience

  16. Influence of Motivation on the Effectiveness of Work in a chosen Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Hrutkaiová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with motivation of employees, describes factors, which can directly or indirectly influence workers and instigate them to efficient work. Theory engages with the definition of motivation term, and its importance, motivation progression and also describes concrete tools, which stimulate increase in employee's motivation. The practical part evaluates system of motivation and its effect in chosen company and also decides whether chosen methods succeeded.

  17. WORKPLACE MOTIVATION IN ROMANIA: WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS AND THEIR CULTURAL BACKGROUND?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren?iu HAUSER

    2014-01-01

    Workplace motivation strongly depends on local cultural values. But while there is a large number of studies that focus on the US-American and Western European background, the specifically Romanian factors still remain in the shadow. This text aims to explain the main factors that form the „typically Romanian” set of social employee needs and their origin.

  18. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Investigation of Iranian Pharmacists and Pharmacy Staff Work Motivation through Different Job Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaghan Eslami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: the Employees’ motivation is a very important part of management, both practically and theoretically. Motivation has been regarded as an indispensable part of performance, and structural element for management practice theories. The most important factor of the health care system is its workforce. They possess the highest impact on the input of health care system. Also they are one of the main determinant key of their efficacy and performance is their motivation. Although Motivated and qualified staff is the critical element for health care system performance, it is one of the hardest goal to reach due to health care complexity.Method: the Sample consisted of 326 men and women pharmacists and pharmacy staff, which are 155 women and 81 men. Wright (2004 work motivation 6-item scale were used to asses pharmacists and pharmacy staff work motivation. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA test method.Results: the results indicated that there is no significant difference in pharmacists and pharmacy staff work motivation according to their gender, education, job, job location and income.Conclusion: income, Location of job, Job, education might be considered as the hygiene factors. Other intrinsic or socio-cultural factor might be motivators for pharmacists and pharmacy staff.

  20. Individual differences in empathy are associated with apathy-motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Ang, Yuen-Siang; Husain, Masud; Crockett, Molly J

    2017-12-11

    Empathy - the capacity to understand and resonate with the experiences of other people - is considered an essential aspect of social cognition. However, although empathy is often thought to be automatic, recent theories have argued that there is a key role for motivation in modulating empathic experiences. Here we administered self-report measures of empathy and apathy-motivation to a large sample of healthy people (n = 378) to test whether people who are more empathic are also more motivated. We then sought to replicate our findings in an independent sample (n = 198) that also completed a behavioural task to measure state affective empathy and emotion recognition. Cognitive empathy was associated with higher levels of motivation generally across behavioural, social and emotional domains. In contrast, affective empathy was associated with lower levels of behavioural motivation, but higher levels of emotional motivation. Factor analyses showed that empathy and apathy are distinct constructs, but that affective empathy and emotional motivation are underpinned by the same latent factor. These results have potentially important clinical applications for disorders associated with reduced empathy and motivation as well as the understanding of these processes in healthy people.

  1. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  2. What are the prospects for citizen science in agriculture? Evidence from three continents on motivation and mobile telephone use of resource-poor farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beza, Eskender; Steinke, Jonathan; van Etten, Jacob; Reidsma, Pytrik; Fadda, Carlo; Mittra, Sarika; Mathur, Prem; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-01-01

    As the sustainability of agricultural citizen science projects depends on volunteer farmers who contribute their time, energy and skills, understanding their motivation is important to attract and retain participants in citizen science projects. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) farmers' motivations to participate as citizen scientists and 2) farmers' mobile telephone usage. Building on motivational factors identified from previous citizen science studies, a questionnaire based methodology was developed which allowed the analysis of motivational factors and their relation to farmers' characteristics. The questionnaire was applied in three communities of farmers, in countries from different continents, participating as citizen scientists. We used statistical tests to compare motivational factors within and among the three countries. In addition, the relations between motivational factors and farmers characteristics were assessed. Lastly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to group farmers based on their motivations. Although there was an overlap between the types of motivations, for Indian farmers a collectivistic type of motivation (i.e., contribute to scientific research) was more important than egoistic and altruistic motivations. For Ethiopian and Honduran farmers an egoistic intrinsic type of motivation (i.e., interest in sharing information) was most important. While fun has appeared to be an important egoistic intrinsic factor to participate in other citizen science projects, the smallholder farmers involved in this research valued 'passing free time' the lowest. Two major groups of farmers were distinguished: one motivated by sharing information (egoistic intrinsic), helping (altruism) and contribute to scientific research (collectivistic) and one motivated by egoistic extrinsic factors (expectation, expert interaction and community interaction). Country and education level were the two most important farmers' characteristics that

  3. What are the prospects for citizen science in agriculture? Evidence from three continents on motivation and mobile telephone use of resource-poor farmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskender Beza

    Full Text Available As the sustainability of agricultural citizen science projects depends on volunteer farmers who contribute their time, energy and skills, understanding their motivation is important to attract and retain participants in citizen science projects. The objectives of this study were to assess 1 farmers' motivations to participate as citizen scientists and 2 farmers' mobile telephone usage. Building on motivational factors identified from previous citizen science studies, a questionnaire based methodology was developed which allowed the analysis of motivational factors and their relation to farmers' characteristics. The questionnaire was applied in three communities of farmers, in countries from different continents, participating as citizen scientists. We used statistical tests to compare motivational factors within and among the three countries. In addition, the relations between motivational factors and farmers characteristics were assessed. Lastly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to group farmers based on their motivations. Although there was an overlap between the types of motivations, for Indian farmers a collectivistic type of motivation (i.e., contribute to scientific research was more important than egoistic and altruistic motivations. For Ethiopian and Honduran farmers an egoistic intrinsic type of motivation (i.e., interest in sharing information was most important. While fun has appeared to be an important egoistic intrinsic factor to participate in other citizen science projects, the smallholder farmers involved in this research valued 'passing free time' the lowest. Two major groups of farmers were distinguished: one motivated by sharing information (egoistic intrinsic, helping (altruism and contribute to scientific research (collectivistic and one motivated by egoistic extrinsic factors (expectation, expert interaction and community interaction. Country and education level were the two most important farmers' characteristics

  4. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  5. Medical teachers' attitudes towards science and motivational orientation for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvek, Mario; Hren, Darko; Sambunjak, Dario; Planinc, Mislav; Macković, Maja; Marusić, Ana; Marusić, Matko

    2009-01-01

    Research is an important motivating factor for pursuing a career in academic medicine, but the relation between motivation and other factors involved in scientific research are not clear. To explore the motivational orientation for doing research and its relation with attitudes towards science and publication practice among members of faculty at a medical school. We used a Science Attitude Survey and the Work Preference Inventory (intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientation using 4 Likert-type scales of motivation, possible range 1-5) to survey two groups of teachers at the Zagreb University School of Medicine (n = 327, 66% response rate): professors, elected to tenure-track positions (n = 150), and instructor/research fellows working on or just completing their thesis (n = 177). Overall, teachers scored highest on the Enjoyment subscale of intrinsic motivational orientation (mean score +/- standard deviation 4.3 +/- 0.42 for professors vs 4.1 +/- 0.42 for instructors/research fellows, P = 0.001, t-test). Professors also scored higher than instructors/research fellows on the Challenge subscale of intrinsic motivational orientation (3.8 +/- 0.55 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.64, P motivational orientation (3.5 +/- 0.74 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.71, P motivation, and negatively associated with scores on the Compensation subscale of extrinsic motivation. Members of the medical faculty differ in motivational orientation for research depending on their academic status, and their motivation is associated more with requirements for academic advancement than with research. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for enhancing academic research production.

  6. Understanding Middle School Students' Motivation in Math Class: The Expectancy-Value Model Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important variables affecting middle school students' mathematics performance is motivation. Motivation is closely related with expectancy belief regarding the task and value attached to the task. Identification of which one or ones of the factors constituting motivation is more closely related to mathematics performance may help…

  7. Importance of Self-Motivation and Social Support in Medication Adherence in HIV-Infected Adolescents in the United Kingdom and Ireland: A Multicentre HYPNet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hee; McDonald, Susan; Kim, Samuel; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents are a vulnerable population, not only to the acquisition of HIV, but also to poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) associated with disease progression and a increased risk of onward viral transmission. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that aid or act as barriers to adherence in a UK population of adolescents and young adults receiving ART. A cross-sectional survey was completed of 138 adolescents (12-24 years) across 14 clinical and community sites in the UK and Ireland. Analysis of results was undertaken using Chi-square testing in SPSS. Of the 138 patients, 48% were female, and 52% were born outside of the UK. Fifty-two of the 138 (43%) reported being on ART for at least 8 years. More than a third of the patients have ever interrupted treatment since initiating ART. One hundred four of the 138 (75%) patients self-reported being >85% adherent to medication for 7 day recall. Self-motivation (e.g., having a routine, specific goal) was cited as being most helpful in medication compliance (33%), followed by reminders by friends and family (25%), with 20% identifing no specific factor. Only 15% chose interventions such as an adherence diary or mobile phone reminders as helpful factors, and 1% chose healthcare professional input such as home visits. This study highlights the importance of self-motivation and social support in medication adherence in an HIV-infected adolescent population, in preference to healthcare professional input. Education and motivational strategies may confer the biggest impact on sustained ART adherence amongst this vulnerable group.

  8. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  9. Comparing the perspectives of managers and employees of teaching hospitals about job motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Zakaria Kiaei, Mohammad; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2014-07-15

    Recognition of career motivators and understanding of managers and employees in prioritizing them, in order to plan incentives for this understanding, can play an important role in increasing productivity and creating harmony between the goals of the organization and staff. This study was done to survey the importance of career motivating factors from perspective of employees and managers in educational hospitals of Iran. In this study 269 from a total of 1843 employees of educational hospitals in Qazvin province of Iran were selected through Quota-Random sampling and studied along with all 49 Managers. Lawrence Lindale questionnaire with 10 factors where used in order to determine motivational priorities. The results indicated that among the 10 studied motivational factors, from employees' viewpoint; "Good wages", "Good Working Conditions" and "Job Security" have the greatest roles in motivating employees. In the context of perspective agreement amongst employees and managers, the results showed 20 percent agreement. In this study, results of "Independent T" test showed a significant difference in comparison, between prioritizing employees' view and prediction of managers in the factors of "Job Security" (p = 0/031) and "Interesting Work" (p = 0/001). With respect to increase disagreement in the views of managers and employees as compared to previous studies, Managers need to pay more attention to cognition of motivational factors and make their viewpoints closer to actual motivational need of their employees. Attention to this fact can be a great help to the growth and productivity of the organization, making the organizational and individual goals closer and also keeping managers safe from execution of constant and undue motivational patterns.

  10. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  11. Psychosocial characteristics and motivational factors in woman seeking cosmetic breast augmentation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are various opinions regarding the factors motivating women to undergo breast augmentation. The aim of this study was to estimate motivation for augmentation mammaplasty (AM, self-esteem and body image perception in breast augmentation patients. Methods. This prospective study involved AM patients operated in the Clinical Center of Vojvodina during a 3-year period. A total of 45 patients responded to our package of questionnaires designed to assess motivation for surgery, self-esteem level and body image perception. Those patients were compared to the control group of women who did not want to change their breast size, and who were similar in their age, social status and education level. Our package of questionnaires included a general questionnaire, Photographic Figure Rating Scale (PFRS and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale. Results. Differences in marital status, educational level, habitation and employment status were statistically insignificant, but there was a significantly lower body mass index (BMI in the operated women. Considering motives for surgery, a few factors were distinguished: desire to feel more feminine (82.2%, confident (75.5% and attractive (73.3%, to feel less shy with men (64.4%, to improve their sex life (46.5%, teasing history (42.2% and easier to find a partner (11.1% and job (2.2%. Both groups demonstrated a high self-esteem level, but in the AM group results were lower than in the control group. The mean current self-rating by the PFRS in the group AM was lower than in the control group (4.28 ± 1.3 vs 5.12 ± 1.23, respectively and this coincided with lower BMI in the AM group. The women in the AM group had chosen significantly smaller body size as maximally attractive, and had chosen a narrower attractive body size range than the women in the control group. Conclusion. Preoperative evaluation of patients’ motives for surgery can help surgeons to exclude woman with unrealistic expectations and

  12. Psychosocial characteristics and motivational factors in woman seeking cosmetic breast augmentation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Jelena; Janjić, Zlata; Marinković, Marija; Petrović, Jelica; Bozić, Teodora

    2013-10-01

    There are various opinions regarding the factors motivating women to undergo breast augmentation. The aim of this study was to estimate motivation for augmentation mammaplasty (AM), self-esteem and body image perception in breast augmentation patients. This prospective study involved AM patients operated in the Clinical Center of Vojvodina during a 3-year period. A total of 45 patients responded to our package of questionnaires designed to assess motivation for surgery, self-esteem level and body image perception. Those patients were compared to the control group of women who did not want to change their breast size, and who were similar in their age, social status and education level. Our package of questionnaires included a general questionnaire, Photographic Figure Rating Scale (PFRS) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Differences in marital status, educational level, habitation and employment status were statistically insignificant, but there was a significantly lower body mass index (BMI) in the operated women. Considering motives for surgery, a few factors were distinguished: desire to feel more feminine (82.2%), confident (75.5%) and attractive (73.3%), to feel less shy with men (64.4%), to improve their sex life (46.5%), teasing history (42.2%) and easier to find a partner (11.1%) and job (2.2%). Both groups demonstrated a high self-esteem level, but in the the AM group results were lower than in the control group. The mean current self-rating by the PFRS in the group AM was lower than in the control group (4.28 +/- 1.3 vs 5.12 +/- 1.23, respectively) and this coincided with lower BMI in the AM group. The women in the AM group had chosen significantly smaller body size as maximally attractive, and had chosen a narrower attractive body size range than the women in the control group. CONCLUSION. Preoperative evaluation of patients' motives for surgery can help surgeons to exclude woman with unrealistic expectations and different psychological problems.

  13. Investigation of Primary Education Second Level Students' Motivations toward Science Learning in Terms of Various Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert Çibik, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the primary education second level students' motivations towards science learning in terms of various factors. Within the research, the variation of the total motivational scores in science learning according to the gender, class, socio-economic levels, success in science-technology course and…

  14. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one. PMID:27630611

  15. Examining demographic and situational factors on animal cruelty motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E; Dutkiewicz, Erik L

    2011-05-01

    Because of the limited number of studies that have examined the motives for childhood animal cruelty, researchers continue to suggest that further systematic study is needed. In a replication of the Hensley and Tallichet study and based on survey data from 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a southern U.S. state, the present study seeks to further develop this understanding by examining the impact of demographic and situational factors on a range of animal cruelty motivations. Of the 180 inmates, 103 (57%) committed acts of animal cruelty. Logistic regression analyses revealed that respondents who committed childhood animal cruelty out of anger were less likely to cover up their behavior and to be upset by their actions but were more likely to have repeated it. Those who committed animal cruelty to shock others were more likely to reside in urban areas and to have done it alone. Furthermore, respondents who committed animal cruelty for sexual reasons were more likely to have covered up their actions and to have engaged in it repeatedly.

  16. The relevance of motivation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulet Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately there is a growing interest in the negative symptoms in schizophrenia and their mechanisms of action, with special focus on the motivation process. The lack of motivation is increasingly recognized to be a very important impediment to positive management in schizophrenic pathology. In this mini-review, we described the current understanding of the nature and causes of the specific motivational deficits in schizophrenia in order to find better management strategies for this heterogeneous disorder. All the data and theories presented here clearly demonstrate that amotivation is a fundamental aspect of the negative symptomatology in schizophrenia and could represent a useful factor in understanding and improving the mechanisms and further management of schizophrenia.

  17. Tasks and learner motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews...... and participant observation, this study explores which kinds of tasks are perceived as motivating from the students’ perspective and which characteristics the learners associate with motivating tasks. The study indicates that it is important to consider the learners’ affective factors and learning situation...... factors, which can boost learners’ intrinsic motivation, when designing a task, especially at a beginning stage of foreign language learning, and to integrate cultural elements into tasks as an added value to motivate learners. Finally, this study identifies challenges and barriers related to TBTL...

