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Sample records for implikation fur dieendenergieeffizienzrichtlinie

  1. The global fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2014-01-01

    with regards to the fur sector, and the price of fur is volatile in the short and long run. A new world trade pattern and international specialization have emerged in recent years. The comparative advantages of the fur sector change along the fur value chain, while China’s position on the global fur market has...... and international statistics about the fur sector. This article analyzes the production and international trade in fur based on information from official statistics, trade associations, companies, scientific papers and reports, interviews with experts, etc.. Markets and market conditions play a very important role...

  2. Fur seal investigations, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annually a report is made on the fur seal investigations carried on by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries on the Pribilof Islands and at sea. Investigations on the...

  3. Fur and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Ræbild, Ulla; Tanderup, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    interviews and observations at the premises of Kopenhagen Fur, as well as with stakeholders and collaborate partners in Denmark and in China. The definition of sustainability in the report must be seen as related to Design School Kolding's research umbrella of Sustainable Futures - a term chosen to unite...... of operationalizing shared memory in relation to issues of fur and sustainability (by Sisse Tanderup, PhD in art history) • a perspective on material processing that point towards ways of promoting and communicating best practices of i.e. dressing and dying of raw skin (by Karen Marie Hasling, PhD in textile...... engineering) • a perspective on design processes within the fur sector that point towards traditional and potentially future practices for designing more sustainably (by Ulla Ræbild, PhD in design research) • a perspective on user experiences of fur garment that point towards potentials for more sustainable...

  4. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be stated...

  5. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export...... of raw fur skin from Europe to Asia, and a major export of fur garments from Asia to Europe including Russia. The conclusion is, that there is a major international trade of both fur skin and fur garments between Europe and Asia, and that the international specialization in this sector is high....

  6. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...

  7. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... misbranding and false advertising of fur products, and requires labeling of most fur products. 15 U.S.C. 69 et... advertising fur products. 16 CFR 301.38. Finally, to assist the Commission in enforcing these requirements... advertising of fur products, if any, are not covered by the Rules? (a) What evidence demonstrates the...

  8. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  9. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  10. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  11. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international...

  12. COMPOSITION OF SPATIAL FORMS OF FUR GARMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fact that the composition of fur models has significant importance for the customers, surpassing even the importance of quality and comfort clothing for the consumers. It systematizes features of the compositional solutions of fur garments, determining the integrity of the image and the artistic unity of structure components. It describes methods of combining different types of fur and various textile materials in one product, as well as types of decorative finishes. It shows the influence of different height of hair, color and texture of fur on visual and tactile perception of spatial forms and appearance of fur. The subordination of the constituent parts of form, rhythm of expressive elements and the presence of asymmetry details give a dynamic composition solution of fur garments. To improve the aesthetic properties and enhance consumer value, a composition of fur garment should be holistic, proportionate, harmonious in color and texture of the fur, of decorative trim, with the rhythmic arrangement of parts. The composition of the external forms of fur clothing takes into account visual and tactile features of fur, a variety of design cut, ensures the artistic expression of clothing

  13. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  14. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs with different countries of origin the names of such countries shall be set forth in the required information in... countries of origin. 301.13 Section 301.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS...

  15. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of the animal producing a fur shall be used directly or indirectly in labeling, invoicing or advertising furs or...

  16. Pet fur color and texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  17. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant.

  18. The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porwollik Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s and its isogenic Δfur strain under anaerobic conditions. Results Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown Δfur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD. The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in Δfur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in Δfur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO· detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns was increased in Δfur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in Δfur. Conclusions This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftn

  19. Fur Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Muscatatuck NWR Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The plan provides a description of the Refuge, describes the relation of...

  20. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  1. MEANS OF SHAPING AND FORMSERIALIZE IN MODERN FUR CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we perform an analysis of the means of shaping and formserialize in fur clothes taken in the production of domestic and foreign fur companies. The spatial form of fur garments is solved, in the main, constructive. The type, direction and amount of articulation were determined by the design of the product and the properties of the fur: the height of the hairline, the size of fur semi-finished product. The proposed positioning of the shaping of articulation in fur clothes has to be performed in the environment of 3D CAD. It is established that in modern models of the silhouette of a fur product may be formed not only by design divisions but also by a combination of the product of different types of fur. We have performed studies on the use of funds of formation in models of industrial collections fur coat 2015-16 presented on the trading spots of Moscow. We have conducted a monitoring of consumer preferences on the types of fur among women and determined the causes of loss of fur, clothing of spatial forms under adverse conditions of wearing. We have also proposed innovative means of formserialize in a fur garment of solid and perforated fur

  2. Basic fur management plan : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fur management plan for Stillwater Wildlife Management Area outlines methods of fur harvest, trapping territories, selection of trappers, trapping equipment,...

  3. 76 FR 72132 - Regulations Under The Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Guide; (2) the presence in the fur product of any used, bleached, dyed, or otherwise artificially... Commission to maintain ``a register setting forth the names of hair, fleece, and fur-bearing animals.'' \\9...

  4. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the fur product is to be labeled, invoiced and advertised in accordance with the requirements of the... fur product; (2) If any false, deceptive, or misleading representations as to the fur contained in the... advertising without disclosing: (i) In the case of labels, the information required to be disclosed under...

  5. Apo and Iron Bound Fur Repression and the Role of Fur in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    Results from this study showed that Campylobacter jejuni, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae Fur...1994. Analysis of the complexity of gene regulation by fur in Vibrio cholerae . J Bacteriol 176:240-8. 134. Liu, H., D. S. Merrell, C. Semino-Mora, M...Payne. 2005. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae RyhB: the RyhB regulon and role of ryhB in biofilm formation. Infect Immun 73:5706-19. 157. Miller, C

  6. Investigating Fur as Mediator of Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Ræbild, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds on two sub-projects conducted under the framework of a larger research programme called Fur and Sustainability – a Design Perspective. From 2014-16, we (Skjold et al 2016) took part in the programme which was part of a larger partnership agreement between Design School Kolding (...

  7. Fur-mediated global regulatory circuits in pathogenic Neisseria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-12-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has been shown to function as a repressor of transcription in a number of diverse microorganisms. However, recent studies have established that Fur can function at a global level as both an activator and a repressor of transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Fur-mediated indirect activation occurs via the repression of additional repressor proteins, or small regulatory RNAs, thereby activating transcription of a previously silent gene. Fur mediates direct activation through binding of Fur to the promoter regions of genes. Whereas the repressive mechanism of Fur has been thoroughly investigated, emerging studies on direct and indirect Fur-mediated activation mechanisms have revealed novel global regulatory circuits.

  8. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  9. Effect of wind on Svalbard reindeer fur insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer through Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus fur samples was studied with respect to wind velocity, season and animal age. A total of 33 dorsal fur sections were investigated using a wind tunnel. Insulation varied with season (calving, summer, autumn and winter. At zero wind velocity, fur insulation was significantly different between seasons for both calf and adult fur samples. At the same time, there was no significant difference between calf and adult insulation for the summer, autumn and winter seasons. Calf fur insulated as well as adult fur. Winter insulation of Svalbard reindeer was approximately 3 times that of summer. Increasing wind veloci¬ty increased heat loss, however, the increase was not dramatic. When wind coefficients (slope of the heat transfer regression lines were compared, between season and between calf and adult, no significant differences were reported. All fur samples showed similar increases in heat transfer for wind velocities between 0 and 10 m.s-1. The conductance of winter fur of Svalbard reindeer was almost half that of caribou fur. Also, conductance was not as greatly influenced by wind as caribou fur

  10. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  11. Fur animal botulism hazard due to feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykoski, J; Lindström, M; Bekema, E; Pölönen, I; Korkeala, H

    2011-06-01

    To assess the botulism hazard in fur animal feed production, 236 fur animal feed components and feed samples were analysed for Clostridium botulinum by detecting BoNT-encoding genes (botA, botB, botC, botE or botF) by PCR and for sulphite-reducing clostridia (SRC) by iron sulphite agar. The quality of the hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) -based in-house control system (IHCS) was evaluated with respect to botulism risk in feed plants (n=32). The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 13% in different feed components and 5% in feed. The estimated MPN count of C. botulinum in feed components was 6.4 × 10(3)/kg at the highest and was shown to poorly correlate with SRC count. The critical control points in IHCSs were variable, and control limits were improperly set in most feed-producing plants. C. botulinum possesses a persistent safety hazard for fur animals by feed production, and control practices should be reassessed.

  12. Construction of a fur null mutant and RNA-sequencing provide deeper global understanding of the Aliivibrio salmonicida Fur regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunniva Katharina Thode

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a transcription factor and the main regulator of iron acquisition in prokaryotes. When bound to ferric iron, Fur recognizes its DNA binding site and generally executes its function by repressing transcription of its target genes. Due to its importance in virulence, the Fur regulon is well studied for several model bacteria. In our previous work, we used computational predictions and microarray to gain insights into Fur-regulation in Aliivibrio salmonicida, and have identified a number of genes and operons that appear to be under direct control of Fur. To provide a more accurate and deeper global understanding of the biological role of Fur we have now generated an A. salmonicida fur knock-out strain and used RNA-sequencing to compare gene expression between the wild-type and fur null mutant strains. Results An A. salmonicida fur null mutant strain was constructed. Biological assays demonstrate that deletion of fur results in loss of fitness, with reduced growth rates, and reduced abilities to withstand low-iron conditions, and oxidative stress. When comparing expression levels in the wild-type and the fur null mutant we retrieved 296 differentially expressed genes distributed among 18 of 21 functional classes of genes. A gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the siderophore bisucaberin represented the highest up-regulated genes in the fur null mutant. Other highly up-regulated genes all encode proteins important for iron acquisition. Potential targets for the RyhB sRNA was predicted from the list of down-regulated genes, and significant complementarities were found between RyhB and mRNAs of the fur, sodB, cysN and VSAL_I0422 genes. Other sRNAs with potential functions in iron homeostasis were identified. Conclusion The present work provides by far the most comprehensive and deepest understanding of the Fur regulon in A. salmonicida to date. Our data also contribute to a better understanding of how

  13. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    Mink is a production animal breed for the fur. Both quality and quantity of the produced skin are important for the producer. In these analyses both fur quality traits, such as structure of guard hair and wool, which determines the quality of the skin, and litter size which determines the quantity...

  14. Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms.

  15. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly or... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs....

  16. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    Mink is a production animal breed for the fur. Both quality and quantity of the produced skin are important for the producer. In these analyses both fur quality traits, such as structure of guard hair and wool, which determines the quality of the skin, and litter size which determines the quantity...... of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...... these production traits...

  17. Entwicklung eines Gasmoderators f\\"ur Positronen

    CERN Document Server

    Löwe, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    (Translated Title: Development of a positron gas moderator) In this work a positron moderator that is based on inelastic positron scattering in nitrogen gas has been developed and set-up. A positron beam enters a gas cell through a small aperture. In the cell the positrons lose kinetic energy through collisions with the nitrogen molecules. By means of an electric field the positrons are then focused towards an exit where their kinetic energy is analysed. During measurements at the NEPOMUC beam moderated positrons could be observed. ----- Im Rahmen dieser Diplomarbeit wurde das Konzept eines Moderators f\\"ur Positronen untersucht, welches auf der Abbremsung und dem Drift von Positronen in gasf\\"ormigem Stickstoff beruht. Dazu wurde ein Versuchsaufbau konstruiert, aufgebaut und in Betrieb genommen. Ein Positronenstrahl wird durch eine kleine Blende in eine Gaszelle eingekoppelt, dort durch St\\"o{\\ss}e mit den Gasmolek\\"ulen abgebremst, durch ein elektrisches Feld auf den Ausgang fokussiert und dahinter analysie...

  18. Utility of fur as a biomarker for persistent organic pollutants in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shannon; Lynch, Michael; Terkildsen, Michael; Stevenson, Gavin; Yates, Alan; Piro, Nino; de Araujo, Jesuina; Gray, Rachael

    2017-08-25

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can cause toxic effects in many species which include endocrine dysfunction, immunotoxicity, developmental defects and neoplasia. Species dominating the upper trophic level are vulnerable to these effects due to bioaccumulation. In Bass Strait, the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) is an important top order predator and sentinel species for ecosystem health. An alopecia syndrome is seen at high prevalence in juvenile, female Australian fur seals at Lady Julia Percy Island, Victoria, Australia. Previous investigations suggest causality could be due to an endocrine-like toxicant. The alopecia syndrome has significance for thermoregulation and is a likely risk factor for mortality. Fur collected from case (alopecic) and control (unaffected) seals sampled at Lady Julia Percy Island were analysed for POPs. To investigate the utility of fur for monitoring POPs concentrations in pinnipeds, a comparison of POPs concentrations in the fur and blubber of Australian fur seals stranded along the Victorian coast was undertaken. The concentration of selected POPs including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOS/PFOA) were determined in fur using either High Resolution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry or Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Results indicate detectable, and in some individuals, elevated levels of dl-PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in juvenile fur seals sampled on Lady Julia Percy Island, with significantly higher levels of dl-PCBs in case compared to control seals. Elevated levels of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs were found in blubber samples collected from stranded fur seals with significant correlations between blubber and fur concentrations seen, particularly for dl-PCBs. This study discusses the significance of POPs concentrations in relation to

  19. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  20. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... versus carnivore) and gait (clumsy versus ``often very swift'').\\57\\ \\55\\ NRF at 4. FICA similarly... Federated Department Stores and Lord & Taylor no longer sell the furs made from the animal because consumers...

  1. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1968-69

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines refuge goals for the fur trapping season of 1968-69. The goal is to reduce muskrat populations in order to preserve refuge marshes, thus enhancing...

  2. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1966-67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines refuge goals for the fur trapping season of 1966. The goal is to reduce muskrat populations in order to preserve refuge marshes, thus enhancing...

  3. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1976-77

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines the current status, objectives, methods and trapping dates for each of the four impoundments at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge where fur...

  4. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  5. Amendment I : Basic fur management plan : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the fur management plan for Stillwater Wildlife Management area calls for the annual trapping of beaver. The Lower Carson River is overpopulated...

  6. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  7. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  8. Stress-induced Cushing's syndrome in fur-chewing chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisljar, Marina; Janić, D; Grabarević, Z; Simpraga, Borka; Marinculić, A; Pinter, Ljiljana; Janicki, Z; Nemanic, Ankica

    2002-01-01

    One of the most serious problems in the chinchilla industry is 'fur-chewing', when the chinchilla bites off areas of its own or some other animal's fur. The condition generally develops in both genders at the age of 6-8 months. In chinchilla farms in Croatia an incidence of 15-20% has been observed. A pathomorphological, microbiological and parasitological investigation was conducted on eleven 6- to 11-month-old chinchillas of both sexes with clinical symptoms of 'fur-chewing' and three chinchillas without such signs. Histopathology of the adrenal glands and of the chewed skin revealed changes typical of Cushing's syndrome in 'fur-chewed' chinchillas, such as hyperkeratinisation of the epidermis, epidermal atrophy, pronounced follicular and sebaceous gland atrophy, hyperkeratinisation of the follicles with comedo formations and the presence of calcium salts in subcutis.

  9. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Benton Lake NWR Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  10. Fur is a repressor of biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjun Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis synthesizes the attached biofilms in the flea proventriculus, which is important for the transmission of this pathogen by fleas. The hmsHFRS operons is responsible for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (the major component of biofilm matrix, which is activated by the signaling molecule 3', 5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP synthesized by the only two diguanylate cyclases HmsT, and YPO0449 (located in a putative operonYPO0450-0448. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The phenotypic assays indicated that the transcriptional regulator Fur inhibited the Y. pestis biofilm production in vitro and on nematode. Two distinct Fur box-like sequences were predicted within the promoter-proximal region of hmsT, suggesting that hmsT might be a direct Fur target. The subsequent primer extension, LacZ fusion, electrophoretic mobility shift, and DNase I footprinting assays disclosed that Fur specifically bound to the hmsT promoter-proximal region for repressing the hmsT transcription. In contrast, Fur had no regulatory effect on hmsHFRS and YPO0450-0448 at the transcriptional level. The detection of intracellular c-di-GMP levels revealed that Fur inhibited the c-di-GMP production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Y. pestis Fur inhibits the c-di-GMP production through directly repressing the transcription of hmsT, and thus it acts as a repressor of biofilm formation. Since the relevant genetic contents for fur, hmsT, hmsHFRS, and YPO0450-0448 are extremely conserved between Y. pestis and typical Y. pseudotuberculosis, the above regulatory mechanisms can be applied to Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  11. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  12. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Liu

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv, we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  13. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the construction of fur products shall be used directly or indirectly in labeling, invoicing or advertising such..., invoices and advertising. ...

  14. Quaternary Structure of Fur Proteins, a New Subfamily of Tetrameric Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérard, Julien; Covès, Jacques; Castellan, Mathieu; Solard, Charles; Savard, Myriam; Miras, Roger; Galop, Sandra; Signor, Luca; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; de Rosny, Eve

    2016-03-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) belongs to the family of the DNA-binding metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. Fur is a global regulator found in all proteobacteria. It controls the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in iron metabolism but also in oxidative stress or virulence factor synthesis. When bound to ferrous iron, Fur can bind to specific DNA sequences, called Fur boxes. This binding triggers the repression or the activation of gene expression, depending on the regulated genes. As a general view, Fur proteins are considered to be dimeric proteins both in solution and when bound to DNA. In this study, we have purified Fur from four pathogenic strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Legionella pneumophila) and compared them to Fur from Escherichia coli (EcFur), the best characterized of this family. By using a series of "in solution" techniques, including multiangle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as cross-linking experiments, we have shown that the Fur proteins can be classified into two groups, according to their quaternary structure. The group of dimers is represented by EcFur and YpFur and the group of very stable tetramers by PaFur, FtFur, and LpFur. Using PaFur as a case study, we also showed that the dissociation of the tetramers into dimers is necessary for binding of Fur to DNA, and that this dissociation requires the combined effect of metal ion binding and DNA proximity.

  15. Expression of the gonococcal global regulatory protein Fur and genes encompassing the Fur and iron regulon during in vitro and in vivo infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sarika; Sebastian, Shite; Szmigielski, Borys; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2008-05-01

    The ferric uptake regulatory protein, Fur, functions as a global regulatory protein of gene transcription in the mucosal pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We have shown previously that several N. gonorrhoeae Fur-repressed genes are expressed in vivo during mucosal gonococcal infection in men, which suggests that this organism infects in an iron-limited environment and that Fur is expressed under these conditions. In this study we have demonstrated expression of the gonococcal fur gene in vitro, in human cervical epithelial cells, and in specimens from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection. In vitro studies confirmed that the expression of the gonococcal fur gene was repressed during growth under iron-replete growth conditions but that a basal level of the protein was maintained. Using GFP transcriptional fusions constructed from specific Fur binding sequences within the fur promoter/operator region, we determined that this operator region was functional during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Furthermore, reverse transcription-PCR analysis, as well as microarray analysis, using a custom Neisseria Fur and iron regulon microarray revealed that several Fur- and iron-regulated genes were expressed during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Microarray analysis of specimens obtained from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection corroborated our in vitro findings and point toward a key role of gonococcal Fur- and iron-regulated genes in gonococcal disease.

  16. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS....24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  17. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

  18. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported... products made from furs imported into the United States from a foreign country, the country of origin of... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs....

  19. Role of a Fur homolog in iron metabolism in Nitrosomonas europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottomley Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to environmental iron concentrations, many bacteria coordinately regulate transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition via the ferric uptake regulation (Fur system. The genome of Nitrosomonas europaea, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, carries three genes (NE0616, NE0730 and NE1722 encoding proteins belonging to Fur family. Results Of the three N. europaea fur homologs, only the Fur homolog encoded by gene NE0616 complemented the Escherichia coli H1780 fur mutant. A N. europaea fur:kanP mutant strain was created by insertion of kanamycin-resistance cassette in the promoter region of NE0616 fur homolog. The total cellular iron contents of the fur:kanP mutant strain increased by 1.5-fold compared to wild type when grown in Fe-replete media. Relative to the wild type, the fur:kanP mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to iron at or above 500 μM concentrations. Unlike the wild type, the fur:kanP mutant was capable of utilizing iron-bound ferrioxamine without any lag phase and showed over expression of several outer membrane TonB-dependent receptor proteins irrespective of Fe availability. Conclusions Our studies have clearly indicated a role in Fe regulation by the Fur protein encoded by N. europaea NE0616 gene. Additional studies are required to fully delineate role of this fur homolog.

  20. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem;

    2014-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response...

  1. Joint competition – the world dominance of Danish fur production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2010-01-01

    the challenges of a globalised, knowledge-based economy because they are known to have deeper specialization, which in turn is seen as a prerequisite for constructing comparative advantages and industrial strongholds. The paper takes the point of departure in the Danish fur production and an agglomeration....... Moreover, there is an extensive division of labour on an industry level concerning sorting furs, slaughtering, sales, etc. Several links in the value chain is thus covered in a vertical integration. Although innovation is limited on an organisational level the cooperative organisation and governance...

  2. Trends in price and productivity in the fur sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Price and productivity are two important competitive factors for the fur skin production worldwide. In the paper it is demonstrated that there are significant long-term trends towards increasing productivity and decreasing price ratios. The trend follows the same pattern as for other agricultural...... in the long term. The terms of trade - the ratio between output and input prices - is also unstable but with a clear negative long-term trend. The developments in prices and productivity cause high demands on management both on individual fur farms and further down the value chain....

  3. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePelliciari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress.Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur towards apo-operators, while the binding towards holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur towards the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to

  4. Katheterablation von Vorhofflimmern: Pulmonalvenen-Anatomie und interventionelle Implikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lickfett L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Ablationstherapie der Pulmonalvenen (PV hat nicht nur die Behandlungsoptionen von Vorhofflimmern, sondern auch das pathophysiologische Verständnis dieser überaus wichtigen Herzrhythmusstörung wesentlich erweitert. Die morphologische Erforschung der PV in vivo wurde erst durch moderne Bildgebungstechniken wie Magnetresonanztomographie und Computertomographie ermöglicht. Mit diesen Methoden wurden die normale Anatomie der PV definiert und ihre Varianten wie zusätzliche rechtsseitige mittlere PV, gemeinsames Ostium der linksseitigen PV, rechtsseitige Spitzen-PV und gemeinsames Ostium der inferioren PV beschrieben. Weitere Informationen mit wichtigen Implikationen für die Katheterablation von Vorhofflimmern betreffen die Unterschiede in Form, Größe und Verästelungsmuster der 4 PV.

  5. Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.; Yang, Zamin K.; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2007-09-21

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.

  6. FurA from Anabaena PCC 7120: New insights on its regulation and the interaction with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J. A.; López-Gomollón, S.; Pellicer, S.; Martín, B.; Sevilla, E.; Bes, M. T.; Peleato, M. L.; Fillat, M. F.

    2006-08-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) proteins are global regulatory proteins involved in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. They recognize specific DNA sequences denoted iron boxes. It is assumed that Fur proteins act as classical repressors. Under iron-rich conditions, Fur dimers complexed with ferrous ions bind to iron boxes, preventing transcription. In addition to iron homeostasis, Fur proteins control the concerted response to oxidative and acidic stresses in heterotrophic prokaryotes. Our group studies the interaction between Fur proteins and target DNA sequences. Moreover, the regulation of FurA in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, whose genome codes for three fur homologues has been investigated. We present an overview about the different factors involved in the regulation of FurA and analyze the parameters that influence FurA-DNA interaction in the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120.

  7. Joint competition – the world dominance of Danish fur production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2010-01-01

    the challenges of a globalised, knowledge-based economy because they are known to have deeper specialization, which in turn is seen as a prerequisite for constructing comparative advantages and industrial strongholds. The paper takes the point of departure in the Danish fur production and an agglomeration...... of the industry as such is an important factor in explaining the ability of Danish producers to remain competitive....

  8. Novel Insights into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    infection leads to the development of IDA. For example, in a murine infection model, H. pylori diminishes host iron stores, as measured by serum ferritin ...this essential nutrient from the host. Once inside the bacterial cell, the majority of free iron is stored in a prokaryotic ferritin molecule, Pfr...stronger or more complete repression in conditions where high concentrations of iron are present in the cell. The third Fur binding site (box III) is

  9. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Fur Regulon▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Lydgia A.; Ducey, Thomas F.; Day, Michael W.; Zaitshik, Jeremy B.; Orvis, Joshua; Dyer, David W.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure survival in the host, bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire the essential element iron. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the ferric uptake regulator Fur regulates metabolism through transcriptional control of iron-responsive genes by binding conserved Fur box (FB) sequences in promoters during iron-replete growth. Our previous studies showed that Fur also controls the transcription of secondary regulators that may, in turn, control pathways important to pathogenesis, indicating an in...

  10. Characterization of the Shewanella oneidensis Fur gene: roles in iron and acid tolerance response

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Liyou; Luo Feng; Harris Daniel P; Yang Yunfeng; Parsons Andrea B; Palumbo Anthony V; Zhou Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Iron homeostasis is a key metabolism for most organisms. In many bacterial species, coordinate regulation of iron homeostasis depends on the protein product of a Fur gene. Fur also plays roles in virulence, acid tolerance, redox-stress responses, flagella chemotaxis and metabolic pathways. Results We conducted physiological and transcriptomic studies to characterize Fur in Shewanella oneidensis, with regard to its roles in iron and acid tolerance response. A S. oneidensisf...

  11. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    Full Text Available In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria.

  12. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  13. Proceeding of the Xth International Scientific Congress in fur animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    wade on all genotyped mink by Kopenhagen Fur. The QTL analyses were performed by least square regression implemented in the software Grid QTL. Evidence was found for QTL for the fur quality on eight autosomal chromosomes (LOD score >3.0). QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2...

  14. Social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, H; Petit, O; Deneubourg, J-L

    2008-02-01

    In their natural environment, capuchins select certain plants, containing secondary compounds with bactericide, insecticide or fungicide properties, to rub their pelage energetically (i.e. fur rubbing). Fur rubbing can be performed in solitary, or collectively in subgroups of variable size and composition, and most of the time fur rubbing happens in synchrony with other group members. The aim of this study is to understand the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, and, more particularly, to determine the processes involved in its synchronization. For this purpose, we designed a set of experiments where white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) were presented with onions (Allium cepa) that they use to fur rub. We conducted a detailed kinetic study of fur rubbing behavior to determine if its synchronization is the consequence of simultaneous responses of different individuals to the same stimulus or if, on the contrary, there is a real collective phenomenon where individuals respond to conspecific behavior. Our results reveal that fur rubbing is a collective behavior with a mimetic underlying mechanism. If fur rubbing with onions (a plant with antifungal and repellent properties) allows capuchins to treat their fur against parasites or pathogens, its synchronization would optimize the treatment by acting as a group barrier to ectoparasite propagation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and appear upon each garment or separate article of wearing apparel subject to the act irrespective of whether two...

  16. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products Labeling Act, and Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, where it appears to the Commission that it...

  17. Gene Expression Profiling Analysis Reveals Fur Development in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bohao; Chen, Yang; Yan, Xiaorong; Hao, Ye; Zhu, Jie; Weng, Qiiaoqing; Wu, Xinsheng

    2017-08-29

    Fur is an important economic trait in rabbits. The identification of genes that influence fur development and knowledge regarding the actions of these genes provides useful tools for improving fur quality. However, the mechanism of fur development is unclear. To obtain candidate genes related to fur development, the transcriptomes of tissues from backs and bellies of Chinchilla rex rabbits were compared. Of the genes analyzed, 336 showed altered expression in the two groups (285 upregulated and 51 downregulated), P≤0.05, fold-change≥2 or ≤0.5). Using GO and KEGG to obtain gene classes that were differentially enriched, we found several genes to be involved in many important biological processes. In addition, we identified several signaling pathways involved in fur development, including the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, revealing mechanisms of skin and hair follicle development, and epidermal cell and keratinocytes differentiation. The obtained rabbit transcriptome and differentially expressed gene profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information for SFRP2, FRZB, CACNG1, SLC25A4 and SLC16A3. To validate the RNA-seq data, the expression levels of eight differentially expressed genes involved in fur development were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of rabbit transcriptomic profiling provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of fur development.

  18. Entanglements of Consumption, Cruelty, Privacy, and Fashion: The Social Controversy over Fur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kathryn M.; Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Posits a critical approach to the study of contemporary social controversy. Examines objectives to the use of fur as oppositional argument, rhetoric that veers from the goal of persuasion to block conventional associations and refashion communication norms. Shows how pro-fur responses illustrate strategies available to bolster, alter, or abandon…

  19. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  20. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The ferric uptake regulator (Fur family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur, Zn (Zur, and peroxide (PerR. Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 in addition to Fur (BL05249, Zur (BL03703, and PerR (BL00075 homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 as well as PerRBL (BL00075, but not FurBL (BL05249 and ZurBL (BL03703, can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690 has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.

  1. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  2. On the identity of the three young fur seals (genus Arctocephalus) stranded in New Caledonia (Mammalia, Pinnipedia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, Judith E.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972 and 1973 a total of three young fur seals was stranded in New Caledonia, much further north than any fur seal normally occurs. Comparison of the skulls of these young animals with similar sized skulls of young fur seals from Australia (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) and New Zealand (Arcto

  3. RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF ECOLOGIC FURS OBTAINED BY TUFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan – Pavel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles are goods obtained by methods other than the classic spinning, weaving and knitting. They are manufactured by mechanically or chemically reinforcing a fabric consisting of fiber layers or a combination of fiber, weaving, yarn or textile layers. Also, unconventional textiles can be obtained by mechanically or chemically reinforcing a yarn pattern or multiple yarn patterns. The tendency of the industry to increase production of synthetic fibers în comparison to natural fibers is also visible în the field of unconventional textiles. Additionally, there is more and more emphasis on using fibers recovered from recycled materials and products which resulted from a classic textile manufacturing process. A TUFTING product is made from a backing fabric, usually cloth, reinforced with yarn introduced through the fabric in loops spaced equally relative to the stitches, and raised at the ends. The fur substitutes can also be obtained with unconventional TUFTING technologies, by reinforcing a backing cloth and then undergoing a final reinforcement by raising and felting on one side. The TUFTING product obtained by reinforcing and weaving can be used în the manufacturing process because it is predisposed to unraveling and has an inadequate aspect. For an optimal uniformity în Tufting fur substitutes, it is recommended that the backing cloth has a mean apparent density of 300Kg/m3 with a 5% irregularity. It is recommended to use the goods for manufacturing childen's clothing, coat linings and children's hats.

  4. FurC regulates expression of zupT for the central zinc importer ZupT of Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher; Schwarzenberger, Claudia; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2014-10-01

    The zinc importer ZupT is required for the efficient allocation of zinc to zinc-dependent proteins in the metal-resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans but not for zinc import per se. The expression of zupT is upregulated under conditions of zinc starvation. C. metallidurans contains three members of the Fur family of regulators that qualify as candidates for the zupT regulator. The expression of a zupT-lacZ reporter gene fusion was strongly upregulated in a ΔfurC mutant but not in a ΔfurA or ΔfurB mutant. Expression of the genes for transition-metal importers (pitA, corA1, corA2, and corA3) was not changed in this pattern in all three Δfur mutants, but they were still downregulated under conditions of elevated zinc concentrations, indicating the presence of another zinc-dependent regulator. FurA was a central regulator of the iron metabolism in C. metallidurans, and furA was constitutively expressed under the conditions tested. Expression of furB was upregulated under conditions of iron starvation, and FurB could be an iron starvation Fur connecting general metal and iron homeostasis, as indicated by the phenotype of a ΔfurB ΔfurC double mutant. FurC was purified as a Strep-tagged protein and retarded the electrophoretic mobility of a DNA fragment upstream of zupT. Binding of FurC to this operator region was influenced by the presence of zinc ions and EDTA. Thus, FurC is the main zinc uptake regulator (Zur) of C. metallidurans and represses synthesis of the central zinc importer ZupT when sufficient zinc is present.

  5. Random and Site-Specific Mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator Provides Insight into Fur Structure-Function Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Benoit, Stéphane L.; Besold, Angelique N.; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Maier, Robert J.; Michel, Sarah L.J.; Maynard, Ernest L.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur is unique in its ability to activate and repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo forms (apo-Fur). In the current study we combined random and site-specific mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues important for both Fe-Fur and apo-Fur function. We identified 25 mutations that affected Fe-Fur repression and 23 mutations that affected apo-Fur repression, as determined by transcriptional analyses of the Fe-Fur target gene amiE, and the apo-Fur target gene, pfr. In addition, eight of these mutations also significantly affected levels of Fur in the cell. Based on regulatory phenotypes, we selected several representative mutations to characterize further. Of those selected, we purified the wildtype (HpFurWT) and three mutant Fur proteins (HpFurE5A, HpFurA92T, and HpFurH134Y), which represent mutations in the N-terminal extension, the regulatory metal binding site (S2) and the structural metal binding site (S3), respectively. Purified proteins were evaluated for secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, iron-binding by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, oligomerization in iron-substituted and apo conditions by in vitro cross-linking assays, and DNA binding to Fe-Fur and apo-Fur target sequences by fluorescence anisotropy. The results showed that the N-terminal, S2, and S3 regions play distinct roles in terms of Fur structure-function relationships. Overall, these studies provide novel information regarding the role of these residues in Fur function, and provide mechanistic insight into how H. pylori Fur regulates gene expression in both the iron-bound and apo forms of the protein. PMID:23710935

  6. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT, but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  7. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  8. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  9. A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Lopez, Carlos A; Hu, Han; Xia, Yu; Freedman, David S; Reddington, Alexander P; Daaboul, George G; Unlü, M Selim; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2014-01-01

    The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.

  10. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Fur Regulon▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lydgia A.; Ducey, Thomas F.; Day, Michael W.; Zaitshik, Jeremy B.; Orvis, Joshua; Dyer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure survival in the host, bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire the essential element iron. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the ferric uptake regulator Fur regulates metabolism through transcriptional control of iron-responsive genes by binding conserved Fur box (FB) sequences in promoters during iron-replete growth. Our previous studies showed that Fur also controls the transcription of secondary regulators that may, in turn, control pathways important to pathogenesis, indicating an indirect role for Fur in controlling these downstream genes. To better define the iron-regulated cascade of transcriptional control, we combined three global strategies—temporal transcriptome analysis, genomewide in silico FB prediction, and Fur titration assays (FURTA)—to detect genomic regions able to bind Fur in vivo. The majority of the 300 iron-repressed genes were predicted to be of unknown function, followed by genes involved in iron metabolism, cell communication, and intermediary metabolism. The 107 iron-induced genes encoded hypothetical proteins or energy metabolism functions. We found 28 predicted FBs in FURTA-positive clones in the promoters and within the open reading frames of iron-repressed genes. We found lower levels of conservation at critical thymidine residues involved in Fur binding in the FB sequence logos of FURTA-positive clones with intragenic FBs than in the sequence logos generated from FURTA-positive promoter regions. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies, intragenic FBs bound Fur with a lower affinity than intergenic FBs. Our findings further indicate that transcription under iron stress is indirectly controlled by Fur through 12 potential secondary regulators. PMID:19854902

  11. Regulation of the Helicobacter pylori Fe-S cluster synthesis protein NifS by iron, oxidative stress conditions, and fur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamuri, Praveen; Mehta, Nalini; Burk, Andrew; Maier, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    Transcription of both chromosomal and extrachromosomally introduced nifS was regulated (up-expressed) by oxygen or by supplemental iron conditions. This up-expression was not observed in a fur mutant strain background or when an iron chelator was added. Iron-bound Fur (but not apo-Fur) recognized the nifS promoter, and Fur bound significantly farther upstream (-155 bp to -190 bp and -210 to -240 bp) in the promoter than documented Helicobacter pylori Fur binding regions. This binding was stronger than Fur recognition of the flgE or napA promoter and includes a Fur recognition sequence common to the H. pylori pfr and sodB upstream areas. Studies of Fur-regulated genes in H. pylori have indicated that apo-Fur acts as a repressor, but our results demonstrate that iron-bound Fur activates (nifS) transcription.

  12. Fur : un portrait imaginaire de Diane Arbus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kempf et Morgan Riou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fur, film américain de Steven Shainberg, sorti en France début janvier 2007, propose un « portrait imaginaire de Diane Arbus », photographe américaine des années 1960, devenue célèbre par quelques-unes de ses images étranges et inquiétantes, telles celle du jeune garçon tenant une grenade dans Central Park ou celles des jumelles en habit du dimanche, mais surtout en raison de sa vie tourmentée et de son suicide en 1971 à l’âge de 48 ans. Le film de Shainberg (qui s’était fait connaître par Th...

  13. Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Risk in Fur Industry in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Vaitelytė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the research on the possibilities of hazardous chemicals replacement with less hazardous substances. This issue has become of special importance to industrial companies after the adoption of the REACH Regulation. The article examines fur industry and traditional chemicals used in it, namely, sodium dichromate, formaldehyde, and naphthalene. Because of their properties these chemicals are pretending to be included in the REACH Regulation lists of the authorised chemicals. The risks of quasi-materials to the workplaces and the environment have been studied. This research has also looked for the alternatives to hazardous chemicals and has conducted their risk assessment. The analyzed chemicals have been compared with their alternatives with a view of disclosing specific risk reduction.

  14. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search. For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a

  15. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  16. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  17. Alaska northern fur seal migration and foraging strategies telemetry and environmental data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was used for the analysis of adult male and female northern fur seal winter migration and foraging behavior published by Sterling et al. (2014)....

  18. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...... behaviour) and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured on-farm. The major steps in the development of the WelFur mink protocols are described: (1) Writing leterature reviews and listing potential measures. (2) Identifying valid, reliable and feasable welfare measures. (3) Developing registration protocols......, descriptions, and schemes. (4) Testing preliminary protocols in relevant seasons of the annual production. This paper focus on the evaluation of validity, reliability anf feasibility of the 22 measures that have been selected for the WelFur assessment protocols. These protocols haev been tested in the three...

  19. 78 FR 36693 - Rules and Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... statistics, inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing processes, or customer names. If you want... with the Fur Rules. Nonetheless, the Commission seeks comment and information on the need, if any,...

  20. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  1. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  2. 75 FR 21233 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... adverse impact on such species or stock and its habitat, paying particular attention to rookeries, mating... northern fur seals are identified to evaluate the construction actions potential contribution to the...

  3. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  4. Alaska Northern Fur Seal Foraging Habitat Model Stable Isotope Data, 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets were used by Zeppelin et al. (2015) to model northern fur seal foraging habitats based on stable isotope values measured in plasma and red blood...

  5. Inhibition of the ferric uptake regulator by peptides derived from anti-FUR peptide aptamers: coupled theoretical and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Cheickna; Mathieu, Sophie V; Abeih, Mohamed B Ould; Flanagan, Lindsey; Vitale, Sylvia; Catty, Patrice; Boturyn, Didier; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Crouzy, Serge

    2014-12-19

    The FUR protein (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-dependent global transcriptional regulator. Specific to bacteria, FUR is an attractive antibacterial target since virulence is correlated to iron bioavailability. Recently, four anti-FUR peptide aptamers, composed of 13 amino acid variable loops inserted into a thioredoxinA scaffold, were identified, which were able to interact with Escherichia coli FUR (EcFUR), inhibit its binding to DNA and to decrease the virulence of pathogenic E. coli in a fly infection model. The first characterization of anti-FUR linear peptides (pF1 6 to 13 amino acids) derived from the variable part of the F1 anti-FUR peptide aptamer is described herein. Theoretical and experimental approaches, in original combination, were used to study interactions of these peptides with FUR in order to understand their mechanism of inhibition. After modeling EcFUR by homology, docking with Autodock was combined with molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent to take into account the flexibility of the partners. All calculations were cross-checked either with other programs or with experimental data. As a result, reliable structures of EcFUR and its complex with pF1 are given and an inhibition pocket formed by the groove between the two FUR subunits is proposed. The location of the pocket was validated through experimental mutation of key EcFUR residues at the site of proposed peptide interaction. Cyclisation of pF1, mimicking the peptide constraint in F1, improved inhibition. The details of the interactions between peptide and protein were analyzed and a mechanism of inhibition of these anti-FUR molecules is proposed.

  6. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Parsons, Andrea [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Feng, Sheng [Duke University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the g-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other g-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.

  7. Fur: A non-invasive approach to monitor metal exposure in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernout, Béatrice V; McClean, Colin J; Arnold, Kathryn E; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities.

  8. Fur-rubbing with Piper leaves in the San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huashuayo-Llamocca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report observations on fur-rubbing with leaves from Piper aduncum by a San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe. Fur-rubbing occurred during the transition from the dry to the rainy season in a titi monkey group living in a forest fragment in the Moyobamba region of Peru. Since Piper leaves include very potent compounds that may affect ectoparasites, we tentatively interpret the observed fur-rubbing as self-medication.

  9. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  10. Caroline Furness and the Evolution of Visual Variable Star Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars by Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, was published in October 2015. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars as well as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness’s work is therefore a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. Furness’s book and its reception in the scientific community are analyzed, and parallels with (and departures from) the current advice given by the AAVSO to beginning variable star observers today are highlighted.

  11. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.69 How can I trade internationally in fur... export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (1) A State or......

  12. Energetic costs and thermoregulation in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups: the importance of behavioral strategies for thermal balance in furred marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Heather E M

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral thermoregulation represents an important strategy for reducing energetic costs in thermally challenging environments, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates. Because of the cryptic lifestyle of aquatic species, the energetic benefits of such behaviors in marine endotherms have been much more difficult to demonstrate. In this study, I examined the importance of behavioral thermoregulation in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pup, a small-bodied endotherm that spends prolonged periods at sea. The thermal neutral zones of three weaned male northern fur seal pups (body mass range = 11.8-12.8 kg) were determined by measuring resting metabolic rate using open-flow respirometry at water temperatures ranging from 2.5° to 25.0°C. Metabolic rate averaged 10.03 ± 2.26 mL O₂kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ for pups resting within their thermal neutral zone; lower critical temperature was 8.3° ± 2.5°C , approximately 8°C higher than the coldest sea surface temperatures encountered in northern Pacific waters. To determine whether behavioral strategies could mitigate this potential thermal limitation, I measured metabolic rate during grooming activities and the unique jughandling behavior of fur seals. Both sedentary grooming and active grooming resulted in significant increases in metabolic rate relative to rest (P = 0.001), and percent time spent grooming increased significantly at colder water temperatures (P strategies may help to mitigate thermal challenges faced by northern fur seal pups while resting at sea.

  13. Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, María G; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta; Ponzio, Marina F

    2014-09-01

    In captive chinchillas, one of the most challenging behavioral problems is the development of a stress-related abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) known as "fur-chewing". We investigated whether there is a relationship between the severity of fur-chewing behavior and reproductive function in male and female chinchillas. Regardless of the severity of abnormal behavior, fur-chewing males did not show significant differences in seminal quality (sperm concentration, motility and viability; integrity of sperm membrane and acrosome) and the response to the process of semen collection (the number of stimuli needed to achieve ejaculation) when compared to those with normal behavior. Also, females showing normal or fur-chewing behavior presented similar reproductive performance in terms of number of litters per female per year and litter size. However, pup survival rate was lower (p=0.05) in fur-chewing females than in normal females. These results seem to be consistent with data suggesting non-significant effects of ARBs on reproductive performance.

  14. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea B.; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-10-26

    It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. In this study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of the γ-proteobacterium S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. In addition, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and demonstrated its expression experimentally. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. This work delineates an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other γ-proteobacteria.

  15. Transcriptome expression profiling of fur color formation in domestic rabbits using Solexa sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L Z; Wang, W Z; Shi, L J; Wan, X Y; Yan, X R; Weng, Q Q; Wu, X S

    2016-04-25

    Fur color is an important, genetically determined characteristic of domestic rabbits, and rabbit furs are of great economic value. To investigate the molecular genetics associated with fur color determination in domestic rabbits, we used Solexa-sequencing technology to probe gene expression in dorsal skin tissues sampled from full-sibling Rex rabbits of different colors. The number of expressed genes in each sample was approximately 14,700. Among the top 30 genes and transcription factors with the highest reads per kilobase per million values, the elongation factor-alpha 1 gene was highly expressed in all samples, as were genes of the ribosomal protein and keratin gene families. Compared with the chinchilla (C) Rex rabbit control sample, the numbers of genes in the black (B) and white (W) rabbit samples were 1809 and 460, respectively, and the number of common differentially expressed genes was 257. Clustering analysis of these 257 genes revealed that 32 were up-regulated in sample B and down-regulated in sample W. Of these 32 genes, we identified some that are related to fur formation, including Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and Tyrosinase (TYR), as well as genes with unknown functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of those genes. The findings are expected to provide reference for the further study of fur color formation in rabbits.

  16. The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a Δfur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis.

  17. Evaluation of silk-floss fiber and dog fur as sorbent materials for the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas P. dos [Universidade Federal do Parana (PGMec/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Dubiella, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica; Perotta, Larissa [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa Interdisciplinar em Engenharia de Petroleo e Gas Natural; Satyanarayana, Kestur G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Flores-Sahagun, Thais Sydenstricker [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    In this study silk-floss and dog fur were tested as sorbent materials for oils and the results were compared with peat, a commercial sorbent. Sorption tests were carried out in dry and aqueous systems, with and without stirring for different periods of time (5-1440 min). Density, hydrophobicity, buoyancy and water uptake by the fibers of the impregnated sorbents have been determined. The use of silk-floss and dog fur was also tested in columns to purify water containing toluene, benzene, motor oil or sunflower oil. Breakthrough curves during 120 min were drawn for each material with the samples (oily water or water containing benzene or toluene) and were analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy. It was concluded that the silk-floss is the best sorbent material (65.3 g oil/g sorbent) followed by the dog fur (34.6 g oil/g sorbent) and peat (19.5 g oil/g sorbent), for sorption time of 1 h in dynamic condition. The efficiency of the pollutant removal from water with the use of adsorption columns was high for both materials although the use of dog fur was preferable because of the slight superiority in efficiency compared to silk-floss and also, due to the easier packing of the dog fur in the column. (author)

  18. The behavioural response of Australian fur seals to motor boat noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy S Tripovich

    Full Text Available Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10'S, 146°18'E. Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64-70 dB versus high (75-85 dB sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats.

  19. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  20. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  1. Instrumentation and handling effects on Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Blanchet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biologging instruments has greatly improved our understanding of the behaviour, physiology and ecology of free-ranging marine mammals. However, handling wild animals and attaching instruments to streamlined bodies can cause stress and potentially influence behaviour and swimming/diving energetics. The goals of this study, undertaken on Bouvetøya, were (1 to determine if the first trip to sea after instrumentation is representative of subsequent trips in lactating Antarctic fur seals, to explore potential handling effects and assess possible biases in having multiple short-duration deployments (inflating N, using a limited number of tags and (2 to evaluate potential effects of two different instrument combinations (SMRU satellite data relay loggers and very high frequency radio transmitters versus Wildlife Computers time–depth recorders and very high frequency radio transmitters on trip durations, dive parameters, female body condition and pup growth. Handling did not appear to have any effects on the parameters studied; data from the first and second trips did not differ significantly. This implies that multiple short-term deployments are unlikely to result in biased data in this species. Instrument type did have measurable effects; time-at-sea was greater and pup growth was lower for pairs in which mothers carried bulkier instruments. This suggests that instrument streamlining is important to avoid negative impacts and that bulkier equipment should be deployed on lactating females with caution and only for short periods. The study highlights that instrument effects should be taken into account when comparing data from experiments collected using different equipment packages.

  2. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo.

  3. Control of Fur synthesis by the non-coding RNA RyhB and iron-responsive decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecerek, Branislav; Moll, Isabella; Bläsi, Udo

    2007-02-21

    The Fe2+-dependent Fur protein serves as a negative regulator of iron uptake in bacteria. As only metallo-Fur acts as an autogeneous repressor, Fe2+scarcity would direct fur expression when continued supply is not obviously required. We show that in Escherichia coli post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms ensure that Fur synthesis remains steady in iron limitation. Our studies revealed that fur translation is coupled to that of an upstream open reading frame (uof), translation of which is downregulated by the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) RyhB. As RyhB transcription is negatively controlled by metallo-Fur, iron depletion creates a negative feedback loop. RyhB-mediated regulation of uof-fur provides the first example for indirect translational regulation by a trans-encoded ncRNA. In addition, we present evidence for an iron-responsive decoding mechanism of the uof-fur entity. It could serve as a backup mechanism of the RyhB circuitry, and represents the first link between iron availability and synthesis of an iron-containing protein.

  4. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. 113.68 Section 113.68 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions....

  5. The FurA regulon in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120: in silico prediction and experimental validation of novel target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Andrés; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Sancho, Javier; Fillat, María F

    2014-04-01

    In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA functions as a global transcriptional regulator. Despite several analyses have focused on elucidating the FurA-regulatory network, the number of target genes described for this essential transcription factor is limited to a handful of examples. In this article, we combine an in silico genome-wide predictive approach with experimental determinations to better define the FurA regulon. Predicted FurA-binding sites were identified upstream of 215 genes belonging to diverse functional categories including iron homeostasis, photosynthesis and respiration, heterocyst differentiation, oxidative stress defence and light-dependent signal transduction mechanisms, among others. The probabilistic model proved to be effective at discerning FurA boxes from non-cognate sequences, while subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments confirmed the in vitro specific binding of FurA to at least 20 selected predicted targets. Gene-expression analyses further supported the dual role of FurA as transcriptional modulator that can act both as repressor and as activator. In either role, the in vitro affinity of the protein to its target sequences is strongly dependent on metal co-regulator and reducing conditions, suggesting that FurA couples in vivo iron homeostasis and the response to oxidative stress to major physiological processes in cyanobacteria.

  6. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  7. Growth deficiency of a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae fur mutant in rice leaves is rescued by ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2005-07-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. A mutation was isolated in the ferric uptake regulator (fur) gene of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and it was shown to result in the production of siderophores in a constitutive manner. The fur mutant is hypersensitive to the metallo-antibiotic streptonigrin, a phenotype that is indicative of intracellular free-iron overload, and also exhibits a slow growth phenotype on rich medium. The fur mutant is virulence deficient, hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and exhibits reduced catalase activity. Exogenous supplementation with ascorbic acid (an antioxidant) rescues the growth deficiency of the fur mutant in rice leaves. The virulence deficiency of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae fur mutant is proposed to be due, at least in part, to an impaired ability to cope with the oxidative stress conditions that are encountered during infection.

  8. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W;

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel......Fur protocols after two years of developmental work. Reviews for each of the 12 WQ welfare criteria were written for foxes and mink to identify the welfare measures that have been used in scientific studies. The reviews formed the basis for potential measures to be included in the WelFur protocols. All measures...... which the welfare of animals on European fur farms can be assessed....

  9. On the nature of fur evolution: A phylogenetic approach in Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson David R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the evolution of global transcription regulators is essential for comprehending the complex networks of cellular metabolism that have developed among related organisms. The fur gene encodes one of those regulators – the ferric uptake regulator Fur – widely distributed among bacteria and known to regulate different genes committed to varied metabolic pathways. On the other hand, members of the Actinobacteria comprise an ecologically diverse group of bacteria able to inhabit various natural environments, and for which relatively little is currently understood concerning transcriptional regulation. Results BLAST analyses revealed the presence of more than one fur homologue in most members of the Actinobacteria whose genomes have been fully sequenced. We propose a model to explain the evolutionary history of fur within this well-known bacterial phylum: the postulated scenario includes one duplication event from a primitive regulator, which probably had a broad range of co-factors and DNA-binding sites. This duplication predated the appearance of the last common ancestor of the Actinobacteria, while six other duplications occurred later within specific groups of organisms, particularly in two genera: Frankia and Streptomyces. The resulting paralogues maintained main biochemical properties, but became specialised for regulating specific functions, coordinating different metal ions and binding to unique DNA sequences. The presence of syntenic regions surrounding the different fur orthologues supports the proposed model, as do the evolutionary distances and topology of phylogenetic trees built using both Neighbor-Joining and Maximum-Likelihood methods. Conclusion The proposed fur evolutionary model, which includes one general duplication and two in-genus duplications followed by divergence and specialization, explains the presence and diversity of fur genes within the Actinobacteria. Although a few rare

  10. PHP und MySQL der Web-Baukasten fur Einsteiger und Individualisten

    CERN Document Server

    Damaschke, Giesbert

    2015-01-01

    Sie haben schon eigene Webseiten gebaut und mochten diese nun mit Funktionen ausstatten, fur die Sie PHP und MySQL benotigen? Giesbert Damaschke zeigt Ihnen in diesem Buch, wie Sie das schaffen. Schritt fur Schritt erlernen Sie die benotigten Programmier- und Datenbankgrundlagen - immer im Rahmen von typischen dynamischen Anwendungen. So erheben und speichern Sie zum Beispiel mit Formularen Kontaktdaten, prufen Benutzereingaben, erstellen Menus, richten einen Besucherzahler ein, verschicken E-Mails mit PHP oder entwickeln sogar einen eigenen Blog. Alle Codebeispiele werden ausfuhrlich erklart,

  11. Multi-objective optimization in formation tasks of leather and fur materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Викторовна Сангинова

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the efficiency of different ways to obtain a compromise solution in the multi-objective constrained optimization tasks has been conducted. The analysis was performed for a number of innovative technologies of leather and fur materials forming.

  12. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous...

  13. Furios: a web-based tool for identification of Vibrionaceae species using the fur gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Cardoso, Joao; Giubergia, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Gene based methods for identification of species from the Vibrionaceae family have been developed during the last decades to address the limitations of the commonly used 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, we found that the ferric-uptake regulator gene (fur) can be used as a single identification ...... makes it suitable for any research environment, from academia to industry. Introduction...

  14. Transcriptional profiling of Helicobacter pylori Fur- and iron-regulated gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); S. Bereswill (Stefan); B. Waidner (Barbara); J. Stoof (Jeroen); U. Mader; J.G. Kusters (Johannes); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M. Kist (Manfred); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); G. Homuth (Georg)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntracellular iron homeostasis is a necessity for almost all living organisms, since both iron restriction and iron overload can result in cell death. The ferric uptake regulator protein, Fur, controls iron homeostasis in most Gram-negative bacteria. In the human

  15. [Is the Furness-Moore Code applicable for computer and telex?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötzscher, K

    1979-12-01

    The extent to which the identification of disaster victims could be improved with the code for dental findings developed by Furness and Moore (1969) was studied. This code records the most important data for a set of teeth in 12 digits.

  16. Transcriptional profiling of Helicobacter pylori Fur- and iron-regulated gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); S. Bereswill (Stefan); B. Waidner (Barbara); J. Stoof (Jeroen); U. Mader; J.G. Kusters (Johannes); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M. Kist (Manfred); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); G. Homuth (Georg)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntracellular iron homeostasis is a necessity for almost all living organisms, since both iron restriction and iron overload can result in cell death. The ferric uptake regulator protein, Fur, controls iron homeostasis in most Gram-negative bacteria. In the human gastri

  17. Distribution of mercury in archived fur from little brown bats across Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Megan E; Burgess, Neil M; Broders, Hugh G; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in archived fur from adult female little brown bats sampled at maternity roosts across Atlantic Canada. Mercury concentrations varied significantly among regions and roosts. Bats from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland had the highest median Hg concentrations (9.67 μg/g and 9.51 μg/g) among regions, and individuals from Kejimkujik National Park had the highest Hg (median: 28.38 μg/g) among roosts. Over one third of individuals sampled had fur Hg concentrations exceeding thresholds associated with neurochemical responses. Within-roost examinations of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in fur showed inconsistent associations with Hg concentrations. Therefore, the hypothesis that within-roost variation in Hg is driven by variation in diet is not supported by this data, and it is recommended that key prey items be included in future mercury bioaccumulation studies for bats. The elevated mercury fur concentrations for bats from southern Nova Scotia remains an anomaly of concern even when placed in the larger context of Atlantic Canada.

  18. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manner as in the case of marking of country of origin, § 134.55 of this chapter. (c) Packages of fur... and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 301.1-301.49). The term... shall be taken to effect the collection of liquidated damages in an amount equal to the entered value...

  19. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  20. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...://www.fakr.noaa.gov/protectedresources/seals/fur.htm . Send comments to Kaja Brix, Assistant Regional...: Kaja Brix, Assistant Regional Administrator, Protected Resources Division, Alaska Region, NMFS, P.O... ; Kaja Brix, (907) 586-7235, email Kaja.Brix@noaa.gov ; or Tom Eagle, (301) 713-2322, ext. 105, email...

  1. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.

  2. A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yu

    Full Text Available The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS, to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.

  3. Alaska Northern Fur Seal Adult Female Satellite Telemetry and Oceanographic Data, 2002/03 and 2009/10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of data used for an analysis of the interactions between adult female northern fur seal migratory and foraging behavior and oceanographic...

  4. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Amer......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... of the traits are in part under the influence of the same genes. Traits under the influence of QTL at close or identical positions also were traits that were strongly genotypically correlated. Based on the results of correlation analyses, the most important single traits influencing the quality were found...

  5. Regional differences in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity and interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in the fur seal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LYAMIN, OLEG I; PAVLOVA, IVETTA F; KOSENKO, PETER O; MUKHAMETOV, LEV M; SIEGEL, JEROME M

    2012-01-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) in the northern fur seal ( Callorhinus ursinus ) is characterized by a highly expressed interhemispheric electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, called ‘unihemispheric’ or ‘asymmetrical’ SWS...

  6. Mutations of ferric uptake regulator (fur) impair iron homeostasis, growth, oxidative stress survival, and virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Fuangthong, Mayuree; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2010-05-01

    Iron is essential in numerous cellular functions. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron's toxic effects. Here, we characterize the roles of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) fur, which encodes an iron sensor and a transcriptional regulator that acts in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and virulence. Herein, we isolated spontaneous Xcc fur mutants that had high intracellular iron concentrations due to constitutively high siderophore levels and increased expression of iron transport genes. These mutants also had reduced aerobic plating efficiency and resistance to peroxide killing. Moreover, one fur mutant was attenuated on a host plant, thus indicating that fur has important roles in the virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris.

  7. Investigation of death losses in fur seal pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, June 28 to August 15, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 1957 to understand the causes of death in fur seal pups. A discussion of the results is included.

  8. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  9. Effect of iron limitation and fur gene inactivation on the transcriptional profile of the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Delyana; Janssen, Holger; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Bahl, Hubert

    2012-07-01

    Iron is a nutrient of critical importance for the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum, as it is involved in numerous basic cellular functions and metabolic pathways. A gene encoding a putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has been identified in the genome of C. acetobutylicum. In this work, we inactivated the fur gene by using insertional mutagenesis. The resultant mutant showed a slow-growing phenotype and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, but essentially no dramatic change in its fermentation pattern. A unique feature of its physiology was the overflowing production of riboflavin. To gain further insights into the role of the Fur protein and the mechanisms for establishment of iron balance in C. acetobutylicum, we characterized and compared the gene-expression profile of the fur mutant and the iron-limitation stimulon of the parental strain. Not surprisingly, a repertoire of iron-transport systems was upregulated in both microarray datasets, suggesting that they are regulated by Fur according to the availability of iron. In addition, iron limitation and inactivation of fur affected the expression of several genes involved in energy metabolism. Among them, two genes, encoding a lactate dehydrogenase and a flavodoxin, were highly induced. In order to support the function of the latter, the ribDBAH operon responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis was also upregulated significantly. Furthermore, the iron-starvation response of C. acetobutylicum involved transcriptional modifications that were not detected in the fur mutant, suggesting that there exist additional mechanisms for adaptation to low-iron environments. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum senses and responds to availability of iron on multiple levels using a sophisticated system, and that Fur plays an important role in this process.

  10. Fur fashion design from competion view%大赛视角下的皮草服装设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 周怡

    2011-01-01

    时下的服装设计流行趋势会影响大赛中皮草设计的方向,与此同时大赛中的设计理念的变化和应用的变化也会让皮草服装设计获得新的流行元素,通过大赛视角来分析皮草服装的变化趋势,了解大赛作品与成衣化皮草服装设计之间的影响关系,剖析大赛设计视角下的皮草服装设计对行业发展的帮助,最终探索皮草大赛与皮草服装设计的发展方向.%Nowadays of costume design popular trend will influence the direction of fur clothing design contest, and at the same time series of the design concept of change and application of change would also allow fur clothing design to obtain new fashionable element, through the contest Angle to analyze the fur clothing change trend, understand contest of fur clothing works and garment dress design, this article analyzes the relationship between the influence of contest of design, from the perspective of fur clothing design industry development, and finally explores the help of fur clothing fashion design contest and the direction of its development.

  11. First description of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum XIIa subtype family in farmed fur animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnerová, Klára; Holubová, Nikola; Jandová, Anna; Vejčík, Antonín; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in the Czech Republic and Poland. A total of 480 faecal samples were collected from fur animals, including 300 American mink (Mustela vison), 60 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 50 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), and 70 nutrias (Myocastor coypus), at 14 farms. Samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and sequence analysis of PCR amplified products. Three mink and two chinchillas from two different farms tested positive for Cryptosporidium ubiquitum DNA. The presence of C. ubiquitum DNA was not associated with diarrhoea. Subtyping of C. ubiquitum isolates by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene showed that isolates belonged to the XIIa subtype family, which was previously restricted to humans and ruminants. This suggests that C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa has a broader host range than previously reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used

  14. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it.

  15. A small galliform bird from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation, northwestern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Dyke, Gareth John

    2007-01-01

    A pair of fossilized imprints of feet represent the first published galliform (landfowl) specimen from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of northwest Denmark. The specimen is referable to Galliformes due to the presence of a distinctly asymmetric trochlea metatarsi III. The specimen appears distinct...... from previously described Eocene Galliformes (e.g. Gallinuloididae, Quercymegapodiidae and Paraortygidae) and may represent a new taxon of Galliformes, increasing the diversity of this group in the Lower Eocene....

  16. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouliev T

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Timur Kouliev,1 Victoria Cui2 1Beijing United Family Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species' range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. Keywords: zoonotic, polar tourism, prophylaxis, seal finger, expedition medicine

  17. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  18. Fur-type transcriptional repressors and metal homeostasis in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eLudwig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal homeostasis is a crucial cellular function for nearly all organisms. Some heavy metals (e.g. Fe, Zn, Co, Mo are essential because they serve as cofactors for enzymes or metalloproteins, and chlorophototrophs such as cyanobacteria have an especially high demand for iron. At excessive levels, however, metals become toxic to cyanobacteria. Therefore, a tight control mechanism is essential for metal homeostasis. Metal homeostasis in microorganisms comprises two elements: metal acquisition from the environment and detoxification or excretion of excess metal ions. Different families of metal-sensing regulators exist in cyanobacteria and each addresses a more or less specific set of target genes. In this study the regulons of three Fur-type and two ArsR-SmtB-type regulators were investigated in a comparative approach in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. One Fur-type regulator controls genes for iron acquisition (Fur; one controls genes for zinc acquisition (Zur; and the third controls two genes involved in oxidative stress (Per. Compared to other well-investigated cyanobacterial strains, however, the set of target genes for each regulator is relatively small. Target genes for the two ArsR-SmtB transcriptional repressors (SmtB (SYNPCC7002_A2564 and SYNPCC7002_A0590; ArsR are involved in zinc homeostasis in addition to Zur. Their target genes, however, are less specific for zinc and point to roles in a broader heavy metal detoxification response.

  19. Eggshell- and fur-like microstructures of yttrium silicate film prepared by laser chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akihiko, E-mail: itonium@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Miyagi (Japan); Endo, Jun; Kimura, Teiichi; Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Miyagi (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Yttrium silicate (Y-Si-O) films with eggshell- and fur-like microstructures were prepared by laser chemical vapor deposition using a Nd:YAG laser, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and yttrium dipivaloylmethane (Y(dpm){sub 3}) precursors. Amorphous Y-Si-O films were prepared at deposition temperature below 1200 K. The crystalline Y-Si-O films with mixtures of Y{sub 4.67}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O and {alpha}-Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases were obtained at deposition temperature above 1200 K. y-Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and X1-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} minor phases were also formed at a higher deposition temperature. At deposition temperature ranging between 1285 and 1355 K, a dome-like structure covered with fine fur-like projections was formed under a total pressure of 3.5 kPa, whereas an eggshell-like structure 200-300 {mu}m in diameter and 10-20 {mu}m in shell thickness was formed at 7.5 kPa. The deposition rate for the Y-Si-O films with fur- and eggshell-like microstructures reached 300 and 1000 {mu}m h{sup -1}, respectively.

  20. A novel fur- and iron-regulated small RNA, NrrF, is required for indirect fur-mediated regulation of the sdhA and sdhC genes in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, J R; Goswami, Sulip; Grogan, Susan; Tjaden, Brian; Genco, Caroline A

    2007-05-01

    Iron is both essential for bacterial growth and toxic at higher concentrations; thus, iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Neisseria meningitidis the majority of iron-responsive gene regulation is mediated by the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur), a protein classically defined as a transcriptional repressor. Recently, however, microarray studies have identified a number of genes in N. meningitidis that are iron and Fur activated, demonstrating a new role for Fur as a transcriptional activator. Since Fur has been shown to indirectly activate gene transcription through the repression of small regulatory RNA molecules in other organisms, we hypothesized that a similar mechanism could account for Fur-dependent, iron-activated gene transcription in N. meningitidis. In this study, we used a bioinformatics approach to screen for the presence of Fur-regulated small RNA molecules in N. meningitidis MC58. This screen identified one small RNA, herein named NrrF (for neisserial regulatory RNA responsive to iron [Fe]), which was demonstrated to be both iron responsive and Fur regulated and which has a well-conserved orthologue in N. gonorrhoeae. In addition, this screen identified a number of other likely, novel small RNA transcripts. Lastly, we utilized a new bioinformatics approach to predict regulatory targets of the NrrF small RNA. This analysis led to the identification of the sdhA and sdhC genes, which were subsequently demonstrated to be under NrrF regulation in an nrrF mutant. This study is the first report of small RNAs in N. meningitidis and the first to use a bioinformatics approach to identify, a priori, regulatory targets of a small RNA.

  1. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (Pzinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (Pzinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (Pzinc addition (Pzinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (Pzinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover, a copper×zinc interaction was observed for catalase in the experiment (Pzinc levels (Pzinc supplementation can improve growth by increasing feed intake and improving fat digestibility. Additionally, copper and zinc can enhance the antioxidant capacity of blue foxes. This study also indicates that additional zinc up to 200 mg/kg did not exert significant adverse effects on the copper metabolism of growing-furring blue foxes.

  2. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt;

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Ameri......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3...... and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some...

  3. Anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões europeus hígidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Ayres Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos o furão (Mustela putorius furo tornou-se um conhecido animal de estimação sendo observada uma população em constante crescimento no Brasil, e por conseqüência cada vez mais presente em clínicas veterinárias. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões-europeus hígidos. Foram utilizados 20 animais, dentre os quais nove eram machos e onze fêmeas, com idade média total de três anos. Localizaram-se em 100% dos furões os linfonodos mesentéricos, em 55% dos animais os linfonodos pancreático-duodenal e esplênico, em 20% o linfonodo gástrico e em 5% o linfonodo hepático. Conclui-se que a localização e características ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais em furões são muito similares aos linfonodos abdominais de gatos, sendo este estudo uma orientação preliminar para a localização dos linfonodos abdominais de furões hígidos.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental.

  5. Radiative contribution to thermal conductance in animal furs and other woolly insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Priscilla; Rattal, Mourad; Oualim, El Mostafa; Mouhse, Azeddine; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2014-01-27

    This paper deals with radiation's contribution to thermal insulation. The mechanism by which a stack of absorbers limits radiative heat transfer is examined in detail both for black-body shields and grey-body shields. It shows that radiation energy transfer rates should be much faster than conduction rates. It demonstrates that, for opaque screens, increased reflectivity will dramatically reduce the rate of heat transfer, improving thermal insulation. This simple model is thought to contribute to the understanding of how animal furs, human clothes, rockwool insulators, thermo-protective containers, and many other passive energy-saving devices operate.

  6. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita;

    2008-01-01

    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov.......) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene...... psittaciforms and may, therefore, represent the oldest known crowngroup parrot....

  7. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    .) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene......Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov...... psittaciforms and may, therefore, represent the oldest known crowngroup parrot....

  8. 皮草抽刀工艺的数字化分析%Digital Analysis on the Fur Knife Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋湲; 姚震宇

    2016-01-01

    Knife technique is a special technique to control the shape and the shade for furs fabrication.The quality of fabricated furs depends on the skill and experience of the fur craftsmen.This article focus on knife technique.The formation of knife technique,the commonly used skills and key technologies were analyzed.The relationship of different parameters in processing were discussed.Meanwhile,a solution for fast slitting was proposed based on the deformation of furs.By constructing a mathematical model,a new calculation method was established,leading to improve the production yield and efficiency,reduce scrap rate on furs,eventually benefit to construct a data base for furs industry.%皮草制作工艺中,为了改变皮草的毛色和形状,常采用抽刀工艺技术,其成品质量取决于皮草工匠的经验和操作技艺.针对皮草抽刀工艺,对其形成原因、常用手法、关键技术进行分析;研究皮草抽刀工艺参数之间的关系,探讨根据皮草的变形量快速准确走刀的解决方案.通过建立数学模型,对抽刀工艺参数提出一种新的计算方法,对提高生产效率、减少料耗,具有实用性提升,对促进皮草工艺的数字化建设具有一定意义.

  9. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hocking

    Full Text Available During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways.

  10. Acoustic features involved in the neighbour-stranger vocal recognition process in male Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovich, J S; Charrier, I; Rogers, T L; Canfield, R; Arnould, J P Y

    2008-09-01

    Many territorial species have the ability to recognise neighbours from stranger individuals. If the neighbouring individual is assumed to pose less of a threat, the territorial individual responds less and avoids unnecessary confrontations with familiar individuals at established boundaries, thus avoiding the costly energy expenditure associated with fighting. Territorial male Australian fur seals respond more to strangers than to neighbouring males. The present study evaluated which acoustic features were important in the neighbour-stranger recognition process in male Australian fur seals. The results reveal that there was an increase in response strength or intensity from males when they heard more bark units, indicating the importance of repetition to detect a caller. However, lengthening and shortening the inter-unit spaces, (i.e. changing the rhythm of the call) did not appear to significantly affect an animal's response. In addition, the whole frequency spectrum was considered important to recognition with results suggesting that they may vary in their importance. A call containing the dominant and surrounding harmonics was considered important to a male's ability to recognise its neighbour. Furthermore, recognition occurs even with a partial bark, but males need to hear between 25 and 75% of each bark unit from neighbouring seals. Our study highlights which acoustic features induce stronger or weaker responses from territorial males, decoding the important features in neighbour-stranger recognition.