  18. Assessing Moroccan University Students’ English Learning Motivation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otmane Omari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to survey whether students are motivated to learn English or not and to evaluate the differences within and between three most known universities in Morocco, involving a private one, in terms of students’ English learning motivation. Moreover, factors that make a student more motivated to learn English were investigated. This study examines motivation of university students according to their institution, gender, and other variables. Assessment of university students’ motivation was by scores on items from the Academic Motivation Scale. The sample consisted of 329 undergraduate students from three different Moroccan universities. The most important finding was that participants in general are quite motivated to learn English with a score of (M = 3.80 with regard to the overall score using a 5-point Likert scale, and a higher level of introjected extrinsic motivation (M = 4.11, which means that they do such tasks because they are supposed or asked to do them. Moreover, factors such as how students consider university, their location during the academic year, and their decision behind choosing to go to university were found to affect students’ motivation.

  19. Promoting justice or perpetuating prejudice? Interrupting external motivation in multicultural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V; Hinman, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories. The results indicate that locomotion was negatively associated with external motivation to respond without prejudice, while assessment and prevention were positively associated with external motivation. Taken together, findings highlight the importance of cultivating locomotion (action oriented) motivation and inhibiting prevention (loss oriented) and assessment (preoccupation with finding the correct answer) motivations in multicultural training. Implications for training, effective action for justice, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use Among Iranian Adolescents: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Ghasemi, Mahmood; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Chaleshgar Kordasiabi, Mosharafeh

    2018-01-09

    Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016. A questionnaire about tobacco use based on protection motivation theory was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed. The questionnaire included the demographic information, the constructs of theory, and tobacco use behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test the associations between the constructs with intention and tobacco use. The variables of perceived vulnerability (β = 0/137, P theory provides a useful framework for investigating factors of tobacco use among male students. Future tobacco prevention interventions should focus on increasing the vulnerability and fear, decreasing intrinsic reward, and improving self-efficacy to reduce tobacco use.

  1. Using Managerial Role Motivation Training to Overcome Motivational Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, John B.

    Research on motivation to manage can be summarized in five points: (1) motivation to manage is a major factor for success; (2) motivation to manage declined in students from the 1960's to the 1970's; (3) this decline is evident in the relevant age groups; (4) differences between United States students and foreign students place the United States…

  2. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  3. Cultivation and Stimulation of the English Learning Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马茹

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researches show that we should pay more attention to students to play a main role in English study, because students who get the final effect on English learning motivation play central role in numerous students' learning affected factors. Therefore, in the education teaching activities, many teachers regard learning motivation of English effect as important aspect and use it in teaching through different ways and methods to cultivate and motivate students to learn English motivation. According to the definition of learning motivation,combined with the modern middle school students’English study, such as, the current situation of teachers' teaching, the actual situation of the relationship between teach-ers and students to talk about encouraging and educating high school students in English learning motivation by means and methods, in order to culti-vate and stimulate students`English learning motivation and improve English teaching level.

  4. What Motivates Us for Work? Intricate Web of Factors beyond Money and Prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damij, Nadja; Levnajić, Zoran; Rejec Skrt, Vesna; Suklan, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency at doing a certain task, at the workplace or otherwise, is strongly influenced by how motivated individuals are. Exploring new ways to motivate employees is often at the top of a company's agenda. Traditionally identified motivators in Western economies primarily include salary and prestige, often complemented by meaning, creation, challenge, ownership, identity, etc. We report the results of a survey conducted in Slovenia, involving an ensemble of highly educated employees from various public and private organizations. Employing new methodologies such as network analysis, we find that Slovenians are stimulated by an intricate web of interdependent factors, largely in contrast to the traditional understanding that mainly emphasizes money and prestige. In fact, these key motivators only weakly correlate with the demographic parameters. Unexpectedly, we found the evidence of a general optimism in Slovenian professional life - a tendency of the employees to look at the "bright side of things", thus seeing more clearly the benefits of having something than the drawbacks of not having it. We attribute these particularities to Slovenian recent history, which revolves around gradually embracing the Western (economic) values.

  5. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. A cultural heuristic approach to the study of Jamaican undergraduate students' achievement motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Karen E; Zusho, Akane

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. This study was conducted in two phases and consisted of 175 and 189 Jamaican undergraduate students across phases one and two, respectively. First, a qualitative investigation using open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews explored Jamaican undergraduate students' conceptualization of motivation and the factors that positively or negatively impacted their motivation. The second phase consisted of using prototype theory to capture a hierarchical cognitive representation of Jamaican students' motivation using coded themes derived from phase one of the study. The overall results indicated that personal, cognitive, contextual, and sociocultural factors are important determinants of Jamaican undergraduate students' academic motivation and that sociocultural (e.g., familial, economic, religious) factors appear to play a more critical role in impacting their motivation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Motivational Factors of Student Nurse Athletes Attributing to Academic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Kimberly A

    Student nurse athletes experience difficulties achieving academic success in nursing programs. The purpose of this study was to identify facilitators, barriers, and motivators of student nurse athletes that attribute to their academic success. Athletes ranked time management and prioritization as critical skills to success in the nursing program. This study reinforced the importance of academic support services for student nurse athletes to assist in their academic success.

  8. What motivates money donation? A study on external motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Coelho Degasperi

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to identify external motivating factors that favor individual money donation. Methodologically, we adopted a descriptive and quantitative cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, we prepared a questionnaire containing 49 statements based on external motivating variables of regular individual money donation found in the literature on the subject. After testing the questionnaire, we applied it to 1073 Brazilians, regular money donors and we performed an exploratory factor analysis. Conclusively, we identified 8 external factors that motivate individual money donation: Trust, Reward, Leadership influences, Characteristics of the organization, Environmental influences, Personal benefits, Characteristics of beneficiaries and Future Interests. We expect that these 8 factors combined, could become a useful tool to improve the management of charitable organizations, especially in defining campaigns or other marketing strategies to attract new donors and raise funds on occasions that are favorable to individual money donation.

  9. Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Elisabeth Bomholt; Sritharan, Sophia Sajitha; Thomsen, Pernille Maja

    2018-01-01

    Title Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study Authors Elisabeth Bomholt Østergaard, Sophia Sajitha Sritharan, Pernille Maja Thomsen, Anne Dal Kristiansen, Anders Løkke Background: Surprisingly few people in Denmark with Chronic...... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) engage in physical activity even though it is evident that pulmonary rehabilitation has positive effects on activity level, dyspnea, anxiety, fatigue and quality of life. Aims: To explore why people with COPD do not engage in physical activity and their motivational...... factors for being physically active. Methods: Fieldwork among five people with COPD in Jutland, Denmark 2013-2016 using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Supplementary short semistructured interviews with three general practitioners, and participation in a closed Facebook-group for people with COPD...

  10. Motivation Is more Powerful than Interest in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Songmei

    2017-01-01

    Many people say interest is the teacher in learning. In fact, interest is a very important factor in doing things. If one has interest in something, he/she will has the feeling that he/she wants to know or learn more about it. In other words, interest is related to one's preference. Therefore, in teaching practice, teachers usually stress the importance of arousing students' interest because students with interest will feel curious and know how to satisfy their curiosity and will attain objectives of their curiosity. On the contrary, motivation is the inner desire and drive to achieve something, which is related to the personal goals. Therefore, motivation can sustain throughout the whole process of learning activities. Interest and motivation are both worth putting into use in teaching, but I think motivation is more powerful than interest.

  11. Video-based Analysis of Motivation and Interaction in Science Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2013-01-01

    in groups. Subsequently, the framework was used for an analysis of students’ motivation in the whole class situation. A cross-case analysis was carried out illustrating characteristics of students’ motivation dependent on the context. This research showed that students’ motivation to learn science...... is stimulated by a range of different factors, with autonomy, relatedness and belonging apparently being the main sources of motivation. The teacher’s combined use of questions, uptake and high level evaluation was very important for students’ learning processes and motivation, especially students’ self......An analytical framework for examining students’ motivation was developed and used for analyses of video excerpts from science classrooms. The framework was developed in an iterative process involving theories on motivation and video excerpts from a ‘motivational event’ where students worked...

  12. Importance of Beliefs, Attitudes and Values in the Frame of Human Resource Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MOISE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a complex and original field of analyse – the role that concepts such as beliefs, attitudes and values can entail in the modern human resources management techniques that are dealing with employee’s motivation. Nowadays employees have a complex approach regarding motivation. Especially when we speak about big organisations such as multinational companies, we will find complex jobs having many tasks and a complicated network of inter-relations within the organisation. In such cases, as we speak about middle and top management positions, employee’s motivation is relying on different types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic altogether. The substantiation of an efficient motivational strategy can be based on the link between beliefs, attitudes and values of the employees and their motivation development process.

  13. Motivational factors for initiating, implementing, and maintaining physical activity behavior following a rehabilitation program for patients with type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal, qualitative, interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker KC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Karen Christina Walker,1 Laura Staun Valentiner,1,2 Henning Langberg1 1CopenRehab, Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, 2Center for Physical Activity Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim: To explore motivational factors for initiating, implementing, and maintaining physical activity following a rehabilitation program for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Semi-structured, individual, qualitative interviews with five informants from the InterWalk trial were conducted at three separate occasions; at initiation of the rehabilitation program, at completion of the 12-week program, and 52 weeks after enrolment. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to Systematic Text Condensation. The framework of Self-Determination Theory was applied to guide analysis after identification of preliminary themes.Results: Commitment and obligation were emphasized as being motivational in initiating physical activity. Toward the termination of the program, this was challenged by an expressed need for autonomy. Successful behavioral change was characterized by transfer of commitment to a new structure in everyday life, which also honored the request for autonomy. Feeling capable of participating in physical activity was facilitated through knowledge, practical experience, and progress and considered motivational, whereas lack of progress extinguished motivation. Finally, enjoyment of the activity was determining for long-term maintenance of physical activity behavior.Conclusion: Satisfaction of innate psychological needs leads to more autonomous regulation of behavior and, through this study, we investigated determining factors for extrinsically motivated behavior and factors of importance to the internalization process. Keywords: self-determination theory, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adherence, behavioral change

  14. Motivation Factors as Indicators of Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes Academic and Social Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedescleaux, Jonell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…

  15. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  16. A natural language screening measure for motivation to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Johnson, Wendy R

    2008-09-01

    Client motivation for change, a topic of high interest to addiction clinicians, is multidimensional and complex, and many different approaches to measurement have been tried. The current effort drew on psycholinguistic research on natural language that is used by clients to describe their own motivation. Seven addiction treatment sites participated in the development of a simple scale to measure client motivation. Twelve items were drafted to represent six potential dimensions of motivation for change that occur in natural discourse. The maximum self-rating of motivation (10 on a 0-10 scale) was the median score on all items, and 43% of respondents rated 10 on all 12 items - a substantial ceiling effect. From 1035 responses, three factors emerged representing importance, ability, and commitment - constructs that are also reflected in several theoretical models of motivation. A 3-item version of the scale, with one marker item for each of these constructs, accounted for 81% of variance in the full scale. The three items are: 1. It is important for me to . . . 2. I could . . . and 3. I am trying to . . . This offers a quick (1-minute) assessment of clients' self-reported motivation for change.

  17. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION AND WORK PAY OF YOUNG EMPLOYEES IN THE VALUE CREATION CHAIN OF A BUSINESS COMPANY: ASSESSMENT OF CHANGES IN AND FORMATION OF EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pilukienė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As business companies compete in the market and seek to acquire a competitive advantage, one of the most important factors is well-motivated employees who are satisfied with their job. The success of companies operating in various sectors is determined by the quality of products, while the quality is ensured by qualified employees having appropriate skills and knowledge, whose work should be appreciated by monetary work pay established based on reasonable and clear criteria as well as other means of motivation. The process of human resources management in a business company places an ever-growing importance on the development of competences of employees, strengthening of cooperation, empowerment of employees as well as their work pay and motivation in order to achieve an employee’s work quality and productivity, satisfaction of customer needs and successful operation of a company. In the process of the company’s human resources management, special focus should be given to the satisfaction of the expectations and needs of new employees (who are usually young and inexperienced as well as their integration, which ensures the generation of new and creative ideas in the company and, at the same time, high quality of products and work productivity.

  18. How people’s motivational system and situational motivation influence their risky financial choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sekścińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available People’s preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people’s choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory in explaining people’s financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people’s chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1 invest, (2 undertake investment risks, and (3 assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people’s propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096 were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a two-week break.The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.

  19. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors to Oral-Dental Health Behavior in Adolescents: a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral-dental diseases, especially tooth decay, are among the most common diseases in the world which usually begin in adolescence. Oral health during this period of life has a huge impact on the reduction of dental problems. This study aimed to determine motivating and inhibiting factors to oral-dental health behavior in adolescents. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional which had a descriptive and analytical design was conducted on 10-12th grade students in Kashan city, Iran. Using multi-stage sampling method and based on sampling size formula, a total of 290 of the students were randomly selected from the schools and were enrolled into the study. Then they received a research-made questionnaire containing questions about the knowledge and motivating and inhibiting factors to oral-dental health behavior. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS V.20 by independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Of all, 62.8% of students brushed their teeth at least once a day. Moreover, 11.7% used dental floss once a day and 6.6% visited a dentist every six months. Oral-dental health behavior had a significant relationship with gender (P0.05. Conclusion When designing educational plans and interventions for improving oral-dental health behavior in students, it is necessary to adopt measures to enhance motivating factors and eliminate inhibiting factors.

  20. Related factors to workers' use of hearing protection device in knitting & ppinning factories of Yazd city based on Protection Motivation Theory

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    A. Barkhordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNoise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is an important occupational disorder. High percentage of workers in occupational environments did not use the hearing protection device against harmful noise. This study was carried out to study factors related to workers' use of Hearing protection Device in Knitting & spinning factories of Yazd city based on protection motivation theory.MethodsIn this cross-sectional analytical study 280 workers of the knitting & spinning factories of Yazd City who exposed to harmful noise (over 85dB selected among the three factories by cluster sampling. The data gathered via exclusive interviews with selected workers  using the questionnaire designed based on protection motivation theory and were analyzedResults42/5 percent of workers permanently used hearing protection devices, and 20/7 percent of workers never use.There was a significant correlation between the age of workers and the mean score components of PMT; perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived response efficacy and protection motivation. There was also a significant correlation between the work experience and the mean score of PMT factors; perceived severity, perceived response efficacy and perceived vulnerability. Also there was a significant correlation between workers' education level and the mean score of perceived response efficacy and there was a significant correlation between protection motivation and the mean score components of PMT; perceived vulnerability, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, perceived costs and behaviorConclusionRegarding the significant correlations between the more constructs of PMT and protection motivation of workers for using hearing protective device, designing educational program based on PMT to increase hearing protection devices usage among workers is recommended.

  1. A Brief Review of Motivation for Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Dan-gui

    2014-01-01

    It is an increasingly popular trend in the language field that people become bilingual or even multilingual, which expos-es the fact that people are strongly motivated to learn another language in addition to their mother tongue. A large-scale of re-search has confirmed that motivation, serving as the internal impulse and initiative taste for second language learning, is among on of the key factors in second language acquisition and learning. The paper reviews the recent available literature on motivation of second language learning from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, with the purpose of neatening the important theories and relevant empirical studies in the field of second language motivation.

  2. The Fit between Students’ Lesson Perceptions and Desires: Relations with Student Characteristics and the Importance of Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011). The match between students’ lesson perceptions and preferences: Relations with student characteristics and the importance of motivation. Educational Research, 53(4), 439-457.

  3. Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A

    2002-08-01

    Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.

  4. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the motivation to learn science

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    Salomé Schulze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the poor academic achievement in science by secondary school students in South Africa, students' motivation for science learning should be enhanced. It is argued that this can only be achieved with insight into which motivational factors to target, with due consideration of the diversity in schools. The study therefore explored the impact of six motivational factors for science learning in a sample of 380 Grade Nine boys and girls from three racial groups, in both public and independent schools. The students completed the Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire. Significant differences were identified between different groups and school types. The study is important for identifying the key role of achievement goals, science learning values and science self-efficacies. The main finding emphasises the significant role played by science teachers in motivating students for science in terms of the learning environments that they create. This has important implications for future research, aimed at a better understanding of these environments. Such insights are needed to promote scientific literacy among the school students, and so contribute to the improvement of science achievement in South Africa.

  5. What motivates medical students to select medical studies : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, F.; Dhirar, Nonita; Singla, Neetu; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a significant shortage of health workers across and within countries. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors that motivate students to opt for medical studies. The objective of this study is to group and review all the studies that investigated the motivational

  6. Empirical Validation of the Importance of Employees' Learning Motivation for Workplace E-Learning in Taiwanese Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2012-01-01

    E-learning systems, adopted by organisations for employee training to enhance employees' performance, are characterised by self-directed, autonomous learning. Learning motivation is then of importance in the design of e-learning practices in workplace. However, empirical study of the alignment of e-learning with individual learning needs and…

  7. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  8. The Effects of Writing Instructors' Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ling

    2018-01-01

    While the last decade has witnessed a growing body of research on student motivation in second language acquisition, research about the impact of writing instructors' motivational strategies on student motivation has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this study, guided by motivational strategy framework, investigates the…

  9. Perceptions of motivational climate and teachers' strategies to sustain discipline as predictors of intrinsic motivation in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Melchor; Ruiz, Luis-Miguel; López, Esther

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the relationship among pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate, pupils' perceptions of teachers' strategies to maintain discipline and pupils' intrinsic motivation in physical education. A sample of 2189 Spanish adolescents, ages 13 to 17 years, completed Spanish versions of the EPCM, SSDS, and IMI. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to confirm the factorial validity of the scales. Then, the relationship among the variables was explored through Structural Equation Modelling. The most important predictors of pupils' intrinsic motivation were the perceived mastery climate, and perceived teachers' emphasis on intrinsic reasons to maintain discipline. Perceived performance climate and perceived teachers' strategies to maintain discipline based on introjected reasons and indifference, predicted pupils' tension-pressure. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical propositions of self-determination theory and practical issues of enhancing adolescents' motivation in physical education.

  10. Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Factors Associated with Autonomous Motivation in Adolescents' After-School Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, Krista L.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with the level of autonomous motivation adolescents experience for their after-school activities. A total of 142 seventh-grade adolescents completed measures of peer relatedness, autonomy within friendships, mother and father autonomy support, perceived activity competence,…

  11. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  12. Cultural factors impacting student motivation at a health sciences college in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lutfi Abdul Razzak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection on students’ levels and types of motivation at a college of health sciences in Saudi Arabia and highlights the social and cultural factors possibly contributing to the differences in motivation among those students. The results of this study, which followed a mixed-methods approach, indicate a multiplicity of contributing factors and values, namely: gender stereotyping, appreciation of early graduation, stereotypes regarding career status, family background, and parents’ educational levels, value attributed to education, ultra-conservatism, and social image and prestige. From these factors, a number of key implications and recommendations are deduced, some of which are general while others are more college specific.

  13. Motivational Factors for Evaluating Sport Spectator and Participant Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark A.; Milne, George R.; Hong, JinBae

    2002-01-01

    Suggests a motivations framework to organize constructs for evaluating sport consumption. Researchers developed scales to measure motivations for spectating and participant markets, then surveyed 1,611 sports enthusiasts nationwide, profiling sports using motivational constructs. The proposed constructs are shown to have implications for marketing…

  14. Academic Motivation Maintenance for Students While Solving Mathematical Problems in the Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rodionov; Z. Dedovets

    2015-01-01

    The level and type of student academic motivation are the key factors in their development and determine the effectiveness of their education. Improving motivation is very important with regard to courses on middle school mathematics. This article examines the general position regarding the practice of academic motivation. It also examines the particular features of mathematical problem solving in a school setting.

  15. Exercise motives in a sample of Brazilian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the exercise motives according to selected socio-demographic indicators in university students. The sample was comprised of 2,380 individuals (1,213 men and 1,167 women aged between 18 and 35 years. The exercise motives were identified with the Portuguese-translated version of the Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2. University students gave significantly greater importance to exercise for reasons identified as Disease Prevention. Factors that are less relevant in statistical language were identified in a context of motivation associated with Social Recognition and Competition. Sex, age, family economic class, experience with exercise and body weight had a significant effect on the level of importance of exercise among university students. In conclusion, the results found can contribute to the development of physical activity promotion programs and a possible reduction in the number of dropouts among university students.

  16. MOTIVATION AND MOTIVES - DRIVER AND REASON OF CONSUMER'S BUYING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.

  17. What Motivates Us for Work? Intricate Web of Factors beyond Money and Prestige.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Damij

    Full Text Available Efficiency at doing a certain task, at the workplace or otherwise, is strongly influenced by how motivated individuals are. Exploring new ways to motivate employees is often at the top of a company's agenda. Traditionally identified motivators in Western economies primarily include salary and prestige, often complemented by meaning, creation, challenge, ownership, identity, etc. We report the results of a survey conducted in Slovenia, involving an ensemble of highly educated employees from various public and private organizations. Employing new methodologies such as network analysis, we find that Slovenians are stimulated by an intricate web of interdependent factors, largely in contrast to the traditional understanding that mainly emphasizes money and prestige. In fact, these key motivators only weakly correlate with the demographic parameters. Unexpectedly, we found the evidence of a general optimism in Slovenian professional life - a tendency of the employees to look at the "bright side of things", thus seeing more clearly the benefits of having something than the drawbacks of not having it. We attribute these particularities to Slovenian recent history, which revolves around gradually embracing the Western (economic values.

  18. What Motivates Us for Work? Intricate Web of Factors beyond Money and Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damij, Nadja; Levnajić, Zoran; Rejec Skrt, Vesna; Suklan, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency at doing a certain task, at the workplace or otherwise, is strongly influenced by how motivated individuals are. Exploring new ways to motivate employees is often at the top of a company’s agenda. Traditionally identified motivators in Western economies primarily include salary and prestige, often complemented by meaning, creation, challenge, ownership, identity, etc. We report the results of a survey conducted in Slovenia, involving an ensemble of highly educated employees from various public and private organizations. Employing new methodologies such as network analysis, we find that Slovenians are stimulated by an intricate web of interdependent factors, largely in contrast to the traditional understanding that mainly emphasizes money and prestige. In fact, these key motivators only weakly correlate with the demographic parameters. Unexpectedly, we found the evidence of a general optimism in Slovenian professional life - a tendency of the employees to look at the “bright side of things”, thus seeing more clearly the benefits of having something than the drawbacks of not having it. We attribute these particularities to Slovenian recent history, which revolves around gradually embracing the Western (economic) values. PMID:26177271

  19. A Proposed Framework to Understand the Intrinsic Motivation Factors on University Students’ Behavioral Intention to Use a Mobile Application for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie H. Shroff; Christopher J Keyes

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: By integrating a motivational perspective into the Technology Acceptance Model, the goal of this study is to empirically test the causal relationship of intrinsic motivational factors on students’ behavioral intention to use (BIU) a mobile application for learning. Background: Although the Technology Acceptance Model is a significant model, it largely remains incomplete as it does not take into consideration the motivation factors and/or outside influences in the adoption of ...

  20. Cross-cultural examination of the five-factor model of drinking motives in Spanish and Canadian undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Stewart, Sherry H; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Grant, Valerie V

    2016-06-14

    This study aims to test the cross-cultural suitability of Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R) (Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell, & Conrod, 2007). The sample included 571 Spanish and 571 Canadian undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 (65.8% women). The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated factorial invariance between samples. The regression analysis showed that social, enhancement and low conformity motives were related to drinking frequency and drinking quantity in the total sample. No moderation effect of country on predicting alcohol consumption was found. The results suggest that M DMQ-R is a suitable instrument for comparing drinking motives across Spanish and Canadian undergraduates, and that motives-focused prevention and treatment programmes developed in one country could be generalised to another.

  1. The Motivation of Secondary School Students in Mathematical Word Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose-Domingo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Motivation is an important factor in the learning of mathematics. Within this area of education, word problem solving is central in most mathematics curricula of Secondary School. The objective of this research is to detect the differences in motivation in terms of the strategies used to solve word problems. Method: It analyzed the…

  2. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David H; Chakraborty, Subrata; Mahapatra, Prasanta; Steinhardt, Laura

    2010-11-25

    Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in

  3. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra Prasanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P P Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.

  4. A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintrich, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Develops a motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired…

  5. Cultural Factors Impacting Student Motivation at a Health Sciences College in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razzak, Nina Lutfi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reflection on students' levels and types of motivation at a college of health sciences in Saudi Arabia and highlights the social and cultural factors possibly contributing to the differences in motivation among those students. The results of this study, which followed a mixed-methods approach, indicate a multiplicity of…

  6. The Analysis of Factors and Levels Associated with Lecturers' Motivation and Job Satisfaction in University of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyengabe, Sylvestre; He, Haiyan; Yiyi, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to expect good performance of students in universities without having a motivated lecturing staff. The study aimed to correlate the levels of lecturers' motivation and job satisfaction and find out factors associated with. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and April 2016. Structured online questionnaires of the…

  7. Prioritizing Motivational and Satisfactorily Factors of Volunteer Medical and Health Personnel in Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this research revealed that to absorb a higher number of volunteers in health and treatment organizations, commitment and purposeful aspects must be emphasized on, as by improving the motivational and satisfaction factors, we can expect that satisfaction and retention level increases in volunteers. Furthermore, by knowing the volunteers’ motivations, the managers of the health and treatment organizations can provide their retention and satisfaction and play a key role in crisis management during disasters by exploiting the volunteer services.

  8. THE ROLE OF STUDENTS’ MOTIVATIONAL SELF-REGULATION IN STRUCTURE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wahyu Prabowo Mukti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors that influence the language learning, especially learning the basic rule of a language, is motivation. Many studies have tried to find out the correlation between motivation and self-regulation with the students' academic performance and they find out that both motivation and learning language are correlated so much. Thus, this paper specifically tried to find out the role of students’ motivational self-regulation with the students’ learning strategy. This research employed quantitative approach by employing survey method using observation sheet, questionnaire, and interview on some participants. The results of this study showed that the students’ motivation was high but they cannot self-regulate themselves.

  9. Factors associated with motivation in medical education: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunanitthaworn, Natchaya; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Paiboonsithiwong, Salilthip; Songtrijuck, Natchaphon; Kuntawong, Pimolpun; Wedding, Danny

    2018-06-18

    This study identified and investigated the relationship between demographics, mental health problems, positive personality traits and perceived social support and motivation in medical education (MME) among first year medical students. One hundred-thirty eight first year medical students completed the Academic Motivation Scale, Outcome Inventory, Strength Based Inventory, and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Path analysis was conducted to identify relationships between the variables of interest and each type of motivation, including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation. The mean age of the sample was 18.86 ± 0.74 and 60% of the subjects were female. Path analysis showed that extrinsic motivation was positively associated with being female, personal choice for studying medicine, and grade point average at high school. Intrinsic motivation was correlated with perceived family support, personal choice for studying medicine and the positive attribute of determination. Amotivation was related to being male, personal choice, and depression. While both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation were correlated, they were uncorrelated with amotivation. All variables accounted for 18, 13, and 45% of variance of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, respectively. Each type of motivation has different but related predictors. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can be promoted, whereas amotivation represents an exclusive issue, one related more to depression, that needs to be reduced to not interfere with academic achievement and quality of life of medical students.

  10. [Development of a scale for work motivation of home care workers and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yasuhisa; Sugiura, Keiko; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop a scale for home care workers focusing on work motivation and to determine influential underlying factors. This study was an anonymous mailed survey of home care workers who provided home help services in July 2007. We collected information in the following areas: demographics of home care workers and care-recipients, burnout, stress, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and self-esteem (SE). Hierarchical regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors related to work motivation. Construct validity was analyzed by factor analysis. Two subscales were obtained by the analysis and designated as "positive appraisal of the current state" (9 items) and "uplift of morale" (3 items). Content validity was analyzed by good-poor and item-total, and all correlations were strongly positive. Reliability was analyzed by internal consistency. Cronbach's ? values were 0.94 and 0.77, respectively. Concurrent validity was analyzed by correlation coefficient and a significant negative correlation was seen between the two subscales and burnout (r = -0.23--0.50), while positive correlations were noted for job or life satisfaction (r= 0.24-0.49). The positive influential factors on "positive appraisal of the current state" were satisfaction in 1) relation to care-recipients, 2) work environment for skill improvement and 3) the wages. The positive influential factors on "uplift of morale" were satisfaction with relation to care-recipients and their own life. This scale has sufficient reliability and validity. "Positive appraisal of the current state" and "uplift of morale" were confirmed as appropriate work motivation subscales for home care workers. Thus, support to augment job satisfaction with the work environment and wages appears to enhance "positive appraisal of the current state" and support to augment life satisfaction appears to enhance "uplift of morale".

  11. Specialty preferences and motivating factors: A national survey on medical students from five uae medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Makki, Maryam; Shaaban, Sami; Al Shamsi, Maryam; Venkatramana, Manda; Sulaiman, Nabil; Sami, Manal M; Abdelmannan, Dima K; Salih, AbdulJabbar M A; AlShaer, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Workforce planning is critical for being able to deliver appropriate health service and thus is relevant to medical education. It is, therefore, important to understand medical students' future specialty choices and the factors that influence them. This study was conducted to identify, explore, and analyze the factors influencing specialty preferences among medical students of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multiyear, multicenter survey of medical student career choice was conducted with all five UAE medical schools. The questionnaire consisted of five sections. Chi-squared tests, regression analysis, and stepwise logistic regression were performed. The overall response rate was 46% (956/2079). Factors that students reported to be extremely important when considering their future career preferences were intellectual satisfaction (87%), work-life balance (71%), having the required talent (70%), and having a stable and secure future (69%). The majority of students (60%) preferred internal medicine, surgery, emergency medicine, or family Medicine. The most common reason given for choosing a particular specialty was personal interest (21%), followed by flexibility of working hours (17%). The data show that a variety of factors inspires medical students in the UAE in their choice of a future medical specialty. These factors can be used by health policymakers, university mentors, and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are scarce in the UAE and therefore better serve the health-care system and the national community.

  12. Assessment of motivation levels and associated factors among the nursing staff of tertiary-level government hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Goel, Sonu; Koushal, Vipin

    2018-04-15

    The present study assessed the motivation level of nurses working in 3 highly decorated tertiary-level government hospitals of India and also underpins the factors attributing to motivation levels. A sequential mixed-method design was used in this study wherein 400 nurses working in 5 units of nursing care in the hospitals were enrolled based upon proportionate random stratified sampling techniques. A self-administered questionnaire with Likert scale was developed based upon scale used by Mbindyo et al. The attributes of motivation were then categorized into external and internal attributes. For the qualitative component, participants with varied responses in quantitative data were selected and interviewed. Overall mean motivation score of the nursing staff was found 3.57 ± 0.93, which was higher for extrinsic motivational attributes (3.67 ± 0.88) as compared with intrinsic attributes (3.47 ± 0.98). The intrinsic motivational attribute of organizational commitment was rated highest followed by general motivation, conscientiousness, and self-efficacy. Personal issues, timeliness, and burnout were prime discouraging attributes among study participants. Sociodemographic characteristics and work profile characteristics showed significant relationship with the attributes of motivation. This study underscores the significance of different attributes of motivation which needs to be considered while framing administrative strategies and policy guidelines by authorities. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Motivation and Ways to Motivate Students of Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洪琼

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.

  14. Motivated Cognition: Effects of Reward, Emotion, and Other Motivational Factors Across a Variety of Cognitive Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Madan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has demonstrated that motivation influences cognitive processing. The breadth of these effects is extensive and span influences of reward, emotion, and other motivational processes across all cognitive domains. As examples, this scope includes studies of emotional memory, value-based attentional capture, emotion effects on semantic processing, reward-related biases in decision making, and the role of approach/avoidance motivation on cognitive scope. Additionally, other less common forms of motivation–cognition interactions, such as self-referential and motoric processing can also be considered instances of motivated cognition. Here I outline some of the evidence indicating the generality and pervasiveness of these motivation influences on cognition, and introduce the associated ‘research nexus’ at 'Collabra: Psychology'.

  15. Factor Validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) in Asynchronous Online Learning Environments (AOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Summers, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) in asynchronous online learning environments. In order to check the factor validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with 193 cases. Using CFA, it was found that the original measurement model fit for…

  16. Importance of motivation and work pay of young employees in the value creation chain of a business company: assessment of changes in and formation of expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pilukienė, Laura

    2017-01-01

    As business companies compete in the market and seek to acquire a competitive advantage, one of the most important factors is well-motivated employees who are satisfied with their job. The success of companies operating in various sectors is determined by the quality of products, while the quality is ensured by qualified employees having appropriate skills and knowledge, whose work should be appreciated by monetary work pay established based on reasonable and clear criteria as well as other m...