  11. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Sascha K; Miller, Patrick J O; Johnson, Mark P; Cox, Oliver P; Boyd, Ian L

    2005-02-22

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50-85% of ascent from all dives (10-160 m, n > 8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout.

  12. Winter habitat predictions of a key Southern Ocean predator, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; De Bruyn, P. J. Nico; Trathan, Phil; Goebel, Michael; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2017-06-01

    Quantification of the physical and biological environmental factors that influence the spatial distribution of higher trophic species is central to inform management and develop ecosystem models, particularly in light of ocean changes. We used tracking data from 184 female Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) to develop habitat models for three breeding colonies for the poorly studied Southern Ocean winter period. Models were used to identify and predict the broadly important winter foraging habitat and to elucidate the environmental factors influencing these areas. Model predictions closely matched observations and several core areas of foraging habitat were identified for each colony, with notable areas of inter-colony overlap suggesting shared productive foraging grounds. Seals displayed clear choice of foraging habitat, travelling through areas of presumably poorer quality to access habitats that likely offer an energetic advantage in terms of prey intake. The relationships between environmental predictors and foraging habitat varied between colonies, with the principal predictors being wind speed, sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, bathymetry and distance to the colony. The availability of core foraging areas was not consistent throughout the winter period. The habitat models developed in this study not only reveal the core foraging habitats of Antarctic fur seals from multiple colonies, but can facilitate the hindcasting of historical foraging habitats as well as novel predictions of important habitat for other major colonies currently lacking information of the at-sea distribution of this major Southern Ocean consumer.

  13. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE FUR MICROBIOTA OF CALLITRICHIDS KEPT IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Raquel Albuquerque; Milanelo, Liliane; Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to isolate filamentous fungi from the fur of primates of the genus Callithrix kept in the Centre for Rehabilitation of Wild Animals (CRWA) at the Tietê Ecological Park, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Samples of the fur of 19 specimens of black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) and 6 specimens of white-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were obtained by the square carpet technique. The samples were plated on Mycosel™ agar medium (Difco™) and incubated at 25°C for 21 days. The identification of each isolated mold was based on its macroscopic and microscopic features and followed classical recommendations. The following filamentous fungi were isolated: Penicillium spp. (76%), Cladosporium spp. (60%), Acremonium spp. (44%), Scopulariopsis spp. (24%), Aspergillus spp. (16%), Chrysosporium spp. (16%), and Fusarium spp. (8%). Dermatophyte fungi were not detected. We conclude that C. penicillata and C. jacchus kept in captivity are sources of potentially pathogenic filamentous fungi that may represent a risk factor for immunocompromised individuals who may eventually establish contact with them.

  14. Colony-level assessment of Brucella and Leptospira in the Guadalupe fur seal, Isla Guadalupe, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehl-Quirós, E Carolina; García-Aguilar, María C; Mellink, Eric

    2017-01-24

    The relatively small population size and restricted distribution of the Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi could make it highly vulnerable to infectious diseases. We performed a colony-level assessment in this species of the prevalence and presence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., pathogenic bacteria that have been reported in several pinniped species worldwide. Forty-six serum samples were collected in 2014 from pups at Isla Guadalupe, the only place where the species effectively reproduces. Samples were tested for Brucella using 3 consecutive serological tests, and for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test. For each bacterium, a Bayesian approach was used to estimate prevalence to exposure, and an epidemiological model was used to test the null hypothesis that the bacterium was present in the colony. No serum sample tested positive for Brucella, and the statistical analyses concluded that the colony was bacterium-free with a 96.3% confidence level. However, a Brucella surveillance program would be highly recommendable. Twelve samples were positive (titers 1:50) to 1 or more serovars of Leptospira. The prevalence was calculated at 27.1% (95% credible interval: 15.6-40.3%), and the posterior analyses indicated that the colony was not Leptospira-free with a 100% confidence level. Serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Bratislava were detected, but only further research can unveil whether they affect the fur seal population.

  15. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Cherel, Y; Guinet, C; Arnould, J P Y

    2016-07-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R (2)/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills.

  16. Temporal Change in Fur Color in Museum Specimens of Mammals: Reddish-Brown Species Get Redder with Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Museum collections have great value for zoological research, but despite careful preservation, over time specimens can show subtle changes in color. We examined the effect of storage time on fur color of two reddish-brown species, golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli and eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus. Using image analysis, we obtained color data (hue, saturation, and density on 91 golden mice and 49 chipmunks from Georgia, USA. Analyses that considered body size, gender, and collection year showed significant effects of year on fur color of golden mice (hue and saturation and of agouti color of chipmunks. Older specimens tended to be redder in color than newer specimens, consistent with a prior study of red bats (Lasiurus borealis. Hair samples showed reddening of fine body hairs, but not in thicker guard hairs. There was no temporal change in black or white stripe color in chipmunks, indicating that this temporal effect would be limited to species with reddish-brown fur. This effect may be caused by breakdown of eumelanin pigments (which make dark colors over time, leaving a greater proportion of pheomelanin pigments (which make red colors. These results show that storage time needs to be considered in research projects where fur color is of importance.

  17. Iron-responsive regulation of the Helicobacter pylori iron-cofactored superoxide dismutase SodB is mediated by Fur.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); J. Stoof (Jeroen); U. Mader; B. Waidner (Barbara); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M. Kist (Manfred); J.G. Kusters (Johannes); S. Bereswill (Stefan); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMaintaining iron homeostasis is a necessity for all living organisms, as free iron augments the generation of reactive oxygen species like superoxide anions, at the risk of subsequent lethal cellular damage. The iron-responsive regulator Fur controls iron metabolism in many bacteria, inc

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Parameters of Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris, before Fur Trade Extirpation from 1741–1911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shawn; Jameson, Ron; Etnier, Michael; Jones, Terry; Hall, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged. PMID:22403635

  19. Genetic diversity and population parameters of sea otters, Enhydra lutris, before fur trade extirpation from 1741-1911.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    Full Text Available All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged.

  20. An der Schwelle zur Zweisprachigkeit: Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene (On the Threshold of Bilingualism: Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Silvia, Ed.; Portmann, Paul R., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of articles on Bilingualism includes: "Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene: ein Uberblick" (Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students: An Overview) (Paul R. Portmann); "Never Mind the Width, Feel the Quality: From Quantity to Quality in Language Teaching at Advanced Levels" (Mike Makosch); "Irren ist menschlich: Ein…

  1. Cysteine Mutational Studies Provide Insight into a Thiol-Based Redox Switch Mechanism of Metal and DNA Binding in FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    OpenAIRE

    Botello-Morte, Laura; Pellicer, Silvia; Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C.; Contreras, Lellys M.; Neira, José Luis; Abián, Olga; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F; Bes, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is the main transcriptional regulator of genes involved in iron homeostasis in most prokaryotes. FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five cysteine residues, four of them arranged in two redox-active CXXC motifs. The protein needs not only metal but also reducing conditions to remain fully active in vitro. Through a mutational study of the cysteine residues present in FurA, we have investigated their involvement in metal and DNA binding. Results: Re...

  2. 三点差别检验感官评定毛皮色泽的差异%Sensory Evaluation of Fur Color Difference by Difference Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈普

    2013-01-01

      研究了应用三点差别检验法感官评定毛皮色泽,说明该方法能评定出毛皮色泽上的差异,对毛皮色泽的感官差别检验,有一定的借鉴作用。%  Sensory evaluation in fur color was researched based on the method of difference test. The result revealed that this method could evaluate the difference of fur color, and be suitable for sensory evaluation in fur color.

  3. A cohort study of workers compensated for mercury intoxication following employment in the fur hat industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, E; Boffetta, P; Masala, G; Monechi, V; Bani, F

    1994-11-01

    This article presents the preliminary results of a follow-up study (1950-1992) of 1,146 subjects (person-years = 30,954; 23,055 for women) receiving compensation for mercury poisoning. In a province of Tuscany in central Italy, severe exposure to mercury occurred during fur hat production. A deficit in all causes of mortality was observed in both sexes, whereas mortality due to cancer was slightly higher than expected. Mortality from stomach cancer was significantly elevated for men and women. A significant excess of lung cancer was observed in women only. Whereas the excess of stomach cancer probably reflects elevated rates in the study area rather than exposure to mercury, the excess of lung cancer mortality does appear to be related to mercury exposure. Smoking habits or other exposures at work do not seem to explain the excess of lung cancer.

  4. The book Venus in Furs and its influence on other art forms: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Claúdia Raquel Castro

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Mediação Cultural e Literária Venus in Furs é uma obra literária escrita em 1870 pelo autor austríaco Leopold von Sacher-Masoch. Maioritariamente desconhecida do grande público, esta novela não deixa, ainda assim, de ter influenciado um número significativo de manifestações artísticas das mais diversas áreas. Esta dissertação é uma reflexão sobre o influxo exercido por essa obra literária em versões musicais e cinematográficas. Após a elaboração...

  5. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (⩽20 cm for seals and ⩽12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation

  6. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes, tobacco smoke and furred pets and wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Allermann, L.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Persistent wheeze in childhood is associated with airway inflammation. The present study investigated relationships between polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets and risk of recurrent wheeze in children. Within a birth cohort of 101,042 children we...... on number of episodes with wheeze (18 months), exposure to tobacco smoke and pet-keeping. Recurrent wheeze was defined as at least four episodes of wheeze before the child was 18 months old. There was a statistically significant association between the IL-13 Arg144Gln polymorphism and risk of recurrent...... wheeze (p = 0.01). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant interaction between this polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, though this was probably a chance finding. There were no other statistically significant effects of the polymorphisms or interactions with exposure...

  7. Reproductive Tract Histology in South American Fur Seal Pups (Arctophoca australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a detailed histological description of the female reproductive tract of South American fur seal (Arctophoca australis) pups has been conducted. The uterine tube was covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; nerve fibers were present in the mesosalpinx and beneath the muscular layer. The uterus was bipartitus; the endometrial surface of the horns was lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium with deep tubular glands; caudally ("the transition area"), the epithelium changed to pseudostratified columnar, few tubular glands were present and the myometrium increased in width. A bistratified epithelium internally coated the uterine body, whereas it changed to cylindrical stratified epithelium with a highly vascularized lamina propria and a strong muscular layer in the cervix; no endometrial glands were observed in this region. From the transition area of the uterus to the vagina there were several nerve fibers and ganglia belonging to the uterovaginalis plexus. In the vestibule, hymenal folds were poorly developed; adnexa structures included the major vestibular glands and a neurovascular structure similar to the vestibular bulb. Minor vestibular glands were associated with the clitoris. The skin of the perineum was lined by a keratinized stratified epithelium, pigmented, with sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles. This is the first detailed histological description of the reproductive tract of South American fur seal pups, including the glandular adnexa and nerve structures. These results contribute to the reproductive biology in Pinniped species, and give a better understanding of the utero-placental perfusion mechanism during diving. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:600-613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Determinants of individual foraging specialization in large marine vertebrates, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Arnould, John P Y; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2015-07-01

    The degree of individual specialization in resource use differs widely among wild populations where individuals range from fully generalized to highly specialized. This interindividual variation has profound implications in many ecological and evolutionary processes. A recent review proposed four main ecological causes of individual specialization: interspecific and intraspecific competition, ecological opportunity and predation. Using the isotopic signature of subsampled whiskers, we investigated to what degree three of these factors (interspecific and intraspecific competition and ecological opportunity) affect the population niche width and the level of individual foraging specialization in two fur seal species, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis), over several years. Population niche width was greater when the two seal species bred in allopatry (low interspecific competition) than in sympatry or when seals bred in high-density stabilized colonies (high intraspecific competition). In agreement with the niche variation hypothesis (NVH), higher population niche width was associated with higher interindividual niche variation. However, in contrast to the NVH, all Antarctic females increased their niche width during the interbreeding period when they had potential access to a wider diversity of foraging grounds and associated prey (high ecological opportunities), suggesting they all dispersed to a similar productive area. The degree of individual specialization varied among populations and within the annual cycle. Highest levels of interindividual variation were found in a context of lower interspecific or higher intraspecific competition. Contrasted results were found concerning the effect of ecological opportunity. Depending on seal species, females exhibited either a greater or lower degree of individual specialization during the interbreeding period, reflecting species-specific biological constraints

  9. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Goebel, Michael E; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how variation in the pattern and magnitude of parental effort influences allocation decisions in offspring. We determined the energy budget of Antarctic fur seal pups and examined the relative importance of timing of provisioning, pup traits (mass, condition, sex), and weather (wind chill and solar radiation) on allocation of energy obtained in milk by measuring milk energy intake, field metabolic rate (FMR), and growth rate in 48 Antarctic fur seal pups over three developmental stages (perinatal, premolt, and molt). The relative amount of milk energy used for growth was 59.1% ± 8.1% during the perinatal period but decreased to 23.4% ± 15.5% and 26.0% ± 13.9% during the premolt and molt. This decrease was associated with a greater amount of time spent fasting, along with an increase in pup activity while the mother was at sea foraging. Average daily milk intake, pup mass, and condition were all important in determining how much energy was available for growth, but the amount of energy obtained as milk was the single most important factor determining pup growth. While mean mass-specific FMR did not change with developmental stage (range = 1.74-1.77 mL O(2)/g/h), the factors that accounted for variation in FMR did. Weather (wind chill and solar radiation) and pup traits (mass and condition) influenced mass-specific FMR, but these impacts varied across development. This study provides information about the factors influencing how offspring allocate energy toward growth and maintenance and improves our predictions about how a changing environment may affect energy allocation in pups.

  10. Determining through numerical modeling the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system with low emissivity material and furred-airspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabed, Hamed H.; Swinton, M. [National Research Council Canada, Institute for Reserch in Construction, Ottawa, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper determined the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system with low emissivity material and furred airspace through numerical modelling. The model hygIRC-C , a 2D and 3D hygrothermal model, was used to conduct numerical simulations to determine the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system having a furred airspace assembly and incorporating low emissivity foil materials. This model accounts for surface-to-surface radiation between the surfaces of the furring, gypsum board and foil. A parametric was conducted to determine the effective thermal resistance of the foundation wall system as a function of foil emissivity. The results showed that, with the furring installed horizontally, a low foil emissivity of 0.05 can increase the wall R-value by as much as approximately 10%. A benchmarking of the present model against experimental data is currently being performed.

  11. Preliminary report on the aboriginal take of 41 female fur seals from the Sitka area, Alaska, 24 March-1 April, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the preliminary results of a study on the feeding habits and conditions of the reproductive tracts of fur seals. Collection methods are...

  12. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Semi-aquatic, Fur-bearing Mammal Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_s_mammal_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small semi-aquatic, fur-bearing mammals in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent areas of...

  13. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  14. Northern fur seal demography studies at San Miguel Island, California conducted from 1975-10-07 to 2014-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0141240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  15. Cysteine Mutational Studies Provide Insight into a Thiol-Based Redox Switch Mechanism of Metal and DNA Binding in FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Morte, Laura; Pellicer, Silvia; Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C.; Contreras, Lellys M.; Neira, José Luis; Abián, Olga; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is the main transcriptional regulator of genes involved in iron homeostasis in most prokaryotes. FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five cysteine residues, four of them arranged in two redox-active CXXC motifs. The protein needs not only metal but also reducing conditions to remain fully active in vitro. Through a mutational study of the cysteine residues present in FurA, we have investigated their involvement in metal and DNA binding. Results: Residue C101 that belongs to a conserved CXXC motif plays an essential role in both metal and DNA binding activities in vitro. Substitution of C101 by serine impairs DNA and metal binding abilities of FurA. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that the redox state of C101 is responsible for the protein ability to coordinate the metal corepressor. Moreover, the redox state of C101 varies with the presence or absence of C104 or C133, suggesting that the environments of these cysteines are mutually interdependent. Innovation: We propose that C101 is part of a thiol/disulfide redox switch that determines FurA ability to bind the metal corepressor. Conclusion: This mechanism supports a novel feature of a Fur protein that emerges as a regulator, which connects the response to changes in the intracellular redox state and iron management in cyanobacteria. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 173–185. PMID:26414804

  16. 中国毛皮产业发展历程与现状分析%Analysis of Development History and Current Situation of Fur Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑策; 张旭; 全颖; 凌立莹; 刘彦

    2013-01-01

    Chinese fur industry has a long history ,especially after the founding of New China .The Chinese fur industry has been developing rapidly ,China now has become the world's leading fur raw materials and fur products processing Country ,depending on the stage characteris-tics ,the fur industry can be divided into three times ,the paper elaborated on the development characteristics of different periods ,the policy envi-ronment and other issues ,and analyzes the current situation and problems of China's fur industry are facing .%中国毛皮产业历史悠久,尤其新中国成立以后,产业发展迅速,目前已成为世界上最主要的毛皮原料产地和毛皮产品加工地,根据发展速度、规模、方式的不同,将毛皮产业发展大体分为3个时期,详细阐述了不同时期的发展特点、政策环境等问题,并分析了中国毛皮产业的现状及存在的问题。

  17. The fur Gene as a New Phylogenetic Marker for Vibrionaceae Species Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has been used successfully in the identification of Vibrio species, the technique has several limitations. They include the fact that several locus amplifications and sequencing have to be performed, which still sometimes lead to doubtful identifications. Using...... from its use were in agreement with those observed for 16S rRNA analysis and MLSA. Furthermore, we developed a fur PCR sequencing-based method that allowed identification of Vibrio species. The discovery of the phylogenetic power of the fur gene and the development of a PCR method that can be used......Microbial taxonomy is essential in all areas of microbial science. The 16S rRNA gene sequence is one of the main phylogenetic species markers; however, it does not provide discrimination in the family Vibrionaceae, where other molecular techniques allow better interspecies resolution. Although...

  18. Anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões europeus hígidos

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Aparecida Ayres Garcia; Luana Célia Stunitz da Silva; Rogério Ribas Lange; Tilde Rodrigues Froes

    2011-01-01

    Nos últimos anos o furão (Mustela putorius furo) tornou-se um conhecido animal de estimação sendo observada uma população em constante crescimento no Brasil, e por conseqüência cada vez mais presente em clínicas veterinárias. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões-europeus hígidos. Foram utilizados 20 animais, dentre os quais nove eram machos e onze fêmeas, com idade média total de três anos. Localizaram-se em 100% dos f...

  19. Characterization of a new epidemic necrotic pyoderma in fur animals and its association with Arcanobacterium phocae infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Nordgren

    Full Text Available A new type of pyoderma was detected in Finnish fur animals in 2007. The disease continues to spread within and between farms, with severe and potentially fatal symptoms. It compromises animal welfare and causes considerable economic losses to farmers. A case-control study was performed in 2010-2011 to describe the entity and to identify the causative agent. Altogether 99 fur animals were necropsied followed by pathological and microbiological examination. The data indicated that the disease clinically manifests in mink (Neovison vison by necrotic dermatitis of the feet and facial skin. In finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides, it causes painful abscesses in the paws. Foxes (Vulpes lagopus are affected by severe conjunctivitis and the infection rapidly spreads to the eyelids and facial skin. A common finding at necropsy was necrotic pyoderma. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of a number of potential causative agents, including a novel Streptococcus sp. The common finding from all diseased animals of all species was Arcanobacterium phocae. This bacterium has previously been isolated from marine mammals with skin lesions but this is the first report of A. phocae isolated in fur animals with pyoderma. The results obtained from this study implicate A. phocae as a potential causative pathogen of fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP and support observations that the epidemic may have originated in a species-shift of the causative agent from marine mammals. The variable disease pattern and the presence of other infectious agents (in particular the novel Streptococcus sp. suggest a multifactorial etiology for FENP, and further studies are needed to determine the environmental, immunological and infectious factors contributing to the disease.

  20. The influence of the social thermoregulation on the cold-adaptive growth of BAT in hairless and furred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmaier, G

    1975-03-26

    When mice were living in groups they developed less brown adipose tissue (BAT) during cold adaptation as compared with single mice. This effect of social aggregation was more pronounced in genetically hairless mice than in furred mice. In both races of mice the most significant difference in BAT growth was found between single mice and pairs of mice, indicating that the formation of pairs causes the relatively most effective improvement of thermal balance.

  1. Effects of a 17q21 chromosome gene variant, tobacco smoke and furred pets on infant wheeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E V; Loft, S; Raaschou-Nielsen, O

    2012-01-01

    investigated associations between the rs7216389 polymorphism in the 17q21 locus affecting ORMDL3 expression and the risk for recurrent wheeze and interactions with exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets during pregnancy and infancy using a birth cohort of 101¿042 infants. Rs7216389 was significantly...... association between pets and wheeze among homozygous wild-type carriers and a negative association among homozygous variant allele carriers. There was no interaction between rs7216389 and tobacco smoke exposure....

  2. Cape Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus predation on Cape Cormorants Phalacrocorax capensis and other birds at Dyer Island, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, M.M.; Brooke, R.K.; Gildenhuys, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Predation on seabirds by fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) has been widely reported (Glegg 1945, Hamilton 1946, Spellerberg 1975, Bonner 1981, Bonner & Hunter 1982, Lucas & McLaren 1988, Gjertz 1990, Riedman 1990). The incidents were, however, at low levels of intensity and the predatory behaviour appeared to have been restricted to small subgroups. Penguins (Spheniscidae) and auks (Alcidae) are the families most commonly preyed upon, whereas petrels (Procellariidae), d...

  3. Isotopic and genetic insights into the persistence of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, P. L.; Hadly, E. A.; Pinsky, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    What factors allow some species to survive in the face of climate change, disease, or anthropogenic disturbance? How do species shift their geographic distributions in the face of such challenges? These pressing questions in ecology and conservation biology are difficult to answer when looking solely at modern populations or the recent historical record. We explore these questions through analysis of DNA and the isotopic composition of modern and ancient northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus). The NFS is an eared seal (otariid) that ranges along the north Pacific, where it breeds on offshore islands; by far the largest modern rookeries are on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. The species shows a high degree of philopatry, and females feed while nursing, wean pups at 4 months, and spend the rest of the year foraging far offshore further south. Archaelogical study reveals that Holocene NFS had numerous breeding colonies from the Channel Islands to the Aleutians. Temperate latitude colonies collapsed in the late Holocene in response to hunting pressures and perhaps, environmental change. The species has recolonized parts of its former range since the 1960s. Despite facing similar threats, other marine mammals have failed to rebound (e.g., Guadalupe fur seals) or have exceptionally low genetic diversity indicating recent and prolonged bottlenecks (e.g., northern elephant seals). Isotopic analyses of sub-fossil growth series indicate that extirpated mid-latitude colonies weaned much later (≥12 months), like all other otariid species that breed at temperate latitudes. As a result, females were tied to rookery sites year-round and had a much-reduced migratory range relative to modern NFS females breeding in the Bering Sea, a result also supported by isotopic analyses. Serial coalescent simulations of ancient and modern DNA reveals that exceptionally high migration rates and Arctic refugia provided resilience to NFS. These traits allowed the species to

  4. The Iron-Dependent Regulator Fur Controls Pheromone Signaling Systems and Luminescence in the Squid Symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Alecia N.; Lyell, Noreen L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria often use pheromones to coordinate group behaviors in specific environments. While high cell density is required for pheromones to achieve stimulatory levels, environmental cues can also influence pheromone accumulation and signaling. For the squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114, bioluminescence requires pheromone-mediated regulation, and this signaling is induced in the host to a greater extent than in culture, even at an equivalent cell density. Our goal is to better understand this environment-specific control over pheromone signaling and bioluminescence. Previous work with V. fischeri MJ1 showed that iron limitation induces luminescence, and we recently found that ES114 encounters a low-iron environment in its host. Here we show that ES114 induces luminescence at lower cell density and achieves brighter luminescence in low-iron media. This iron-dependent effect on luminescence required ferric uptake regulator (Fur), which we propose influences two pheromone signaling master regulators, LitR and LuxR. Genetic and bioinformatic analyses suggested that under low-iron conditions, Fur-mediated repression of litR is relieved, enabling more LitR to perform its established role as an activator of luxR. Interestingly, Fur may similarly control the LitR homolog SmcR of Vibrio vulnificus. These results reveal an intriguing regulatory link between low-iron conditions, which are often encountered in host tissues, and pheromone-dependent master regulators. PMID:23315731

  5. Variation in the mitochondrial control region in the Juan Fernández fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, S; Francis, J; Boness, D; Fleischer, R

    2000-01-01

    The Juan Fernandez fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii was allegedly extremely abundant, numbering as many as 4 million prior to sealing which continued from the late 17th to the late 19th century. By the end of the sealing era the species was thought to be extinct until they were rediscovered at Alejandro Selkirk Island in 1965. Historic records would suggest that the species underwent a substantial population bottleneck as a result of commercial sealing, and from population genetic theory we predicted that the genetic variability in the species would be low. We compared the mtDNA control region sequence from 28 Juan Fernandez fur seals from two islands in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (Chile). Contrary to expectation, we found that variation in the Juan Fernandez fur seals is not greatly reduced in comparison to other pinniped taxa, especially given the apparent severity of the bottleneck they underwent. We also determined minor, but significantly different haplotype frequencies among the populations on the two islands (Alejandro Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe Islands), but no difference in their levels of variability. Such differences may have arisen stochastically via a recent founder event from Alejandro Selkirk to Robinson Crusoe Island or subsequent genetic drift.

  6. Evaluation of the concentration of allergens from mites in fur and households dust of dogs with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dévaki L. de Assunção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the concentration of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in the fur and households of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD and 20 healthy dogs. The diagnosis of AD was clinical based on Favrot’s criteria. Dust samples were collected with a domestic vacuum cleaner. For each site, 1m2 was vacuumed for 2 min. The samples were collected in separate filters, transferred into plastic containers, sealed and kept frozen until ELISA analysis. In the fur of atopic dogs the average concentration of Der p 1 was 0.25μg/g compared to 0.03μg/g in healthy dogs. In households with atopic dogs the highest concentrations of Der p 1 were found in carpets (2.18μg/g, followed by couches (1.53μg/g, beds (1.14μg/g, dogs’ bed linen (0.64μg/g and floors (0.14μg/g. The concentrations of Der p 1 on carpets, couches and beds were significantly higher than in atopic dogs’ fur (p0.05. The concentrations of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 were equivalent in atopic and non-atopic dog’s households. Among the allergens studied, Der p 1 was the most commonly found, predominantly in carpets and couches.

  7. Superb winter fur insulation in the small Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the morphology and thermal characteristics of winter pelage from two Siberian musk deer Moschus moschiferus (aged 5 and 41 mo.; 5.7 and 9.5 kg and two Eurasian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus (aged >48 mo.; 73 and 79 kg.  The depth of the fur over the back of musk deer was less (approximately 30 mm than in reindeer (approximately 40 mm.  Guard hairs of musk deer were longer (mean = 50.0 mm and had greater diameter at half-length (mean = 314.4 μm than those of reindeer (mean = 38.6mm and = 243.9 μm, respectively.  The thermal characteristics (thermal conductivity and resistance of the winter pelage of the two species were nevertheless similar (0.057 W·m-1·K-1 and 0.79 K·m2·W-1; and 0.037 W·m-1 ·K-1 and 1.00 K·m2·W-1, respectively despite a tenfold difference in their body mass.

  8. Fur and iron transport proteins in the Brazilian purpuric fever clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, L M; Bell, E C; Crosa, J H; Actis, L A

    1999-07-01

    The Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius causes a fatal septicaemic disease, resembling fulminant meningococcal sepsis, in children. When isolate F3031 was grown under iron-limiting conditions, the presence of several iron-regulated proteins of 38-110 kDa was revealed by electrophoretic analysis and a Fur homologue was shown by immunoblotting. Dot-blot assays and immunoblotting indicated that BPF cells bound human transferrin and contained transferrin-binding proteins in the outer membrane. However, the binding activity and the biosynthesis of these proteins were detected even under iron-rich conditions. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of a periplasmic protein related to the ferric iron-binding protein A (FbpA), the major iron-binding protein described in Neisseria spp. However, the FbpA homologue in strain F3031 was constitutively expressed and was smaller than the periplasmic protein detected in H. influenzae type b strain Eagan. The periplasm of strain F3031 also contained a protein related to the Streptococcus parasanguis FimA protein which recently has been shown to be involved in iron acquisition in Yersinia pestis. Although the Eagan and F3031 FimA homologues had a similar mol. wt, of 31 kDa, the expression of the BPF fimA-like gene was not regulated by the iron concentration of the culture medium.

  9. Effects of the presence of official-looking volunteers on harassment of New Zealand fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Acevedo, Lisa; Boren, Laura

    2011-06-01

    An increased number of tourists viewing animals in the wild have increased stress on these animals (hereafter wildlife). Many wildlife-viewing locations rely on voluntary compliance with posted regulations to protect animals from tourists because of the expense of employing on-site enforcement personnel. Voluntary compliance, however, is ineffective. The presence of official-looking volunteers may decrease the incidence of wildlife harassment by tourists. To test this possibility, we observed tourists interacting with 5- to 12-month-old New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) at the popular Ohau Stream waterfall while in the absence or presence of a young woman in plain sight wearing a neon vest (i.e., observer) and when an observer was not present. We observed 254 tourist groups at the waterfall when young seals were present. The percentage of groups in which at least one person harassed (approached, touched, or threw objects) a young seal was two-thirds lower when the official-looking observer was present. Frequency of harassment was inversely related to observer presence. Programs in which volunteers work at tourist sites are popular in countries with high tourism rates, such as New Zealand. Our results show that a relatively inexpensive and effective tourism-management strategy may be to post such volunteers as observers at sites where tourists view wildlife.

  10. Resting metabolic rate and heat increment of feeding in juvenile South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassis, M; Rodríguez, D H; Ieno, E N; Denuncio, P E; Loureiro, J; Davis, R W

    2014-02-01

    Bio-energetic models used to characterize an animal's energy budget require the accurate estimate of different variables such as the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the heat increment of feeding (HIF). In this study, we estimated the in air RMR of wild juvenile South American fur seals (SAFS; Arctocephalus australis) temporarily held in captivity by measuring oxygen consumption while at rest in a postabsorptive condition. HIF, which is an increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion, assimilation and nutrient interconversion, was estimated as the difference in resting metabolic rate between the postabsorptive condition and the first 3.5h postprandial. As data were hierarchically structured, linear mixed effect models were used to compare RMR measures under both physiological conditions. Results indicated a significant increase (61%) for the postprandial RMR compared to the postabsorptive condition, estimated at 17.93±1.84 and 11.15±1.91mL O2 min(-1)kg(-1), respectively. These values constitute the first estimation of RMR and HIF in this species, and should be considered in the energy budgets for juvenile SAFS foraging at-sea.

  11. Marine debris ingestion by the South American Fur Seal from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuncio, Pablo; Mandiola, María Agustina; Pérez Salles, Sofía Belén; Machado, Rodrigo; Ott, Paulo H; De Oliveira, Larissa Rosa; Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we examined the ingestion of marine debris (MD) in South American fur seals (SAFS), Arctocephalus australis, found dead in coastal beaches of northern Argentina and southern Brazil. Seven percent of 133 SAFS analyzed presented marine debris in their stomach (n=10), with no differences between sampling countries (Brazil n=7, Argentina n=3) and sexes (female=3; male=6). However, significant differences were observed between ages classes, with MD exclusively present in stomach contents of young specimens. Plastics represents 90% of MD ingested by the SAFS, whereas regarding the source, fishery-related items (e.g. monofilament lines) were the main MD (70%), with a lesser proportion of packaging (e.g. pieces of bags). Low numbers but large size pieces of MD were found in each stomach affected. Negative effects on the individuals could not be fully evaluated. Therefore, the potential impacts of the marine debris to the SAFS deserve further elucidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene discovery in the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skin transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph I

    2011-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing provides a powerful new approach for developing functional genomic tools for nonmodel species, helping to narrow the gap between studies of model organisms and those of natural populations. Consequently, massively parallel 454 sequencing was used to characterize a normalized cDNA library derived from skin biopsy samples of twelve Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) individuals. Over 412 Mb of sequence data were generated, comprising 1.4 million reads of average length 286 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler 2.3 yielded 156 contigs plus 22 869 isotigs, which in turn clustered into 18,576 isogroups. Almost half of the assembled transcript sequences showed significant similarity to the nr database, revealing a functionally diverse array of genes. Moreover, 97.9% of these mapped to the dog (Canis lupis familiaris) genome, with a strong positive relationship between the number of sequences locating to a given chromosome and the length of that chromosome in the dog indicating a broad genomic distribution. Average depth of coverage was also almost 20-fold, sufficient to detect several thousand putative microsatellite loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms. This study constitutes an important step towards developing genomic resources with which to address consequential questions in pinniped ecology and evolution. It also supports an earlier but smaller study showing that skin tissue can be a rich source of expressed genes, with important implications for studying the genomics not only of marine mammals, but also more generally of species that cannot be destructively sampled.

  13. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  14. Mass mortality of adult male subantarctic fur seals: are alien mice the culprits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Nico de Bruyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass mortalities of marine mammals due to infectious agents are increasingly reported. However, in contrast to previous die-offs, which were indiscriminate with respect to sex and age, here we report a land-based mass mortality of Subantarctic fur seals with apparent exclusivity to adult males. An infectious agent with a male-predilection is the most plausible explanation for this die-off. Although pathogens with gender-biased transmission and pathologies are unusual, rodents are known sources of male-biased infectious agents and the invasive Mus musculus house mouse, occurs in seal rookeries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular screening for male-biased pathogens in this potential rodent reservoir host revealed the absence of Cardiovirus and Leptospirosis genomes in heart and kidney samples, respectively, but identified a novel Streptococcus species with 30% prevalence in mouse kidneys. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Inter-species transmission through environmental contamination with this novel bacterium, whose congenerics display male-bias and have links to infirmity in seals and terrestrial mammals (including humans, highlights the need to further evaluate disease risks posed by alien invasive mice to native species, on this and other islands.

  15. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  16. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  17. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kato, T.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  18. Fur is required for the activation of virulence gene expression through the induction of the sae regulatory system in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miranda; Sengupta, Mrittika; Purves, Joanne; Tarrant, Emma; Williams, Peter H; Cockayne, Alan; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Stephenson, Robert; Ledala, Nagender; Wilkinson, Brian J; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Morrissey, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that both Sae and Fur are required for the induction of eap and emp expression in low iron. In this study, we show that expression of sae is also iron-regulated, as sae expression is activated by Fur in low iron. We also demonstrate that both Fur and Sae are required for full induction of the oxidative stress response and expression of non-covalently bound surface proteins in low-iron growth conditions. In addition, Sae is required for the induced expression of the important virulence factors isdA and isdB in low iron. Our studies also indicate that Fur is required for the induced expression of the global regulators Agr and Rot in low iron and a number of extracellular virulence factors such as the haemolysins which are also Sae- and Agr-regulated. Hence, we show that Fur is central to a complex regulatory network that is required for the induced expression of a number of important S. aureus virulence determinants in low iron.

  19. Role of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Fur regulator and small RNAs RfrA and RfrB in iron homeostasis and interaction with host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Dozois, Charles M; Daigle, France

    2013-03-01

    Iron is an essential element but can be toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, its acquisition and storage require tight control. Salmonella encodes the global regulator Fur (ferric uptake regulator) and the small regulatory non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) RfrA and RfrB, homologues of RyhB. The role of these iron homeostasis regulators was investigated in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). Strains containing either single or combined deletions of these regulators were obtained. The mutants were tested for growth in low and high iron conditions, resistance to oxidative stress, expression and production of siderophores, and during interaction with host cells. The fur mutant showed a growth defect and was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. The expression of the sRNAs was responsible for these defects. Siderophore expression by S. Typhi and both sRNAs were regulated by iron and by Fur. Fur contributed to invasion of epithelial cells, and was shown for the first time to play a role in phagocytosis and intracellular survival of S. Typhi in human macrophages. The sRNAs RfrA and RfrB were not required for interaction with epithelial cells, but both sRNAs were important for optimal intracellular replication in macrophages. In S. Typhi, Fur is a repressor of both sRNAs, and loss of either RfrA or RfrB resulted in distinct phenotypes, suggesting a non-redundant role for these regulatory RNAs.

  20. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F J; Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G

    1996-01-01

    During a one year period, 944 dogs from the Municipal kennel of Barcelona were examined to detect animals with suspected dermatophytosis. Only a few animals (1.8%) presented skin lesions but none of them had dermatophytosis. A representative number of dogs without visible skin lesions (n = 172), selected at random, were used to carry out a seasonal study of the mycobiota of their fur. Fifteen isolates belonging to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton were isolated from 14 of the 172 (8.1%) dogs without lesions. The identity of these fungi was Microsporum gypseum (6/15), Trichophyton terrestre (4/15), M. canis (2/15), M. cookei (2/15) and Trichophyton ajelloi (1/15) (one strain each of M. gypseum and T. ajelloi were isolated from one dog). Species of Penicillium (% prevalence = 89.5%), Alternaria (86.6%), Cladosporium (84.9%), Aspergillus (77.3%), Scopulariopsis (65.7%) and Chrysosporium (64.5%) were the most prevalent. No significant differences in the fungal biota were observed with respect to age, gender, hair length or between mixed and pure breed dogs. A large number of isolates, including species belonging to the genera Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea and Scopulariopsis, that macroscopically and/or microscopically resemble dermatophytes and may be mistaken for them, produced a red color change in Dermatophyte Test Medium. No significant seasonal difference was detected among the isolates belonging to the most frequently encountered genera, with the exception of Scopulariopsis (higher in summer and autumn) and Chrysosporium (higher in summer). Species from other genera, with lower occurrence also presented significant differences in their seasonal distribution. Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium and Phoma spp. presented maximum prevalence peaks in spring, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Phoma and Rhizopus spp. in summer and Geotrichum and Mucor spp. in autumn. The Microsporum and Trichophyton species were more frequently isolated in summer.

  1. Pollution profile and biodegradation characteristics of fur-suede processing effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Töre, G; Insel, G; Ubay Cokgör, E; Ferlier, E; Kabdaşli, I; Orhon, D

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of stream segregation on the biodegradation characteristics of wastewaters generated by fur-suede processing. It was conducted on a plant located in an organized industrial district in Turkey. A detailed in-plant analysis of the process profile and the resulting pollution profile in terms of significant parameters indicated the characteristics of a strong wastewater with a maximum total COD of 4285 mg L(-1), despite the excessive wastewater generation of 205 m3 (ton skin)(-1). Respirometric analysis by model calibration yielded slow biodegradation kinetics and showed that around 50% of the particulate organics were utilized at a rate similar to that of endogenous respiration. A similar analysis on the segregated wastewater streams suggested that biodegradation of the plant effluent is controlled largely by the initial washing/pickling operations. The effect of other effluent streams was not significant due to their relatively low contribution to the overall organic load. The respirometric tests showed that the biodegradation kinetics of the joint treatment plant influent of the district were substantially improved and exhibited typical levels reported for tannery wastewater, so that the inhibitory impact was suppressed to a great extent by dilution and mixing with effluents of the other plants. The chemical treatment step in the joint treatment plant removed the majority of the particulate organics so that 80% of the available COD was utilized in the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) test, a ratio quite compatible with the biodegradable COD fractions of tannery wastewater. Consequently, process kinetics and especially the hydrolysis rate appeared to be significantly improved.

  2. Temporal allocation of foraging effort in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500-1600 m·h(-1 and a reduction in postdive duration (111-90 s. This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (2.9 d effort increased up to 2-3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips between 4-5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species.

  3. Temporal Allocation of Foraging Effort in Female Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving) with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s) but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500–1600 m·h−1) and a reduction in postdive duration (111–90 s). This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs) or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (2.9 d) effort increased up to 2–3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips) between 4–5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability) working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species. PMID:24244511

  4. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  6. Do black-furred animals compensate for high solar absorption with smaller hairs? A test with a polymorphic squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. FRATTO, Andrew K. DAVIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In polymorphic mammalian species that display multiple color forms, those with dark, or melanic pelage would be prone to overheating, especially if they live in warm climates, because their fur absorbs solar energy at a higher rate. However, experimental studies indicate that certain physical properties of fur of dark individuals appear to prevent, or minimize heat stress, although it is not clear what properties do so. Here, we tested the possibility that black-furred individuals simply have shorter or thinner hair fibers, which would create a lighter (in terms of weight coat or one that allows greater air flow for evaporative coo- ling. We examined museum specimens of eastern fox squirrels Sciurus niger, a species native to the United States and one that displays brown, grey or all-black pelage color, and used image analysis procedures to quantify hairs from the dorsal surface and tail. From examination of 43 specimens (19 brown, 9 black and 15 grey, and 1,720 hairs, we found no significant difference in hair lengths across color morphs, but significant differences in hair fiber widths. Black squirrels had thinner body hairs than other forms (7% thinner, but thicker tail hairs (9% thicker than the others. Given that the dorsal surface would be directly exposed to solar radiation, we interpret this to be an adaptation to prevent heat stress during the day. The thicker tail hairs may be an adaptation for nighttime thermoregulation, since squirrels sleep with their tails wrapped around their bodies. These results add to a growing literature body of the functional significance of mammalian pelage [Current Zoology 57 (6: 731–736, 2011].

  7. Do black-furred animals compensate for high solar absorption with smaller hairs? A test with a polymorphic squirrel species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melanie A. FRATTO; Andrew K. DAVIS

    2011-01-01

    In polymorphic mammalian species that display multiple color forms,those with dark,or melanic pelage would be prone to overheating,especially if they live in warm climates,because their fur absorbs solar energy at a higher rate.However,experimental studies indicate that certain physical properties of fur of dark individuals appear to prevent,or minimize heat stress,although it is not clear what properties do so.Here,we tested the possibility that black-furred individuals simply have shorter or thinner hair fibers,which would create a lighter (in terms of weight) coat or one that allows greater air flow for evaporative cooling.We examined museum specimens of eastern fox squirrels Sciurus niger,a species native to the United States and one that displays brown,grey or all-black pelage color,and used image analysis procedures to quantify hairs from the dorsal surface and tail.From examination of 43 specimens (19 brown,9 black and 15 grey),and 1,720 hairs,we found no significant difference in hair lengths across color morphs,but significant differences in hair fiber widths.Black squirrels had thinner body hairs than other forms (7% thinner),but thicker tail hairs (9% thicker) than the others.Given that the dorsal surface would be directly exposed to solar radiation,we interpret this to be an adaptation to prevent heat stress during the day.The thicker tail hairs may be an adaptation for nighttime thermoregulation,since squirrels sleep with their tails wrapped around their bodies.These results add to a growing literature body of the functional significance of mammalian pelage [Current Zoology 57 (6):731-736,2011].

  8. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Socha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license evaluation were obtained by males in majority of the traits. Statistic analysis of body weight showed that the highest body weight characterized males of platinum and white Hedlunda colour types. Minks of standard and pastel colour types were characterised by lower body weight. The mean body weight of males was 2581.17g and of females 1401.42g (there is a clear sexual dimorphism in minks. Minks of white Hedlunda colour type were characterised by the highest means of colour purity, both males and females. Other colour types obtained lower means. The best fur quality characterised platinum minks. Variability of traits, measured by variability coefficient, had the highest values in animal weight (in grams and ranged from 6.0 to 32.0%. Variability of total number of scores ranged from 2.00 to 8.20%. Positive phenotypic correlations were the highest between body size (in points and total number of scores (0.676, while the lowest were obtained between body size (in points and fur quality (–0.178.

  9. Identification Method of Commercially Available Imitation Mink Fur%市售仿水貂毛皮的鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 袁玉平; 姜苏杰

    2014-01-01

    As mink fur has high economic value, it is often appeared that commercially available fur is counterfeited with weasel , beaver (Castor) and muskrat (Qing Gendiao) fur, which is very difficult for consumers even professionals to distinguish through the senses. In this paper, by means of modern analysis instruments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe scale characteristics of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur;the fiber fineness instrument (FFI) was used to observe internal ultrastructure of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur. The results showed that: scanning electron microscope analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and beaver fur, mink and muskrat fur;but as the weasel and mink belong to the same carnivores Mustelidae, the downy flake morphology were basically the same, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. The fiber fineness instrument analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and weasel fur, mink and beaver fur;but the mink and muskrat villous morphology were partly consistent, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. Therefore, in the actual identification process, the two kinds of methods are corroborated each other, which can be used as the material basis for the identification of mink fur.%水貂毛皮具有很高的经济价值,市售毛皮产品中经常出现以黄狼(黄鼠狼)、河狸(海狸)、麝鼠(青根貂)毛皮来仿冒水貂毛皮的现象,令普通消费者甚至专业人士很难通过感官区分。本文借助现代分析仪器,利用扫描电镜法(SEM)观察水貂、黄狼、河狸、麝鼠毛皮绒毛的鳞片层特征;利用纤维细度仪法(FFI)观察这四种动物毛皮绒毛的内部超微结构。结果表明:通过扫描电镜分析可以有效区分水貂与河狸、水貂与麝鼠的毛皮,但由于黄狼和水貂均属于食肉目鼬科,其绒毛的鳞片形态基本一致,无法被有效区分;通过纤维细度仪分析可

  10. Biomonitoring the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methy-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Canine Fur

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Dan; Neuman, Zachary L.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meat, poultry, and fish. PhIP is a rodent carcinogen and thought to contribute to several diet-related cancers in humans. PhIP is present in the hair of human omnivores but not in the hair of vegetarians. We have now identified PhIP in the fur of fourteen out of sixteen healthy dogs consuming different brands of commercial pet food. The levels of PhIP in canine f...

  11. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  12. Study on Relationship between the Thickness of Tongue Fur and the Expressions of Apoptosis-related Genes of the Tongue Epithelial Cells in Patients with Diseases of the Digestive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhengzhi; Li Ming; Zhang Yongfeng; Chen Manyin

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the thickness of tongue fur, apoptosis of the tongue fur epithelial cells and expressions of apoptosis-related genes in diseases of the digestive system,apoptosis-related genes TGF-β3, fas mRNA and protein products were detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyurine triphosphate (d-UTP) nick-end labeling(TUNEL)technique, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical methods, and image analysis technique,respectively. Results indicated that compared with the normal tongue fur, over-expression of fas gene was found in the peeling fur with an increase in cell apoptosis, while a low-expression of TGF-β3 in the thick fur with a decrease in cell apoptosis. The changes in expression levels of fas and TGF-β3 genes,apoptosis-promoting genes in the tongue fur epithelial cells, had a similar tendency of cell apoptosis level.It is concluded that the changes in expression levels of fas and TGF-β3 are possibly important reasons influencing apoptosis of epithelial cells of tongue fur and leading to changes in thickness of the tongue fur.

  13. The Use Level of Chrome Tannage For Rabbit Fur Leather Observed on Tearing Strength, Stitch Tearing Strength, Water Absorption and Organoleptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the appropiate of chrome tannage level for rabbit fur leather quality. The result were expected to contribute information for many people who relate with tanning technology, especialy about the use level of chrome tannage for fur leather quality and could as patern to hold further research.The material that used were 12 pieces of three months of rabbit skin. The method is Completely Randomized Design, consist of three treatments of chrome tannage (Chromosal B, they were : B1 (Chromosal B 6%, B2 (Chromosal B 8%, and B3 (Chromosal B 10%. Each of treatment hold on four replications. The variables which measured are tearing strength, stitch teraing strength, water absorption and organoleptic consist of “kekuatan bulu”’ “kerataan bulu” and “kelemasan kulit” in fur leather. Data was analysed by analysis variance followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of this research show that the use level of chromosal B give very significant influence among tearing strength, stitch tearing strength and water absorption. It gave significant influence among the organoleptic test. Based on the result, can be concluded that 10 percent of chrome tannage (chromosal B, produce the best result on tearing strength, stitch tearing strength, water absorption and organoleptic for “kekuatan bulu” and “kerataan bulu”. The incrase of chrome tannage offer will decrease the “kelemasan kulit” in fur leather and the best “kelemasan kulit” produced by the lowest chrome tannage offer, that was 6 percent of Chromosal B. The best quality of rabbit fur leather produced by 10 percent of chrome tannage offer.   Keywords: chrome, tannage, fur leather

  14. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Geisler, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions.

  16. Experimental Infection of Mink Enforces the Role of Arcanobacterium phocae as Causative Agent of Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP) is a severe, often lethal infectious disease affecting all three fur animal species: mink (Neovision vision), foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Previous studies showed an association between Arcanobacterium phocae and FENP. An experimental infection was conducted to confirm the ability of A. phocae to infect mink either alone or concurrently with a novel Streptococcus sp. found together with A. phocae in many cases of FENP. Different inoculation methods were tested to study possible routes of transmission. Typical signs, and gross- and histopathological findings for FENP were detected when naïve mink were infected with the tissue extract of mink with FENP, using a subcutaneous/ intradermal infection route. Edema, hemorrhage, necrosis and pus formation were detected in the infection site. A pure culture preparation of A. phocae alone or concurrently with the novel Streptococcus sp. caused severe acute signs of lethargy, apathy and anorexia and even mortality. The histopathological findings were similar to those found in naturally occurring cases of FENP. In contrast, the perorally infected mink presented no clinical signs nor any gross- or histopathological lesions. This study showed that A. phocae is able to cause FENP. The study also indicated that predisposing factors such as the environment, the general condition of the animals, temperature and skin trauma contribute to the development of the disease. PMID:27973532

  17. Fur Animals' Vaccines and its Application%毛皮动物疫苗与使用原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门晓林; 王晓龙

    2013-01-01

    毛皮动物主要疾病目前都依赖于疫苗进行防控和治疗,对于促进养殖业的发展起到了巨大的作用。但是众多养殖户对疫苗以及疫苗的使用等方面还认识模糊,甚至存在着错误的理解,不仅给疫苗的正确使用带来影响,也增加了一些不必要的纠纷。本文对我国当前毛皮动物疫苗情况加以简要回顾和梳理,以期对实际应用有所帮助。%At present, the main diseases of fur animals are dependent on the vaccines for prevention and treat-ment, which has played a huge role in promoting the development of breeding industry. While ambiguous knowl-edge towards what is vaccine and how to use vaccine is still exist in farmer′s minds;even there is wrong under-standing of vaccines. All those not only affect the correct use of the vaccines, but also rose some unnecessary dis-putes. In this article the current situation of fur animals' vaccines is briefly reviewed and a little help is expected for the practical application.

  18. Effects of a 17q21 chromosome gene variant, tobacco smoke and furred pets on infant wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, E V; Loft, S; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Vogel, U; Andersen, P S; Sørensen, M

    2012-01-01

    The first common genetic factor identified for pediatric asthma by genome-wide association is the chromosome 17q21 locus, harbouring the ORMDL3 gene. ORMDL3 is involved in facilitation of endoplasmic reticulum-mediated inflammatory responses, believed to underlie its asthma association. We investigated associations between the rs7216389 polymorphism in the 17q21 locus affecting ORMDL3 expression and the risk for recurrent wheeze and interactions with exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets during pregnancy and infancy using a birth cohort of 101,042 infants. Rs7216389 was significantly associated with recurrent wheeze risk among 18-month-old infants. There was a 1.35-fold higher risk of recurrent wheeze among homozygous variant allele carriers compared with homozygous wild-type allele carriers. There was significant interaction between rs7216389 and domestic furred pets, with a positive association between pets and wheeze among homozygous wild-type carriers and a negative association among homozygous variant allele carriers. There was no interaction between rs7216389 and tobacco smoke exposure.

  19. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  20. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  1. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2017-04-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s(-1)) and high (6 m s(-1)) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  2. Volcano-climate interactions during the PETM and U-Pb dating from the Fur Formation, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan; Augland, Lars; Svensen, Henrik; Tegner, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Willumsen, Pi

    2016-04-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~56 Ma is one of the most extreme global warming events in Earth's history. Vast quantities of CO2 and CH4 were released to the atmosphere, causing a rapid (within 20,000 years) 5-6 °C warming that persisted for ~170,000 years. The PETM occurred during an abnormally warm period in Earth history, and was followed by other hyperthermal events later in the Eocene. The PETM also coincided with the second and major pulse of magmatism from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) during the break-up of Laurentia and Eurasia at 54-56 Ma. Evidence of explosive volcanism is prevalent at Fur, an island in northern Denmark, where over 180 distinct >1 cm thick ash horizons are preserved in a shallow marine succession (numbered from #-39 to #+140). These ash layers are believed to have originated from volcanic centres in east Greenland and western UK, which indicates that that they were formed during very large volcanic eruptions. Here we present the results of two key sections of the Fur Formation: a beach section at Stolleklint that includes sediment deposited syn-PETM, and a quarry section at Jenshøj that encompasses post-PETM sediments. A detailed chemostratigraphic log of δ13C (TOC) and δ15N values through the section suggests that there may be part of sequence missing, either through glaciotectonism or a depositional hiatus. The δ13C values around ash #-33 are typical of the PETM negative carbon isotope excursion (-31 to -32 ‰), yet are back to background values of ~-26 ‰ just four metres up section. The quarry section around ash #+19 displays further variations in δ13C values, suggesting a coincidence with one of the later Eocene hyperthermal events. High precision U-Pb dating of magmatic zircons from ash layer #+19 conforms to a post-PETM depositional age, giving a mean deposition rate of approximately ~5 cm kyr-1. The correlation between the largest ash layers (#-33 and #+19) and the largest perturbations to

  3. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four...... principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...... to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish...

  4. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    the consequences of operating with several observers. Animal based measures on 9 Danish mink farms were taken in November 2011. Eight observers individually, but in paris on herd level, carried out data collection on the measures involving subjective grading, e.g. mink "activity", "injuries" and "fur......-chewing" on approximately 120 cages with mink per farm. The assessment of the two observers gave similar frequencies of welfare problems and thus similar welfare assessments. The individual problems observed were however, not the same leading to poor or fair, but rarely good inter observer reliability. Despite the skilled...... assessors, the short training was not sufficient to get highly reliable results. No overall difference was found between the inter observer reliability of cages with ≤2 or ≥3 mink in a cage. More training and better training material and, for some measures, observation procedures are needed in order...

  5. Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus use raptorial biting and suction feeding when targeting prey in different foraging scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hocking

    Full Text Available Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni dsb gene expression is regulated by iron in a Fur-dependent manner and by a translational coupling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowska Anna D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many bacterial extracytoplasmic proteins are stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges that are formed post-translationally between their cysteine residues. This protein modification plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis, and is facilitated by the Dsb (disulfide bond family of the redox proteins. These proteins function in two parallel pathways in the periplasmic space: an oxidation pathway and an isomerization pathway. The Dsb oxidative pathway in Campylobacter jejuni is more complex than the one in the laboratory E. coli K-12 strain. Results In the C. jejuni 81-176 genome, the dsb genes of the oxidative pathway are arranged in three transcriptional units: dsbA2-dsbB-astA, dsbA1 and dba-dsbI. Their transcription responds to an environmental stimulus - iron availability - and is regulated in a Fur-dependent manner. Fur involvement in dsb gene regulation was proven by a reporter gene study in a C. jejuni wild type strain and its isogenic fur mutant. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA confirmed that analyzed genes are members of the Fur regulon but each of them is regulated by a disparate mechanism, and both the iron-free and the iron-complexed Fur are able to bind in vitro to the C. jejuni promoter regions. This study led to identification of a new iron- and Fur-regulated promoter that drives dsbA1 gene expression in an indirect way. Moreover, the present work documents that synthesis of DsbI oxidoreductase is controlled by the mechanism of translational coupling. The importance of a secondary dba-dsbI mRNA structure for dsbI mRNA translation was verified by estimating individual dsbI gene expression from its own promoter. Conclusions The present work shows that iron concentration is a significant factor in dsb gene transcription. These results support the concept that iron concentration - also through its influence on dsb gene expression - might control the abundance of extracytoplasmic proteins

  7. Hookworm intensity of infection in California sea lion and northern fur seal pups collected at haulouts/rookeries in California from 1996-07-17 to 2003-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0141164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  8. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing by integrated Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Fenton: Process optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of tannery wastewater has been a challenge in remediation of aquatic environment in developing countries. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing was studied using integrated processes of Anoxic/Oxic and Fenton. Analysis of COD composition based...... on particle size found about 10% of the total COD was in the particulate and colloidal range, the remaining 90% was soluble with 72% biodegradable. Biodegradation of real tannery wastewater as well as typical tanning agents were performed in batch experiments, aerobic degradation presented much better...... for treatment of a special type of tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing with low organic load. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  9. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sterling, Jeremy T.; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Noel A Pelland; Johnson, Devin S.; Mary-Anne Lea; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data logg...

  10. Funkcje i znaczenie Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau jako instytucji wspierającej sektor małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw w Niemczech

    OpenAIRE

    Michalska, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Extreme importance of the small and medium-sized enterprises for the functioning of the economy is unquestionable. However, this sector often does not have enough prospects for development, especially in the countries transforming their economy. The solution to this problem could be creation of so called “supporting banks” , of which the example is Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau, functioning in Germany for the last 50 years. This institution is inseparably connected with t...

  11. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    " in validity, reliability as well as feasibility - the latter both as regards time and economy costs. This paper based on empiric data addressed the questions on needed sample size for a robust herd assessment of animal based measures. The animal based part of the full WelFur protocol including 9 animal based...... in herd prevalence of the mentioned parameters. Statistical analyses showed that a sample size of 125 adult mink was a robus estimate of the herd level of animal based measures....

  12. Zur (FurB) is a key factor in the control of the oxidative stress response in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C; González, Andrés; Napolitano, Mauro; Luque, Ignacio; Barja, Francisco; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2015-06-01

    Iron and zinc are necessary nutrients whose homeostasis is tightly controlled by members of the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) superfamily in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Although the link between iron metabolism and oxidative stress management is well documented, little is known about the connection between zinc homeostasis and the oxidative stress response in cyanobacteria. Zinc homeostasis in Anabaena is controlled by Zur, also named FurB. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, Zur (FurB) improved cell survival during oxidative stress. In order to investigate the possible correlation between Zur and the oxidative stress response in Anabaena, zur deletion and zur-overexpressing strains have been constructed, and the consequences of Zur imbalance evaluated. The lack of Zur increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas an excess of Zur enhanced oxidative stress resistance. Both mutants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including alterations on the filament surfaces observable by scanning electron microscopy, reduced content of endogenous H2 O2 and altered expression of sodA, catalases and several peroxiredoxins. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses unveiled that the appropriate level of Zur is required for proper control of the oxidative stress response and allowed us to identify major antioxidant enzymes as novel members of the Zur regulon.

  13. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir Yassir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections and the possible risk factors among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur State of western Sudan, which has never been studied before. A total of 400 male blood donors were tested for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies, (6.25% were found reactive for HBsAg and (0.65% were reactive for anti-HCV antibodies. The highest seroprevalence (30.8% was found in those between 19-24 and 37-42 years for HBsAg, whereas it was (50% in those between 31-36 years for anti-HCV antibodies. Unprotected sexual activities (20% was the most apparent predisposing risk factor for both HBV and HCV seroreactors, followed by razor sharing (13.3%, parenteral drug injections (10%, history of migration to Egypt and alcoholism (6.6% for each, tattooing and surgical procedures (3.3% for each and (36.6% were not aware for their condition. Serum alanine aminotansferase (ALT was elevated in (30.7% of HBV seroreactors and in (50% of HCV seroreactors. Serum albumin was reduced in (23.1% HBV and in (50% HCV seroreactors. The study concluded that the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was in an intermediate and low rates respectively and unprotected sexual activities was the major risk factor for infection in the population studied.

  14. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF THE TULLBERG’S SOFT - FURRED MOUSE ( PRAOMYS TULLBERGI : THOMAS 1894 IN MOUNT AFADJATO, GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yeboah Ofori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relative abundance, age - structure, sex - ratio, biomass and breeding activity of Praomys tullbergi (Tullberg’s soft - furred mouse were studied over an eight - month period (June 2008 to January 2009 at Mount Afadjato Conservation Area in the Volta Region of Ghana. The methodology involved the use of live - trapping techniques using Sherman colla psible traps. There were 183 captures of 80 individual mice in 3,360 trap - nights, giving overall trapping success and relative abundance of 5.4% and 2.4%, respectively. Adults constituted about 93% of the total number of individuals captured, while the rem aining 7% were all sub - adults. Majorities (59% of the individuals recorded were males, and these were generally slightly heavier than their non - pregnant female counterparts. Breeding activity was evident throughout the study period, peaking during the wet season. All the captured female individuals showed evidence of breeding activity (perforate vaginas, enlarged nipples, pregnancy, whereas 84% of the males had scrotal testes. The highest number of individuals was recorded in August. The year - round breedi ng activity of P. tullbergi may, to a large extent, account for their dominance in most forests in Ghana

  15. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  16. Bleaching of melanin in the epidermis of South American fur seal and its application on enzyme immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis is an amphibious marine mammal distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. The species is well adjusted to different habitats due to the morphology of its fin-like members and due to some adaptations in their integumentary system. Immunohistochemical studies are very important to evaluate the mechanisms of skin adaptation due the differential expression of the antigens present in the tissue depending of the region of the body surface. However, its strongly pigmented (melanin epidermis prevents the visualization of the immuno-histochemical chromogens markers. In this study a melanin bleaching method was developed aimed to allow the visualization of the chromogens without interfering in the antigen-antibody affinity for immunohistochemistry. The analysis of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in the epidermis of A. australis by immunohistochemistry with diaminobenzidine (DAB as chromogen was used to test the method. The bleaching of the melanin allowed to obtain the cell proliferation index in epidermis and to avoid false positive results without affecting the immunohistochemical results.

  17. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  18. Contribution of Tongue Diagnosis in Cold-induced Febrile Disease to the Formation of the Concept of Greasy Fur%伤寒舌诊对腻苔概念形成的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张前进; 梁嵘; 姚叙莹; 王盛花; 王召平

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to discuss the relationship of tongue diagnosis in cold-induced febrile disease and the formation of greasy fur. By reading 46 typhoid tongue medical case books, cases with slippery fur and greasy fur tongue diagnosis records were extracted. Meanwhile, cases had been searched in the Chinese Medical Classics CD with keywords of "greasy fur". These cases had been chronologically arranged for further analysis. The results showed that the records of slippery fur in the typhoid tongue diagnosis cases showed a decreasing trend, while the greasy fur records had an obvious growth. And the earliest record of greasy fur can be traced back to Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian by Fang Youzhi in the Ming dynasty. It was concluded that greasy fur was o-riginated from the slippery fur. And this achievement came from the study of typhoid tongue. At the same time, the inner relation of typhoid tongue and warm disease tongue was revealed.%目的:探讨伤寒舌诊中腻苔概念的形成.方法:查阅46 部伤寒病舌诊医案,摘录与滑、腻相关的医案,并以"腻"为关键词,检索中有关腻苔的著作,并进行分析.结果:随着时间的推移,伤寒舌诊医案中对滑苔的记录呈下降的趋势,而腻苔的记录呈增长的趋势.明代方有执的是最早在滑苔中描述苔"腻"的著作.经过滑、腻并存的时段后,腻苔成为一个独立的舌象.结论:腻苔是从滑苔中分化出来的舌象,是伤寒舌诊研究的成果之一,同时也使我们认识到伤寒舌诊与温病舌诊的内在联系.

  19. Effect of animal-borne camera and flash on the diving behaviour of the female Antarctic fur seal ( Arctocephalus gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslip, Susan G.; Hooker, Sascha K.

    2008-09-01

    Studies have documented effects of drag created by data-logging units attached to seals, but the effect of visual stimuli from such units has not been investigated. We evaluated potential effects of camera attachment including near-infrared flash operation by comparing the diving behaviour of 15 female Antarctic fur seals ( Arctocephalus gazella) with cameras and 10 seals without cameras. Irrespective of the presence of the camera or flash, all seals exhibited an expected diel dive pattern with shallower, shorter dives, less time at the bottom of a dive, and slower ascent and descent rates at night following krill vertical migration. We also observed a previously unreported foraging trip dive pattern with faster ascents and descents near the end of trips. With cameras present, dive duration and bottom time increased and ascents were slower. During flash operation, dive duration increased and bottom time remained constant throughout the day contrary to the expected diel trend. Also during flash operation, bottom time was shorter at the beginning of a foraging trip and dives were deeper, with longer duration and bottom time later in the trip. We were unable to conclude whether the flash emission spectrum overlapped with the visual sensitivity of seals and Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) since visual sensitivity data for seals and krill at longer wavelengths were not available. It is possible that the flash was bright enough for the seals or krill to detect; however, although there was a change in diving behaviour observed during flash operation this behaviour was within the range of values normally observed for these seals and should not cause ethical concern.

  20. Return customers: foraging site fidelity and the effect of environmental variability in wide-ranging antarctic fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  1. Long-term species, sexual and individual variations in foraging strategies of fur seals revealed by stable isotopes in whiskers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Kernaléguen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ(13C and δ(15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years. δ(13C and δ(15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and

  2. Long-Term Species, Sexual and Individual Variations in Foraging Strategies of Fur Seals Revealed by Stable Isotopes in Whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cazelles, Bernard; Arnould, John P. Y.; Richard, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ13C and δ15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years). δ13C and δ15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located) where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. Conclusions/Significance Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and migration-related changes. It

  3. The ‘Otter-Man’ Empires: The Pacific Fur Trade, Incorporation and the Zone of Ignorance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D. Carlson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the concept of the ‘external arena’, the relationship it holds to the expansion of the modern world-system, and the process of systemic incorporation. In order to address the notion of systemic expansion, I examine how boundaries of the system are de?ned by networks of exchange and interaction and I echo criticisms that information and luxury goods networks exert important systemic impacts. Signi?cant change occurs well prior to the point at which traditional world-systems literature considers an arena ‘incorporated’. The case of the sea-otter fur trade and the relationship with the natives of the Northwest coast of America is used as an example of these processes of change in action. This case isselected because there is no question that the area is ‘pristine’; initially it is outside the realm of European contact. This region characterizes a ‘zone of ignorance’ beyond the traditional world-system that must undergo a signi?cant ‘grooming process’ before incorporation is more fully expanded, and this process is partially operationalized by the use of historically contemporary maps. Finally, the case o?ers a good example of the impact that external regions can exert on internal systemic behavior, as European powers were pushed to the brink of war in their e?orts to exploit the resources and peoples of the Nootka Sound region. I conclude by o?ering a more developed conceptualization of the process of incorporation and related concepts.

  4. Return customers: foraging site fidelity and the effect of environmental variability in wide-ranging antarctic fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Arthur

    Full Text Available Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche

  5. Dive characteristics can predict foraging success in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus as validated by animal-borne video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L. Volpov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dive characteristics and dive shape are often used to infer foraging success in pinnipeds. However, these inferences have not been directly validated in the field with video, and it remains unclear if this method can be applied to benthic foraging animals. This study assessed the ability of dive characteristics from time-depth recorders (TDR to predict attempted prey capture events (APC that were directly observed on animal-borne video in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, n=11. The most parsimonious model predicting the probability of a dive with ≥1 APC on video included only descent rate as a predictor variable. The majority (94% of the 389 total APC were successful, and the majority of the dives (68% contained at least one successful APC. The best model predicting these successful dives included descent rate as a predictor. Comparisons of the TDR model predictions to video yielded a maximum accuracy of 77.5% in classifying dives as either APC or non-APC or 77.1% in classifying dives as successful verses unsuccessful. Foraging intensity, measured as either total APC per dive or total successful APC per dive, was best predicted by bottom duration and ascent rate. The accuracy in predicting total APC per dive varied based on the number of APC per dive with maximum accuracy occurring at 1 APC for both total (54% and only successful APC (52%. Results from this study linking verified foraging dives to dive characteristics potentially opens the door to decades of historical TDR datasets across several otariid species.

  6. Postsealing genetic variation and population structure of two species of fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynen, L P; Goldsworthy, S D; Guinet, C; Bester, M N; Boyd, I L; Gjertz, I; Hofmeyr, G J; White, R W; Slade, R

    2000-03-01

    Commercial sealing in the 18th and 19th centuries had a major impact on the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seal populations (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) in the Southern Ocean. The intensive and unrestricted nature of the industry ensured substantial reductions in population sizes and resulted in both species becoming locally extinct at some sites. However, both species are continuing to recover, through the recolonization of islands across their former range and increasing population size. This study investigated the extent and pattern of genetic variation in each species to examine the hypothesis that higher levels of historic sealing in A. gazella have resulted in a greater loss of genetic variability and population structure compared with A. tropicalis. A 316-bp section of the mitochondrial control region was sequenced and revealed nucleotide diversities of 3.2% and 4.8% for A. gazella and A. tropicalis, respectively. There was no geographical distribution of lineages observed within either species, although the respective PhiST values of 0.074 and 0.19 were significantly greater than zero. These data indicate low levels of population structure in A. gazella and relatively high levels in A. tropicalis. Additional samples screened with restriction endonucleases were incorporated, and the distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence haplotypes were examined to identify the main source populations of newly recolonized islands. For A. tropicalis, the data suggest that Macquarie Island and Iles Crozet were probably recolonized by females from Marion Island, and to a lesser extent Ile Amsterdam. Although there was less population structure within A. gazella, there were two geographical regions identified: a western region containing the populations of South Georgia and Bouvetoya, which were the probable sources for populations at Marion, the South Shetland and Heard Islands; and an eastern region containing the panmictic

  7. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Y Arnould

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus was investigated. For 9 (25% of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability. A total of 26 (72% individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35% of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  8. 阳原县皮毛产业发展对策研究%Research on the Development Countermeasures of Fur Industry in Yangyuan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2015-01-01

    皮毛产业是阳原县的核心及支柱产业,在张家口市乃至河北省的经济发展中占有举足轻重的地位。如今,阳原县利用其在政策环境、基础设施、工艺技术等方面的发展优势,形成了初具规模的特色产业集群。但是,阳原县皮毛产业也面临着在治污排污、人才培养、品牌建设、内销外贸等方面的诸多问题,为实现阳原县皮毛产业综合实力的提升,本文有针对性地提出了相关对策。%Fur industry is the core and pillar industry of Yangyuan County, which occupies a pivotal position in the economic development of Zhangjiakou City, or even Hebei province. Nowadays, With the use of their development advantages in the policy environment, infrastructure, process and technology, etc, there has been formed a certain scale characteristics industrial clusters in Yangyuan County. However, the fur industry of Yangyuan County is also facing many problems such as pollution control and discharge, talent cultivation, brand building, domestic and foreign trade, etc. In order to achieve the leapfrog development of the fur industry in Yangyuan County, some targeted countermeasures were put forward in this paper.