  17. Motivating and Demotivating Factors for Students with Low Emotional Intelligence to Participate in Speaking Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez López, Mariza G.; Bautista Tun, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to understand what factors may motivate and demotivate students with low emotional intelligence to participate in speaking activities during English class. Participants wrote an emotions journal to identify factors affecting student participation and were then interviewed at the end of the study period in order to elaborate on their…

  18. Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Ritsuko; Sevastyanova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    What makes consumers adopt energy-sustainable innovations? The uptake of such products and technologies is of importance, particularly at a time when climate change, diminishing energy resources and energy security are urgent issues. This paper reports on a case study of consumer adoption of hybrid vehicles, a green innovation that has been in the market since the late 1990s. The study is based on a questionnaire survey, conducted in 2009 in collaboration with Toyota GB, to investigate the dimensions that constitute motivations to purchase the Prius and to examine how policy can encourage hybrid adoption. The survey yielded 1484 responses, 1263 of which were used for the analysis; the results of the exploratory factor analyses provide information on consumer purchase motivations. The financial benefits related to transport policy are an important factor in consumer hybrid purchase motivations, and social norms and consumers' willingness to comply with the norms of their groups influence the purchase decision. We also find that various meanings are attached to hybrid vehicle ownership, and practical, experiential and affective values need to be communicated to consumers in terms of value added.

  19. The role of academic motivation in high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption: adopting a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong

    2011-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives-specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation-and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students' alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use.

  20. Dissipation of Ukrainian applicants in foreign universities: motivational factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kryvoshein

    2017-03-01

    The study of sociologists of Dnipropetrovsk University concluded that that the main factors of choice of foreign universities entrants are professional expectations. This is – the opportunity to become a qualified professional in the chosen field; the desire to become in the future, financially secure man; the ability to take a prestigious position in society; quality education. It was found that most foreign universities plan to the inhabitants of the regional center, who studied in a specialized school, gymnasium, lyceum. Obviously, such a pattern is due to the fact that the pupils of the regional center specialized educational institutions have the best conditions for targeted training and motivation to career growth.

  1. Adopting and maintaining physical activity behaviours in people with severe mental illness: The importance of autonomous motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Venigalla, Sumanth Kumar; Probst, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity can improve the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI) but many are inactive. Adopting theoretically-based research considering the motivational processes linked to the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle between different diagnostic groups of people with SMI can assist in understanding physical activity in this group. Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and the Trans-Theoretical Model (TTM) (stages of change) frameworks, we investigated differences in motives for physical activity between different diagnostic groups. All participants completed the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2 (BREQ-2), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise (PACE) questionnaire. Overall 294 persons with SMI (190♀) (43.6 ± 13.6 years) agreed to participate. People with affective disorders had higher levels of introjected regulations than people with schizophrenia. No significant differences were found for other motivational regulations. Moreover, no significant differences were found according to gender, setting and educational level. Multivariate analyses showed significantly higher levels of amotivation and external regulations and lower levels of identified and intrinsic regulations in the earlier stages of change. Strongest correlations with the IPAQ were found for motivational regulations towards walking. Our results suggest that in all people with SMI the level of identified and intrinsic motivation may play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of health promoting behaviours. The study provides a platform for future research to investigate the relationships between autonomy support, motivational regulations and physical and mental health variables within lifestyle interventions for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  3. Why Work for Extension? An Examination of Job Satisfaction and Motivation in a Statewide Employee Retention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Goodwin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Understanding motivation and job satisfaction is important for increasing rates of employee retention within Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore factors positively affecting the motivation of Extension professionals in their careers. An online survey of Extension professionals in Colorado was conducted. Factors such as…

  4. Generation Y Student-Teachers' Motivational Factors: Retention Implications for K-12 Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Generation Y represents a growing number of student-teachers who will impact the future of educational practice, yet little research has been conducted for this demographic group. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify motivational factors of neophyte teachers and the retention implications these findings had on Kindergarten…

  5. Determinants of healthy eating: motivation, abilities and environmental opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    In order to promote healthful nutrition, insight is needed in the behavioural determinants of nutrition behaviours. Most research on behavioural determinants has been restricted to individual-level motivational factors. However, health behaviour is influenced by individual motivation and abilities, as well as environmental opportunities. To provide an overview of motivation, ability and opportunity-related potential determinants of nutrition behaviours and of the evidence for associations of potential environmental determinants with nutrition behaviour. A narrative review informed by a series of six systematic reviews including more than 400 original studies and recent original studies on associations of environmental factors with nutrition behaviours. Although the number of studies on potential environmental determinants of nutrition as well as physical activity behaviour has increased steeply over the last decades, these include only few well-designed studies with validated measures. Preliminary evidence from the available systematic reviews indicates that social support and modelling, availability and accessibility of healthy and less healthy foods as well as socio-economic status are important for nutrition behaviours; schools and worksites offer good settings for improving healthful nutrition opportunities. Although the evidence to date is inconclusive due to lack of well-designed studies, specific social-cultural, physical and economical environmental factors appear of importance for healthful nutrition.

  6. The measurement of employee motivation by using multi-factor statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zámečník, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The proposal and implementation of an effective motivation program is one of the key management tasks of a company. Improperly designed and applied motivation programs can have a negative impact on employees, who are not motivated to achieve maximum performance. The paper will also deal with the problems of employee motivation and the motivation programs in a selected industrial company. The motivation structure analysis will be based on the general knowledge of the theory of motivation, toge...

  7. Employee motivation in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards task fulfillment. Examinations connected with medical services were carried out using the Servqual method. It was stated that care of employees and their motivation to work is a very important factor regarding employee engagement but also about the overall success of an organization.

  8. Motivating factors for small and midsized businesses to implement worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Laurel B; Olsen, Delane; Ablah, Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the decision-making process, including motivating factors, for small and midsized businesses in the Midwest to implement health promotion initiatives. This a replication of a study conducted in the Pacific Northwest. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with key informants from 12 Midwestern metropolitan employers with fewer than 1,000 employees. Informants were interviewed regarding their companies' policies and practices around workplace health promotion programming adoption and valuation. Workplace health promotion adoption at these small and midsized businesses was motivated by three goals: to lower health care costs, to address human relations objectives, and to improve productivity. Low upfront cost was the most frequently considered criterion in choosing which workplace health promotion program to offer. Barriers to implementation included lack of employee buy-in, prohibitive costs, and personnel or time constraints. Aids to implementation included employee buy-in and affordability. This study suggests that cost considerations predominate in the workplace health promotion decision-making process at small to midsized businesses. Furthermore, employee buy-in cannot be underestimated as a factor in successful program implementation or longevity. Employees, along with executives and human resources management, must be appropriately targeted by health promotion practitioners in workplace health promotion efforts.

  9. Review of the factors influencing the motivation of community drug distributors towards the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Krentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Community drug distributors or neglected tropical disease (NTD volunteers have played a crucial role in ensuring the success of mass drug administration (MDA programs using preventive chemotherapy (PC for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminths. In recent years however, a noticeable decline in motivation of some of these volunteers has been perceived, potentially negatively impacting the success of these programs. Potential hypotheses for this change in motivation include the long duration of many MDA programs, the change in sociocultural environments as well as the changes to the programs over time. This literature review identifies factors that affect NTD volunteer performance and motivation, which may be used to influence and improve future programming.A systematic search was conducted to identify studies published between January 1995 and September 2016 that investigate factors pertaining to volunteer motivation and performance in NTD drug distribution programs. Searches from several databases and grey literature yielded 400 records, of which 28 articles from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of studies was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme(CASP checklist. Data pertaining to motivation, performance, retention and satisfaction was extracted and examined for themes. Recurring themes in the literature included monetary and material incentives, intrinsic motivation, gender, cost to participate, and health systems and community support. Of these, community support and the health system were found to be particularly impactful. Very few studies were found to explicitly look at novel incentives for volunteers and very few studies have considered the out of pocket and opportunity costs that NTD volunteers bear carrying out their tasks.There is currently great interest in incorporating more attractive incentive schemes for NTD volunteers. However

  10. Review of the factors influencing the motivation of community drug distributors towards the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentel, Alison; Gyapong, Margaret; Mallya, Shruti; Boadu, Nana Yaa; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Stephens, Mariana; McFarland, Deborah A

    2017-12-01

    Community drug distributors or neglected tropical disease (NTD) volunteers have played a crucial role in ensuring the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs using preventive chemotherapy (PC) for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminths. In recent years however, a noticeable decline in motivation of some of these volunteers has been perceived, potentially negatively impacting the success of these programs. Potential hypotheses for this change in motivation include the long duration of many MDA programs, the change in sociocultural environments as well as the changes to the programs over time. This literature review identifies factors that affect NTD volunteer performance and motivation, which may be used to influence and improve future programming. A systematic search was conducted to identify studies published between January 1995 and September 2016 that investigate factors pertaining to volunteer motivation and performance in NTD drug distribution programs. Searches from several databases and grey literature yielded 400 records, of which 28 articles from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of studies was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme(CASP) checklist. Data pertaining to motivation, performance, retention and satisfaction was extracted and examined for themes. Recurring themes in the literature included monetary and material incentives, intrinsic motivation, gender, cost to participate, and health systems and community support. Of these, community support and the health system were found to be particularly impactful. Very few studies were found to explicitly look at novel incentives for volunteers and very few studies have considered the out of pocket and opportunity costs that NTD volunteers bear carrying out their tasks. There is currently great interest in incorporating more attractive incentive schemes for NTD volunteers. However, our results show

  11. What motivates researchers in times of economic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, G. C.; Reece, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of a study initiated late in 1970 to obtain both a measure of on-and-around-the-job factors which were 'motivating' to engineers and scientists, and to obtain an indication of how the relative importance of these factors changes as a result of the uncertain economic environment. A questionnaire, 'The Jackman Job Satisfaction Schedule,' was used to satisfy the needs of the study. It is concluded that managers can enhance the feeling of motivation by making individual job assignments interesting and challenging, by formulating significant milestones and end points into job content, and by assigning ample rewards with corresponding responsibility. In times of economic uncertainty increased emphasis should be given to security-related aspects of employment.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND SHAPING OF STUDENTS’ INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent studies concerning the impact of psychological factors on the school success show that, in average, only 50% of the success rate could be ascribed to developmental level of intelligence, while the remainder of the variable is saturated with factors of non-intellectual nature. Among the factors unconditioned by intellectual characteristics, the special role in motivation for effective studying is played by motivation for learning - especially the intrinsic one. It is understood that, when it comes to physical education, the intrinsic motivation sources are in fact primary sources, especially if we are striving to maintain motivation at the necessary level for a longer period. The process of development and maintenance of intrinsic motivation is of vital importance, particularly due to the fact that absenteeism or inactivity in physical education classes is becoming increasingly pronounced among students in higher grades of elementary and high schools. It should be borne in mind that the number of children spending most of their time in sitting position in front of their computers or TV sets is increasing on a daily basis. Consequently, we have higher incidence of postural deformities in elementary school-age children. Development and shaping of intrinsic motivation in terms of increasing willingness to do physical exercise systematically and continuously could be a means of diminishing the above-mentioned problems.

  13. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  14. The Role of Motivation in Family-Based Guided Self-Help Treatment for Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J.; Crow, Scott J.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Boutelle, Kerri N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Identifying factors associated with effective treatment for childhood obesity is important to improving weight loss outcomes. The current study investigated whether child or parent motivation throughout the course of treatment predicted reductions in BMI. Methods: Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with overweight and obesity (BMI percentiles 85–98%) and their parents participated in a guided self-help weight loss program, which included 12 brief sessions across 5 months. Parents and interventionists reported on child and parent motivation level at each session. Multilevel slopes-as-outcome models were used to examine growth trajectories for both child and parent BMI across sessions. Results: Greater interventionist-rated child motivation predicted greater reductions in child BMI; parent motivation did not. However, interventionist-rated parent motivation predicted greater reductions in parent BMI, and its impact on BMI became more pronounced over the course of treatment, such that sustained motivation was more important than initial motivation. Children who were older, Latino, or who had lower initial BMIs had slower reductions in BMI. Conclusions: This study suggests that motivation may be an important predictor of reduced BMI in child obesity treatment, with sustained motivation being more important than initial motivation. In particular, interventionist-rated, but not parent-rated, motivation is a robust predictor of child and parent BMI outcomes. Future research may evaluate whether motivational interventions can enhance outcome, with particular attention to improving outcomes for Latino children. PMID:25181608

  15. Study on Learning Motivation of Higher Vocational Colleges Students in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-ze

    2015-01-01

    Learning motivation occupies an important position in non-intelligence factors,as it plays a pivotal role in university students’ successful completion of their studies and strengthening of professional knowledge base.However,the present university students generally lack motivation in higher education.This research used questionnaire method,which is a questionnaire random sample in 500 students of learning motivation from four comprehensive higher vocational colleges of Tianjin,and explores the sta⁃tus quo of learning motivation in higher vocational students of Tianjin.The result shows:The learning motivation level of higher vocational colleges students is above middle level;Male on the learning motivation total level is significantly higher than female;Rural students in the learning motivation on the aggregate level is significantly higher than that of urban students;Look from the different grades,sophomore students have lowest level of learning motivation;Freshmen learning motivation is at highest level.

  16. Preschoolers' conformity (and its motivation) is linked to own and parents' personalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmer, Kahl; Stenberg, Gunilla; Fawcett, Christine

    2018-03-31

    Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In this study, we investigate five-factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N = 59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation, whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation. Our data show (1) low parental extroversion is associated with participants' overall rate of conformity, (2) and low participant extroversion and high openness are associated with an informational instead of a normative motivation to conform. This suggests that sensitivity to the social context or social engagement level, as manifested through extroversion, could be an important factor in conformist behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? We all conform, from early in life - and even when we should know better We can conform for normative and informational motivations Some are more prone to conform than others What does this study add? This is the first study to take an individual differences approach to developmental conformity Social engagement (extroversion) is an important factor in conformity. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The importance of non-financial motivators to pharmaceutical sales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... others such as applying flexible motivation approaches in working ... The respondents indicated that 'good relationships with customers' and 'being ... Dr M. Wiese and Dr R. Coetzee are in the Department of Marketing ... current uncertainty in the economy, coupled with an emphasis on customer satisfaction.

  18. Motivating employees in small and medium business enterprises in the context of intense workforce emigration

    OpenAIRE

    Almonaitienė, Junona

    2011-01-01

    An assumption is made in the article that incomplete motivating of employees by neglecting non-material incentives may be important reasons of workforce emigration, in addition to economic factors. An investigation of the situation concerning the fulfilment of Herzberg’s two kinds of factors (hygiene and motivating) in six Lithuanian small and medium business enterprises was conducted in order to test the assumption. The results from 159 employees questionnaires showed that hygiene factors ar...

  19. [Motivation to quit smoking among ex-smoker university workers and students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, V; Sotomayor, H; Cruz, M; Naveas, R

    2001-05-01

    In Chile, 10% of deaths in adults are directly attributed to smoking. To identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to quit smoking among a group of subjects that quitted without external help. The motivations to quit smoking were measured using the 20 items Reasons for Quitting Scale (RFQ), in 145 ex smokers (80 students and 65 workers at The University of Conception). The scale identifies intrinsic motivations in the categories health and self control and extrinsic motivations in the categories immediate reinforcement and social pressure. Factorial analysis with orthogonal rotation of the 20 items of the scale, suggested an optimal solution with five factors, that had a maximal impact of 0.43 and explained the motivations in up to a 66% of workers and 65% of students. The factors with the greater impact were the items of immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The category health had only a 6% influence in the modification of smoking habits. The most important motivations to quit smoking in this sample were an immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The analysis of motivations will help to orient smoking cessation programs.

  20. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  1. The Impact of Motivation and Hygiene Factors on Research Performance: An Empirical Study from A Turkish University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Tamtekin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the differences of the effect of motivation factors and hygiene factors on research performance of Foundation University members in Turkey on the number of articles published in Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. The study was conducted on 150 academics in a Turkish Foundation University. The following results are obtained from the study: i The perception of academics on the effect of hygiene factors which include salary, job security, company policy-administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, status and working conditions on research performance is positive except status, ii The perception of academics on the effect of motivators which include the possibility of growth, work itself, responsibility, achievement, advancement and recognition on research performance is positive.