  9. 中国桑坡毛皮工业发展现状及启示%The Development Status and Revelations of Fur and Leather Industry in Sangpo China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马安博; 丁海毅; 李栋

    2015-01-01

    回顾了桑坡村“公司+农户”型毛皮产业集群的发展历程,详细阐述了桑坡村毛皮工业发展现状及存在的问题,并提出了毛皮工业可持续发展的措施,介绍了桑坡村毛皮工业给企业发展带来的有益启示。%In this paper it was reviewed the development history of "company plus farmer" pattern, a kind of fur and leather industry cluster in Sangpo. At the same time, the development status and problems of fur and leather industry were elaborated. Then, measures for sustainable development were also proposed. Fi-nally, the beneficial enlightenment from fur and leather industry in Sang Bo to the enterprise development was introduced.

  10. The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-02-01

    The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the

  11. Identification of Tanned Leather and Fur%动物鞣制皮革与毛皮的种类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王名宫

    2012-01-01

    阐述了动物鞣制皮革和毛皮种类鉴定的方法,包括了传统感官方法、红外光谱法和分子生物法,并分析了各种方法的优点及存在的问题。%The identification methods of tanned leather and fur are presented in this paper,including traditional sensory analysis, FT-IR method and molecular biology methods. Meanwhile, the advantages of various methods and existing problems are analysed.

  12. Application of an overall heat transfer coefficient test platform in mammalian fur science%传热系数测试平台在毛皮学研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华彦; 马建章; 张伟; 郑雷

    2011-01-01

    被毛的热力学特性是反映哺乳动物形态特征及环境适应性的重要参数.介绍了自行研制稳态过程传热系数测试平台的系统组成以及在毛皮学研究的具体应用.测试平台可测定单一非生物生态因子和多个因子综合作用下动物被毛的传热系数,丰富了毛皮学在功能形态、被毛进化和毛皮产品检测等方面的研究技术手段,促进了毛皮学与传热学等学科的交叉.%The heat transfer characteristics of fur are important parameters to assess the morphological character of mammalian coat and capability of adapting ambience and species dispersal potential. This article describes system components of the test platform of overall heat transfer coefficient during steady process and specific application in the fur science. Using this platform, the fur heat transfer coefficient can be determined under the conditions of multiple ecological factors, including temperature, moisture, wind speed, and sun illumination. The test platform enhances fur science research area on coat functional morphology, pelt evolution, and fur product testing techniques and so on, to promote the disciplines crossing between fur science and heat transfer, ecology, materials science.

  13. Current Situation and Development Strategies of China Fur Industry Standardization%我国裘皮行业标准化体系现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华彦; 张伟; 刘欣

    2012-01-01

    The current situation and problems of China fur industry standardization was analyzed. The standardization frame work and development strategies of China fur industry standardization were also discussed.%通过分析我国裘皮行业标准化工作的现状与存在的问题,探讨了我国裘皮行业标准化体系框架及现阶段裘皮行业标准化的发展策略。

  14. The ornibactin biosynthesis and transport genes of Burkholderia cenocepacia are regulated by an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor which is a part of the Fur regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Kirsty; Lowe, Carolyn A; Farmer, Kate L; Husnain, Seyyed I; Thomas, Mark S

    2006-05-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia mutants that fail to produce the siderophore ornibactin were obtained following mutagenesis with mini-Tn5Tp. These mutants were shown to be growth restricted under conditions of iron depletion. In eight of the mutants, the transposon had integrated into one of two genes, orbI and orbJ, encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases. In the other mutant, the transposon had inserted into an open reading frame, orbS, located upstream from orbI. The polypeptide product of orbS exhibits a high degree of similarity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor PvdS but possesses an N-terminal extension of approximately 29 amino acids that is not present in PvdS. Three predicted OrbS-dependent promoters were identified within the ornibactin gene cluster, based on their similarity to PvdS-dependent promoters. The iron-regulated activity of these promoters was shown to require OrbS. Transcription of the orbS gene was found to be under the control of an iron-regulated sigma(70)-dependent promoter. This promoter, but not the OrbS-dependent promoters, was shown to be a target for repression by the global regulator Fur. Our results demonstrate that production of ornibactin by B. cenocepacia in response to iron starvation requires transcription of an operon that is dependent on the Fur-regulated ECF sigma factor gene orbS. A mechanism is also proposed for the biosynthesis of ornibactin.

  15. Lunar cycles in diel prey migrations exert a stronger effect on the diving of juveniles than adult Galápagos fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, M; Trillmich, F

    1999-06-01

    In our study of the development of diving in Galápagos fur seals, we analysed changes in diving activity and body mass trends over the lunar cycle. Based on previously observed lunar cycles in colony attendance patterns, we hypothesized a greater impact of prey migrations of deep scattering layer organisms on younger fur seals. Using electronic dive recorders, we determined that seals dived less and deeper on moonlit nights than at new moon, and incurred body mass losses. These changes in foraging over the lunar cycle correlate with the suppression of the vertical migration of prey by lunar light. All effects were more pronounced in juveniles than adult females, with greater relative mass loss during full moon, which must (i) negatively affect long-term juvenile growth rates, (ii) lengthen periods of maternal dependence, and (iii) contribute to the lowest reproductive rate reported for seals. This underlines the importance of studying ontogeny in order to understand life histories, and for determining the susceptibility of animal populations to fluctuations in food availability.

  16. Study on the Developing Constraints of Hebei Fur Industry Cluster%河北省毛皮产业集聚区发展制约因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽影; 王朋

    2013-01-01

    河北省毛皮产业在促进经济不断增长的同时为解决“三农”问题提供了发展新思路。为使毛皮产业真正实现从传统产业向现代产业的转型升级,在阐述河北省主要毛皮集聚区发展现状的基础上,分析了制约毛皮产业健康发展的因素,提出促进河北省毛皮产业转型升级的对策,以期毛皮产业实现向生态化、绿色化、现代化、专业化,并具有文化内涵的新产业形态发展。%Hebei fur industry promotes economic growth while providing new ideas to solve rural issues. In order to realize the transformation and upgrading of the fur industry, based on explaining the development status of fur gathering area, the factors on restricting the healthy development of fur industry were analysed in the article. This paper also proposed some appropriate measures in order to achieve the form of ecological, green,modern, professional and cultural connotation development of the new industries.

  17. 辽宁省当前毛皮动物疫病流行状况及对策%Discussion on the status and countermeasures of current fur animal epidemic disease in Liaoning province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范治斌; 董海燕; 尚学东; 刘双鸣; 崔健

    2014-01-01

    Liaoning province is the main producing areas of fur animal in China. Whether the epi-demic disease of fur animal can be effectively controlled becomes the key factor to the healthy de-velopment of the economic animal breeding industry. This article made a discussion on the species, distribution, epidemic situation and countermeasures of fur animal epidemic disease in Liaoning province, it has guiding significance for controlling the occurrence and spreading of fur animal epidemic.%辽宁省是我国毛皮动物的主要产区,毛皮动物疫病流行能否有效控制是关系到经济动物饲养行业能否健康发展的关键因素。本文对辽宁省毛皮动物的种类、分布、疫病流行情况及相应的对策进行了简要的分析,对控制毛皮动物疫病的发生和流行有重要的指导意义。

  18. Wirtschaftsinformatik fur dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Thesmann, Stephan; Kobayashi, Shu; Jorgensen, Karl Anker

    2015-01-01

    Cycloaddition reactions are among the most important tools for synthesis in organic chemistry, since these reactions are vital to the modern synthesis of natural products and biologically active substances. Metal catalysis plays an increasingly important role in these reactions, often allowing several stereocenters to be selectively created and integrated in the target molecules. Kobayashi and Jorgensen's handbook provides numerous examples of metal-catalyzed reactions, including [2+1], [3+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions. Important reactions such as carbo- and hetero-Diels-Alder, carbocyclic, cycl

  19. Mathe Kompakt fur Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zegarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Der schnelle Überblick für Schüler und jeden, den es sonst noch interessiert Müssen Sie sich in der Schule oder im Beruf mit Mathematik beschäftigen und es hapert schon an den Grundlagen? Frei nach dem Motto »Einst gelernt, doch längst vergessen« bereiten oft gerade die einfachen Fragestellungen Probleme. Wie viel Prozent sind das nochmal? Wie war das doch gleich mit der Bruchrechnung und wie berechnet man eigentlich den Flächeninhalt eines Dreiecks? Keine Sorge, Mark Zegarelli erklärt es Ihnen einfach, aber zugleich amüsant, und hilft Ihnen so, Ihre Wissenslücken zu schließen. Damit ist Mathe

  20. Wirtschaftsinformatik fur dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Thesmann, Stephan; Kobayashi, Shu; Jorgensen, Karl Anker

    2014-01-01

    Cycloaddition reactions are among the most important tools for synthesis in organic chemistry, since these reactions are vital to the modern synthesis of natural products and biologically active substances. Metal catalysis plays an increasingly important role in these reactions, often allowing several stereocenters to be selectively created and integrated in the target molecules. Kobayashi and Jorgensen's handbook provides numerous examples of metal-catalyzed reactions, including [2+1], [3+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions. Important reactions such as carbo- and hetero-Diels-Alder, carbocyclic, cyclopropanation and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions are discussed. A large number of experimental procedures gives a concrete idea of the use of metal-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions in modern synthesis. The book is aimed at chemists in industry or academia, who want to effectively use cycloadditions in their work.

  1. 毛皮生产废水脱氮工艺参数研究%Nitrogen Removal of Wastewater from Fur Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宏瑞; 黄金菁; 张汉良; 许安桐

    2012-01-01

    针对浙江地区毛皮企业生产废水新的氨氮达标排放要求,对浙江中辉皮革有限公司污水处理生化系统的现行运行过程进行监测,并结合现有企业生化处理系统现状,探索了缺氧一好氧活性污泥工艺(AO工艺)改造后的脱氮可行性。研究结果表明:采用AO工艺后,经优化确定的AO工艺参数为A池与0池水力停留时间(HRT)各为10h,硝化液回流比为100%。经25d现场小试,出水氨氮浓度可低于10mg/L,去除率从原有生化池的40.00%提高到95.25%,CODCr、BOD5、硝态氮与总氮去除率分别达到72.58%、90.72%、70.19%与57.42%,为毛皮废水工程改造提供了重要的工艺参数。%According to the new discharging standard of ammonia nitrogen for fur industrial sewage in Zhejiang, the current operation of biochemical sewage treatment system in Zhejiang Zhonghui Fur Co. , Ltd was monitored. Combined with the current operating situation of biochemical treatment system in this company, the feasibility of denitrification through the reform by AO process was explored. The study indicates that the parameters of AO process decided through optimization are as follows : HRT in Pond A and Pond O are both 10h, and the reflux ratio is 100%. With 25 days' field test, concentration of ammonia nitrogen in sewage could be lower than 10mg/L; removal rate has risen from 40. 00% to 95.25% ; and removal rates of CODcr, BODs, ni- trate nitrogen and total nitrogen has reached 72. 58%, 90. 72%, 70. 19% and 57. 42% respectively. All these provide important process parameters for the modification of fur sewage project.

  2. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein...... corresponding to 0,4 and 8% of the wet diets, respectively. Each diet was given to 48 animals, 24 males and 24 females. The inclusion of BPM tended to reduce feed intake and body weight gain during the first half of the experimental period, but this was compensated for during the last part of the experiment......, except for males on the 8% BPM diet. Balance experiments carried out with 18 and 28 weeks old males, revealed similar digestibility of main nutrients except for fat that were reduced with BPM inclusion. N-retentions were similar for the dietary groups. Daily excretion of urine was lower with the 8% BPM...

  3. Increased densities of binding sites for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligand [3H]PK 11195 in congenital ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient sparse fur mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V L; Qureshi, I A; Butterworth, R F

    1993-12-01

    Peripheral-type (mitochondrial) benzodiazepine receptors (PTBR) were studied in the brain and peripheral organs (kidney, liver, and testis) of normal male mice (CD-1/Y) and the congenitally hyperammonemic sparse fur (spf/Y) mouse. Radioligand binding assays were performed with [3H]PK 11195, a ligand with high selectivity and affinity for PTBR. Densities (maximal number of binding sites) of [3H]PK 11195 binding sites were greatest in kidney, followed by liver, testis, and brain. Densities of [3H]PK 11195 binding sites were significantly increased in all tissues of spf mice compared with control animals. In view of the localization of PTBR on the outer mitochondrial membrane, changes in PTBR in spf mouse tissues may modulate the altered mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism, in brain and peripheral tissues, in congenital OTC deficiency. The positron emission tomography ligand 11C-PK 11195 could find an application in the assessment of end organ dysfunction in this disorder.

  4. The effects of various inhibitors on the regulation of orotic acid excretion in sparse-fur mutant mice (spf/Y) deficient in ornithine transcarbamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J; Qureshi, I A; Vasudevan, S; Sarma, D S

    1993-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the excessive orotic aciduria, induced in sparse-fur male mice (spf/Y) deficient in ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), may be regulated by some inhibitors, such as acivicin (0.014 mmol/100 g body weight, i.p.), N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA, 2.5 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.), adenine (3 g/kg diet) and cycloheximide (0.35 mmol/kg body weight, i.p.). We also administered ornithine (1 mmol/100 g body weight, i.p.), a substrate of the urea cycle, to alleviate the metabolic deficiency of arginine in spf/Y mice which may also be responsible for excessive orotic aciduria. The orotic aciduria remained insensitive to acivicin, indicating mitochondria as the source of carbamyl phosphate. However, orotate excretion was significantly decreased by PALA (P handle excess mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate and orotic acid.

  5. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  6. Carbon (δ13C) and Nitrogen (δ15N) Stable Isotope Signatures in Bat Fur Indicate Swarming Sites Have Catchment Areas for Bats from Different Summering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Jordi L; Broders, Hugh G

    2015-01-01

    Migratory patterns of bats are not well understood and traditional methods to study this, like capture-mark-recapture, may not provide enough detail unless there are many records. Stable isotope profiles of many animal species have been used to make inferences about migration. Each year Myotis lucifugus and M. septentrionalis migrate from summering roosts to swarming caves and mines in the fall, but the pattern of movement between them is not well understood. In this study, fur δ13C and δ15N values of 305 M. lucifugus and 200 M. septentrionalis were analyzed to make inferences about migration patterns between summering areas and swarming sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. We expected that there would be greater variability in δ13C and δ15N among individuals at swarming sites because it was believed that these sites are used by individuals originating from many summering areas. There was extensive overlap in the standard ellipse area, corrected for small sample sizes (SEAc), of bats at swarming sites and much less overlap in SEAc among groups sampled at summering areas. Meaningful inference could not be made on M. septentrionalis because their low variation in SEAc may have been the result of sampling only 3 summering areas. However, for M. lucifugus, swarming sites had larger SEAc than summering areas and predictive discriminant analysis assigned swarming bats to multiple summering areas, supporting the contention that swarming bats are mixed aggregations of bats from several summering areas. Together, these data support the contention that swarming sites have catchment areas for bats from multiple summering areas and it is likely that the catchment areas for swarming sites overlap. These data suggest that δ13C and δ15N profiling of bat fur offer some potential to make inferences about regional migration in bats.

  7. Cambios en el pelaje del roedor subterráneo Ctenomys talarum: posible mecanismo térmico compensatorio Fur changes in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum: possible thermal compensatory mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA P CUTRERA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron los cambios en densidad y longitud del pelaje dorsal y ventral en el roedor subterráneo Ctenomys talarum, como posible mecanismo compensatorio frente a cambios de temperatura estacionales en el ambiente de la cueva, en especial durante la época estival, y durante el período de preñez en las hembras, ya que ambas etapas representan desafíos para la termorregulación en esta especie. Se observó que el pelaje ventral fue significativamente más corto y menos denso que el dorsal en machos, hembras preñadas y hembras no preñadas en las dos estaciones evaluadas. La longitud del pelaje tanto dorsal como ventral en los tres grupos fue significativamente menor durante la estación de temperaturas más cálidas. En la estación cálida, las hembras preñadas exhibieron un pelaje ventral significativamente más corto que el pelaje ventral de machos y de hembras no preñadas. Se discuten las posibles ventajas térmicas que podrían representar las modificaciones observadas en las características del pelaje de esta especie, con énfasis en las restricciones que impone el ambiente subterráneo en cuanto a los mecanismos disponibles de disipación del calor corporalIn this work, the changes in fur density and length in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum were evaluated as a possible compensatory mechanism during seasonal temperature changes in their burrow environment and during pregnancy in females, both situations being thermoregulatory challenging in this species. The ventral fur was shorter and less dense than the dorsal fur in the three groups (males, non-pregnant females and pregnant females and in the two seasons evaluated. Ventral and dorsal furs were significantly shorter during the warm seasons in the three groups. In the warm season, pregnant females had a ventral fur significantly shorter than that of males and non-pregnant females. The possible thermal advantages that the observed fur changes might

  8. Fur Trade in Northwest China and Economy Changes of Rear Area during the War of Resistance against Japan%抗战时期西北皮毛贸易与大后方经济变动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭刚

    2012-01-01

    皮毛是西北地区重要的畜牧产品。近代以来,随着天津的开埠通商,在天津口岸的经济辐射作用下,大量西北皮毛通过黄河水运汇集至包头后再通过平绥铁路运至天津出口美英等国,皮毛成为西北最重要的出口物资,大量西北皮毛的出口也成为西北地区皮毛业外向化的重要表现。但抗战爆发以后,西北皮毛贸易发生了巨大变化。首先,西北皮毛出口运输路线改为向西汇集兰州后再通过甘新公路或甘新大道运至猩猩峡出口苏联,使得苏联取代战前美国成为中国最大皮毛进口国,这也直接推动了战时中苏易货贸易的发展。其次,由于战时西北皮毛出口运输较战前出口运输路途艰险,加上战时出口市场萎缩等原因,造成战时西北皮毛出口量较战前减少。战时西北皮毛出口量的减少,迫使部分皮毛出口转内销,西北皮毛业从战前外向化开始转为战时内向化。西北皮毛内销数量的增加,也推动了大后方毛纺织业的发展。因此,战时西北皮毛业的内向化一定程度上为战时大后方经济的发展积累了新的动力因素。%Fur is the important product of animal husbandry in Northwest China.With the opening and development of Tianjin trade port in modern times,large amounts of fur products from Northwest China were transported to Baotou by the Yellow River and then to Tianjin through the Bei ping-Suiyuan railway where exported to the United States and the United Kingdom and so on.Therefore fur has become the most important export goods in Northwest China,which is the clear example of export-oriented fur industry in Northwest China.But after the outbreak of Anti-Japanese war,fur trade in Northwest China has undergone tremendous changes.First of all,the fur exports of transport routes transferred to Lanzhou,and then along the Gansu-Xinjiang highway or Gansu-Xinjiang avenue to Xingxing gap where exported to the Soviet Union,thus the

  9. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa.

  10. Fur:An Important Item of North American Trade with China in the Qing Dynasty%皮毛:清代北美对华贸易的重要货品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫东

    2015-01-01

    北美皮毛对华商路的开拓者是英国人,美国随后介入。美、英皮毛输华量在1801年达到顶点;两相比较,早期,英国占有优势地位,略后,美国反超。中国人原先穿用皮种多为陆地动物,而北美输华的主要是海洋动物皮毛。在工业革命完成之前,一般的国际贸易多为资源性经营,但人类的过量捕杀势必造成珍贵动物资源濒于灭绝。这是18和19世纪之交的国际皮毛贸易由盛转衰留下的深刻教训。%The North American fur on Chinese road pioneer were the British,Americans were also involved in the following.American and British fur exports to China reached a peak in 1801,in contrast,in the early,the British had the advantage status,slightly after the Americans economy were.The Chinese people were wearing leather for terrestrial animals,while the North American exports to China were mainly marine animal fur.Before the completion of the industrial revolution,the international trade for resource management,but the human overkill would inevitably cause the precious animal resources were on the verge of extinction.This is a profound lesson in 18th and 19th century at the turn of the international fur trade from prosperity to decline left.

  11. Furin gene (fur) regulation in differentiating human megakaryoblastic Dami cells: involvement of the proximal GATA recognition motif in the P1 promoter and impact on the maturation of furin substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Marie-Hélène; Grondin, Francine; Cayer, Pauline; McDonald, Patrick P; Dubois, Claire M

    2002-11-15

    The convertase furin is involved in the maturation of key growth/aggregation mediators synthesized by the platelet producers, megakaryocytes, but the regulation of furin in these cells remains unknown. Computer-assisted search of the furin promoter sequence revealed multiple potential binding motifs for GATA-1, suggesting that furin is expressed and regulated in these cells. Using megakaryoblastic Dami cells, we observed that fur mRNA expression increased gradually on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced differentiation, reaching maximum levels (8.3-fold increase) at 10 days. Transient transfections with P1, P1A, or P1B fur-LUC-promoter constructs revealed that in Dami cells, the P1 promoter is the strongest and the most sensitive to forced expression of GATA-1. Coexpression of GATA-1 and its comodulator, Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1), resulted in a cooperative increase in P1 activity. Deletion analysis indicated that important GATA-1-regulated sequences are located in the most proximal region of the P1 promoter. Further analysis revealed 2 potential GATA-binding motifs at positions -66 and +62. Point mutation of each of the 2 motifs indicated that the intactness of the first GATA site is required for full basal and GATA-1-stimulated promoter activity. Finally, the inhibition of furin activity through gene transfer of the inhibitor alpha1-AT-PDX led to a block in maturation of the furin substrates transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelet-derived growth factor. Taken together, these results indicate that the most proximal GATA element in the P1 promoter is needed for fur gene expression in megakaryoblastic cells. They also suggest that proper regulation of the fur gene in megakaryocytes has an impact on the activation of furin substrates involved in megakaryocyte maturation and platelet functions.

  12. 毛皮动物选育及生产性能遗传参数研究进展%Research Progress on Breeding and Genetic Parameter of Fur Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志明; 刘宗岳; 丛波; 刘琳玲; 宋兴超; 杨福合

    2016-01-01

    近年来,中国水貂、蓝狐的养殖存栏数逐年增加,毛皮动物养殖业已成为我国畜牧业的重要组成部分。因此,掌握现今毛皮动物的选育趋势和生产性能的遗传特性等关键参数是把握其种质特性进行选育研究的基础。本文综述了国内、外毛皮动物选育趋势及其遗传研究概况,以期为优质水貂和蓝狐的育种工作提供理论基础。%With increasing in the population of mink and blue fox ,the fur animal industry has been an important part of animal husbandry in our country .Therefore ,understanding the breeding of productive performance ,genetic parameter is the foundation for selection of fur animal .This paper reviewed the current situation and the progress of productive performance and breed ,genetic traits of fur animal in our country ,hoping to provide the theoretical basis for the selection of mink and blue fox .

  13. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

  14. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Volpov

    Full Text Available This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC, and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application.

  15. Realization of Lengye Silhouette Fur based on the Geometry Shaders%基于几何着色器的Lengyel轮廓毛发实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬

    2012-01-01

    在层状纹理切片表达真实感短毛发的GPU实现方法中,模型轮廓处毛发切片的计算与生成需要消耗很大的显存,影响绘制效率。通过几何着色器进行边缘检测和生成Fin,改善轮廓处毛发切片渲染效率,则不必为边缘检测在每条边都加入退化三角形到网格。与此前方法相比,显存几乎没有消耗,提高了绘制效率。%In the implementation methods that represent furry surfaces with multi-layer textured slices, the computation and generation of silhouette fur always deplete much video memory, greatly affecting rendering efficiency. By using geometry shaders, image edge is detected and Fin is generated, which improves the rendering efficiency, making it unnecessary to add degenerated triangular to the grids on each edge for the sake of edge detection. Compared with the previous method, little video memory is depleted and rendering efficiency is improved.

  16. Ferð um furðuheima. Athugun á íslenskum og þýddum samtímafantasíum á Íslandi

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Rósa Ragnarsdóttir 1984

    2014-01-01

    Fantasíur eru sögur sem segja frá því ómögulega, því ótrúlega og því furðulega. Allt getur gerst í þessum frásögnum enda eru þær ekki bundnar við hin venjulegu lögmál og reglur sem raunveruleikinn lýtur. Þær gerast í heimi galdra, veruleikum þar sem dýr geta talað og persónur stækka eða minnka við það eitt að fá sér bita af köku. Allt er mögulegt í þessum frásögnum sem takmarkast aðeins af hugmyndaflugi rithöfundanna. Fantasíur eiga sér langa sögu en þær fyrstu komu fram í Englandi ...

  17. Transcriptional regulation of main metabolic pathways of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur gene knockout Escherichia coli in C-limited and N-limited aerobic continuous cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rahul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to understand the cellular responses emanating from environmental perturbations to redesign the networks for practical applications. In particular, the carbon (C metabolism, nitrogen (N assimilation, and energy generation are by far important, where those are interconnected and integrated to maintain cellular integrity. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of C/N ratio on the metabolic regulation of gdhA, glnL, glt B,D mutants as well as wild type Escherichia coli (Kumar and Shimizu, MCF, 1-17, 9:8,2010, where it was shown that the transcript levels of cyoA and cydB which encode the terminal oxidases, fnr and fur which encode global regulators were significantly up-regulated under N-limited condition as compared to C-limited condition. In the present study, therefore, the effects of such single-gene knockout on the metabolic regulation were investigated to clarify the roles of those genes in the aerobic continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1. Results The specific glucose consumption rates and the specific CO2 production rates of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur mutants were all increased as compared to the wild type under both C-limited and N-limited conditions. The former phenomenon was consistent with the up-regulations of the transcript levels of ptsG and ptsH, which are consistent with down-regulations of crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the increase in the specific glucose consumption rate was also caused by up-regulations of the transcript levels of pfkA, pykF and possibly zwf, where those are consistent with the down regulations of cra, crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the transcript levels of rpoN together with glnK, glnB, glnE were up-regulated, and thus the transcript levels of glnA,L,G, and gltB,D as well as nac were up-regulated, while gdhA was down-regulated. This implies the interconnection between cAMP-Crp and PII-Ntr systems. Moreover, cyoA, cydB, fnr and fur gene deletions up

  18. From video recordings to whisker stable isotopes: a critical evaluation of timescale in assessing individual foraging specialisation in Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Dorville, Nicole; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hoskins, Andrew J; Baylis, Alastair M M; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J; Cherel, Yves; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    Estimating the degree of individual specialisation is likely to be sensitive to the methods used, as they record individuals' resource use over different time-periods. We combined animal-borne video cameras, GPS/TDR loggers and stable isotope values of plasma, red cells and sub-sampled whiskers to investigate individual foraging specialisation in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) over various timescales. Combining these methods enabled us to (1) provide quantitative information on individuals' diet, allowing the identification of prey, (2) infer the temporal consistency of individual specialisation, and (3) assess how different methods and timescales affect our estimation of the degree of specialisation. Short-term inter-individual variation in diet was observed in the video data (mean pairwise overlap = 0.60), with the sampled population being composed of both generalist and specialist individuals (nested network). However, the brevity of the temporal window is likely to artificially increase the level of specialisation by not recording the entire diet of seals. Indeed, the correlation in isotopic values was tighter between the red cells and whiskers (mid- to long-term foraging ecology) than between plasma and red cells (short- to mid-term) (R(2) = 0.93-0.73 vs. 0.55-0.41). δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers confirmed the temporal consistency of individual specialisation. Variation in isotopic niche was consistent across seasons and years, indicating long-term habitat (WIC/TNW = 0.28) and dietary (WIC/TNW = 0.39) specialisation. The results also highlight time-averaging issues (under-estimation of the degree of specialisation) when calculating individual specialisation indices over long time-periods, so that no single timescale may provide a complete and accurate picture, emphasising the benefits of using complementary methods.

  19. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Sterling

    Full Text Available Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon, and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1 are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2 ease environmental

  20. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  1. Effect of low-protein diet with supplementing different levels of DL-methionine on production performance of minks in growing-furring period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-hua; LI Guang-yu; XING Xiu-mei; REN Er-jun; YANG Ying; YANG Fu-he

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate production performance of minks in growing-furring period with supplementing DL-Methionine (Met) in low protein diet.Seventy healthy male minks were randomly divided into five groups of 14 minks each.The minks were fed in five kinds of experiment diets (HP,LP,LP+M1,LP+M2 and LP+M3).The dietary protein levels,expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM),were 32% (high protein,HP) and 24% (low protein,LP).LP was supplemented with Met 0.4% (M1),0.8% (M2) and 1.2% (M3) DM.From mid of September to December 10,apparent digestibility of CP (crude protein),N intake and urinary N excretion were decreased with declining dietary protein levels (p < 0.05) and N retained was the highest in treatment LP+M2.No significant difference was found in total serum protein (TP) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) among all treatment groups (p >0.05).Skin length of treatment HP and LP+M2 was higher than that of other groups (p < 0.05):Body length,skin weight,length of guard hair and under hair were not affected by different dietary protein levels (p>0.05).The best performance could be observed in treatment LP+M2.In diet,24% (DM) protein level with 1.54% Met supplementing was enough for minks during growing-timing period.Dietary protein lowered from 32% to 24% with supplementing Met in diets would result in a 37.9% decrease in urinary N excretion.Furthermore,addition of Met in diets for minks would be beneficial in terms of reducing feed expenses and lessening nitrogen emissions to the environment.

  2. Gender Politics in Venus in Fur%《穿裘皮大衣的维纳斯》中的性别政治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时锦瑞

    2016-01-01

    《穿裘皮大衣的维纳斯》是奥地利作家利奥波德·莫索克的代表作,它讲述的是一段关于男性受虐倾向的故事。小说中男性带着强烈的受虐倾向,自愿成为女性的奴隶,被女性鞭打、虐待。有人说在这个小说中男女之间的性别关系发生了改变,女性终于成为了男性的主人。然而,通过对小说人物和情节等的分析,就会发现,小说表现出的依旧是男权文化下的男尊女卑性别关系。%Venus in Fur is one of the Austrian writer Leopold Von Sacher-Masoch’s representative? works, which tells a story a-bout the male masochist.In the novel, the male character is a masochistic? person, willing to be a slave of the females and be abused . Based on that , some people say the gender? relation between the characters is reversed , and women have become the masters of men . However , through the dissection of the characters and the plot , we find that what the novel expresses is still patriarchal gender relations under the patriarchal culture .

  3. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus off the Washington (USA coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A Pelland

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar, mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses

  4. 螯合锌对冬毛期貉生长性能、营养物质表观消化率、血清指标、毛皮品质的影响%Influences of Chelating Zinc on Growth Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility, Serum Indices and Fur Quality of Raccoon Dogs during Winter-Furring Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑银伟; 刘志平; 黄卉; 王玉峰

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究饲粮中添加螯合锌对冬毛期貉生长性能、营养物质表观消化率、血清指标、毛皮品质的影响。选择健康冬毛期貉120只,随机分为4组,即3个试验组(Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组)与1个对照组(Ⅳ组),每组30只(公母各占1/2)。以蛋氨酸锌为螯合锌源,一水合硫酸锌(ZnSO4·H2O)为无机锌源,Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组分别饲喂基础饲粮+50 mg/kg 蛋氨酸锌+20 mg/kg ZnSO4·H2O、基础饲粮+60 mg/kg 蛋氨酸锌+10 mg/kg ZnSO4·H2O、基础饲粮+70 mg/kg蛋氨酸锌、基础饲粮+70 mg/kg ZnSO4·H2O(数据均为锌含量,基础饲粮中锌含量为42.89 mg/kg)。试验期为55 d。结果表明:1)3个试验组的终末体重和饲料转化率均显著或极显著均高于对照组(P0.05),但粗脂肪表观消化率显著高于对照组(P0.05) . However, the apparent digestibility of ether extract was significantly higher in experimental groups than that in the control group (P<0.05). 3) Serum znic content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the control group were significantly lower than those in all experimental groups ( P<0.01) . 4) Experimental groups tended to have longer guard hair, under fur and the diameter of under fur in neck, backside and buttocks compared with the control group. However, the diameter of guard hair was de-creased in experimental groups compared with the control group, and the diameter of guard hair in neck, back-side and buttocks in groupⅢwas significantly shorter than that in the control group.(P<0.05). 5) The weight of skin per unit area in three experimental groups was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0.01 or P<0.01) . These results suggest that adding chelating zinc to the diet can improve the body weight, av-erage daily gain, feed conversion rate, ether extract apparent digestibility and fur quality of raccoon dogs al-though, the guard hair diameter tends to become thinner. The dosage of additive chelating zinc at 70 mg

  5. 山东省毛皮动物产业发展现状及相关问题分析%Development Situation and Related Strategy of Fur-bearing Animal Industrialization in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜亦飞; 王春玲; 李新华; 孙晓军; 李霞; 刘涛

    2013-01-01

    特种经济动物养殖业是几十年来迅速发展的产业。随着人民生活水平的提高以及对保健养生的重视,对特种经济动物产品的需求日益旺盛。发展特种经济动物产业不仅可使农民增收,更可以调整农村产业结构、发展特色经济。山东省特种经济动物养殖有几十年的历史,是我国毛皮动物养殖第一大省,但在养殖、加工等过程中存在很多的问题。作者对山东省毛皮动物的产业化发展进行了的详细的调研,分析该行业存在的问题和前景,对山东省毛皮动物的发展具有指导意义。%With improvement of Chinese people living standard and more attention to health care ,the need to special economic animal produc-tion become more and more vigorous .This has promoted the development of special economic animal breeds .And it has not only added farmers'income ,but also regulated structure of rural production and peculiarity economy .Although Shandong province is the number one on special fur animal breeds in China ,there are lots of problems on breed and processing .Based on the research to fur -bearing animal industry in Shandong , we analyzed the existing problems and offered some suggestion to the fur -bearing animal breed development .

  6. Efecto bactericida de la acetamida furánica bromada frente a cepas salvajes de Pasteurella multocida in vitro (Evaluation of bactericide effect of bromade furanic acetamid against to wilds strains of multocide Pasterella in vitr)

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, C.; Cadrelo, T. Surelis; Salazar, A. Ana Ivis; Almeida, S; Montero, V. R; Peillón, V. O; Cos, D., Yusel; Bárzaga, R; Campuzano, Y

    2007-01-01

    Resumen Se realizó una evaluación del efecto la Acetamida furánica bromada frente a cepas salvajes de Pasteurella multocida in vitro, en el Laboratorio Provincial de Diagnóstico Veterinario de Granma. Se determinó la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI) y Concentración Máxima Bactericida (CMB), empleando el método de diluciones seriadas en tubos. La CMI y la CMB fueron iguales a 8 (µg) en una dilución de 1:4. Se realizó una prueba de hipótesis entre proporciones, con un nivel de sign...

  7. Study on Treatment of Fur Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation Oxidation-PAC Coagulation Process%臭氧氧化-PAC混凝法处理毛皮染色废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边佳佳; 方应森; 黄海丽; 李思瑶; 冯炜

    2013-01-01

    采用臭氧氧化与混凝相结合的方法处理毛皮染色废水.研究结果表明:混凝法对毛皮染色废水的臭氧氧化具有辅助协同作用,可强化臭氧氧化能力.臭氧氧化-PAC混凝法对毛皮染色废水的色度和CODCr去除率均较单独使用臭氧氧化有较大提高.当臭氧流量为1600 mg/h、反应时间为30 min,混凝剂聚合氯化铝用量1600 mg/L、pH为9时,臭氧氧化-PAC混凝法对毛皮染色废水CODCr的去除率可达44.69%,色度去除率达95.71%,处理后废水色度为30倍,达到了《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978-1996)一级标准中对色度的要求.%The treatment of fur dyeing wastewater by ozonation oxidation-coagulation process has been studied in this paper.The coagulation process had synergistically assistted and enhanced effect in the treatment of fur dyeing wastewater by ozonation oxidation.In comparison with ozonation oxidation,this combined process had the advantages of better CODCr removal efficiency and decoloration effect.The results of applying test in treatment of fur dyeing wastewater by ozonation oxidation-coagulation process,when the flow rate of ozonation was 1600 mg / h,the reaction time was 30 min,the dosage of coagulation was 1600 mg/L and pH 9,the removal rate of the chroma and the CODCr were 44.69% and 95.71%.And the chromaticity of treated fur dyeing wastewater can achieve Ⅰ-grade criteria specified in (GB 8978-1996).