  2. [Perceptions of nursing service managers in the South African Military Health Service on their level of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A; Muller, M

    2000-12-01

    The process of transformation in the South African Military Health Services, has influenced the nursing service managers' level of motivation and the following research question is applicable: what are the perceptions of the nursing service managers within the South African Military Health Services on their level of motivation? The purpose with this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nursing service managers on their level of motivation within these health services. A qualitative research design was utilized and four focus group interviews were conducted with 33 nursing service managers country wide. The transcribed interviews were exposed to a content analysis. The results confirm that the level of motivation amongst these nursing service managers is low. The demotivators relate mainly to the following: inadequate acknowledgement, job insecurity in relation to the future, problems with the process of integration, transformation and rationalization, problems with management, many labour related issues, poor/inadequate communication, inadequate support, increased work load, poor physical environment, negative publicity and poor self motivation. Although there were a few motivators identified, they were of less importance. These results were interpreted within Herzberg's motivation theory to identify the hygiene/maintenance factors and to assess whether the important motivators were in place. During any process of change, and/or when the level of motivation amongst employees is low, it is important to adequately manage the environment (hygiene/maintenance factors within the Herzberg theory). But it is even more important to ensure that the motivators are in place or to intensify them. It is therefore recommended that a motivation strategy, based on the Herzberg theory as well as the Hackman-Oldham job enrichment model, be developed, implemented and evaluated.

  3. The PMA Scale: A Measure of Physicians' Motivation to Adopt Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatz, Maximilian H M; Sonnenschein, Tim; Blankart, Carl Rudolf

    2017-04-01

    Studies have often stated that individual-level determinants are important drivers for the adoption of medical devices. Empirical evidence supporting this claim is, however, scarce. At the individual level, physicians' adoption motivation was often considered important in the context of adoption decisions, but a clear notion of its dimensions and corresponding measurement scales is not available. To develop and subsequently validate a scale to measure the motivation to adopt medical devices of hospital-based physicians. The development and validation of the physician-motivation-adoption (PMA) scale were based on a literature search, internal expert meetings, a pilot study with physicians, and a three-stage online survey. The data collected in the online survey were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the PMA scale was revised according to the results. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the results from the EFA in the third stage. Reliability and validity tests and subgroup analyses were also conducted. Overall, 457 questionnaires were completed by medical personnel of the National Health Service England. The EFA favored a six-factor solution to appropriately describe physicians' motivation. The CFA confirmed the results from the EFA. Our tests indicated good reliability and validity of the PMA scale. This is the first reliable and valid scale to measure physicians' adoption motivation. Future adoption studies assessing the individual level should include the PMA scale to obtain more information about the role of physicians' motivation in the broader adoption context. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative

  5. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  6. Motivated Cognition: Effects of Reward, Emotion, and Other Motivational Factors Across a Variety of Cognitive Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Madan

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated that motivation influences cognitive processing. The breadth of these effects is extensive and span influences of reward, emotion, and other motivational processes across all cognitive domains. As examples, this scope includes studies of emotional memory, value-based attentional capture, emotion effects on semantic processing, reward-related biases in decision making, and the role of approach/avoidance motivation on cognitive scope. Additionally, ...

  7. Associations Between Motivation and Mental Health in Sport: A Test of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2018-01-01

    Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posited by the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: motivational climate → basic psychological needs → motivation → mental health outcomes. Elite team-sport athletes (140 females, 75 males) completed seven psychometric inventories of motivation-related and mental health variables. Overall, the athletes reported positive motivational patterns, with autonomous motivation and task climate being more prevalent than their less adaptive counterparts. Elevated depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality affected nearly half of the cohort. Structural equation modeling supported pathways between motivational climate, basic needs, motivation, and mood, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and trait anxiety. Specifically, a task climate was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs, and an ego climate was positively associated with competence. Autonomy and relatedness had positive and negative associations with autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, respectively. Controlled motivation regulations were positively associated with the four mental health outcomes. Integrated regulation had a negative association with anxiety, and intrinsic regulation had a positive association with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the complexities of and interrelations between motivation and mental health among athletes, and support the importance of considering mental health as an outcome of motivation. PMID:29867672

  8. Associations Between Motivation and Mental Health in Sport: A Test of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel B. Sheehan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posited by the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: motivational climate → basic psychological needs → motivation → mental health outcomes. Elite team-sport athletes (140 females, 75 males completed seven psychometric inventories of motivation-related and mental health variables. Overall, the athletes reported positive motivational patterns, with autonomous motivation and task climate being more prevalent than their less adaptive counterparts. Elevated depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality affected nearly half of the cohort. Structural equation modeling supported pathways between motivational climate, basic needs, motivation, and mood, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and trait anxiety. Specifically, a task climate was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs, and an ego climate was positively associated with competence. Autonomy and relatedness had positive and negative associations with autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, respectively. Controlled motivation regulations were positively associated with the four mental health outcomes. Integrated regulation had a negative association with anxiety, and intrinsic regulation had a positive association with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the complexities of and interrelations between motivation and mental health among athletes, and support the importance of considering mental health as an outcome of motivation.

  9. Associations Between Motivation and Mental Health in Sport: A Test of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posited by the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: motivational climate → basic psychological needs → motivation → mental health outcomes. Elite team-sport athletes (140 females, 75 males) completed seven psychometric inventories of motivation-related and mental health variables. Overall, the athletes reported positive motivational patterns, with autonomous motivation and task climate being more prevalent than their less adaptive counterparts. Elevated depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality affected nearly half of the cohort. Structural equation modeling supported pathways between motivational climate, basic needs, motivation, and mood, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and trait anxiety. Specifically, a task climate was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs, and an ego climate was positively associated with competence. Autonomy and relatedness had positive and negative associations with autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, respectively. Controlled motivation regulations were positively associated with the four mental health outcomes. Integrated regulation had a negative association with anxiety, and intrinsic regulation had a positive association with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the complexities of and interrelations between motivation and mental health among athletes, and support the importance of considering mental health as an outcome of motivation.

  10. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-29

    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does not seem to yield a student population which stands out in terms of autonomous motivation. The current findings indicate that selection might temporarily enhance students' motivation. The mechanism

  11. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Advanced Learners' Personality Types, Motivation and Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective factors are the most important factors in SLA and EFL studies. These factors include motivation, self-confidence, anxiety, etc. Researches on learners’ characteristics have been investigated for over a century. In the same vein, the present research, strived at exploring Iranian’s EFL learners personality types and motivation. In the article, the personality types and motivation of students were examined using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and motivation questionnaire of Laine. For this purpose, 60 EFL students from one of the language institutions Mashhad (located in Iran were chosen as  the participants of this study. Through two instruments and considering the participants’ previous semester scores, the data were gathered and analyzed by means of SPSS software. The correctional analyses revealed a significant relationship among motivation, personality and students’ success. Multiple regression analysis was also conducted to examine the strength of the relationship among the variables. Among the affective factors, personality type was found to be the best predictor of students’ success. The study provides some pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research.

  12. Motivation in medical students: a PhD thesis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate the factors influencing, outcomes and applications of medical students' motivation. This thesis consists of three literature reviews, four research papers and two application papers. Two research studies investigated the relationships of student motivation with study strategy, effort and academic performance through structural equation modelling and cluster analysis. The relationships of age, maturity, gender and educational background with motivation were investigated through multiple regression analysis. The results of this thesis were 1. Developments in medical education appear to have undervalued student motivation. 2. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education; intrinsic motivation is significantly associated with deep study strategy, high study effort and good academic performance. 3. Motivation is a dependent variable in medical education and is significantly affected by age, maturity, gender, educational background; intrinsic motivation is enhanced by providing students with autonomy, feedback and emotional support. 4. Strength of motivation for medical school can be reliably measured by Strength of Motivation for Medical School questionnaire. The conclusion of this thesis was that it is important to give consideration to motivation in medical education because intrinsic motivation leads to better learning and performance and it can be enhanced through giving students autonomy in learning, feedback about competence and emotional support.

  13. Client Motivation for Therapy Scale: a measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, L G; Tuson, K M; Haddad, N K

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure of client motivation for therapy, the Client Motivation for Therapy Scale. This scale is designed to measure client's Intrinsic Motivation, four forms of regulation for Extrinsic Motivation (integrated, identified, introjected, and external regulation), and Amotivation for therapy. These subscales correspond to different forms of motivation identified by Deci and Ryan (1985) and fall along a self-determination continuum. An experimental version of the scale, along with related scales, was distributed to a total sample of 138 clients involved in therapy. The results supported the factor structure of the scale and revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency. Correlations among the subscales revealed a simplex pattern that, in general, provides support for the self-determination continuum and the construct validity of the scale. Implications for research on client motivation for therapy are discussed.

  14. Obesity Treatment in Adults - A Pilot Study of the Relation between Speed of Weight Loss and the Course of Autonomous Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Flataas, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is an important factor for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but knowledge is needed on different weight loss interventions and how they affect motivation. Because it is assumed that a sustained motivation for dieting makes the patient more able to comply with the treatment and thus succeed in losing weight, identifying how different interventions affect motivation is of great importance. The current RCT therefore aimed to explore the course of motivation for dieting in two ...

  15. Self-determination theory and understanding of student motivation in physical education instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Višnja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is considered to be a favorable context for accomplishment of important educational outcomes and promotion of physical activity in children and youth. The real scope of physical education instruction largely depends on student motivation. Self-determination theory, as a specific macrotheory of motivation, offers a rewarding framework for understanding student motivation in physical education instruction. The paper presents the basic tenets of self-determination theory, the most important studies in the domain of physical education and didactic and methodical implications. Two mini-theories within the self-determination theory are analyzed in more detail, the cognitive evaluation theory and the organismic integration theory. Empirical verification of the theoretical tenets indicates the existence of typical motivational profiles of students in physical education instruction, the basic psychological needs as mediators of influence of social and interpersonal factors on student motivation, followed by the importance of motivational climate, students' goal orientations and teaching style for self-determination of students' behavior in physical education instruction. Didactic and methodical implications refer to the need for developing a more flexible curriculum of physical education, encouraging a motivational climate, task-focused goal orientations, and, especially, encouraging the perceived moving competence of the student.

  16. A Survey of Learning Motivation among Junior and Senior English Ma?jors in Non-governmental Universities—A Case Study in Ningbo Dahon?gying University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qian-qian

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is an important factor to English learning, it plays an important role. In this thesis, the instrument used in the study is a questionnaire, and this thesis was conducted on December 5th, 2016 at Ningbo Dahongying University involving 182 students. Based on the questionnaire investigation, this thesis discusses the learning motivation of English major juniors and seniors in Ningbo Dahongying University from the motivation types, factors and strategies...

  17. To travel or not to travel: towards understanding the theory of nativistic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    George, Babu P.; Inbakaran, Robert; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy

    2010-01-01

    Largely employing the frameworks provided by the opponent process theory, the trans-theoretical model of change, and the two factor theory of motivation, the present paper introduces the concept of ‘nativistic motivation’ into the tourism literature. Although nativistic motivation might turn out to be an important category in the nomological network of tourism theory, it has thus far escaped the attention of tourism researchers. The traditional conceptualization of tourism motivation included...

  18. Supporting Students' Motivation in College Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jae-eun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Students' motivation has been identified as a critical factor for meaningful engagement and positive academic achievement in various educational settings. In particular, self-regulation strategies have been identified as important skills in online learning environments. However, applying self-regulation strategies, such as goal setting,…

  19. Reading motivation in elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Pečjak; Nataša Bucik

    2005-01-01

    Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived r...

  20. The Effectiveness of Motivation Training for Increasing Students’ Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Tentama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Students’ low level of motivation becomes a matter of concern to be addressed immediately. Students' motivation needs to be improved as it is a factor that will affect their lives in the future. This study aims to observe or examine the effectiveness of motivation training in increasing students' motivation.The research method used was the pre-experiment with one group pre-test post-test design. The subjects of this study were 15 boy and girl students of Grade X of SMK who had a low level of motivation. The measuring instruments were the motivation scales given during the pre-test and post-test. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test with non-parametric measurements to determine the significance of difference in the motivation level before and after the training. The data were tested using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.The result of Wilcoxon analysis to test the hypothesis whether there is a difference between the pre-test and post-test of students' motivation showed that the p = 0.025 (p < 0.05. This means that there was a significant difference between the motivation before the treatment (pre-test and after the treatment (post-test, which indicated that the students' motivation increased after a treatment in the form of motivation training.

  1. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  2. Relations between OCBs, organizational justice, work motivation and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Oren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs in organizations is well documented, and studies that originate from the interactionist perspective and combine personal and situational factors in predicting OCBs are needed. Toward this end, and based on a recent theoretical model, the current study attempted to predict OCB by organizational justice, work motivation, and self-efficacy. A research questionnaire measuring the three predictors was administered to 151 employees, and a measure of their OCB was provided by their supervisors. Whereas OCBs were found to be positively correlated with the three predictors, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that only organizational justice and work motivation were significant predictors of OCBs. The study emphasizes the importance of using an interactionist perspective integrating endogenous and exogenous forces in studying the antecedents of OCBs. OCBs may be closely related to task performance and may be predicted by motivation related variables. Organizations may facilitate OCBs by improving organizational justice and raising work motivation among employees.

  3. Role of Procrastination and Motivational Self-Regulation in Predicting Students\\' Behavioral Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As an important intervening factor to enhance educational and motivational performance of the students, understating the effective factors on behavioral enthusiasm plays a very important role. The aim of this study was to explain the role of motivational self-regulation and procrastination in predicting the students’ behavioral enthusiasm.  Instrument & Methods: In the correlational descriptive cross-sectional study, 311 students of Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected via Available Sampling using Cochran’s Formula in 2014-15 academic year. Data was collected, using Students’ Educational Procrastination Scale, Motivational Self-regulating Scale, and Behavioral Enthusiasm Scale. Data was analyzed in SPSS 19 software using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple Regression Analysis. Findings: The highest and the lowest correlations were between procrastination and behavioral enthusiasm and between environmental control and behavioral enthusiasm, respectively (p<0.05. There was a positive and significant correlation between self-regulation and behavioral enthusiasm. In addition, there was a negative and significant correlation between procrastination and behavioral enthusiasm (p<0.001. Totally, procrastination (β=-0.233 and motivational self-regulation (β=0.238 explained 10% of the students’ behavioral enthusiasm variance (p<0.001; R²=0.102. Conclusion: Any reduction in procrastination and any enhancement in motivational self-regulation can enhance the students’ behavioral enthusiasm. 

  4. The Role of Academic Motivation in High School Students’ Current and Lifetime Alcohol Consumption: Adopting a Self-Determination Theory Perspective*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives—specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation—and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. Method: One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Results: Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. Conclusions: These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students’ alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use. PMID:22051210

  5. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  6. Optimization of importance factors in inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, L.