  8. Skull morphometrics of adult male Antartic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, and South American fur seal A. australis Morfometría craneana comparada de ejemplares machos adultos de lobo fino antártico, Arctocephalus gazella y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Daneri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull morphometrics of adult male Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 and South American fur seal, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783 were investigated using a collection of 45 and 38 skulls, respectively. Eighteen measurements were taken for each specimen. Comparative univariate and multivariate statistical analyses included standard statistics, one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis. Individual variation was relatively high for some variables, as expressed by the coefficient of variation. Skulls of A. gazella were larger than those of A. australis for all but two variables: squamosal jugal suture and rostral length. Both species differed significantly as shown by both univariate and multivariate analyses. The discriminant function correctly classified all specimens. The standardized canonical coefficients showed that the variables which most contribute to the differentiation between species were, in decreasing order, the rostral length, palatal length, palatal width at postcanine 5 and braincase width. The present study corroborates that A. gazella and A. australis are phenotipically distinct species.Se estudió la morfometría craneana de especímenes machos adultos de lobo fino Antártico, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783, consultando una colección de 45 y 38 cráneos respectivamente. Para cada ejemplar se tomó un total de 18 medidas. El análisis comparativo univariado y multivariado incluyó estadística standard, análisis de varianza, análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. La variación individual, según lo expresado por el coeficiente de variación, fue relativamente alta para algunas variables. Los cráneos de A. gazella fueron proporcionalmente más grandes que aquellos de A. australis para todas las variables estudiadas, excepto dos: longitud de la sutura escamoso-yugal y longitud

  9. Study on Identification of 6 Wild Animal Fur Types%6种野生杂皮动物毛皮种类鉴别的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维红; 吴建平

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study is to determine the scale structure and elemental composition, and the cross-section microstructures by electron microscope of 6 kinds of wild animal fibers (Macro-pus, Lepus sinensis , Castor fiber, Meles meles , Canis lupus and Martes flavigula) . The results indicate that the physicochemical properties of fibers of 6 kinds of wild animals were significantly different (P<0. 05), in which the cross-section microstructures were different too. The height, the thickness and the rake angle of scale of hair fibers in the 6 kinds of wild miscellaneous leathe animals were different each other. To the same animal, the height, the thickness and the rake angle of scale were different between hair fibers and cashmere fibers. Both of the needle and wool contained 4 kinds of elements, such as C, O, S, Ca. The ratios of C and O were not significantly different. The Ca content of needle was higher than wool, but the content of S was lower. Based on that, it can identify the 6 kinds of animal fur category by microstructure characteristic of wool fiber.%以6种野生杂皮类动物毛纤维为试验材料,测定其鳞片结构及元素组成,并利用扫描电镜比较其超微结构特征.结果显示:6种动物的鳞片结构均有差异(P<0.05),其横截面特征各异.6种野生杂皮动物毛纤维的鳞片高度、鳞片厚度、鳞片翘角等指标各异,同一种动物的毛纤维和绒纤维的鳞片层的鳞片高度、鳞片厚度、鳞片翘角等指标也不尽相同;针、绒毛中均含C、O、S、Ca,而C、O的含量比例均差异不大,针毛所含的Ca较多,而S元素较少,绒毛所含的S较多,而Ca元素较少.可依据毛纤维超微结构特征进行6种动物毛皮种类的鉴别.

  10. Gross and microscopic visceral anatomy of the male Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae), with reference to organ size and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEWARDSON, CAROLYN L.; HEMSLEY, SUSAN; MEYER, MIKE A.; CANFIELD, PAUL J.; MAINDONALD, JOHN H.

    1999-01-01

    The gross and microscopic anatomy of the Cape fur seal heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, intestine and kidneys (n = 31 seals) is described. Absolute and relative size of organs from 30 male seals are presented, with histological examination conducted on 7 animals. The relationship between log body weight, log organ weight and age was investigated using linear regression. Twenty five animals were of known age, while 6 were aged from counts of incremental lines observed in the dentine of tooth sections. For the range of ages represented in this study, body weight changes were accurately described by the exponential growth equation, weight = wort, with body weight increasing by 23% per annum until at least 9–10 y of age. Organ weight increased at a rate of between 25% and 33% per annum until at least 9–10 y of age, with the exception of the intestines, where exponential increase appeared to have ceased by about 7 y. The relationship between body weight and organ weight was investigated using logarithmic transformations of the allometric equation, y = axb, where the exponent b is 1 if organ weight is proportional to body weight. Most organs increased in proportion to the body. However, the heart, liver and spleen had exponents b > 1, suggesting that these organs increased at a faster rate than the body. The basic anatomical features of the viscera were similar to those of other pinnipeds, with some exceptions, including the arrangement of the multilobed lung and liver. Apart from the large liver and kidneys, relative size of the organs did not differ greatly from similar sized terrestrial carnivores. The histological features of the organs were generally consistent with those previously described for this species and other otariids. The heart, as in other pinnipeds, was unlike that of cetacea in not having unusually thick endocardium or prominent Purkinje cells. Notable histological features of the lungs included prominent fibrous septa, prominent smooth muscle

  11. 皮革、毛皮及其制品业卫生防护距离标准的研究%Study on Health Protection Zone for Leather, Fur and Their Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐礼源; 曾士典; 方黄虹; 王黎荔; 徐青青; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究皮革、毛皮及其制品业的卫生防护距离标准,为其距离国家标准修订提供参考.方法 选择具有代表性的皮革、毛皮及其制品企业进行调查,确定其特征污染物,调查企业周边居民的健康状况,根据调查结果,按照《制定地方大气污染物排放标准的技术方法》(GB/T 13201-91)中推荐的估算方法,对不同规模的皮革、毛皮及其制品企业的卫生防护距离进行估算,提出皮革、毛皮及其制品企业卫生防护距离标准的建议值.结果 皮革、毛皮及其制品企业无组织排放的主要特征污染物为硫化氢,生产规模在0.2、0.4、0.6、0.8和1.0亿平方英尺/年时,硫化氢无组织排放量(Qc)分别为0.041、0.082、0.122、0.163和0.204 kg/h;企业周边居民健康调查中发现距离企业500m范围内人群受到一定的影响,闻到臭味、头晕头痛和恶心、食欲不振的发生率有一定升高;结合现场实测,提出皮革、毛皮及其制品企业卫生防护距离标准建议值为200~600 m.结论 通过实地监测、环境流行病学调查综合分析,初步提出了较为合适的卫生防护距离标准.%Objective To research a health protection zone for leather, fur and their manufacturing industry go as to provide reference for the revision of national standard for leather, fur, feathers (down) and their manufacturing industry in China. Methods An on -site investigation on representative factory of leather, fur and manufacturing industry was carried out to determine the characteristic pollutant, and 96 randomly selected residents lived around the factory were surveyed at their homes. The health protection zone of leather, fur and their manufacturing industry was calculated according to the recommended estimation in Technical Methods for Making Local Emission Standards of Air Pollutants - CB/T13201 - 91. Result The main pollutant of fugitive discharge from leather, fur and manufacturing'industry was

  12. DAS COACHING FUR DIE KARRIERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleseriu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coaching means change and transformation. This is the people`s ability to change their behavior, to rediscover and to create a new identity and new plans for the future. The coaching is divided, at this moment, in three categories: business coaching, executive coaching and live skills coaching. If we are talking about career coaching, we can say that this one is present in all its stages: if the person is choosing the first job, if the person is changing the workplace during the career and if the person is retiring.

  13. 皮革和毛皮中4-氨基偶氮苯的检测方法研究%Determination of 4-Aminoazobenzene in Leather and Fur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩军; 杨萌; 花卉; 白子竹; 李超

    2013-01-01

    A method for the determination of 4-aminoazobenzene in leather and fur was developed by using GC/MS and RRLC/DAD. Leather and fur samples were reduced by aqueous sodium dithionite solution in alkaline medium. The product of 4-aminoazobenzene was extracted with t-butylmethylether in the presence of sodium chloride. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of 4-aminoazobenzene were carried out by GC/MS and RRLC/DAD by comparing retention time and specific fragment ions. Pretreatment procedure of samples was optimized simply. Dyestuffs such as Disperse Yellow 23 and Disperse Orange 149 were used to evaluate applicability of this method. The proposed method iwas convenient and accurate with the recovery rate 79.8% ~104.0% , and it can be applied in 4 -aminoazobenzene analysis in leather and fur.%  建立了皮革和毛皮中4-氨基偶氮苯气相色谱质谱联用仪(GC/MS)和快速高分离度液相色谱/二极管阵列检测器(RRLC/DAD)的测定方法.样品在碱性介质中用连二亚硫酸钠还原,在氯化钠的存在下用叔丁基甲醚进行萃取,通过GC/MS的保留时间及特征离子并结合RRLC/DAD的数据进行定性和定量分析.对皮革和毛皮样品的前处理方法及基质对实验结果的影响进行了简单探讨,利用分散黄23和分散橙149对方法进行适用性评价.方法简便准确,加标回收率在79.8%耀104.0%,可用于皮革和毛皮中4-氨基偶氮苯的分析.

  14. Treatment of fur dyeing wastewater using efficiency azo-degrading bacterial agent%高效偶氮染料降解菌处理毛皮染色废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宏瑞; 张兆鑫; 罗羿超; 朱超

    2014-01-01

    毛皮染色废水是一种高盐度、难降解、高污染的工业废水,普通生化法对这一类废水的处理效果很不理想。从处理偶氮染料模拟废水的厌氧污泥中,分离纯化出6株偶氮染料高效降解菌,进行了复合细菌菌剂的制备,并通过直投法和菌剂强化污泥法进行了实际毛皮染色废水的处理,同时优化各项运行参数,测定出了水CODCr及色度评价处理效果。结果表明,在菌液投加量为5%(V/V)、0 h一次投加、外加营养物C/N为5∶1、进水pH为5等条件下,其对废水的C O D去除率可以达90%以上。对直投法处理液中的微生物进行分离培养,其结果显示主要菌种仍为复合菌剂组成菌株,这说明所制备复合菌剂在处理毛皮染色污水时具备稳定性。%Fur dyeing wastewater is a highly recalcitrant industrial pollutant resource which makes traditional biochemical treatment somehow inefficient .We prepared compound bacte‐rial agent with 6 high efficient azo dye degrading bacterial strains and use the agent for actual fur dyeing wastewater treatment through direct addition method and bioaugmentation meth‐od ,respectively .We also optimized the operation parameters ,measured CODCr and chromatic‐ity of the effluent to evaluate treatment effect .Results showed that by one batch addition with amount of 5% (V/V) at 0 h ,C/N of 5∶1 ,initial pH value of 5 ,the COD removal rate could be more than 90% .Molecular identification of the isolated strains from the treated fluid confirmed the biological stability of the compound bacteria agent in the treatment of fur dye‐ing w astew ater .

  15. Efecto bactericida de la acetamida furánica bromada frente a cepas salvajes de Pasteurella multocida in vitro (Evaluation of bactericide effect of bromade furanic acetamid against to wilds strains of multocide Pasterella in vitr)

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, C.; Cadrelo, T. Surelis; Salazar, A. Ana Ivis; Almeida, S; Montero, V. R; Cos, D., Yusel; Bárzaga, R; Campuzano, Y

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó una evaluación del efecto la Acetamida furánica bromada frente a cepas salvajes de Pasteurella multocida in vitro, en el Laboratorio Provincial de Diagnóstico Veterinario de Granma. Se determinó la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI) y Concentración Máxima Bactericida (CMB), empleando el método de diluciones seriadas en tubos. La CMI y la CMB fueron iguales a 8 (µg) en una dilución de 1:4. Se realizó una prueba de hipótesis entre proporciones, con un nivel de significació...

  16. Research on the Transformation and Upgrading Countermeasure of Fur Industry in Suning County%肃宁县毛皮产业转型升级对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2014-01-01

    毛皮产业是肃宁县的特色产业和支柱产业,在促进肃宁县域经济发展、解决劳动力就业问题方面作出了很大贡献。近年来,肃宁县利用自身在产业基础、基础设施、产业链条等方面的发展优势,取得了有目共睹的不俗成绩。但是,在污水处理、品牌建设、贸易结构等方面存在的不足却成为摆在肃宁人面前的几大难题,为尽快实现肃宁县毛皮产业的转型升级,本文提出了具有针对性的对策。%As the characteristic and pillar industry of Suning county, fur industry has made a great contribution in promoting economic development and solving the problem of employment. In recent years, by using their own development advantages towards the industry basis , infrastructure, industry chain, etc, Suning county has achieved good results obviously. However, the deficiencies of sewage treatment, brand building, trade structure have become major problems in front of Suning county. In order to achieve the transformation and upgrading of Suning Fur industry as soon as possible, some targeted countermeasures were put forward in this paper .

  17. Efecto bactericida de la acetamida furánica bromada frente a cepas salvajes de Pasteurella multocida in vitro (Evaluation of bactericide effect of bromade furanic acetamid against to wilds strains of multocide Pasterella in vitr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, C., Osmaida

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se realizó una evaluación del efecto la Acetamida furánica bromada frente a cepas salvajes de Pasteurella multocida in vitro, en el Laboratorio Provincial de Diagnóstico Veterinario de Granma. Se determinó la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI y Concentración Máxima Bactericida (CMB, empleando el método de diluciones seriadas en tubos. La CMI y la CMB fueron iguales a 8 (µg en una dilución de 1:4. Se realizó una prueba de hipótesis entre proporciones, con un nivel de significación de ( p<0.05. Se concluye que la acetamida furánica bromada posee acción bactericida sobre la Pasteurella multocida in vitro, lo que puede constituir una opción en el tratamiento del Cólera en las aves, previo estudio. Abstract The effect of the Bromade Furanic Acetamide in the group of multocida Pasteurella in vitro, was evaluated. Determined the minimun Concentration Inhibets (MCI and Maximun Concentration Germicide (MCG, using the dilution seriade in tubes method. It was determined that the MCI and MCG were some (8. 2 µg/ml in a dilution of 1:4. An Hypothesis test for proportions was done with the singnificance level (p<0.05. It is concluded that the product possesses germicide positive action on the Pasteurella multocida in vitro, so it may constitute an option the treatment of aviar cholera, previous study.

  18. Study on Treatment of Fur Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation-Activated Carbon Adsorption Process%臭氧氧化-活性炭吸附法处理毛皮染色废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海丽; 方应森; 边佳佳; 李思瑶

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of fur dyeing wastewater by ozonation-activated carbon adsorption process was studied in this paper. The results indicated that the ozonation reaction conformed to first-order reaction kinetics within intervals of 0 to 22.6 min and 22.6 to 30 min respectively, and their correlation coefficients (R2) were larger than 0.9900, but the slope of the fitting reaction rate equation in the front section was 3.5 times than that of the latter section, which showed that the initial reaction rate of ozonation was higher and oxidbility was stronger. The activated carbon can assist and enhance synergistically the ozonation in the treatment of fur dyeing wastewater. Therefore their combined process had the advantages of better CODCr removal efficiency and prominent decoloration effect in comparison with ozonation or activated carbon ad-sorption process only. The results showed that the removal rates of the CODCr and the colority were 31.11% and 85.71% respectively in treatment of fur dyeing wastewater by ozonation-activated carbon ad-sorption process, when the flow rate of ozonation was 1600 mg/h, the dosage of activated carbon was 10g/L and the reaction time was 20 min.%  采用臭氧氧化与活性炭吸附相结合的方法处理毛皮染色废水.研究结果表明:臭氧氧化过程,在(0~22.6)min和(22.6~30)min的时段内臭氧氧化反应均为一级动力学反应,反应的速率方程相关系数均大于0.9900,但拟合得到的反应速率方程斜率前段是后段的3.5倍,说明臭氧氧化初期反应速率较高,氧化作用较强.活性炭对毛皮染色废水的臭氧氧化具有辅助协同作用,可强化臭氧氧化能力.臭氧氧化—活性炭吸附法对毛皮染色废水的色度和CODCr去除率均较单独使用有较大提高,尤其对增强色度去除效果最为显著.当臭氧流量为1600 mg/h、活性炭用量为10 g/L、反应时间为20 min时,CODCr、色度去除率可分别达到31.11%、85.71%.

  19. Recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito, Baja California, por el lobo fino de Guadalupe The re-colonization of the Archipelago of San Benito, Baja California, by the Guadalupe fur seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el estado actual de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi. El archipiélago tiene una gran importancia para esta especie, ya que puede consolidarse en un futuro como otro sitio de reproducción, lo que implicaría un gran avance en su recuperación natural. El incremento y la estructura poblacional, el comportamiento alimenticio, la duración de los viajes de alimentación (que evidencian una fuente importante de alimento cercana y la atención a las crías son factores que permiten analizar y estudiar el proceso de crecimiento de San Benito como una nueva colonia reproductiva. Esta expansión del territorio puede ser reflejo de la naturaleza gregaria de la especie y la fidelidad hacia los sitios reproductivos. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que es una descripción inicial de la recolonización de una especie que estuvo a punto de desaparecer. Puede esperarse que el número de individuos en el archipiélago continúe aumentando, ya que es poco probable que a corto plazo el espacio reproductivo y la disponibilidad de alimento limiten el nacimiento de crías y el crecimiento de la población.The aim of this paper is to analize the re-colonization process of the San Benito Archipelago by the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi. The archipelago is of great importance for the species, since it can be consolidated in the future as a breeding colony, which would imply a great achievement for the fur seal's natural recovery. Population growth, population structure, feeding behavior, foraging trips duration (which shows an important feeding area near, behavior and pup attendance, are characteristics that help analyze and study this process; where San Benito grows as a colony and, therefore, is established as a new breeding colony. Furthermore, this expansion of the breeding territory might reflect the gregarious nature of the

  20. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianjun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV, a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. We selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (N gene of CDV. By RFLP analysis using BamHI, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. Two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by RT-PCR-RFLP analysis while three were observed in the field strains. An 829 nucleotide region of the CDV N gene was analyzed in 19 CDV field strains isolated from minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in China between 2005 and 2007. The results suggest this method is precise, accurate and efficient. It was also determined that three different genotypes exist in CDV field strains in fur animal herds of the north of China, most of which belong to Asian type. Mutated field strains, JSY06-R1, JSY06-R2 and JDH07-F1 also exist in Northern China, but are most closely related to the standard virulent strain A75/17, designated in Arctic and America-2 genetype in the present study, respectively.

  1. (S)-Methyl 2-[(3R,4R)-2-benzyl-3-(2-fur-yl)-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-isoquinoline-4-carboxamido]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktır, Zeliha; Akkurt, Mehmet; Kandinska, Meglena I; Bogdanov, Milen G; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2009-06-06

    The title compound, C(33)H(29)N(3)O(5), was synthesized by the reaction of racemic trans-2-benzyl-3-(2-fur-yl)-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-isoquinoline-4-carboxylic acid, l-tryptophan methyl ester and diisopropylcarbodiimide in dry dichloro-methane. The furan ring is disordered over two positions in a 0.859 (14):0.141 (14) ratio. In the 1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-iso-quin-oline ring system, the heterocyclic ring is not planar, with puckering parameters Q(T) = 0.448 (2) Å, θ = 64.9 (3) and ϕ = 268.3 (3)°. The crystal is extended into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture through inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions. The absolute structure was assigned by reference to the chiral starting material.

  2. Impact of the 2015 El Nino-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R Elorriaga-Verplancken

    Full Text Available The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus (CSLs and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi (GFSs from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators (SIAR/SIBER-R. Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll (Chl-a concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015. Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014 and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg. The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs. This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters.

  3. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters.

  4. The Pkn22 Ser/Thr kinase in Nostoc PCC 7120: role of FurA and NtcA regulators and transcript profiling under nitrogen starvation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingping, Fan; Lemeille, Sylvain; González, Andrés; Risoul, Véronique; Denis, Yann; Richaud, Pierre; Lamrabet, Otmane; Fillat, Maria F; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Latifi, Amel

    2015-07-29

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 can fix N2 when combined nitrogen is not available. Furthermore, it has to cope with reactive oxygen species generated as byproducts of photosynthesis and respiration. We have previously demonstrated the synthesis of Ser/Thr kinase Pkn22 as an important survival response of Nostoc to oxidative damage. In this study we wished to investigate the possible involvement of this kinase in signalling peroxide stress and nitrogen deprivation. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments revealed that the pkn22 gene is induced in response to peroxide stress and to combined nitrogen starvation. Electrophoretic motility assays indicated that the pkn22 promoter is recognized by the global transcriptional regulators FurA and NtcA. Transcriptomic analysis comparing a pkn22-insertion mutant and the wild type strain indicated that this kinase regulates genes involved in important cellular functions such as photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and iron acquisition. Since metabolic changes may lead to oxidative stress, we investigated whether this is the case with nitrogen starvation. Our results rather invalidate this hypothesis thereby suggesting that the function of Pkn22 under nitrogen starvation is independent of its role in response to peroxide stress. Our analyses have permitted a more complete functional description of Ser/Thr kinase in Nostoc. We have decrypted the transcriptional regulation of the pkn22 gene, and analysed the whole set of genes under the control of this kinase in response to the two environmental changes often encountered by cyanobacteria in their natural habitat: oxidative stress and nitrogen deprivation.

  5. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R.; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E.; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014–2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters. PMID:27171473

  6. 制革毛皮用非水介质的研究现状及展望%A Review and Prospect on Non-aqueous Medium for Leather and Fur Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美娜; 高海琪; 张宗才

    2016-01-01

    传统制革,特别是毛皮鞣制阶段耗水量大,随着环保意识的增强,节水生产将是清洁化制革的必行之路。传统有机溶剂用于制革,成效虽好,但大部分有机溶剂毒性强,不宜大规模使用。超临界二氧化碳流体、可控溶剂、离子液体均属绿色溶剂,但超临界二氧化碳操作要求较高,存在不安全隐患;可控溶剂与离子液体在制革领域的研究有待深入。%Traditional tanning process for leather and fur needs a large amount of water, so water-saving production will be the necessary path of clean leather-making as the awareness of environmental protection increasing. Traditional organic solvents can get good results for using in tanning, but some organic solvents can't be used in large quantities for their heavy-toxicity. Supercritical CO2 fluid,switchable solvents as well as ionic liquid are the green solvents. But Supercritical CO2 has a high requirement of the operation and equipment which is dangerous in use. Switchable solvents and ionic liquid have not been using for leather processing and need further investigating.

  7. Selected bibliography on the northern fur seal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Prepared by staff of the Branch of Marine Mammal Research. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as requested at the First Meeting of the...

  8. Inside CERN : Grosse Maschinen fur kleinste teilchen

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Public Information Office

    1974-01-01

    A service station with a difference. Presentation of what goes on at CERN. Animation of protons going around a ring, then sent to a target and detectors look at them. SC. PS. ISR. Interesting animation: a red light is superimposed on the accelerator to indicate the beam path. (PS and ISR) BEBC. Scanning, with a nice moment of the tracks arriving. Omega. Tracks. Map showing where SPS will be. The Robbins. Other aspects of SPS construction: magnets, RF cavaties, vacuum tube.Comments : Calm, well constructed presentation without much film imagination, aside from the red light/beam animation.

  9. Fur Management Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Shiawassee NWR Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  10. Annual Fur Harvest Program – 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1968 trapping program at Mark Twain Refuge. The number of various furbearers present on each division of the refuge (Calhoun, Batchtown,...

  11. Annual Fur Harvest Program – 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1970 trapping program at Mark Twain Refuge. Trapping restrictions are outlined for Big Timber, Gardner, Batchtown, and Calhoun Divisions.

  12. Annual Fur Harvest Program – 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1969 trapping program at Mark Twain Refuge. The number of various furbearers present on each division of the refuge (Delair, Keithsburg,...

  13. Summary of Fur Trapping Operations [1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During December of 1969, a trapping permit was issued to one person for each refuge in the Mark Twain Complex. This memo lists the number of furbearers that were...

  14. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly...

  15. Annual Fur Harvest Program – 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1967 trapping program at Mark Twain Refuge. The number of various furbearers present on each division of the refuge (Calhoun, Batchtown,...

  16. Discussion on the Relationships between the Proverb of Good Doctor to Cure Fur and the Preventive or Therapeutic Strategies with Chronic Kidney Disease%试论“善治者治皮毛”与慢性肾脏病防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冬云; 毕礼明; 陈英兰

    2013-01-01

    “善治者治皮毛”是医家治疗疾病的最重要原则之一.慢性肾脏病(CKD)极为常见,其治疗目的包括延缓进展、需要评估心血管危险因素、鉴别和治疗相关的并发症,或者行肾脏替代治疗.综合的多重干预可延缓甚至阻断CKD进展,减少CKD死亡的首位原因心血管并发症的发生.本文试着讨论“善治者治皮毛”与CKD防治策略的关系.%The proverb of good doctor to cure fur was from "Internal Classic of Huang Di". It had been widely guided by the medical scientist as one of the most important therapeutic principles. And CKD ( chronic kidney disease )was very common. The objectives were to slow the progression of CKD to take all the cardiovascular risk factors into account,to screen for and treat specific complications and to prepare,if necessary,for renal replacement treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary management could slow or even stop the progression of CKD and reduce its cardiovascular complications,which was the leading cause of death in these patients. In this paper,we tried to discuss on the relationship between the proverb of good doctor to cure fur and the preventive or therapeutic strategies of chronic kidney disease.

  17. Temporada reproductiva del lobo fino austral, Arctocephalus australis (Zimmerman, 1783 en la Isla Guafo, Chiloé, Chile Breeding season of the southern fur seal, Arctocephalus australis at Guafo Island, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR J PAVÉS

    2008-03-01

    . Mediante comparación de los resultados obtenidos, con aquellas presentados para Sudamérica, se evidenciaron diferencias cercanas a 30 días en la fecha de partos, cópulas y establecimiento de los territorios. Esta información debe ser actualizada con urgencia para entender con ayuda de las herramientas filogeográficas la historia ecológica y evolutiva de esta especie en el NeotrópicoThe southern fur seal (Arctocephalus australis has colonised an ample geographic coverage in South America. The population should present there reproductive synchronization and a strong latitudinal effect on its reproductive activities. This research intends to review those reproductive activities on Guafo island (43°33' S, 74°51' W, Chile looking after the existence of synchronization and stability during successive breeding seasons, considering birthing, mating and territorial seasonality. During both seasons we observed territorial males from the end of November to beginning of February, counting most of them during the 4th week in December. The period of synchronization for births was registered between the first and fourth week of December with a mean duration of 28.5 ± 2.1 days. The average maximum date for birthing on Guafo Island was estimated for the day 15, 5 of December. The period of mating synchronization was registered on a similar date to the birthing. However, the mean date of mating was estimated to be day 19 ±1.4 during December with a synchronization period of 29 ± 4.2 days of duration. By using the average mating and birth dates we estimated the reproductive cycle in about 11 months 27 days for the species at Guafo. We only determined statistically significant differences for the date of maximum birth between seasons, not for mating neither for the seasonality of territories. We could determine stability for the population size and age cohorts but not for the poliginic index HPMT. Even when we obtained statistical differences for the birth dates, we could

  18. STUDY OF LEOPARD FUR DOLOMITE IN MID-ORDOVICIAN MAJIAGOU FORMATION HANCHENG-XUNYI DISTINCT IN SHANXI PROVINCE%陕西韩城-旬邑地区中奥陶统马家沟组豹斑白云岩研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 吕波; 黄素; 何施雨; 杜亚曦; 朱讯

    2011-01-01

    鄂尔多斯盆地奥陶系马家沟组白石岩是重要的油气储集层从野外露头观察,白云岩斑块多呈管状、不规则状,是生物扰动后留下的虫孔遗迹从镜下观察,斑块主要沿虫孔分布,成分为半自形-自形细粉晶白云石或具雾心亮边,基质为泥晶白云石对研究区全岩C,O同位素和白云石有序度进行分析,得出白云石δ13C平均值为-0.26‰,δ18O平均-5.06‰;白云石CaCO3摩尔百分含量平均为50.4%,有序度为0.81~1结合白云岩形成于半局限石质洼地沉积环境,认为豹斑白云岩发生了两期白石石化一期是通过渗透回流生成泥晶白石岩;二期是在浅埋藏环境下,随着白云石化流体继续供给,虫孔中的泥晶白云石更易继续生长或发生重结晶,形成由细粉晶白云岩构成的斑块.因此,掘穴生物活动形成的潜穴,是造成不均匀白云岩化,形成豹斑的重要原因.%The dolomite of the Ordovician Majiagou Formation is a significant resevoir in the Ordos Basin. The leopard fur dolomites were selected for detailed field and laboratory study. The shapes of leopard spot are tubal and irregular in the field. These wormhole shapes were caused by biology disturb activity. Microscope study indicated that leopard spots were distributed along wormhole, and composed of subhedral-idiomorphic cryptomere dolomites with nebulous-inner and bright-edge. The matrix is micrite dolomite. The average value of C and <518O of dolomite is -0.26%o and -5.06%o. The molar percentage of CaCO3 in dolomite is around 50.4%, and the order degree is range from 0.81 to 1. Combine with the dolomite formation enviroment of the half-confine dolomitic bottomland, it is concluded that leopard fur dolomites were formed with two stages. Firstly, micrite dolomites were formed by seepage reflux dolomitization; secondly, the micrite dolomite in wormhole with a shallow bury environment were much easier to form or to recrystal to cryptomere dolomites, and

  19. 提升科技水平转变生产方式推进产业升级——我国毛皮动物养殖业可持续发展探讨%Enhancement of Scientific and Technical Level;Change of Production Mode;Promotion of Industrial Upgrading——Study on Sustainable Development of Fur Animal Farm Industry of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 孙晓东; 郑策; 凌立莹; 刘彦; 王守山

    2013-01-01

    Our country has become the big country of fur animal farming through 50 years of development,accounting for about half of global production.However it is still in the primary stage of extensive management of production,the science and technology did not give full play to guide and promote industry development.This paper analyzed the present status of fur farming technology development and problems through the investigation of the main breeding area,put forward corresponding countenneasures,provide a scientific basis for acceleration of upgrading of industrial structure and sustainable development.%经过50余年发展历史,我国已成为毛皮动物(貂、狐、貉)养殖大国,总量约占全球的50%,但目前仍处于粗放型经营生产的初级阶段,科技对产业发展的引领和推动作用没有充分发挥出来.通过对主要养殖区的实地调研,本文对毛皮养殖业科技发展现状及面临问题进行系统分析,提出相应对策建议,为加快产业结构调整升级、实现可持续发展提供科学依据.

  20. Trombose séptica de seios cavernosos, transverso e sigmóide e de veia jugular, associada à meningite, secundária a furúnculo nasal: Relato de Caso Septic thrombosis of cavernous, transverse, sigmoid sinuses and jugular vein, associated with meningitis, secondary to nasal furuncle: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Utida

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de furúnculo nasal que evoluiu com trombose séptica de seio cavernoso, bilateral e assimétrica, e de seios transverso e sigmóide e de veia jugular interna a esquerda, associada à meningite bacteriana, em um paciente previamente hígido. Apesar da trombose séptica extensa de seios venosos, o paciente apresentou boa evolução, após tratamento clínico agressivo com antibióticos, corticosteróides e anticoagulantes. Porém, manteve como seqüela: paresia de VI nervo à esquerda e lesão parcial de nervo óptico homolateral.The authors report a case of nasal furuncle that progressed to septic bilateral and asymmetric thrombosis of cavernous, transverse, sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein, associated with bacterial meningitis, in a previously healthy patient. In spite of the extensive thrombosis, the patient presented a good evolution, after an aggressive clinical treatment with antibiotics, corticosteroids and anticoagulants. However, there remained paresis of the VI nerve on the left and partial lesion of the homolateral optic nerve.