    1999-01-01

    Inverse treatment planning starts with a treatment objective and obtains the solution by optimizing an objective function. The clinical objectives are usually multifaceted and potentially incompatible with one another. A set of importance factors is often incorporated in the objective function to parametrize trade-off strategies and to prioritize the dose conformality in different anatomical structures. Whereas the general formalism remains the same, different sets of importance factors characterize plans of obviously different flavour and thus critically determine the final plan. Up to now, the determination of these parameters has been a 'guessing' game based on empirical knowledge because the final dose distribution depends on the parameters in a complex and implicit way. The influence of these parameters is not known until the plan optimization is completed. In order to compromise properly the conflicting requirements of the target and sensitive structures, the parameters are usually adjusted through a trial-and-error process. In this paper, a method to estimate these parameters computationally is proposed and an iterative computer algorithm is described to determine these parameters numerically. The treatment plan selection is done in two steps. First, a set of importance factors are chosen and the corresponding beam parameters (e.g. beam profiles) are optimized under the guidance of a quadratic objective function using an iterative algorithm reported earlier. The 'optimal' plan is then evaluated by an additional scoring function. The importance factors in the objective function are accordingly adjusted to improve the ranking of the plan. For every change in the importance factors, the beam parameters need to be re-optimized. This process continues in an iterative fashion until the scoring function is saturated. The algorithm was applied to two clinical cases and the results demonstrated that it has the potential to improve significantly the existing method of

  7. Motivational factors associated with drowsy driving behavior: a qualitative investigation of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Lee, Clark J; Weiner, Talia

    2018-02-01

    This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. Four focus groups of college students. A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Notes and transcripts from the focus group sessions were analyzed to identify recurring themes regarding attitudes, motivations, experiences, influences, and potential preventive messaging strategies related to drowsy driving. Although most participants had heard of drowsy driving and were concerned about it, they did not associate it with legal risks and were more concerned about alcohol-impaired and distracted driving as crash risks. Participants viewed drowsy driving as a normal and unavoidable part of their lives over which they had little control. For potential anti-drowsy driving messaging strategies, participants preferred messages delivered via audiovisual or social media that featured graphic and emotional portrayals of crashes and their consequences. Participants also voiced strong support for preventive messaging strategies equating various degrees of sleep deprivation to known impairing levels of alcohol, as well as messages providing cues to action to actual drowsy drivers on roadways. Increased enforcement, education, and public messaging campaigns are needed to increase knowledge and influence attitudes and opinions among young drivers about the dangers and social unacceptability of drowsy driving. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Study of Factors Relevant to Skin Cancer Preventive Behavior in Female High School Students in Yazd Based on Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad hosein baghiyanimoghadam; soheila mohammadi; mohammad taghi norbala; seed saeed mazlomi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in Yazd, and childhood and adolescence are particularly important time for preventing later skin cancer risk. The goal of this study is to assess the factors relevant to skin cancer preventive behavior in female high school students in Yazd based on protection motivation theory. Methods: Participants in this cross- sectional study were 360 female students from 4 high schools in Yazd. Data were gathered through a self- report quest...

  9. Motivations for Extradyadic Infidelity Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selterman, Dylan; Garcia, Justin R; Tsapelas, Irene

    2017-12-15

    Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly"). Our results also show personality correlates with infidelity motivations. Consistent with predictions, attachment insecurity was associated with motivations of anger, lack of love, neglect, low commitment, and esteem, while unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual variety. Implicit beliefs (e.g., growth, destiny, romanticism) were differentially associated with sexual desire, low commitment, lack of love, and neglect. These findings highlight multifaceted motivations underlying infidelity, moving beyond relationship deficit models of infidelity, with implications for research and psychotherapy involving people's romantic and sexual relationships.

  10. Intrinsic Motivation and Its Determinants as Factors Enhancing the Prediction of Job Performance from Ability. Research Report No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ann

    The primary purpose of the present research was to explore the relationship of ability and intrinsic motivation in the prediction of job performance. Intrinsic motivation was traced to two primary determinants. One, an organizational factor, is the extent to which an employee's job is "enriched," or incorporates challenging elements such as…

  11. Primary health care workers' views of motivating factors at individual, community and organizational levels: a qualitative study from Nasarawa and Ondo states, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Gupta, Shivam; Alonge, Olakunle; George, Asha S

    2017-04-01

    Current efforts to motivate primary health workers in Nigeria focus on better financial incentives, and the role of other motivating factors has received less attention. The aim of this study is to explore individual and organizational determinants, their interactions and effects on motivation. Exploratory qualitative research, involving semi-structured interviews with 29 primary health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and community health workers), was conducted in Nasarawa and Ondo states in Nigeria. Nine key informant interviews were conducted with government officials. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and coded. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify common themes, as well as unique narratives. Results from this study suggest that health workers are motivated by individual (vocation, religion, humanity and self-efficacy) and organizational (monetary incentives, good working environment) factors and community recognition. Supervision and leadership provided by the officer in charge as compared with that by external agencies appeared to have a positive effect on motivation. Policy makers and donor agencies should take into account a broader range of factors while designing strategies to motivate the health workforce. The study also underscores how officer in charges with enhanced skills are likely to motivate health workers by creating a more supportive environment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Tourist Motivation 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steen

    evidence is presented of who, when, how and why create and share travel experiences on social media. The paper discusses motivation schemes for knowledge and experience-sharing and it critically analyses technological mediation through electronic word-of-mouth and involvement factors related to virtual......Electronic social media is increasingly relevant as tourism practises affecting destination development and branding. However, there is still a deficiency of empirical research on the motivational factors that lie behind the creation and sharing of online content by tourists. This study explores...... dissemination of travel experiences. Results provide insights on different motivational factors such as personal benefits, community related benefits and social capital that influence the sharing of user generated content in tourism. Moreover, the paper discusses technology adoption, transformations of tourism...

  13. An Investigation of Factors Motivating Student’s Study at The International Hotel Management Institute Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengky Efendy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in this era of globalisation the hospitality industry needs well educated employees. Therefore the hotel school has to provide human resources to fit any position in the hospitality industry. The author chose the International Hotel Management Institute (IMI-Switzerland for research too specifically investigates factors affecting students’ motivations to study. The author’s experience was that many students of hospitality are not very motivated to study hotel management. Students get bored while having lectures, are not motivated to go to the library to research, and yet to be educated is the main reasons that students come to IMI to study hospitality. The author has set several objectives in chapter two to ensure the flow of this research. The literature review will be covered in motivating of students study for hotel school education.Literature review which is critically analysed by the author was chosen by the author according the field of study. The sample chosen for this research was motivation students study from first, second, third and fourth year students in IMI- Switzerland Several motivation of this research was the reference book of this field study, and the length of time for making this dissertation. After the primary data were collected and analysed, it was discovered that most of all students in IMI-Switzerland is to have a better chance of getting a job after finishing the course. 

  14. Die verpleegdiensbestuurders binne die Suid-Afrikaanse Militêre gesondheidsdiens se persepsies oor hul vlak van motivering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Fischer

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of transformation in the South African MilitaryHealth Services, has influenced the nursing servicemanagers’ level of motivation and the following researchquestion is applicable: what are the perceptions of thenursing service managers within the South African MilitaryHealth Services on their level of motivation? The purpose with this study was to explore and describe theperceptions of nursing service managers on their level ofmotivation within these health services. A qualitative researchdesign was utilized and four focus group interviewswere conducted with 33 nursing service managers countrywide. The transcribed interviews were exposed to acontent analysis. The results confirm that the level ofmotivation amongst these nursing service managers is low.The demotivators relate mainly to the following: inadequateacknowledgement, job insecurity in relation to thefuture, problems with the process of integration, transformationand rationalization, problems with management,many labour related issues, poor/inadequate communication,inadequate support, increased work load, poor physicalenvironment, negative publicity and poor self motivation.Although there were a few motivators identified,they were of less importance. These results were interpretedwithin Herzberg’s motivation theory to identify thehygiene/maintenance factors and to assess whether theimportant motivators were in place. During any processof change, and/or when the level of motivation amongstemployees is low, it is important to adequately managethe environment (hygiene/maintenance factors within theHerzberg theory. But it is even more important to ensurethat the motivators are in place or to intensify them. It istherefore recommended that a motivation strategy, basedon the Herzberg theory as well as the Hackman-Oldhamjob enrichment model, be developed, implemented andevaluated.

  15. Motivational factors in multilevel marketing business: A confirmatory approach

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    Sourav Jain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present scenario of high unemployment; Multilevel Marketing (MLM generates employment for people who have no permanent source of earning. MLM system has emerged as one of the prime alternatives in the current marketing system. India has become a very popular destination of doing MLM business with high potential of growth. MLM system provides lucrative compensation that works as motivation for people to join this business. Motivation for executives of any firm plays a major role in its success. It also leads commitment of employees towards work and responsibilities. An attempt has been made to identify the motivational variables that have the highest level of contribution for joining the MLM system. Most of the MLM companies focus on compensation plan or reward system but apart from that a number of variables have been found which motivate the distributors to engage in MLM business. Further, the distributors play a vital role in the growth of the business. In this study, we also propose a motivational model to help MLM companies formulate better strategies in making a large network of people for growth of business.

  16. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivation in the workplace and its influence on the effectiveness of work

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    Denis Avbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question(RQ:How can we motivate efficiency of the work, which is managed by the individual or the group? Different ways of motivating an individual in an organization? Purpose: The purpose of the research is to determine positive ways of motivation which would allow individuals in different organizations how to improve the efficiency of the work they perform. The aim of the research is the actual use of motivational tools in practice. Method: The article is transparent and theoretical. It is based primarily on an analysis of available domestic and foreign literature and Internet sources on the issues addressed. Results: In this study, it was found that the motivation and efficiency is directly related. Factors are also interdependent, which means that in the case of lack of motivation of employees in an organization there is significant reduced of efficiency. Motivational motives may be monetary (financial rewards and non-monetary (progression in nature. Society: The survey can point to the importance of motivation in the workplace. Originality: Originality of research is reflected in the examination of the importance of motivation in the workplace and their influence on these positive results and performance at work. Limitations/Future Research: A further education of managers and leaders in organizations, to realize that with the help of motivated collective we can achieve better excellence and results.

  18. Responsibility versus Profit: The Motives of Food Firms for Healthy Product Innovation

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    Jilde Garst

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In responsible research and innovation (RRI, innovation is seen as a way in which humankind finds solutions for societal issues. However, studies on commercial innovation show that firms respond in a different manner and at a different speed to the same societal issue. This study investigates what role organizational motives play in the product innovation processes of firms when aiming for socially responsible outcomes. Methods: This multiple-case study investigates the motives of food firms for healthier product innovation by interviewing firms about the organizational motives behind product reformulation and innovation. Results: This study highlights the importance of having both instrumental and moral motives in the innovation process when aiming for socially responsible outcomes, and how both these motives interact and contribute to responsible innovation in industry. Furthermore, the study results question the nature of relational motives as a separate category from the other two categories of motives, as suggested by corporate social responsibility (CSR scholars. Conclusions: If commercial innovation needs to contribute to solutions for societal issues, the importance of moral motives has to be stressed without annihilating the instrumental objectives of firms. Both motives contribute to the success factors of responsible product innovation in industry.

  19. EFFECTS OF THE LEARNER’S MOTIVATION IN THE CHINESE EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionIt is generally agreed that motivation is one of the most important factors influencing the learner’ssuccess or failure in learning a language.This article aims at producing background informationabout some aspects of research into motivation as well as implications for English teaching in China.Due to limitations of space,the implications are intended only for those in the field of Englishlanguage teaching for non-majors at tertiary level.

  20. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  1. Motivering van spoorbaaninstandhoudingstoesighouers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) Personnel motivation is one of management's most important tasks, but due to a lack of understanding of the nature of motivation, it is also frequently neglected resulting in losses to the organisation. The purpose of this document was to perform a motivation study on the supervisory staff of a railway maintenance depot. With the results of this study the cause of the low level of motivation was determined, followed by recommendations to management in order to ...

  2. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

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    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  3. Trust as a factor in determining how to attract, motivate and retain talentT

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    Nico Martins

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire that can be used to determine how employees select the best company to work for. The second focus was to determine the role of trust in a relationship where employers must attract, motivate and retain employees. The confirmatory factor analysis resulted in 10 dimensions that supported most of the theoretically constructed dimensions. A second-order factor analysis was done and it became clear that there are two second-order factors underlying factor 1, namely leadership and trust. A strong correlation was found between trust and the dimensions of job satisfaction, relationships and leadership. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om ‘n vraelys te valideer wat gebruik kon word om te bepaal hoe werknemers die beste organisasie om voor te werk kies. Die tweede fokus was om die rol van vertroue te bepaal in ‘n vertrouensverhouding waar werkgewers werknemers moet lok, motiveer en behou. ‘n Bevestigende faktorontleding het tien faktore tot gevolg gehad wat die meeste van die teoreties opgestelde dimensies ondersteun. ‘n Tweede-orde-faktorontleding van faktor een het aangetoon dat die faktor uit twee tweede-orde-faktore, leierskap en vertroue bestaan. ‘n Sterk korrelasie het voorgekom tussen vertroue en die dimensies van postevredenheid, verhoudinge en leierskap.

  4. Factors associated with motivation and hesitation to work among health professionals during a public crisis: a cross sectional study of hospital workers in Japan during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Matsuishi, Kunitaka; Ito, Atsushi; Mouri, Kentaro; Kitamura, Noboru; Akimoto, Keiko; Mino, Koichi; Kawazoe, Ayako; Isobe, Masanori; Takamiya, Shizuo; Mita, Tatsuo

    2010-11-04

    The professionalism of hospital workers in Japan was challenged by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009. To maintain hospital function under critical situations such as a pandemic, it is important to understand the factors that increase and decrease the willingness to work. Previous hospital-based studies have examined this question using hypothetical events, but so far it has not been examined in an actual pandemic. Here, we surveyed the factors that influenced the motivation and hesitation of hospital workers to work in Japan soon after the pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires about demographic character and stress factors were distributed to all 3635 employees at three core hospitals in Kobe city, Japan and were collected from June to July, 2009, about one month after the pandemic (H1N1) in Japan. Of a total of 3635 questionnaires distributed, 1693 (46.7%) valid questionnaires were received. 28.4% (N = 481) of workers had strong motivation and 14.7% (N = 249) had strong hesitation to work. Demographic characters and stress-related questions were categorised into four types according to the odds ratios (OR) of motivation and hesitation to work: some factors increased motivation and lowered hesitation; others increased motivation only; others increased hesitation only and others increased both motivation and hesitation. The strong feeling of being supported by the national and local governments (Multivariate OR: motivation; 3.5; CI 2.2-5.4, hesitation; 0.2; CI 0.1-0.6) and being protected by hospital (Multivariate OR: motivation; 2.8; CI 2.2-3.7, hesitation; 0.5; CI 0.3-0.7) were related to higher motivation and lower hesitation. Here, protection included taking precautions to prevent illness among workers and their families, providing for the care of those who do become ill, reducing malpractice threats, and financial support for families of workers who die on duty. But 94.1% of the respondents answered protection by the national and local

  5. Motivation and Retention of Physicians in Primary Healthcare Facilities: A Qualitative Study From Abbottabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Masoom Shah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workforce motivation and retention is important for the functionality and quality of service delivery in health systems of developing countries. Despite huge primary healthcare (PHC infrastructure, Pakistan’s health indicators are not impressive; mainly because of under-utilization of facilities and low patient satisfaction. One of the major underlying issues is staff absenteeism. The study aimed to identify factors affecting retention and motivation of doctors working in PHC facilities of Pakistan. Methods: An exploratory study was conducted in a rural district in Khyber Puktunkhwa (KP province, in Pakistan. A conceptual framework was developed comprising of three organizational, individual, and external environmental factors. Qualitative research methods comprising of semi-structured interviews with doctors working in basic health units (BHUs and in-depth interviews with district and provincial government health managers were used. Document review of postings, rules of business and policy actions was also conducted. Triangulation of findings was carried out to arrive at the final synthesis. Results: Inadequate remuneration, unreasonable facilities at residence, poor work environment, political interference, inadequate supplies and medical facilities contributed to lack of motivation among both male and female doctors. The physicians accepted government jobs in BHUs with a belief that these jobs were more secure, with convenient working hours. Male physicians seemed to be more motivated because they faced less challenges than their female counterparts in BHUs especially during relocations. Overall, the organizational factors emerged as the most significant whereby human resource policy, career growth structure, performance appraisal and monetary benefits played an important role. Gender and marital status of female doctors was regarded as most important individual factor affecting retention and motivation of female doctors in BHUs

  6. Motivation and Retention of Physicians in Primary Healthcare Facilities: A Qualitative Study From Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sayed Masoom; Zaidi, Shehla; Ahmed, Jamil; Rehman, Shafiq Ur

    2016-04-09

    Workforce motivation and retention is important for the functionality and quality of service delivery in health systems of developing countries. Despite huge primary healthcare (PHC) infrastructure, Pakistan's health indicators are not impressive; mainly because of under-utilization of facilities and low patient satisfaction. One of the major underlying issues is staff absenteeism. The study aimed to identify factors affecting retention and motivation of doctors working in PHC facilities of Pakistan. An exploratory study was conducted in a rural district in Khyber Puktunkhwa (KP) province, in Pakistan. A conceptual framework was developed comprising of three organizational, individual, and external environmental factors. Qualitative research methods comprising of semi-structured interviews with doctors working in basic health units (BHUs) and in-depth interviews with district and provincial government health managers were used. Document review of postings, rules of business and policy actions was also conducted. Triangulation of findings was carried out to arrive at the final synthesis. Inadequate remuneration, unreasonable facilities at residence, poor work environment, political interference, inadequate supplies and medical facilities contributed to lack of motivation among both male and female doctors. The physicians accepted government jobs in BHUs with a belief that these jobs were more secure, with convenient working hours. Male physicians seemed to be more motivated because they faced less challenges than their female counterparts in BHUs especially during relocations. Overall, the organizational factors emerged as the most significant whereby human resource policy, career growth structure, performance appraisal and monetary benefits played an important role. Gender and marital status of female doctors was regarded as most important individual factor affecting retention and motivation of female doctors in BHUs. Inadequate remuneration, unreasonable

  7. Motivation and motoric tests in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba-Jakovljević, Dea; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Grujić, Nikola; Barak, Otto; Drapsin, Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Motivation in sport performance has been an interesting topic for many investigators during the past decade. This area can be considered from different viewpoints: motivation for participation in sport activity, achievement motivation, competitiveness etc. Motivation plays an important role in all out tests, as well as in sport activities and at all levels of competition. Motivation climate, or positive social environment may influence and modulate motivation of individuals involved in sports. Experience has shown that conventional encouragement and feedback during the test may affect its outcome. According to Wingate research team recommendations, verbal encouragement, as a motivation factor, was given to all examined subjects during Wingate anaerobic test, which is considered the most reliable test for assessing anaerobic capacity. The investigated group consisted of 30 young men--medical students, who were not actively involved in any programmed sport activity. The investigated group included second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad chosen by random sampling. The Wingate anaerobic test was performed in all subjects, and changes of parameters when test was performed with verbal encouragement, were recorded The results show statistically significant increase of Wingate test parameters when conducted with verbal encouragement: anaerobic power (622/669 W); relative anaerobic power (7.70/8.27 W/kg); slope of the power (95.5/114 W/s); relative slope of the power (1.18/1.40 W/s/kg); anaerobic capacity (12.7/13.2 kJ) and relative anaerobic capacity (158/164 J/kg).