  1. (S)-Methyl 2-[(3R,4R)-2-benzyl-3-(2-fur­yl)-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­isoquinoline-4-carboxamido]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktır, Zeliha; Akkurt, Mehmet; Kandinska, Meglena I.; Bogdanov, Milen G.; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C33H29N3O5, was synthesized by the reaction of racemic trans-2-benzyl-3-(2-fur­yl)-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­isoquinoline-4-carboxylic acid, l-tryptophan methyl ester and diisopropylcarbodiimide in dry dichloro­methane. The furan ring is disordered over two positions in a 0.859 (14):0.141 (14) ratio. In the 1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­iso­quin­oline ring system, the heterocyclic ring is not planar, with puckering parameters Q T = 0.448 (2) Å, θ = 64.9 (3) and ϕ = 268.3 (3)°. The crystal is extended into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture through inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The absolute structure was assigned by reference to the chiral starting material. PMID:21582765

  2. 黄粉虫对冬毛期水貂体重变化、营养物质消化率、氮代谢及毛皮质量的影响%Effects of Tenebrio molitor L. on Body Weight Change, Hutrient Digestibility, Hitrogen Metabolism and Fur Quality of Minks during Winter Hair Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 张海华; 刘志; 郭强; 吴学壮; 杨福合; 李光玉; 王海宏

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究黄粉虫对冬毛期水貂体重变化、营养物质消化率、氮代谢及毛皮质量的影响。采用单因子试验设计,选取125日龄健康雄性水貂60只,随机分成5组。Ⅰ组饲喂基础饲粮(不含黄粉虫);Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组、Ⅴ组水貂的饲粮中分别添加2%、4%、8%和16%的黄粉虫。预试期7 d,试验期80 d。结果表明:1)2013-11-17时,Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组水貂的体重显著高于Ⅲ组(P<0.05);各组平均日增重差异不显著(P>0.05)。2)Ⅳ组水貂的采食量极显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组( P<0.01);Ⅱ组和Ⅴ组水貂粗蛋白质消化率极显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.01);各组粗脂肪消化率和粗灰分消化率差异不显著( P>0.05)。3)Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组水貂的食入氮显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组(P<0.05);Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组水貂的粪氮极显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组(P<0.01);Ⅴ组水貂的尿氮极显著高于Ⅱ组和Ⅳ组( P<0.01),Ⅳ组水貂的氮沉积、净蛋白质利用率和蛋白质生物学价值显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05)。4)Ⅴ组水貂的皮长显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05);Ⅴ组水貂的鲜皮重显著高于Ⅲ组( P<0.05);Ⅲ组水貂的针毛长显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.05)。由此可见,饲粮中添加黄粉虫能够减少鱼粉、肉骨粉和豆油的添加量,饲粮中添加8%~16%的黄粉虫能够改善毛皮质量。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Tenebrio molitor L. on body weight change, nutrient digestibility,nitrogen metabolism and fur quality of minks during winter hair period. The single factor method was taken in the trial,and sixty minks were randomly assigned into 5 groups. Minks in group Ⅰ were fed a basal diet(without Tenebrio molitor L.),and the others in groupsⅡtoⅤwere fed the experimental di-ets supplemented with 2%,4%,8% and 16% Tenebrio molitor L.,respectively. The pre

  3. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Growth Performance and Fur Quality of New Zealand Meat Rabbits%饲粮蛋氨酸水平对新西兰肉兔生长性能和毛皮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勤飞; 肖文川; 王永才

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在研究饲粮蛋氨酸水平对新西兰肉兔幼兔生长性能和毛皮品质的影响.选择45日龄体重(1.050±0.058)kg的新西兰肉兔幼兔80只,随机分为4组,分别饲喂基础饲粮(蛋氨酸含量0.24%)和在基础饲粮中添加0.20%、0.40%和0.60%蛋氨酸的饲粮,饲养时间60 d.结果表明:试验兔平均日增重、耗料量、被毛密度和毛的机械性能指标随饲粮中蛋氨酸水平的升高而增加,但饲粮蛋氨酸水平超过0.64%时有下降的趋势(P>0.05);料重比随蛋氨酸水平升高有先下降后上升的趋势;各组间皮厚、皮重、皮机械物理性能和皮革品质差异不显著(P>0.05).蛋氨酸有利于提高新西兰肉兔幼兔阶段生长性能和毛皮品质,饲粮中蛋氨酸含量为0,64%时生长性能和毛皮品质最优.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine levels on growth performance and fur quality of young New Zealand meat rabbit. Eighty young New Zealand meat rabbits with body weight of ( 1. 050 ±0. 058) kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. Rabbits in the control group were fed the basal diet which contained 0. 24% methionine and those in the other groups were fed diets supplemented with 0.20% , 0.40% and 0.60% methionine based on the basal diet. The feeding trial lasted for 60 days. The results showed as follows : average daily gain, feed consumption, hair density and mechanical properties indices of wool were elevated with the increasing of dietary methionine levels, but they tended to be reduced when the level of methiomne was more than 0. 64% ( P > 0. 05 ) ; the feed/gain was decreased firstly and then elevated with the increasing of dietary methionine levels; there were no significant difference among the various groups in skin thickness. skin weight, mechanical and physical properties of skin ( P >0. 05) . These results indicate that methionine could improve the growth performance and fur quality of New Zealand

  4. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation des myriapodes en friction sur le pelage et d’autres zones corporelles est documentée chez les primates en conditions naturelles, notamment à partir des observations récurrentes menées chez le genre Cebus. La typologie de ces comportements suggère différentes hypothèses, fonctionnelles (zoopharmacognosie, alimentaire, sociale ou non (sensorielle, auto-stimulation. Nous présentons des observations qualitatives comparées de l’utilisation non alimentaire de myriapodes diplopodes chez une forme hybride du genre Eulemur au Sud de Madagascar (occurrences en janvier 2005 et chez le sapajou Cebus apella en Guyane Française (occurrences en mars-avril 1996. L’application des sécrétions à benzoquinones sur une large partie du pelage chez Cebus contraste avec la friction exclusive de la zone périgénitale faisant suite au flairage du diplopode chez Eulemur qui manifeste en outre une réponse stéréotypée analogue au flehmen. Dans notre étude, l’imprégnation de fluides à forte intensité olfactive potentialiserait la signalisation de l’identité individuelle chez Eulemur alors que le "fur-rubbing" chez Cebus est compatible avec l’hypothèse commune d’une forme d’appropriation des défenses antiparasitaires de ces invertébrés. La sécrétion de ces défenses chimiques n’est pas automatiquement déclenchée par la manipulation des diplopodes. Le stress induit par les morsures légères (Eulemur et Cebus et l’arrachage des pattes sur plusieurs segments (Cebus augmente la probabilité de sécrétion, ce qui témoignerait d’un apprentissage d’autant plus efficace des conditions d’émission de ces fluides que l’usage est spécifique et très opportuniste.Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.. Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto

  5. 日粮锌源与添加水平对冬毛期母貂体重和养分消化代谢的影响%Effects of Zinc Resources and Levels in Ration on Body Weight and Digestibility and Metabolism of Nutrients of Female Mink in Furring Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进军; 刘洁; 任二军; 李亚青; 李晓华

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sources and levels of zinc on body weight ,nutrient digestibility and nitro-gen balance of female mink in furring period .Eighty four female minks were randomly allocated into 7 groups ,each with 12 replicates .The diets were supplemented with zinc methionine at levels of 0mg/kg(group A) ,15mg/kg(group B) ,30mg/kg(group C) ,45mg/kg(group D) ,60mg/kg (group E) ,75mg/kg(group F) and with Zinc sulfate at the level of 60mg/kg(group G) ,respectively .The results showed that ,there were no significant difference between group E and group G on body weight ,nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of female mink ( P>0.05 ) ,but fat digestibility was significantly higher than that of group G .Body weight(160d) and average daily gain of group E were the highest ,significant-ly higher than that of group D ( P<0.05 ) .Protein digestibility of group D was the highest ,markedly higher than that of group C ( P<0.05 ) .Fat digestibility of group B was evidently higher ( P<0.05 ) than those of other groups having different Zinc levels ( P<0.05 ) .In conclusion ,body weight and digestibility could be improved by using zinc methionine in diet for female minks in furring period .%本试验旨在研究不同锌源与水平对冬毛期母貂体重、养分消化率及氮代谢的影响。选择84只母貂作为试验动物,随机分为7组,每组12只,日粮中分别添加蛋氨酸螯合锌0mg/kg (A组)、15mg/kg (B组)、30mg/kg (C组)、45mg/kg (D组)、60mg/kg (E组)、75mg/kg (F组)和硫酸锌60mg/kg (G组)。结果表明,E组与G组母貂的体重、养分消化率和氮平衡没有显著差异( P>0.05),但B组脂肪消化率显著高于G组;E组母貂的体重(160d)和平均日增重最高,显著高于D组( P<0.05);D组母貂蛋白质消化率最高,与C组差异显著( P<0.05);B组母貂脂肪消化率显著地高于其他各水平组( P<0

  6. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny Infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina em um furão (Galictis cuja: primeiro relato e filogenia viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.Doenças infecciosas em animais selvagens têm aumentado devido às alterações em seu habitat e ao maior contato com animais domésticos. A cinomose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de carnívoros selvagens, representando uma ameaça à conservação da vida selvagem. Nesse estudo é descrito o primeiro caso de infecção pelo vírus da cinomose em um furão (Galictis cuja. Um indivíduo de vida livre, sem sinais clínicos aparentes, apresentou morte súbita após um dia em cativeiro. Foi realizado o diagnóstico molecular para detecção do vírus da cinomose canina, sendo o resultado positivo. A filogenia do vírus indicou que cães domésticos foram a provável fonte de infecção.

  7. Analysis on chemical valence of chromium in residual MgO-Cr2O3 bricks for cement rotary kilns and RH fur-naces%水泥回转窑和RH炉用镁铬残砖中铬价态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晨臣; 王亚娟; 杨晓; 宋秀娟; 马娟; 李爽; 叶国田

    2014-01-01

    为了弄清含铬耐火材料是否在使用过程中都会形成六价铬化合物,采用XRD、XPS 和ICP等手段分析了水泥回转窑烧成带用镁铬残砖及RH炉(浸渍管)用镁铬残砖中Cr6+的存在情况。结果表明:水泥回转窑烧成带用镁铬残砖中有六价铬化合物存在,并且含量较高;RH炉(浸渍管)用镁铬残砖中没有发现六价铬化合物。这表明,并非在所有应用环境中含铬耐火材料都会生成六价铬化合物。%In order to investigate whether hexavalent chromium is formed in all Cr2O3-containing refractories during service,XRD,XPS and ICP were used to determine the chemical valence of chromium in residual MgO-Cr2O3 bricks for firing zone of cement rotary kilns and RH furnaces (snorkel).The results show that Cr6+is detected in the residual MgO-Cr2O3 bricks for cement rotary kilns,but not in the bricks for RH fur-naces,indicating that hexavalent chromium does not form in all applications of Cr2O3-containing refractories.

  8. Effects of Dietary Vitamin A Level on Growth Performance, Fur Quality, Vitamin A Deposition, Serum Biochemical Indices and Antioxidant Function of Growing Rex Rabbits%饲粮维生素 A添加水平对生长獭兔生长性能、毛皮品质、维生素 A沉积、血清生化指标及抗氧化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓强; 李福昌; 李万佳; 付朝晖; 张彩霞

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲粮维生素A添加水平对3~5月龄生长獭兔生长性能、毛皮品质、维生素A沉积、血清生化指标及抗氧化性能的影响。选取平均体重为(1.50±0.14) kg的3月龄獭兔200只,随机分成5组(每组40个重复,每个重复1只),对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组分别饲喂添加5000、10000、20000和40000 IU/kg维生素A的试验饲粮,预试期7 d,正试期53 d。结果表明:饲粮维生素A添加水平对料重比有显著影响(P0.05);饲粮维生素A添加水平对獭兔毛皮重量和毛皮面积影响极显著(P0.05);饲粮维生素A添加水平对血清及肝脏维生素A含量影响显著(P0.05);饲粮中添加维生素A可以极大地改善血清和肝脏的抗氧化性能,饲粮维生素A添加水平对血清谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-Px)和总超氧化物歧化酶(T-SOD)活性影响极显著(P0.05)。综合考虑本试验所测指标,生长獭兔饲粮中维生素A适宜添加水平为10000 IU/kg。%The purpose of this trial was to study the effects of dietary vitamin A level on growth performance, fur quality, vitamin A deposition, serum biochemical indices and antioxidant function of growing Rex rabbits aged 3 to 5 months. Two hundred 3-month-old Rex rabbits with an average body weight of (1. 50±0. 14) kg were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 40 replicates in each group and each replicate contained 1 rabbit. Rabbits in control group were fed a basal diet, and rabbits in the experimental groups were fed experimental di-ets containing 5 000, 10 000, 20 000 and 40 000 IU/kg vitamin A, respectively. There was a pretrial period of 7 days followed by an experimental period of 53 days. The results showed as follows:the dietary vitamin A level had a significant impact on feed/gain ( P0 . 05 ); the dietary vitamin A level had significant impacts on fur weight and fur area (P0 . 05 );the dietary vitamin A level had significant impacts on vitamin A content in serum and liver ( P0 . 05

  9. 饲粮脂肪水平对冬毛期银狐生长性能、体脂肪酸组成及空肠中小肠型脂肪酸结合蛋白表达的影响%Effects of Dietary Fat Level on Growth Performance, Body Fatty acid Composition and the Expression of Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Jejunum of Silver Foxes during Winter Fur-Growing Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 钟伟; 罗婧; 周宁; 黄健; 王卓; 孙皓然; 樊燕燕; 李光玉

    2015-01-01

    为研究饲粮脂肪水平对冬毛期银狐生长性能、体脂肪酸组成及空肠中小肠脂肪酸结合蛋白( I-FABP)表达的影响,选取145日龄、体重相近的健康雄性银狐50只,随机分成5组(每组10个重复,每个重复1只) ,分别饲喂含10%、12%、16%、20%、24%混合油脂(鸡油:豆油=1:1)的试验饲粮,试验饲粮实测脂肪水平分别为12. 85%( A 组)、14. 71%( B 组)、18. 72%( C 组)、22.23%( D组)、26.11%( E组). 预试期为15 d,正试期为75 d. 结果显示:1)饲粮脂肪水平显著影响冬毛期银狐的平均日采食量( ADFI) ( P0.05). 3)饲粮脂肪水平对银狐皮下腹部脂肪中SFA、MUFA和PUFA的比例无显著影响( P>0.05). 4)随饲粮脂肪水平的升高,空肠中I-FABP mRNA的相对表达量呈上升趋势,表现为E组显著高于A、B、C组(P0.05) . 3) Dietary fat level had no significant effects on the proportion of SFA, MUFA and PUFA of subcutaneous fat of silver foxes ( P>0.05) . 4) The relative expression of I-FABP mRNA in jejunum was in-creased with the dietary fat level increasing, and it showed that group E was significantly higher than groups A, B and C ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, the silver foxes have the best growth performance when fed diets with 18.72% fat during winter fur-growing period;body fatty acid composition of silver foxes reflect the dietary fat-ty acid composition, the fatty acid composition of intermuscular fat is affected by dietary fat level, while the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat is stable;moreover, increasing dietary fat level can improve the ex-pression of I-FABP in jejunum of silver foxes during winter fur-growing period.

  10. 输尿管软镜联合钬激光碎石术后双J管留置时间与并发症研究%Complication and indwelling time of Double-J ureteral stents after flexible ureteroscopy (FURS)and holmium laser lithotripsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高子剑; 刘龙; 孙永明; 段中阳; 李昕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of complication and indwelling time of Double-J ureteral stents after flexible uret-eroscopy (FURS)and holmium laser lithotripsy.Methods Ninety patients with renal calculi (0.05).Conclusions After flexible ureteroscopy (FURS)and holmi-um laser lithotripsy,shortening postoperative indwelling time(2 weeks)of Double-J internal ureteral stents could be safe.This could de-crease the incidence of complications,which will not prevent the residual stone discharge and the recovery of renal function.%目的:研究输尿管软镜联合钬激光治疗碎石术后双J管留置时间与并发症关系。方法将该院从2011-2013年收入的90例肾结石患者(结石<2.0 cm)随机分成2组均行输尿管软镜联合钬激光治疗碎石术。术后观察分析2组留置双J管时间(留置2周和4周)与并发症发生情况的关系。所有患者记录在其拔除双J管前并发症的发生;分别于拔除双J管后1周和1月复查尿常规;拔管后1个月复查彩超、腹部平片检查残石率,并行99 Tc m-DTPA核素肾图检查,记录患侧肾脏肾小球滤过率(GFR)。结果2组均出现不同程度的并发症,拔除双J管前2组患者出现下尿路刺激症状(LUTS)分别为33例(70.2%)和40例(93.0%),腰腹痛分别为13例(27.7%)和21例(48.8%),肉眼血尿分别为36例(76.6%)和42例(97.7%),双J管上移分别为0例(0.0%)和2例(4.7%),拔管管壁钙盐沉积或拔管困难分别为4例(8.5%)和11例(25.6%)。并发症的发生率随留置时间延长均明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。拔除双J管1个月后复查彩超及腹部平片,提示无泌尿系结石残留,或残留结石直径<3 mm,2组的结石残石率无统计学意义。2组患者拔管后1周及1个月复查尿常规大致正常。2组比较,患侧肾脏的肾小球滤过率

  11. 饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化代谢的影响%Effects of Dietary Fat Sources on Hutrient Digestion and Metabolism of Short-Haired Black Minks(Mustelidae vison)in Furring Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 吴琼; 荣敏; 吴学壮; 邢秀梅

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化代谢的影响。选择96只120日龄、体重相近、健康的短毛黑水貂,随机分成4组,每组24只。4组水貂分别饲喂油脂为豆油(Ⅰ组)、鸡油(Ⅱ组)、鱼油(Ⅲ组)、猪油(Ⅳ组)的试验饲粮,试验期80 d。结果表明:1)各组公貂的干物质消化率、粗蛋白质消化率、粗脂肪消化率均无显著差异( P>0.05),各组母貂的干物质采食量、干物质消化率、粗蛋白质消化率均无显著差异( P>0.05)。2)各组公貂和母貂的粪氮、氮沉积、蛋白质生物学价值均无显著差异( P>0.05)。Ⅰ组母貂净蛋白质利用率显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.05)。3)Ⅱ组公貂总能、尿能、消化能、代谢能显著高于Ⅲ组( P<0.05),各组公貂的粪能、总能消化率、总能代谢率和消化能代谢率无显著差异( P>0.05)。各组母貂的总能、消化能、代谢能、总能消化率无显著差异(P>0.05),Ⅳ组母貂的粪能、尿能显著高于Ⅲ组(P<0.05)。由此可知,饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化率代谢没有明显影响。%This study was conducted to study the effects of dietary fat sources on nutrient digestion and metabo-lism of short-haired black minks in furring period. Ninety six 120-day-old healthy short-haired black minks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 24 minks in each group. Minks in the four groups were fed the experimental diets with fat sources of soybean oil( group Ⅰ),chicken fat( group Ⅱ),fish oil ( group Ⅲ)and lard( group Ⅳ),respectively. The experiment lasted for 80 days. The results showed as fol-lows:1)there were no significant difference on the digestibility of dry matter,crude protein and ether extract of male minks among all groups( P>0.05). There were no significant difference on dry matter

  12. Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the Guadalupe fur seal (GFS during the XVIII and XIX centuries almost extirpated the species. GFS were distributed from the Revillagigedo islands (Mexico to the gulf of Farallones (USA. At present, reproductive colonies are found at Guadalupe Island and San Benito Archipelago (SBA. The aim of this work was to analyze the process of re-colonization and the current status of GFS at SBA. The first births and the occupation of the west island of the SBA are also reported. Census data from 1997 to 2007 indicated an annual growth rate for the population of 21.6%. The population size, growth tendency of the colony, reproductive biology, and food preferences were also studied. A total of 2,227 GFS were counted at SBA. Three squid species (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii, Dosidicus gigas were found to be the main dietary components. Territoriality, activity patterns, and reproductive behavior were similar for the seals from Guadalupe Island and SBA. The mean growth rate for pups from SBA was calculated and compared to that of the pups at Guadalupe Island (SBA: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg, 68.9 ± 2.64 cm; Guadalupe Island: 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. The length of food foraging trips by females was measured, suggesting that the SBA colony is probably near an important feeding area. Maternal care patterns could indicate different strategies of nursing-foraging trips between the SBA and Guadalupe Island. The population of fur seals at SBA is expected to increase as there are no limitations in terms of reproductive space or available food resources in the area.La explotación del lobo fino de Guadalupe (LFG durante los siglos XVIII y XIX casi extinguió a la especie. El LFG se distribuye desde las islas Revillagigedo (México hasta el golfo de Farallones (USA. En la actualidad las colonias reproductivas se encuentran en la isla de Guadalupe y en el archipiélago de San Benito (ASB. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el proceso de re

  13. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1969-70

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines the present status, objectives, methods and trapping dates for the following refuge pools: Storage Pool, the Main Pool, and May’s Point Pool.

  14. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  15. Annual Fur Removal Program: [Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the number of raccoons, beavers, and muskrats on Mark Twain NWR and outlines trapping restrictions for the 1966-67 trapping season.

  16. Annual Fur Removal Program: [Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1963 trapping program at Mark Twain Refuge. The number of various furbearers present on the Refuge is given, and the number to be removed...

  17. Annual Fur Removal Program: [Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the number of raccoons, beavers, and muskrats on Mark Twain NWR and outlines trapping restrictions for the 1965-66 trapping season.

  18. Fur Management Plan: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  19. Ihr Ticket fur Munchen (Your Ticket to Munich).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Debbie

    Texts accompanied by photographs and drawings introduce students to four means of public transportation and to major tourist attractions in Munich, German Federal Republic. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin, and texts are followed by questions and exercises. Some suggestions for additional activities are given in English. An appendix includes…

  20. Long Term Fur Management Plan : Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Seney NWR Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  1. Entwicklungsarbeit am Spurendetektor fur das CDF Experiment am Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank [Univ. of Karlsruhe (TH) (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    Silicon, the element, which revolutionized the development of electronics, is known as an important and multiusable material, dominating todays electronic technology. It's properties are well investigated and today well known. Silicon is used in solar cells, computers and telecommunications. Since the Sixties semiconductors have been used as particle detectors. Initially they were operated in fixed- target experiments as calorimeters and as detectors with a high precision track reconstruction. Since the Eighties they are widely used in collider experiments as silicon microstrip or silicon pixel detectors near the primary vertex. Silicon sensors have a very good intrinsic energy resolution: for every 3.6 eV released by a particle crossing the medium, one electron-hole pair is produced. Compared to 30 eV required to ionize a gas molecule in a gaseous detector, one gets 10 times the number of particles. The average energy loss and high ionized particle number with 390 e V / μm ~ 108 (electron - hole pairs)/ μm is effectively high due to the high density of silicon. These detectors allow a high precision reconstruction of tracks, primary and secondary vertices, which are especially important for b flavour tagging. The Tevatron and its detectors are being upgraded for the next data taking run starting in 2001 (RUN II). The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) [2] for the upcoming Run II and its upgraded components are described in chapter 2. The main upgrade project is the design and construction of a completely new inner tracking system.

  2. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1973-74

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines the current status, objectives, methods and trapping dates for each of the four main impoundments at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge.

  3. Verlustbehaftete und verlustlose Datenkomprimierung fur Daten von Hochenergiephysik Experimenten

    CERN Document Server

    Patauner, Christian; Marchioro, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes a data compression system optimized for high energy particle detectors. The aim is to reduce the data in the front-end electronics installed in different kind of particle detectors as used for example along the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The signals collected and digitized from calorimeters, time projection chambers and in general from all detectors with a large number of sensors produce an extensive amount of data, which need to be reduced. Real-time data compression algorithms applied right at the detector front-end is able to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted and stored as early as possible in the data chain. Different lossless and lossy compression methods are analyzed regarding their efficiency in compressing data from particle detectors that produce signals amplified and/or shaped to various waveforms. In addition, the complexity of the algorithms is evaluated to determine their suitability for a real-time hardware implementation. From the analyzed methods, a ne...

  4. The concept of behavioural needs in contemporary fur science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, A.L.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the ethical implications of applying the concept of behavioural needs to captive animals. This is done on the basis of analysing the scientific literature on farmed mink and their possible need for swimming. In the wild, American mink (Mustela vison) are semi-aquatic predators......, lending initial support to the claim that captive mink with no access to adequate swimming facilities experience a thwarted behavioural need. Scientific studies show a disparate picture. Consumer-demand experiments, where the animals have been conditioned to work for environmental resources, consistently...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: northern fur seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NS ...

  6. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  7. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  8. 饲粮钴添加水平对断奶至3月龄獭兔生长性能、屠宰性能、肌肉品质和皮张质量的影响%Effects of Dietary Cobalt Supplemental Level on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance, Muscle Quality and Fur Quality of Weaned to 3-Month-Old Rex Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琴; 刘磊; 隋啸一; 孙海涛; 刘公言; 李福昌

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮钴添加水平对断奶至3月龄獭兔生长性能、屠宰性能、肌肉品质和皮张质量的影响。选择体重相近的断奶獭兔200只,随机分为5组(每组40个重复,每个重复1只),分别饲喂在基础饲粮中添加0、0.1、0.4、1.6、6.4 mg/kg钴(以硫酸钴的形式)的试验饲粮。预试期7 d,正试期60 d。结果表明:在初始体重( IBW)无显著差异( P>0.05)的前提下,饲粮钴添加水平对终末体重( FBW)有显著影响( P<0.05),对平均日采食量( ADFI)有极显著影响(P<0.01),对平均日增重(ADG)和料重比(F/G)均无显著影响(P>0.05)。随着饲粮钴添加水平的升高,FBW和ADFI均先升高后降低,并且均在饲粮钴添加水平为0.4 mg/kg时最高。饲粮钴添加水平对獭兔的全净膛率、半净膛率和及肌肉品质指标[ pH、失水率、剪切力以及肉色(亮度、红度、黄度值)]均无显著影响( P>0.05),随着饲粮钴添加水平的升高,全净膛率和半净膛率均有先升高后降低的趋势。饲粮钴添加水平对獭兔的皮张面积、皮张重量、皮张厚度均无显著影响( P>0.05)。随着饲粮钴添加水平的升高,皮张重量呈现先增加后降低的趋势,且在饲粮钴添加水平为0.4 mg/kg时最高。饲粮钴添加水平对胸腺指数、脾脏指数、肝脏指数均没有显著影响( P>0.05)。随着饲粮钴添加水平的升高,胸腺指数呈现先增加后降低的趋势,且在饲粮钴添加水平为0.4 mg/kg时达到最高。综合本试验测定指标,断奶至3月龄獭兔饲粮适宜的钴添加水平为0.4 mg/kg(基础饲粮中钴含量为0.27 mg/kg)。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary cobalt supplemental level on growth performance, slaughter performance, muscle quality and fur quality of weaned to 3

  9. Effects of Inositol Supplemental Level on Growth Performance, Fur Quality, Immune Organ Indices and Nutrient Availabilities of 2 to 4-Month-Old Growing Rex Rabbits%饲粮肌醇添加水平对2~4月龄生长獭兔生长性能、毛皮质量、免疫器官指数和营养物质利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周松涛; 谷子林; 吴峰洋; 李冲; 戴冉; 巩耀进; 刘亚娟; 陈赛娟

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of inositol supplemental level on growth perform-ance, fur quality, immune organ indices and nutrient availabilities of 2 to 4-month-old growing Rex rabbits.A total of 88 two-month-old healthy growing Rex rabbits with the similar body weight were randomly divided into 4 groups with 22 replicates per group and 1 rabbit per replicate.Group Ⅰ was used as control group and the rabbits were fed with a basal diet.Groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ were used as experimental groups and the rabbits were fed with the basal diet plus 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg inositol, respectively.The experiment lasted for 60 days.The results showed as follows: 1 ) dietary inositol supplemental level had no significant effects on average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed/gain ( P>0.05) .2) Dietary inositol supplemental level had no signifi-cant effects on fur area and fur weight ( P>0.05) , while it had significant effects on wool density and wool length ( P0.05);the wool density in groupⅣwas the biggest, and it was significantly longer than that in groupsⅠ( P0.05) , but thymus index showed an increased trend with inositol supplemental level increasing ( P>0.05) . 4)Dietary inositol supplemental level had significant effects on the availabilities of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein ( P0.05) .The dry matter availability in groupⅣwas the highest, which was significantly higher than that in groupⅠ( P<0.05);the gross energy availability in groupsⅡandⅣ was significantly higher than that in groupⅠ( P<0.05 or P<0.01);the crude protein availability in groupsⅡ,Ⅲand Ⅳwas significantly higher than that in group Ⅰ (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Considering all indices of this experiment, the optimum dietary inositol supplemental level is 75 mg/kg for growing Rex rabbits.%本试验旨在研究饲粮肌醇添加水平对2~4月龄生长獭兔生长性能、毛皮质量、免疫器官指数和营养物质利用率的

  10. Effects of Soybean Oil Supplemental Level on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestion and Metabolism, Serum Biochemical Indices and Fur Quality of Weaner to 3-Month-Old Rex Rabbits%饲粮豆油添加水平对断奶至3月龄獭兔生长性能、营养物质消化代谢、血清生化指标及皮毛质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆国柱; 李福昌; 王雪鹏; 王春阳; 吴振宇

    2013-01-01

    metabolism of nutrients,serum biochemical indices and fur quality of weaner to 3-month-old Rex rabbits.Two hundred weaner Rex rabbits with similar body weight were randomly divided into 5 groups with 40 replicates per group and 1 rabbit per replicate.Rabbits in control group were fed a basal diet,and rabbits in other 4 groups were fed experimental diets which were formulated with 1%,2 %,3 % and 4 % corn replacement by soybean oil with the same proportion on basal diet.The duration of the preliminary experiment was 7 days and the duration of the formal experiment was 53 days.The results showed as follows:soybean oil supplementation significantly reduced the average daily feed intake (P < 0.01),but had no significant effect on average daily gain (P > 0.05) under the condition of no significant difference in the initial body weight (P > 0.05).The feed/gain in 3 % group was the lowest and significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.01),but had no significant difference compared with other supplemental groups (P > 0.05).Soybean oil supplementation significantly reduced the gross energy intake,nitrogen intake and fecal nitrogen (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01),but had no significant effects on fecal energy,urine energy,digestible nitrogen,nitrogen retention and nitrogen utilization rate (P > 0.05).The energy digestibility and metabolizability in all supplemental groups were higher than those in control group,but no significant differences were found (P >0.05).The nitrogen apparent digestibility was firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of soybean oil supplemental level,and reached the maximum when supplemental level was 2 %.The nitrogen apparent digestibility in 2 % group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.05),but had no significant difference compared with other supplemental groups (P > 0.05).Soybean oil supplemental level significantly affected serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol content (P < 0

  11. Taphonomy and abundance of birds from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyke, Gareth; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The pattern, pace and extent of the evolutionary radiation of modern birds (Neornithes) by the end-Cretaceous (65 Ma) has long been debated. Well-dated, taphonomically understood and phylogenetically constrained fossil birds from both sides of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary are required...

  12. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V.; Psychogyios, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Floc’h, E. Le [CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bridge, C. [Div. of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M{sub 20} parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M{sub 20} (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M{sub 20} parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M{sub 20} at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M{sub 20} for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M{sub 20} is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  13. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Zutphen, van L.; Hoek, D.; Yaya, F.O.; Roelfsema, J.; Pinelli, E.; Knapen, van F.; Kortbeek, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in the Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples wer

  14. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Zutphen, L.; Hoek, D.; Yaya, F.O.; Roelfsema, J.; Pinelli, E.; van Knapen, F.; Kortbeek, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in The Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples wer

  15. 76 FR 45499 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments. Attachments... the annual harvest on August 8 to reduce the probability of the accidental killing of females to the... accidentally killed since 1987. The average accidental killing of females on St. Paul and St. George...

  16. Die Bedeutung des "Orbis Sensualium Pictus" fur Schulbucher im Kontext der Geschichte der Schule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the impact of Comenius' textbook "Orbis Sensualium Pictus" on eighteenth-century German textbooks. Examines his textbook theory and the structure and function of the book. Reports influence on the illustration of textbooks, function and structure of an introductory book, the correlation of verbal and real elements, and…

  17. Introduction prospects for rare species of flora in Crimea fur use in urban landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidgaynaya Elena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents introduction prospects for rare and endangered plants of the Crimean flora. The target of research puts together types of the Crimean natural flora included to the global and regional protection documents; such plants grow in the N. V. Bagrov Botanical Garden of the Taurida Academy, V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, in Simferopol. The observations were conducted in 2010-2016. As a result of an integral assessment of plants decorative features, 34 promising and 20 highly decorative species have been marked for wide cultivation and introduction into planting of the Crimean foothill. The studied species are recommended for use in planting of various flowerbeds’ types as accent, dominant, shading, and auxiliary plants. Some 24 of the proposed types are heliophyte plants and are recommended for planting the solar sites; 10 types are suitable for half-shaded and shaded areas. In the wild, the majority of these plants are adapted to dry growing conditions; this improves their cultivation prospects in the arid areas.

  18. Structure Function Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is implicated in the development of both mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and...infamous experiment where he consumed cultured H. pylori and documented his development of gastritis (137), led these two researchers to propose that...this bacterium was the causative agent of acute gastritis , chronic gastritis , and peptic ulcers, a notion that would turn the medical world upside

  19. Fur Management Plan : Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses approaches to managing furbearer populations; specifically, management strategies, trapping programs and methods. The Upper Mississippi NWFR...

  20. Genital morphology of the male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and biological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander D. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Male capacity for spreading genes to a great number of descendents and to determine population dynamics depend directly on the genital organs. Morphological studies in pinnipeds are scarce and the functional meaning of some characteristics has never been discussed. We hypothesized that Arctocephalus australis (A. australis shows morphophysiological adaptations in order to guarantee the perpetuation of the species in the unique annual mating season. Seven males, dead from natural causes, had their genital organs collected and fixed for morphological description. Some features differ from other described mammalian males and are closely related to the biology and reproductive cycle of this species, as the scrotal epidermis, absence of glandular portion in the ductus deferens and spermatogenic epithelium suggest a recrudescent testis period. The corona glandis exhibits a singular arrangement: its erectile border looks like a formation of petals and its association with the os penis gives a "lily-flower" form to this region. We propose the name margo petaliformis to this particular erectile border of the corona glandis because of its similarity to a flower corola. The male genital organs of A. australis show morphological features compatible with adaptation to environment requirements and reproductive efficiency.

  1. Northern fur seal foraging strategies, Bogoslof and St. Paul Islands 2004-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of North Pacific Research Board Project 414 and Project 514. Project 514 provided a second year of data collection to the study detailed in Banks...

  2. 77 FR 6682 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    .... George. DATES: Effective March 12, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Williams, (907) 271-5117, email Michael.Williams@noaa.gov ; Kim Rivera, (907) 586-7424, email Kim.Rivera@noaa.gov ; or...: February 3, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover, Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator for Regulatory...

  3. Kinder als Experten fur Leistungsbewertung (Children as Experts in Assessment of Achievement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Silvia-Iris; Vollstadt, Witlof

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of a research project LeiHS, which investigated the assessment and feedback on achievement in Hamburg (Germany) schools. Shows that students and parents accept assessment and prefer reports where the grades are accompanied by comments on individual achievement in different subjects. Interviews students about their achievement…

  4. Differential regulation of amidase- and formamidase-mediated ammonia production by the Helicobacter pylori fur repressor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); J. Stoof (Jeroen); S.W. Poppelaars (Sophie); S. Bereswill (Stefan); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Kist (Manfred); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe production of high levels of ammonia allows the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori to survive the acidic conditions in the human stomach. H. pylori produces ammonia through urease-mediated degradation of urea, but it is also able to convert a range of amide

  5. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Jørgensen, Jens Christian; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Hans; Pedersen, Karl

    2006-12-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism, all isolates of S. Dublin had indistinguishable patterns. The outbreaks took place during April and May, around the time of whelping. During this period, mink are particularly susceptible to Salmonella infections. All affected farms were served by the same feed factory and it was concluded that a batch of contaminated feed was responsible for the outbreaks, although repeated culture of feed samples collected during the same period were negative. No other likely source could be identified. The results emphasize the importance of strict hygiene measures at feed factories and the proper use of ingredients of known Salmonella status, in particular during the whelping season. Infected mink farms did not have a higher risk of outbreak of salmonellosis in the year following the outbreak.

  6. Functional morphology and fur patterns in Recent and fossil Panthera species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, D.; Hilsberg, S.; Benesch, A.; Scholz, J.

    2003-01-01

    According to caves drawings, male specimens of ice age cave lions lacked a mane. Ethological observations of the recent subspecies showed the significance of the mane of male lions (Panthera leo) in intraspecific social interaction. For the Pleistocene lion, there are two possible implications; the

  7. EIGENSTNDIGE PR- UND NOTFALLKLINIK ALS ZENTRALES RETTUNGSZENTRUM FuR DIE REGION 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leuca Mirela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The German health care system has been undergoing many reforms. The introduction of the DRG-financing system, as one of the major changes for the German hospital setting in the last decades, had huge impact on the evolution of the hospital resources and capacities, economic situation, organization, structure, processes and average length of stay. In this context, the optimal organization and structure of emergency departments is becoming a strategic factor of success for hospitals. This paper presents briefly the present situation with regard to the organization and structure of emergency care in Germany and describes the strategy, goals and expectations when establishing a new interdisciplinary emergency department for Region 10 in Germany.

  8. A New Symmetrodont Mammal with Fur Impressions from the Mesozoic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Western Liaoning of northeastern China is world-renowned for the Mesozoic Jehol biota, especially for yielding many feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, mammals and fossil angiosperm. This paper describes a complete specimen of a symmetrodont mammal with well-preserved hairs and soft tissue from the basal part of the Yixian Formation in the Sihetun area, Beipiao, western Liaoning. It is significant for understanding the morphology, osteology, phylogeny and life habits of Mesozoic symmetrodont mammals.

  9. Implementierungsalternativen fur einen flexiblen drahtlosen LAN Transceiver - Implementation Alternatives for a Flexible Wireless LAN Transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roel; Hoeksema, Fokke; Slump, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In our software-defined radio project we have implemented two different types of standards, a continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) based standard, Bluetooth, and an OFDM based standard, HiperLAN/2, on a general-purpose processor. First we describe our baseband software-defined radio testbed for the phy

  10. Alaska Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Argos Telemetry Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Ecosystems Program of the NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory conducts research and monitoring on Steller sea lions and...