  8. DESTINATION IMAGE OF BALI BASED ON THE PUSH MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS, IDENTITY AND DESTINATION CREATIONS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF FOREIGN SENIOR TOURIST*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the senior traveler segment is the high purchasing power the length of stay in a destination, making this market segment increasingly important in present and future. Consequently, this research aims to establish a model of motivation and its relationship with the image of Bali as an international tourism destination, especially from the perspective of senior tourists. This research employed survey method and utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques. Factor analysis condensed various indicators into several key indicators to form a model with goodness of fit. Indicators representing push motivation variable include the improvement of health/fitness and the drive to perform physical exercise. Indicators representing destination identity variable include the culture and nature of Bali. Indicators representing destination creation variable include the service quality of travel agencies and service quality of travel guides. Indicators representing destination image variable include the image of cultural uniqueness and holiday atmosphere of Bali. The survey in this study involved 400 respondents of senior tourists, exclusively only foreign nationals. Goodness of fit is affirmed on the results of the analysis model, which answered the hypothesis that push motivation and destination creation affect destination images.

  9. Employee Motivation at IKEA Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Kumar; Adhikari, Devendra

    2013-01-01

    How to motivate employees and the factors affecting motivation have been subjects of concern for many researchers and practitioners for decades. Until recently employees were primarily regarded as a factor of production (i.e. labor), and not, as in the current view, as an integral part of all businesses. Therefore, motivating employees has become essential in order to achieve the strategic goals of any company. However, due to the current state of competition in the job markets it has increas...

  10. What motivates senior clinicians to teach medical students?

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    Owen Cathy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the motivations of senior medical clinicians to teach medical students. This understanding could improve the recruitment and retention of important clinical teachers. Methods The study group was 101 senior medical clinicians registered on a teaching list for a medical school teaching hospital (The Canberra Hospital, ACT, Australia. Their motivations to teach medical students were assessed applying Q methodology. Results Of the 75 participants, 18 (24% were female and 57 (76% were male. The age distribution was as follows: 30–40 years = 16 participants (21.3%, 41–55 years = 46 participants (61.3% and >55 years = 13 participants (17.3%. Most participants (n = 48, 64% were staff specialists and 27 (36% were visiting medical officers. Half of the participants were internists (n = 39, 52%, 12 (16% were surgeons, and 24 (32% were other sub-specialists. Of the 26 senior clinicians that did not participate, two were women; 15 were visiting medical officers and 11 were staff specialists; 16 were internists, 9 were surgeons and there was one other sub-specialist. The majority of these non-participating clinicians fell in the 41–55 year age group. The participating clinicians were moderately homogenous in their responses. Factor analysis produced 4 factors: one summarising positive motivations for teaching and three capturing impediments for teaching. The main factors influencing motivation to teach medical students were intrinsic issues such as altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills and truth seeking. The reasons for not teaching included no strong involvement in course design, a heavy clinical load or feeling it was a waste of time. Conclusion This study provides some insights into factors that may be utilised in the design of teaching programs that meet teacher motivations and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of the medical teaching workforce.

  11. The personal aspects of motivation in healthcare provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Masár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The managements of healthcare companies work in a considerably turbulent environment. It has to react flexibly to the continuously changing macro-environment conditions. There are other important factors – mainly the relationship with every concerned group from the patients (customers, the insurance companies, suppliers, founders to the employees themselves. Health service faces mainly the workforce crisis at present, which is dominantly characteristic for the absence of nurses in majority of countries. Many specialists mention this fact as an acute problem and they appeal to solve this problem. That is the reason why the important and considerable task of hospitals´ management is not only to deal with their patients´ satisfaction, but also with the satisfaction of their employees. The work satisfaction factors are closely connected to the motivation and following of need for the adequate stimulation tools. The main aim is to stabilise the executive staff, its retention and further development in the achievement of desirable goals The main aim of the paper is to analyse the factor of work motivation for nurses regarding their work satisfaction and stabilization need in the present Slovak health service.

  12. The motivations to nurse: an exploration of factors amongst undergraduate students, registered nurses and nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; Kelly, Cherene M; Kremser, Anne K; Jolly, Brian; Billett, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    To identify what motivates individuals to engage in a nursing career. Recruitment and retention of nurses is a worldwide concern that is associated with several compounding factors, primarily the high attrition of its new graduates and an ageing workforce. Given these factors, it is necessary to understand why individuals choose to nurse, what keeps them engaged in nursing, and in what ways healthcare systems can support career development and retention. This paper presents initial interview data from a longitudinal multi method study with 29 undergraduate student nurses, 25 registered nurses (RNs), six Nurse Unit Managers (NUMs) and four Directors of Nursing (DoNs) from four hospitals across a healthcare organization in Australia. Thematic analysis yielded four key themes that were common to all participants: (1) a desire to help, (2) caring, (3) sense of achievement and (4) self-validation. These themes represented individuals' motivation to enter nursing and sustain them in their careers as either nurses or managers. Managers need to be cognisant of nurses underlying values and motivators in addressing recruitment and retention issues. Strategies need to be considered at both unit and organizational levels to ensure that the 'desire to care' does not become lost.

  13. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  14. Telesna samopodoba kot pomemben motivacijski dejavnik za gibalno/športno aktivnost otrok in mladostnikov: Physical self-conception as an important motivational factor for physical activity among children and adolescents:

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Self-conception is a multidimensional construct that refers to an individual’s perception of »self«. This percepion not only affects the psychological well-being of children and adolescents but also their motivation and behaviour. The formation of their self-conception represents an important developmental task in childhood and adolescence. Research findings suggest that one’s self conception becomes more varied and complex with age. The multidimensionality of self-conception em- phasizes tha...

  15. Factor analysis for instruments of science learning motivation and its implementation for the chemistry and biology teacher candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.

  16. TRENDS IN NON-FINANCIAL MOTIVATION POLICIES OF EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Alexandru PANAIT

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to identify the main non-financial motivation strategies, to emphasize their advantages and disadvantages, as well as to involve the management in achieving the motivational objectives within the organizations. Studies in the field have shown that there are a number of factors of great importance in motivating the staff that managers need to consider in improving the company's performance. Motivating human resources is not a simple process, it is complex and continuous and managers need to find the optimal mix for motivating and performance-oriented employee. Appropriate motivation of employees is the main purpose on which good management of a firm is based. Practice shows that poor leadership quality is the main cause of employee dissatisfaction that is unsatisfied with their work. Motivating staff means creating opportunities for individual and team goals, responsibility, recognition, reward, etc. Motivation implies the totality of the internal and external motives of the personality, which condition the transformation of its development potential into real and functional psychological structures and is in itself a complex and cumulative psychological system. Most reward processes are based on philosophies and reward strategies and contain policy and strategy arrangements and contain policy arrangements, principles, practices, structures and procedures that are designed and managed to deliver and maintain the types and adequate levels of benefits and other forms of reward.

  17. Assessing self-determined motivation for addiction treatment: validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanoski, Karen A; Wild, T Cameron

    2012-07-01

    Although legal, formal, and informal social controls are frequently used to pressure individuals to enter treatment, motivational consequences of using these tactics have been neglected. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful perspective for understanding client experiences of social controls and highlights the importance of self-determined motivation for long-term behavior change. This study assessed the construct validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), a brief scale derived from SDT to measure identified, introjected, and external treatment motivation. Two independent samples of clients entering Canadian residential and outpatient treatment completed TEQ items (ns = 529 and 623). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 9-item version of the scale, with 3 factors aligning with SDT motivational subtypes. Subscales showed high internal consistency and correlated as expected with social controls and perceived coercion at treatment entry. The TEQ-9 is a valid option for assessing self-determined motivation in clinical practice and evaluating coerced addiction treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining Factors That Influence Donor Motivation among Former Student-Athletes and NCAA DI Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchette, Brett M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors that contribute to the philanthropic decision making of the former NCAA Division I student-athlete. A 47-item survey instrument was modified from a prior study and distributed electronically to 8,461 male and female former student-athletes at three participating NCAA Division I…

  19. Tourism Students’ Motivation Level in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Yayla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is made in order to testing of thoughts about their occupations,  level of motivation and the importance of the industry to determine the attitude of the staff to work in the growing tourism sector of four-year bachelor's degree student’s in the Faculty of Tourism. Faculty of Tourism of Gazi University consist of the study sample and totally 423 students completed the questionnaire. According to the results of the research, majority of the respondents (%84,6 indicated they preferred to the faculty willingly. Data were tested by MANOVA. The motivations factors (self-realization, business opportunities, the appeal, ease of operation, academic achievement, vary according to the sections the participant’s studied, classes, high schools they graduated, order of preference and if they came to the faculties willingly or not. Also motivation level of the department of tourism guiding students and first-grade students of all departments has been determined higher than others.

  20. Toward the development of a motivational model of pain self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Nielson, Warren R; Kerns, Robert D

    2003-11-01

    Adaptive management of chronic pain depends to a large degree on how patients choose to cope with pain and its impact. Consequently, patient motivation is an important factor in determining how well patients learn to manage pain. However, the role of patient motivation in altering coping behavior and maintaining those changes is seldom discussed, and theoretically based research on motivation for pain treatment is lacking. This article reviews theories that have a direct application to understanding motivational issues in pain coping and presents a preliminary motivational model of pain self-management. The implications of this model for enhancing engagement in and adherence to chronic pain treatment programs are then discussed. The article ends with a call for research to better understand motivation as it applies to chronic pain self-management. In particular, there is a need to determine whether (and which) motivation enhancement interventions increase active participation in self-management treatment programs for chronic pain.

  1. Influence of age, sex, and race on college students' exercise motivation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W; Melton, Bridget F; Czech, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. Significant differences were found in 3 of 14 exercise motivational subscales by age (affiliation, health pressures, and ill health avoidance) (p motivated by intrinsic factors (strength, competition, and challenge) (p motivations (p motivations in college-aged population by demographics were documented. Understanding these differences is important for college health professionals for programming strategies and promoting physical activity.

  2. Motivating employees through incentives: productive or a counterproductive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayum, Mehran; Sawal, Shefa Haider; Khan, Hassan Mehmood

    2014-05-01

    The disparity between human resource in health and provision of health services is a growing concern worldwide. Many developing countries are facing this crisis and therefore human resource in health is considered a high priority on their agenda.This imbalance between supplies of human resource is exacerbated by migration of health workers in many countries. Understanding the motivational factor is an important aspect to retain the migrating health workforce. This paper analyses the role of financial and non financial incentives in motivating the health work force. A review of available literature was conducted to understand the role of motivational factor in retaining health workforce. A review of current literature found that an incentive plays a key role in motivating a health worker. Financial incentives are useful in improving the compliance to standard policies and procedures. Comprehensive integrated incentive system approach should be established to develop a sustainable health workforce with required skill. Likewise monetary incentives should be linked to adherence to provincial and national guidelines and procedures. Sustainability could be ensured by commitment of government, political will and involvement of key stakeholders and decision makers.

  3. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, Bongkoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers.

  4. Motives underlying food choice: dentists, porters and dietary health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, M L; Khan, S N

    2001-08-25

    Differences in dental decay and disease amongst socioeconomic groups are thought to derive, in part, from variations in dietary practices and differences in education. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether differences in motivating factors affecting food choice could be found in a comparison of two groups at very different ends of the social spectrum: dentists and porters/cleaners. A convenience sample of 100 people (51 porters/cleaners and 49 dentists) working in the dental school at a university in the North West of England were approached to interview face-to-face and complete the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), a previously validated measure designed to assess nine main factors relevant to peoples' food choices. A sample size of 100 was chosen because it was adequate to test validity (using a two-group Chi-square test with a 0.050 two sided significance). Findings were analysed using independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression. Results indicated significant differences between porters/cleaners and dentists in terms of their motives for food choice on six of the nine FCQ factors. These included convenience (p motivational factors affecting food choice between different social groups is important to dental practitioners who are being taught to play an increasing role in health promotion. If dental practitioners are to partake meaningfully in such a role, it is necessary for them to be aware not only of their own motives in food selection, but also of the way in which those motives may differ from those of their clients.

  5. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, BongKoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Results Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. PMID:20046388

  6. Motivating factors for dual-method contraceptive use among adolescents and young women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Julie; Teal, Stephanie B; Peters, Marissa; Guiahi, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors. We coded transcripts using grounded theory techniques and used an iterative process to develop overarching themes. Dual method contraceptive users primarily discussed pregnancy prevention as their motivating factor. Many expressed anxieties over an unplanned pregnancy and reported condom use as "back-up" contraception. Risk perception for pregnancy or STI acquisition did not necessarily change as relationship trust increased, but rather, their anxiety regarding the negativity of such outcomes decreased. Dual-method contraception use decreased when participants reported that condoms were not readily available, or when they self-described immaturity. Less frequently, participants reported dual method use for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and many substituted STI testing for condom use. Contraceptive type (short-acting vs. long-acting) did not influence reported attitudes towards dual method use. Health educators and clinicians encourage condom use in young women due to the significant morbidity associated with STI acquisition. Most participants in our study view condoms as a way to improve pregnancy prevention. Acknowledging and addressing this divergence in motivation will allow caregivers to improve strategies for communicating the importance of dual method use. Young women primarily describe pregnancy prevention as the reason for dual method use, STI protection is less salient. Consideration of this viewpoint by health educators and clinicians will allow us to communicate more

  7. Motivating Staff, Parents, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh

    Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…

  8. Comparison of Food Choice Motives between Malay Husbands and Wives in an Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, A; Nawalyah, A G; Rokiah, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the motives underlying the selection of foods between husbands and wives in an urban community. Thiscross-sectional study was carried out in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia among 150 married couples aged 20 and above, who voluntarily agreed to participate and were not on any special diet. Data were collected using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) which measured the health-related and non health related factor that influence people's food choices. It consisted of 36 items designed to assess the reported importance of nine factors: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, and ethical concern. In this study, the FCQ was adapted and a new factor, religion (religious guidelines), was included. Demographic characteristics including age, occupation, education, household income and household size were also collected. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Results showed that 40.7% of husbands (mean age= 43.33 + 11.16 years) and 55.3% of wives (mean age= 41.28 + 10.93 years) perceived themselves as the main food shopper while 12.0% of the husbands and 85.3% of the wives perceived themselves as the main meal planner. Husbands rated religion as the most prominent factor in food choice motives with a mean average rating of 4.56 + 0.59 on a 5-point rating scale, followed by health and convenience factor. Meanwhile, the wives rated health as the most essential factor with mean average rating of 4.49 + 0.58, followed by religion and convenience factor. Sensory appeal, ethical concerns and familiarity were rated as the bottom three factors of food choice motives among these two groups. Price of foods was not considered as an important factor in making food choices for the subjects in this study. In conclusion, the husbands and wives of this urban community rated religion, health and convenience as the three most important food choice motives in food selection.

  9. Organizational Communication: Communication and Motivation in The Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Ramadanty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every human activity was basically driven by the motivation. Work motivation was a condition or an energy that directed employees to achieve organizational goals of the company. Nowadays, the development of organizational communication saw the communication as one of the most dominant and important activity in the organization and it could be able to motivate employees. The purpose of this study was to reveal how the role of the communication that occurs within the organization could give the motivation to employee. The problem of the research was the relationship employee motivation with factors of communication, such as nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate. The method used descriptive qualitative method. Methods of data collection of this study were literature study. Research finds that nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate have a significant role to form employee motivation. Nonverbal communication has slightly strong role in shaping the positive motivation to employee. The role includes body communication, facial communication and eye communication. Interpersonal communication leader is based on the satisfaction level of information between management and employees. Management and transparency in openness in downward communication under the form of information from superiors are by listening the communication between supervisors and employees are running smoothly. 

  10. Motivational factors influencing millennials to purchase and consume luxury brands : the influence of actual and ideal self-congruity on brand attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Arminen, Leena

    2017-01-01

    The thesis explores motivational factors that influence young consumers’ brand attitudes towards luxury brands. Former research in this field is rather small-scale and the objective of this research was to provide new insights regarding how different luxury value perceptions affect consumer motivation. Particularly the effects of actual and ideal self-congruity were in central focus of the study in order to find out how and to what extent these factors influence millennial cons...

  11. Motives and career barriers choosing studies in Physics and Mathematics: gender aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona, Augustiene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concepts of professional motivation and career barriers from the gender point of view. The research problem is expressed in the following questions: what personal and socio-cultural factors motivate young people to choose Physics and Mathematics study programmes? Are there significant differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students? The sample consisted of 86 undergraduate students: 45 females and 41 male. Respondents were asked to write down their reflections as a free text answering the question why did they make such a professional choice choosing Physics and Mathematics studies. Motives that influenced the choice of Physics and Mathematics mostly expressed the dimension of self-realization and the dimension of material achievements. It was also found that both personality and social-cultural factors were important in choosing Physics and Mathematics, i.e. sensation of vocation and professional aptitude, as well as encouragement of relatives and good evaluation of future profession’s status. There were also found differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students.

  12. Motivational Factors Affecting Athletes in Selecting the Sport Branches of Athletics, Ski and Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Agar, Muharrem; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the motivational factors affecting athletes to select the branches of athletics, ski and tennis. Within the scope of the research, the survey developed by H. Sunay in 1996 was implemented and solution for the problem of the research was searched through the findings that were obtained from the survey. SPSS…

  13. Computing Educator Attitudes about Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Settle, Amber; Sedlak, Brian

    2016-01-01

    While motivation is of great interest to computing educators, relatively little work has been done on understanding faculty attitudes toward student motivation. Two previous qualitative studies of instructor attitudes found results identical to those from other disciplines, but neither study considered whether instructors perceive student motivation to be more important in certain computing classes. In this work we present quantitative results about the perceived importance of student motivat...

  14. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian judo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.

  15. Impact of dentofacial deformity and motivation for treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Fiona S; Barnard, Matthew; Cunningham, Susan J

    2012-06-01

    Satisfaction with the outcome of orthognathic treatment is generally high; however, an important minority remains dissatisfied with the results. The reasons for this could be inadequate patient understanding and preparation, external motivation, and unrealistic expectations. In-depth appreciation of these issues can be obtained using qualitative research methods, but there is a paucity of qualitative research in this field. This was a cross-sectional qualitative study of orthognathic patients conducted at a teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 prospective orthognathic patients. The data were managed by using the framework approach and analyzed by using the critical qualitative theory. Two main themes were explored in the interviews: the impact of the dentofacial deformity and the motivation for treatment. Both the everyday problems of living with a dentofacial deformity and the motivation for seeking treatment could be classified either as exclusively practical (including functional and structural), exclusively psychological (including psychosocial and esthetic), or a combination. Different coping strategies were also described. The sources of motivation ranged between purely external to purely internal, with most subjects between these 2 extremes. In this article, we present a classification of the impact of dentofacial deformity that is a refinement of the traditional one that includes esthetic, functional, and psychosocial factors. The motivating factors, together with the triggers for accessing treatment and the source of motivation, are generally linked directly or indirectly to the problem and the impact of the condition. However, in a few patients, the motivation might not relate to the impact of the problem but to a complex array of other factors such as personality, upbringing, and relationships. Therefore, clinicians should not make assumptions but explore these factors on an individual basis without preconceived ideas. Copyright

  16. Predicting the Motivation in College-Aged Learning Disabled Students Based on the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Alberto D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…

  17. Motivation and expectancy influences in placebo responding: the mediating role of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Carrie; Svanum, Soren

    2014-12-01

    Drawing upon research in perception and motivation, the current study proposes a motivation-attention model of placebo in which more motivated persons pay greater attention to placebo-related stimuli, directly influencing placebo response. We manipulated both motivation to respond to placebo and expectations of placebo response in a 2 × 2 design. Participants (N = 152) evaluated a series of placebo pheromones (slightly scented water) of potential romantic dates and made desirability ratings. Consistent with hypotheses, more highly motivated participants demonstrated greater placebo responses, as evidenced by higher desirability ratings of the "pheromone" and greater variability among ratings, when compared to less motivated participants. Moreover, the relation between motivation and placebo response was mediated by attention. Contrary to expectations, we found no effect for expectancy. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and the mediating factor of attention in placebo and support goal-oriented models of placebo. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Doctorate Motivation: An (Auto)ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation is considered the dominant factor in the motivation of adult students in continuing postgraduate education. However, the strength of an intrinsic motivation to learn does not explain the phenomenon of dropout where the student withdraws and does not return or where the student withdraws and then recommences their postgraduate…

  19. Nurses' leadership self-efficacy, motivation, and career aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziraki, Karen; Read, Emily; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol

    2018-02-05

    Purpose This paper aims to test a model examining precursors and outcomes of nurses' leadership self-efficacy, and their aspirations to management positions. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey of 727 registered nurses across Canada was conducted. Structural equation modelling using Mplus was used to analyse the data. Findings Results supported the hypothesized model: χ 2 (312) = 949.393; CFI = 0.927; TLI = 0.919; RMSEA = 0.053 (0.049-0.057); SRMR 0.044. Skill development opportunities ( ß = 0.20), temporary management roles ( ß = 0.12) and informal mentoring ( ß = 0.11) were significantly related to nurses' leadership self-efficacy, which significantly influenced motivation to lead ( ß = 0.77) and leadership career aspirations ( ß = 0.23). Motivation to lead was significantly related to leadership career aspirations ( ß = 0.50). Practical implications Nurses' leadership self-efficacy is an important determinant of their motivation and intention to pursue a leadership career. Results suggest that nurses' leadership self-efficacy can be influenced by providing opportunities for leadership mastery experiences and mentorship support. Leadership succession planning should include strategies to enhance nurses' leadership self-efficacy and increase front-line nurses' interest in leadership roles. Originality value With an aging nurse leader workforce, it is important to understand factors influencing nurses' leadership aspirations to develop and sustain nursing leadership capacity. This research study makes an important contribution to the nursing literature by showing that nurses' leadership self-efficacy appears to be an important determinant of their motivation to lead and desire to pursue a career as a nurse leader.

  20. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  1. Design strategies to improve patient motivation during robot-aided rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrozza M Chiara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation is an important factor in rehabilitation and frequently used as a determinant of rehabilitation outcome. Several factors can influence patient motivation and so improve exercise adherence. This paper presents the design of two robot devices for use in the rehabilitation of upper limb movements, that can motivate patients during the execution of the assigned motor tasks by enhancing the gaming aspects of rehabilitation. In addition, a regular review of the obtained performance can reinforce in patients' minds the importance of exercising and encourage them to continue, so improving their motivation and consequently adherence to the program. In view of this, we also developed an evaluation metric that could characterize the rate of improvement and quantify the changes in the obtained performance. Methods Two groups (G1, n = 8 and G2, n = 12 of patients with chronic stroke were enrolled in a 3-week rehabilitation program including standard physical therapy (45 min. daily plus treatment by means of robot devices (40 min., twice daily respectively for wrist (G1 and elbow-shoulder movements (G2. Both groups were evaluated by means of standard clinical assessment scales and the new robot measured evaluation metric. Patients' motivation was assessed in 9/12 G2 patients by means of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI questionnaire. Results Both groups reduced their motor deficit and showed a significant improvement in clinical scales and the robot measured parameters. The IMI assessed in G2 patients showed high scores for interest, usefulness and importance subscales and low values for tension and pain subscales. Conclusion Thanks to the design features of the two robot devices the therapist could easily adapt training to the individual by selecting different difficulty levels of the motor task tailored to each patient's disability. The gaming aspects incorporated in the two rehabilitation robots helped maintain

  2. Investigating the motives of patients with knee OA undergoing a TKR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traumer, Line; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Kusk, Kathrine Hoffmann

    2018-01-01

    , a qualitatively assessment of what actually affects the patient's decision to undergo TKR would be important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the motives of patients with knee OA choosing to undergo TKR and to explore the factors considered important during their decision?making process...... was a legitimate argument among patients. The prospect of avoiding taking high doses of pain?relieving medication and hearing positive experiences of others who had undergone TKR motivated patients to undergo TKR. However, negative experiences of others were neglected. Conclusions Patients' decision?making process...... revealed that the interaction between doctor and patient emerged as a factor highly influential on patients' decision?making process with patients choosing the treatment option suggested by the doctor. Using x?rays, revealing no cartilage between the bones, as a reason for choosing to undergo TKR...

  3. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Self-determined motivation and exercise behaviour in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hui-Ling; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lin, Ming-Shian; Hsu, Wan-Chun; Lee, Chi-Pin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-determined motivation predictors of exercise behaviour following pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD recipients. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 135 COPD patients. A demographic questionnaire, clinical factors, behavioural regulations in exercise questionnaire, and leisure time exercise questionnaire were used to collect data. A logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors associated with demographics and self-determined motivation types regarding physical activity. Education level, episodes of acute exacerbation within 2 years, and identified regulation were significant predictors of executing physical activities with high metabolic equivalents. The results of this study imply that healthcare providers need to be aware of the importance of exercise motivation among COPD patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Factors Influencing Facebook Usage and Facebook Addictive Tendency in University Students: The Role of Online Psychological Privacy and Facebook Usage Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2016-04-01

    There are few studies analysing the influence of personal traits and motivation factors on Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency as seen in university students. In this study, 225 Taiwanese university students completed a questionnaire to determine their online psychological privacy scale, Facebook usage motivation scale, Facebook usage scale and Facebook addictive tendency scale, in order to evaluate the items that can be conceptualized as the effect of university students' online psychological privacy personal trait and motive factors, and Facebook usage motivation with respect to Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for more online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook and more Facebook usage behaviour among university students who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for or an acceptance of a lower online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook among university students who may have more Facebook usage behaviour. This study can help understand university students' Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency and provide feature indicators for those who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. Finally, this study conducts discussion and proposes relevant suggestions for future study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  7. Motives for Volunteering: Categorization of Volunteers' Motivations Using Open-ended Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chacón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of volunteers’ motivations use standardized questionnaires with one of the most commonly-used being the Volunteer Function Inventory. Open-ended questions about what drives individuals to be volunteers are seldom used. We hypothesize that questionnaires tend to overestimate the number of motivations and to underestimate their variety. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the answers of 1515 volunteers to an open-ended question and categorize these answers. Results show that volunteers give an average of 2 motivations, fewer than the questionnaires, and that the Value motivation is the most frequently mentioned and the most important for volunteers. In addition, this motivation coexists with other motivations, which are lacking in the standard questionnaires, such as Organizational Commitment, Personal Development, Religiosity, Social Change or Interest in the Activity.

  8. Second-year medical students' motivational beliefs, emotions, and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; La Rochelle, Jeffery S; Durning, Steven J

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for medical educators is to better understand the personal factors that lead to individual success in medical school and beyond. Recently, educational researchers in fields outside medicine have acknowledged the importance of motivation and emotion in students' learning and performance. These affective factors have received less emphasis in the medical education literature. This longitudinal study examined the relations between medical students' motivational beliefs (task value and self-efficacy), achievement emotions (enjoyment, anxiety and boredom) and academic achievement. Second-year medical students (n=136) completed motivational beliefs and achievement emotions surveys following their first and second trimesters, respectively. Academic achievement was operationalised as students' average course examination grades and national board shelf examination scores. The results largely confirmed the hypothesised relations between beliefs, emotions and achievement. Structural equation modelling revealed that task value beliefs were positively associated with course-related enjoyment (standardised regression coefficient [β] = 0.59) and were negatively related to boredom (β= -0.25), whereas self-efficacy beliefs were negatively associated with course-related anxiety only (β = -0.47). Furthermore, student enjoyment was positively associated with national board shelf examination score (β = 0.31), whereas anxiety and boredom were both negatively related to course examination grade (β= -0.36 and -0.27, respectively). The overall structural model accounted for considerable variance in each of the achievement outcomes: R(2) = 0.20 and 0.14 for the course examination grade and national board shelf examination score, respectively. This study suggests that medical students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions are important contributors to their academic achievement. These results have implications for medical educators striving to understand the

  9. Motivational decline and recovery in higher education STEM courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anna M.; Wendel, Paul J.; Esson, Joan M.; Plank, Kathryn M.

    2018-06-01

    Decline in student motivation is a concern for STEM education, especially for underrepresented groups in the sciences. Using the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, 41 foundational STEM courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of each semester in an academic year at a small primarily undergraduate university. Significant pre- to post-semester declines were observed in each of five measured motivational factors (Intrinsic motivation, Career motivation, Self determination, Self-efficacy, and Grade motivation), with effect sizes ranging from 0.21 to 0.41. However, in the second semester pre-survey, four motivational factors rebounded, including three returning to initial levels, suggesting that the observed motivational decline is not long-lasting. Analysis suggests that declines are not related to survey fatigue or student demographics, but rather to grades and, in the case of one motivational factor, to academic field. These findings suggest that a refocus on grading practices across STEM fields may influence student motivation and persistence in STEM.

  10. Sleep difficulties and alcohol use motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishith, P; Resick, P A; Mueser, K T

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between sleep difficulties and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrated that neither PTSD symptoms nor depression were related to any motives for using alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep difficulties were significantly related to drinking motives for coping with negative affect, but not pleasure enhancement or socialization. The findings suggest that sleep difficulties may be an important factor contributing to alcohol use in rape victims with PTSD.

  11. Intrinsic - external sport motivation as regards sex gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mroczkowska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of the two dependencies. First of all, examining if the self-evaluation of athlete’s sport predisposition has some connection with an internal or external motivation. Secondly, checking if so called “male” motives oscillate around needs of winning and gaining some social position and “female” around an affiliation and personal development. The research was conducted on a group of fencers (W-29; M-41; aged from ~6 to ~18 years old using the self-evaluation scale (estimation of sport predisposition, effort and abilities and the 7 factors SRM scale (Sport Rivalry Motives. Generally, the research showed that interior motives of the sport practice are more important for athletes, regardless of the sex. However, this regularity characterized more girls who turned to be significantly stronger motivated by internal enforcements than boys. Motives of affiliation and self-development are valued equally high and motive of the financial gratification equally low by both sexes. The crucial differentiation of boys and girls was seen as considering the valuation of the possibility of the stress release and joy of motion (appreciated more by girls and the possibility of winning and gaining social appreciation (regarded higher by boys. Thus the expectation that higher self-esteem is connected with the exterior motivation did not confirm. Girls, despite of their significantly lower self-evaluation of the sport predisposition are more strongly motivated by the internal enforcements than boys are.

  12. What Do Distance Language Tutors Say about Teacher Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the study…