  11. ALSTOM Schusselmuhle fur die feinvermahlung von anhydrit ALSTOM bowl mill for anhydrite fine grinding

    CERN Document Server

    Angleys, M

    2003-01-01

    After the ALSTOM bowl mill had proved a success during numerous laboratory tests using different industrial minerals, for the first time a mill, type SM 20/12 was commissioned for ATLAS s.c. at Lodz /Poland for anhydrite grinding. Based on corresponding laboratory tests with anhydrite, it was possible to adapt the equipment to the requirements of the material with modified properties. Due to the project preparation together with the customer, the mill could be installed and commissioned according to schedule by a joint team of engineers for erection and commissioning.

  12. Artificial Fur: Another Choice of Eco-friendly%Artificial Fur: Another Choice of Eco-friendly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Coping with shrinking demand both in overseas and domestic markets, the Wool industry in China makes great effort to enhance industrial structural adjustment and upgrading. How to develop the eco-friendly green wool industry responsibly, especially integrating economic benefit and social benefit together? Nantong Hong Yang Cashmere Company develops a way.

  13. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  14. Concealed Leather and Fur Finds from Kempten/ Allgäu (Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    , in: Guido Helmig, Barbara Scholkmann, Matthias Untermann (Hgg.), Centre-Region-Periphery, Medieval Europe 2002 Preprinted Papers Vol. 3 (Hertingen 2002) 233-238. Online-Version der Posterpräsentation...

  15. The First Smallpox Epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the Fur-traders' Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Stuart Houston

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available William Tomison, in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan River, described the devastating smallpox epidemic of 1781 and 1782. He understood contagion, practised isolation and disinfection, and provided mortality statistics during a 'virgin soil' epidemic. Above all, he showed remarkable compassion. He and his men took dying Indians into their already crowded quarters, and provided them with food, shelter and 24 h care. This article describes the epidemic and its aftermath.

  16. A formative evaluation of a family-based walking intervention-Furness Families Walk4Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Fiona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family unit may be an important mechanism for increasing physical activity levels, yet little is known about what types of family-based interventions are effective. This study involved a formative evaluation of a 12 week intervention to encourage walking as a family based activity. The intervention consisted of several key elements including led walks and tailored resources, as well as remote support provided via the telephone. The project aimed to explore factors associated with successful delivery of the programme and to identify areas of improvement for future implementation. Methods A total of nine interviews were undertaken with programme staff who were involved in either the set up or delivery of the intervention. In addition, four interviews and two focus groups were undertaken with participants to explore their experiences of the programme. The analysis involved both deductive and inductive reasoning. Results In total, 114 people participated in the programme, which included 36 adults, 10 adolescents and 68 children (≤ 10 years of age. Adult participants reported several barriers to walking including concerns over their children's behaviour and their ability to maintain 'control' of their children. Walking in a group with other families gave parents confidence to go out walking with their children and provided a valuable opportunity for social interaction for parents and children alike. The most successful walks incorporated specific destinations and an activity to undertake upon reaching the destination. Incorporating other activities along the way also helped to keep the children engaged. Conclusions The results of this study have highlighted the important contribution that formative research can make in informing and refining a programme to increase appropriateness and effectiveness. The study has helped to highlight the key characteristics associated with delivering a successful walking intervention to young families. It is recommended that practitioners undertake formative research when developing novel health promotion initiatives to help refine the programme protocols.

  17. Fur-bearers in the field : study examines cumulative effects of activity at Chinchaga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-08-01

    The challenges facing the oil and gas industry regarding cumulative environmental impacts were discussed. This issue has become important to the oil and gas industry, particularly as communities, governments, environmental groups and investors seek better understanding of the long-term consequences of development and how its effects can be mitigated. Long-term studies and baseline data are important. For the last 8 winters, Ernst Environmental Services (EES) has conducted wildlife monitoring at Chinchaga, which straddles the border between north-Western Alberta and northeastern British Columbia (BC). The area has been described as one of the last boreal wilderness areas in the province. It also has a very rich oil field. There are now more than 140 wells, and this boom has brought along much associated infrastructure, including pipelines, winter roads and a gas plant on the BC side. Each winter, as activity increases, EES uses snow-tracking, photo documentation, remote-camera monitoring and scat collection to capture data about the effects of drilling activities. Scat is collected for stress-level analysis. Although initial studies indicate that wolverines have not been displaced by oil and gas activity, new data has shown that wolverines have returned to territories where oil and gas activity has stopped. Data continues to support the idea that activity does not displace moose, marten, lynx or fisher populations. Using this data, the EES has made several recommendations about wildlife and industry interactions, including no use of recreational vehicles; no harassment of wildlife; the restriction of engine retarder brakes in specified areas; and no idling of vehicles. Additionally, well sites should not be located in old-growth areas, all activities should stop by March 15, and workers should be educated about the consequences of their actions. Controversies concerning the EES's methods were presented. It was suggested that the inefficacy of the procedure was a means of neutralizing the effect of oil and gas activity in the area. The effects of telemetry on wildlife were also discussed. It was concluded that it may be possible for oil and gas activities to co-exist with wildlife, and that research may result in mitigating the effects of development. 4 figs.

  18. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Loch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

  19. Tuberculosis in sea lions and fur seals from the south-western Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardelli, A; Bastida, R; Loureiro, J; Michelis, H; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Costa, E

    1996-09-01

    Diverse pathological conditions causing the strandings and/or deaths of several species of sea lions and seals on the northern coast of the province of Buenos Aires are being studied. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in six cases of strandings, involving two otariid seal species (one Otaria flavescens and five Arctocephalus australis), between March 1989 and December 1992. Necropsies were performed on all six cases. Granulomatous lesions were observed in the prescapular and hepatic lymph nodes. Lesions were also seen in the lungs, pleura, liver, spleen and peritoneum. Bacteriological isolation was attempted from all the samples. The isolates were identified as belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Some showed characteristics consistent with M. bovis, whereas others demonstrated properties of M. tuberculosis. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from these strains was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), using IS6110, a genetic marker found only in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Using the IS6110 probe, similar fingerprints were obtained, suggesting a common source of infection. However, the pattern of DNA differed from DNA patterns of M. bovis isolated from humans and cattle in Argentina, which generally contain a unique 1.9 kbp band. These results suggest that mycobacteria isolated from wild seals form a different grouping inside the M. tuberculosis complex. This is the first time that tuberculosis has been detected in wild seals from the south-western Atlantic coast.

  20. 75 FR 11121 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... adverse impact on such species or stock and its habitat, paying particular attention to rookeries, mating... contribution to the responses observed. Gorbatch and Ardiguen breeding areas will provide control areas with no...

  1. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Hans Henrich; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel...

  2. CLAR: Una herramienta para estudiar el envejecimiento de las composiciones poliméricas furánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio F. Santo Tomás

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento de la estabilidad en el tiempo o envejecimiento de las composiciones poliméricas constituye uno de los aspectos que es necesario considerar cuando se desarrollan matrices en las cuales se desea potenciar la flexibilidad, la resistencia térmica u otras propiedades físico-mecánicas. Se muestran los resultados del estudio de estabilidad que, mediante la cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR en fase reversa, se realizó en cuatro Mezclas (A, B, C y D de resinas FAM-blend modificadas por la adición, en diferentes proporciones, de resinas de alcohol furfurílico (FL y epoxi GY-250. Las determinaciones se realizaron empleando un cromatógrafo líquido con detector de arreglo de diodos y una columna RP18 Hypersil 5 ¿m (250 x 4,6 mm. En el estudio se cuantificaron los monómeros monofurfurilidenacetona (FAc, difurfurilidenacetona (F2Ac y epoxídico; el furfural y el alcohol furfurílico libres en el extracto alcohólico de las Mezclas. Las mediciones se realizaron a los 0, 15, 30 y 130 días. Se determinaron los tiempos de retención de los principales analitos en las Mezclas, así como en las resinas FL, FAM y epoxi. Los resultados por CLAR para las Mezclas estudiadas están en correspondencia con los obtenidos en las pruebas químico-físicas y físico-mecánicas realizadas.

  3. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  4. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj;

    2013-01-01

    the season of feed restriction, the wear/tear of biting ropes increased. Females on the chunky diet had a higher concentration of faecal cortisol metabolites (P = 0.033), probably due to a more severe slimming resulting in a 6.2% lower body weight (P = 0.006) than the mink on the finely ground diet; still...

  5. Abolition of Biofilm Formation in Urinary Tract Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Isolates by Metal Interference through Competition for Fur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Dahl, Malin; Klemm, Per

    2010-01-01

    in microtiter plates and flow chambers as well as on urinary catheters. These results further support that iron uptake is indeed crucial for biofilm formation, and thereby, targeting these uptake systems might be an effective way to eradicate biofilms caused by infectious strains.......Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of persistent and chronic infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics and immune defenses, which makes it hard if not impossible to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. In the urinary tract, free iron...

  6. Alttestamentliche Voraussetzungen fur das Verstandnis des Bundesmotivs im Neuen Testament Teil 2: Forschungsgeschichtlicher Oberblick, Fazit und Ausblick 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. Grabe

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Old Testament background for understanding the covenant motif in the New Testament - Part 2: Overview of the history of research and conclusion In this article an overview is given of the function of the concept 'covenant' as it is employed in a number of prominent Old Testament theologies in the post-Eichrodt period, namely that of Von Rad, Zimmerli, Clements, and Westermann. The important contribution by Lothar Perlitt, as well as the recent publication by Rendtorff on the covenant formula is also discussed. Despite certain points of criticism which can be levelled against their comparison between the notion of covenant in the Old Testament and that found in Ancient Near Eastern treaties, the important research of Baltzer and Mendenhall still needs to be considered seriously. Before a conclusion is drawn, the reader is pointed to the importance of the promise of a new covenant within the context of the Old Testament.

  7. 毛皮染色的几种新工艺%A Few New Processes in Fur Colouring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝俊恒

    2007-01-01

    随着科学技术的不断发展,毛皮染色的新技术、新工艺、新产品不断涌现.像"草上霜"、微风效应、一毛双色等就是近几年内的一些新工艺,另外还有一毛三色、水貂皮漂金、毛皮褪色等的工艺.这些新工艺新技术的出现为毛皮加工增添了无限生机,也为人们的生活带来了美好的色彩.

  8. Software Design of Jacquard Artificial Fur System%提花人造毛皮系统软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江泽涛; 俞子荣; 万光逵

    2003-01-01

    文中介绍了提花人造毛皮上位机提花软件设计,解决了多种图像格式转换、图像块分割、图像边界处理、图像块修改、图像叠加及图像旋转、图像颜色锐减、图像滤波、工业用料成分分析及计算、对称画图及扩展、上下位机图像数据通信以及绘图中的若干个技术问题.同时还介绍了软件的主要功能流程图.

  9. The Mar 7th Movement in the industry of fur coat%皮衣业的"三七"运动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安俐

    2004-01-01

    @@ 有点岁数的人大概都记得,上个世纪90年代初的时候,穿一件皮衣是多么时尚的打扮.那时候一到冬天大街上的人大多穿着皮衣,款式基本一样,惟一能互相比较的是质地的好坏和真假当年在神州大地刮起的那阵"皮衣风暴"虽然早已过去,但是却给中国皮衣业带来了行业发展的最好原动力.

  10. Impact of marine debris on Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff: diet dependent ingestion and entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that plastics in the marine environment can harm marine organisms, most visibly birds, turtles and mammals (Shomura and Yoshida, 1985). These animals can become entangled in this synthetic debris and can ingest macro- and micro-plastics. Recently, increased awar

  11. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 454 sequencing of selected BAC clones in mammals and re-assures the suitability of this technique for obtaining the sequence information of genes of interest in small genomics projects. The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library [HN339419-HN341884, HN604664-HN604702]. The 454 produced contigs derived from selected clones are deposited with reference numbers [GenBank: JF288166-JF288183 &JF310744].

  12. Impact of marine debris on Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff: diet dependent ingestion and entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that plastics in the marine environment can harm marine organisms, most visibly birds, turtles and mammals (Shomura and Yoshida, 1985). These animals can become entangled in this synthetic debris and can ingest macro- and micro-plastics. Recently, increased awar

  13. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    of genes of interest in small genomics projects. The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library [HN339419-HN341884, HN604664-HN604702]. The 454 produced contigs derived from selected clones are deposited with reference numbers [GenBank: JF288166-JF288183 &JF......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...

  14. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    A welfare assessment system should be "high" in validity, robustness and feasibility - the latter both as regards time and costs. Therefore, observers must be able to perform the on-farm assessment with acceptable validity after some training. Based on empiric data this paper evaluates...... assessors, the short training was not sufficient to get highly reliable results. No overall difference was found between the inter observer reliability of cages with ≤2 or ≥3 mink in a cage. More training and better training material and, for some measures, observation procedures are needed in order...

  15. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik (Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This report of the 1969 Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics contains summaries of papers and speeches on the following topics: (1) linguistics applied to literary texts, (2) computer analysis of texts, (3) research in the psychology of first language learning, (4) research in the psychology of second language learning, (5) speech…

  16. The effects of vessel approaches on the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocepahlus forsteri) in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowling, M.; Kirkwood, R.J.; Boren, L.; Sutherland, D.; Scarpaci, C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that establish new sites near the edge of the species' range may be vulnerable to disturbance as they are low in numbers and are not tied to the sites. Pinniped distributions world-wide are changing as many species are recolonizing areas of their former ranges and establishing new colonies.

  17. Feed efficiency and body weight growth throughout growing-furring period in mink using random regression method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and body weight (BW) growth in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. Eight BW measures for each mink was recorded every three weeks from 63 to 210...... days of age for 2139 male mink and the same number of females. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with three weeks interval based on daily feed consumption between weighing’s from 105 to 210 days of age. Heritability estimates for RFI increased by age from 0.18 (0.03, standard deviation...... be obtained by only considering RFI estimate and BW at pelting, however, lower genetic correlations than unity indicate that extra genetic gain can be obtained by including estimates of these traits at the growing period. This study suggests random regression methods are suitable for analysing feed efficiency...

  18. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  19. Northern fur seal foraging behavior and prey fields in the Bering Sea, Alaska during July-October 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used by Kuhn et al. (2015) to investigate how conclusions about predator-prey relationships change with increasing temporal disparity between...

  20. De productie van en handel in konijnenbont in de Europese Unie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Galen, van M.A.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Rabbit fur does not play an important role in the discussion about the use of animal fur. Nevertheless, rabbit fur is used in a variety of products. There is a gap in knowledge about the production of and trade in rabbit fur. The foundation Fur for Animals wants to know more about the production of

  1. 16 CFR 301.1 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fur Products Name Guide and Name Guide mean the register of names of hair fleece and fur bearing... board, and furs which have been dyed, tip-dyed, bleached or artificially colored, intended for use as or...

  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 12515 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lator, Fur family Calothrix sp. PCC 7507 MQHQANAIVQTLKSKGLRVTPQRFAVYANLLSRTDHPTVDQILTELNKDFPVSSQATIYSSLQALREVGLVREVLLEEGVCRYDANVGPHHHFCCCQCGAIEDITWDTFEYIQLQSLRPGLRGKTYEVTVQGICDRCDPE ...

  3. Tonbander fur den Fremdsprachenunterricht: Katalog 3. Bandes magnetiques pour l'enseignement des langues etrangeres: Catalogue 3 (Tape Recordings for Foreign Language Instruction: Catalogue 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission Interuniversitaire Suisse de Linguistique Appliquee (Switzerland).

    This catalogue, written in German and French, lists 24 tape recordings of German, French, Italian, English, and Spanish instructional tapes. The contents of the tapes include exercises in grammar and phonetics. Bibliographical data includes author, title, level of instruction, length, price, and source of availability. A brief description of each…

  4. Optimal Active Sound-Reduction in Airplane-Cubicles for High Tonal Noise-Levels (optimale aktive gerauschreduzierung in flugzeugkabinen fur hohe tonale larmpegel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    verglichen. Rechenzeiten Die benbtigten Rechenzeiten sind in Tab. 5.2 aufgef~hrt. Wie zu erwarten war, liegen die Rechenzeiten von COSA wesentlich Uber ...of optimal design: modeling and computation. 2. Aufl. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. [Pareto7l] Pareto, V.: Manual of political economy

  5. Mögliche Landnutzungsänderungen im Rheingebiet mit und ohne Klimaänderung: Projektionen fur die Mitte des 21. Jahrhunderts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rötter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt Methoden zur Erstellung möglichst plausibler Vorhersagen zur räumlichen Verteilung wichtiger Landnutzungskategorien, ohne und mit Klimaveränderung. Landnutzungsprojektionen für das Rheingebiet werden dargestellt. Neben drei verschiedenen sozio-ökonomischen Projekti

  6. TRANSFERABLE RESIDUES FROM DOG FUR AND PLASMA CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN DOGS TREATED WITH A FLEA CONTROL DIP CONTAINING CHLORPYRIFOS. (R825170)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  8. Disposal of stench gas from the production of artificial fur%人造毛皮生产中恶臭气体的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温永

    2001-01-01

    分析了人造毛皮生产中恶臭气体的来源、特点,提出了水吸收与碱吸收相结合的处理工艺。试运转结果表明,该工艺合理,操作管理简单,具有较好的处理效果。

  9. 白三烯拮抗剂:儿童用Montelukast 咀嚼片%Leukotrien-Antagonisten Montelukast-Kautabletten fur Kinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    在美国,白三烯受体拮抗剂Montelukast(singularR)现在还有供学龄前儿童服用的新剂型.今年3月美国F D A批准4 m gMontelukast咀嚼片用于防治2-5岁儿童的支气管哮喘.在欧洲已提出本品用于该年龄组病人的申请.

  10. Standards for University Libraries = Normes pour les bibliotheques universitaires = Richtwerte fur Universitatsbibliotheken = Normas de bibliotecas universitarias. IFLA Professional Reports No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Beverly P., Ed.

    This statement prepared by the International Federation of Library Associations' Section of University Libraries and Other General Research Libraries presents standards of general principles designed to accomplish the following: (1) provide a means by which the quality of the library serving a university can be assessed; (2) offer guidance for…

  11. Doktorgrade in Naturwissenschaftsdidaktik: Voraussetzungen und Forschungsbereiche fur Dissertationen = Doctorates in Science Education: Prerequisites and Research Areas for Dissertations. IPN Report in Brief 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Peter; And Others

    Doctoral degrees in science education have been established in several European countries during the past years. This study attempts to survey this development in nine European countries (Austria, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, German Democratic Republic, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom) and in the United States.…

  12. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni dsb gene expression is regulated by iron in a Fur-dependent manner and by a translational coupling mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowska, AD; Wandel, MP; Łasica, AM; Nesteruk, M; Roszczenko, P; Wyszyńska, A; Godlewska, R; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, EK

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many bacterial extracytoplasmic proteins are stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges that are formed post-translationally between their cysteine residues. This protein modification plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis, and is facilitated by the Dsb (disulfide bond) family of the redox proteins. These proteins function in two parallel pathways in the periplasmic space: an oxidation pathway and an isomerization pathway. The Dsb oxidative pathway in Campyl...

  14. Analysis of International Competition Power of Chinese Fur Industry%中国裘皮产业的国际竞争力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同功

    2006-01-01

    通过对中国裘皮产业国际竞争力现状的分析,找出我国与发达国家存在的差距,并从转变经营机制,提高技术含量、成立拍卖行、重视科技投入、改进行业标准、树立品牌形象5个方面,提出了应对方略.

  15. 皮毛服装行业:高档奢华背后的冷思考%Fur Clothing Industry: An Introspection behind High-end Luxury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程醉

    2011-01-01

    @@ 我国人民利用动物皮毛制作服装的历史由来已久,有据可查的就是商代著名丞相比干一直就被人们奉为皮衣制作的圣贤.同时,成语集腋成裘也从另一个侧面证明了我国皮毛服装悠久的历史.实际上,从大的方面来说,陕北老乡的羊皮袄子、东北群众的狗皮帽子等都属于皮毛服装、服饰的范畴.

  16. 我国毛皮动物养殖业风险的应对措施%Counter Measures of Risks of Fur Animal Breeding Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹琦; 文思标; 张聿迪; 刘伟石

    2009-01-01

    针对我国毛皮动物养殖业直接风险中的技术风险和组织与管理风险、间接风险中的消费者风险、供应商风险、竞争对手风险和市场风险,提出相应的应对措施,并建议建立毛皮动物养殖产业预警系统.

  17. Visual Basic在人造毛皮工艺计算中的应用%Application of Visual Basic in the technological calculation of the artificial fur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆

    2007-01-01

    分析了人造毛皮工艺计算计算机应用软件的性能要求和工艺要求.探讨了运用面向对象编程的可视化编程语言Visual Basic编写人造毛皮工艺计算程序的方法.详细阐述了程序的设计过程,包括确定变量及名称、程序界面结构设计和窗体设计.

  18. Factors of influencing fur industry development.%分析影响毛皮业发展的几点因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广东; 王新芳; 张亮

    2009-01-01

    @@ 目前,我国已经成为世界公认的毛皮生产大国.养殖业真正发腱起来是在近10年,由于各种经济成分,特别是民营企业走进市场,使养殖业的发展速度加快,奠定了毛皮行业整体发展的基础.

  19. Detection of Bacillus Anthracis in Earth and Animal Fur%土壤和动物毛皮中炭疽芽胞杆菌检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何四清

    2008-01-01

    炭疽是一种由炭疽杆菌引起的人畜共患急性传染病,牛、羊、骆驼、骡等食草动物是其主要传染源。当人直接或间接地接触病畜和染菌的动物皮毛、肉及被病畜污染的土壤等,也会感染炭疽。

  20. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  1. White Discharge Printing of Artificial Fur with Reduetant%聚马来酸防皱整理剂的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明珍; 陆必泰

    2001-01-01

    通过L9(34)正交试验,选择具有合适分子量的聚马来酸(PMA)无醛防皱整理剂和最优防皱整理工艺.并对棉织物进行防皱整理,获得良好的防皱整理效果,WRA值可达到243.5°,断裂强度保留率在70%以上.同时优选出合成PMA的最佳条件.

  2. Analysis of the application of organic silicon finishing agent to artificial fur%有机硅整理剂在人造毛皮上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志祥; 孟怀荣

    2011-01-01

    介绍了常用有机硅整理剂的分类及性能特点.指出应根据各种类型人造毛皮的自身特性、合同要求、工艺要求,合理选用相应的有机硅整理剂,而对各种有机硅整理剂进行复配则可大大提高整理剂的综合功效.

  3. 牛奶蛋白纤维在人造毛皮中的应用%Application of the milk protein fiber in the artificial fur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立成; 张桂珍; 徐艳; 陶正丽; 李玉

    2009-01-01

    介绍了牛奶蛋白纤维的性能和特点,以及牛奶蛋白纤维在人造毛皮中的应用,提出生产工艺流程,即散纤→染整→梳理毛条→织造→半成品检验→上浆定形→烫光烫剪→产品检验,并指出了各个工序的工艺要求和注意事项,重点阐述了前处理、染色、后处理、柔软整理、脱水烘干等染整工序的工艺流程、处方与条件.

  4. Design of Artificial Fur Machine Based on SCM Technology%基于单片机技术的人造皮毛机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨硕

    2010-01-01

    论文首先介绍了本课题的来源以及设计的主要任务,其次对在设计过程中将要使用到的各种芯片进行了简单的说明,之后对上位机、下位机和电源部分的设计思路及原理进行了简要的说明,再结合系统的实际情况,对设计的部分细节如抗干扰部分说明.

  5. Bildung in Stufen: Programm und Planung fur ein dynamisches Bildungsystem (Learning by Steps: Programs and Plans for a Dynamic Educational System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minister for Kultus, Unterricht und Volksbildung, Saarbrucken (Germany).

    This report issued by the Minister of Public Education for the Saarland reviews current governmental policies and plans designed to effect an improved system of instruction from the primary to the university level. Consideration is also given to continuing education and education for the handicapped. Proceeding on the premise that the task of…

  6. Kongressbericht der 2. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft fur angewandte Linguistik (Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention of the Society for Applied Linguistics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Gerhard, Ed.

    This conference report of the second annual meeting of the Society for Applied Linguistics contains 38 articles grouped under the following headings: (1) technology and multimedia instruction, (2) theory of translation, (3) the didactics of foreign language instruction, (4) a description of present-day language and linguistics, (5)…

  7. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Raw telemetry data for California sea lions and northern fur seals in waters off California, Oregon, and Washington during 2002-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to obtain data that are pertinent to assessing aspects of the distribution and foraging ecology of pinnipeds inhabiting the...

  8. 夏天到了,注意狗狗的毛发修剪%Shaving a pet's fur has its pros and cons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIKKIMETZGAR

    2008-01-01

    @@ 不管是从审美的角度还是其他方面,现在有许多宠物主人都在琢磨着是否让自己的小狗或小猫修剪毛发."天气开始转热,我们有许多客人带着他们的'小宝贝'来修剪毛发."贝拉·布劳尔福特兽医诊所的兽医助理凯蒂说.

  9. Komm, Lass dir was erzahlen. Versuch einer Methodologie zum Geschichtenerzahlen fur Deutsch (A Methodology for Storytelling in the German Language Classroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Rainer E.

    A methodology is presented for storytelling in the elementary school German language classroom. Intended for the instructor in Alberta, this guide is illustrated with examples of types of activities and techniques useful for teaching German to the elementary school student. (JC)

  10. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  11. Ancient DNA unravels the truth behind the controversial GUS Greenlandic Norse fur samples: the bison was a horse, and the muskox and beats were goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Mikkel-Holger; Arneborg, Jette; Nyegaard, Georg

    2015-01-01

    mitochondrial 16S DNA analysis. The results revealed that the putative bison was, in fact horse, while the bears and muskox were goat. The results demonstrate the importance of using genetic analyses to validate results derived from morphological analyses on hair, in particular where such studies lead...

  12. Tunable Wavelength Soft Photoionization of Ionic Liquid Vapors (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-18

    empirical methods to predict the physical properties of ionic liquids: An overview of recent developments. Zeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie...calculations. Zeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie- Preprint Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13 International

  13. Harold Innis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heyer, Paul; Babe, Robert E (REVIEWER)

    2004-01-01

      In chapter 2, "From Fur to Fish," Heyer reviews Innis' understanding of the fur trade and the cod fisheries in Canada's development, points to the importance of modes of transportation in this regard...

  14. Gclust Server: 84350 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 84350 Rle_RL3885=sitB Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(281) 301 putative Fur regulated salmonella...es(281) Sequence length 301 Representative annotation putative Fur regulated salmonella

  15. 16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... artificially coloring. 301.19 Section 301.19 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring. (a) Where a fur or fur product is pointed... otherwise, for the purpose of changing the color of the fur or hair, or to accentuate its natural...

  16. Satellite Observation of Atmospheric Nuclear Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-31

    Institut fur Physik und Astrophysik Garching, Federal Republic of Germany Contract: #N00014-87-C-2251 Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, S.W...03824 E. Rieger Institut fur Extraterrestriche Physik Max Planck Institut fur Physik und Astrophysik , Garching, FRG Naa-RsachLbraoy Wahntn DC 07 ABSTRACT

  17. 76 FR 77230 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    .... \\10\\ Per industry sources, most fur labeling is done in the United States. This rate is reflective of... information collection requirements associated with the Commission's rules and regulations under the Fur Products Labeling Act (``Fur Rules''), 16 CFR Part 301 (OMB Control Number 3084-0099); \\1\\ rules...

  18. 76 FR 43266 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... an annual incidental mortality allowance of: 3 Antarctic fur seal adults or juveniles; 2 Antarctic... applicant requests annual capture of: 200 Antarctic fur seal adults and juveniles; 600 Antarctic fur seal pups; 50 leopard seal adults and juveniles; 50 southern elephant seal adults and juveniles;...

  19. 77 FR 10744 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ...\\ prohibits the misbranding and false advertising of fur products. The Fur Rules establish disclosure... opportunity for public comment. Likely Respondents: Manufacturers, importers, processors and marketers of fur... hours for invoices + 3,690 hours for advertising).]. Estimated annual cost burden: $2,807,000,...

  20. Genital morphology of the male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and biological implications Morfologia dos órgãos genitais do macho do Lobo marinho (Arctocephalus australis e implicações biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander D. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Male capacity for spreading genes to a great number of descendents and to determine population dynamics depend directly on the genital organs. Morphological studies in pinnipeds are scarce and the functional meaning of some characteristics has never been discussed. We hypothesized that Arctocephalus australis (A. australis shows morphophysiological adaptations in order to guarantee the perpetuation of the species in the unique annual mating season. Seven males, dead from natural causes, had their genital organs collected and fixed for morphological description. Some features differ from other described mammalian males and are closely related to the biology and reproductive cycle of this species, as the scrotal epidermis, absence of glandular portion in the ductus deferens and spermatogenic epithelium suggest a recrudescent testis period. The corona glandis exhibits a singular arrangement: its erectile border looks like a formation of petals and its association with the os penis gives a "lily-flower" form to this region. We propose the name margo petaliformis to this particular erectile border of the corona glandis because of its similarity to a flower corola. The male genital organs of A. australis show morphological features compatible with adaptation to environment requirements and reproductive efficiency.A capacidade do macho de espalhar seus genes a um grande número de descendentes e determinar a dinâmica populacional depende diretamente dos seus órgãos genitais. Estudos morfológicos em pinípedes são escassos e o significado funcional de algumas de suas características ecológicas ainda foi pouco discutido. Nossa hipótese é que Arctocephalus australis (A. australis apresenta adaptações morfofisiológicas em seus órgãos genitais capazes de interagir com o meio e garantir a perpetuação da espécie que apresenta apenas uma época de acasalamento que ocorre uma vez a cada ano. Sete A. australis machos, mortos recentes por causas naturais, tiveram seus órgãos genitais coletados e fixados para a descrição macro, micro e ultraestrutural. Algumas características diferem de outros machos já descritos e estão intimamente relacionados com a biologia e ciclo reprodutivo da espécie, dentre elas podemos citar a alta queratinização da epiderme escrotal que pode se relacionar com as rotineiras lesões por atrito desta região nas pedras; a ausência da porção glandular do ducto deferente aqui descrita pela primeira vez, o epitélio espermatogênico sugere um período de testículo recrudescente. A glande apresenta um arranjo singular: a coroa da glande apresenta porção lateral de tecido esponjoso que são bordas livres com capacidade de intumescencia. O osso peniano se encontra no centro destas bordas e representa a extremidade mais distal do penis, levando consigo o óstio uretral externo. As bordas associadas ao osso peniano, dão uma forma de "Flor de lírio" a esta região. Utilizamos o nome margo petaliformis a margem erétil liliforme a particular morfologia da glande, pela sua semelhança a uma corola de flor. Os órgãos genitais masculinos de A. australis mostram características morfológicas compatíveis com uma adaptação aos requisitos ambientais e de eficiência reprodutiva.

  1. Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Helmholtz-Zentrum Fr Ozeanforschung and Leibniz Institut Fur Meereswissenschaften at OceanSITES site CIS from 2002-08-21 to 2015-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0131474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CHLOROPHYLL, CHLOROPHYLL A CONCENTRATION,...

  2. 二分光反射模型在中医舌苔润燥分析中的应用%The Application of Dichromatic Reflection Model to Moisture Analysis of Tongue-Fur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡轶珩; 沈兰荪

    2004-01-01

    二分光反射模型能客观地反映物体的光反射机理,将其应用于计算机视觉领域,可以实现反射光斑的识别.本文深入研究了舌苔表面的光反射属性和其图像特征,在我们已提出的舌苔润燥分析算法[2-4]的基础上进行改进,提出了一种新的基于二分光反射模型的舌苔润燥分析算法,大大提高了识别正确率.

  3. Comparative Examinations Regarding the Application of Different Aluminium Tanning Agents in the Fur Dressing%毛皮鞣制中不同铝鞣剂的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kovac.,V

    1999-01-01

    通过对比试验研究了三甲酸铝和明矾鞣制毛皮的优缺点.试验证明,采用三甲酸铝为鞣剂,成品革在面积得革率、单位面积重量、紧实性以及耐老化性等方面都具有优越的性能.

  4. Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard操作系统底层技术分析%The New Technologies under the Fur of Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊

    2010-01-01

    桌面操作系统随着个人计算机硬件的进步飞速发展.以Unix为基础的Mac OS X在最近一次主要升级Mac OS X 10.6Snow Leopard中对底层技术进行了重要的革新,引入了64位内核、Grand Central Dispatch、OpenCL等新技术.底层技术的更新为开发人员提供了更友好的多线程,更深入的发掘了硬件的潜力,也为操作系统的进一步的发展奠定了基础.

  5. California sea lion and northern fur seal censuses conducted at Channel Islands, California by Alaska Fisheries Science Center from 1969-07-31 to 2015-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0145165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  6. Fjarfundir
 í 
íslenskri
 stjórnsýslu. Tæknileg��� draumsýn
 eða 
raunhæfur 
kostur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingveldur Tryggvadóttir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Markmið greinarinnar er annars vegar að kanna hversu oft forstöðumenn ríkisstofnana ferðast á fundi í störfum sínum og hvort þeir nýta sér fjarfundabúnað til fundahalda og hins vegar að kanna kjöraðstæður til fjarfundahalda. Rýnt er í fræðilega umfjöllun um verkefnishópa og reynslu þeirra af notkun fjarfundabúnaðar til fundahalda og skoðað hvaða tegundir hópa henta best til að nýta sér slíkt fundaform. Útbúin var netkönnun með spurningalista í þeim tilgangi að afla upplýsinga um fjölda ferða forstöðumanna ríkisstofnana á fundi sem tengjast daglegum störfum og reynslu þeirra af notkun fjarfundabúnaðar til fundahalda. Netkönnunin var send til allra skráðra félaga í Félagi forstöðumanna ríkisstofnana og sýna niðurstöður hennar að forstöðumenn íslenskra ríkisstofnana ferðast tiltölulega oft á fundi í sínum störfum, jafnt innan sinna sveitarfélaga sem utan. Það kom jafnframt fram að u.þ.b. ¾ forstöðu manna sóttu fjarfundi síðastliðna tólf mánuði. Almennt séð eru forstöðumenn jákvæðir með reynslu sína af fjarfundum og margir hverjir vilja sjá aukningu á því fundaformi í stjórnsýslunni. Þá sýndu niðurstöður að forstöðumenn eru meðvitaðir um að fjarfundir spari tíma og fjármuni fyrir stofnanir sínar en þrátt fyrir það virtist vera hindrun í gangi sem kemur í veg fyrir að fjarfundafundaformið sé notað í ríkari mæli.

  7. USB技术在提花毛皮控制系统中的应用%Application of USB technology in the control system for jacquard artificial fur knitting machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施琴红; 赵珂; 袁伟勤

    2005-01-01

    从USB总线的拓扑结构、USB的物理接口、USB总线协议、USB传输的数据流类型及USB电源管理系统这5点对USB的原理加以定义.详细阐述了USB-Host功能模块硬件和固件的设计思路和方法,用以实现单片机和USB设备间的数据传输,并将其用于提花毛皮控制系统中.

  8. Design of the controller of the carding head step-motor of the fur machinery based on the CPLD%基于CPLD的毛皮机梳理头步进电机控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡运文; 俞子荣; 吴开志

    2007-01-01

    阐述了基于CPLD的毛皮机梳理头步进电机控制器的设计原理和结构.详细介绍了步进电机控制器CPLD模块及外围电路设计与仿真的实验结果.该控制器具有电路简洁,参数修改方便,可靠性高等优点,适用于不同要求的毛皮机步进电机控制场合.

  9. Introduction of the needle-cutter separation technology based artificial fur knitting machine%采用针刀分离割圈结构的高速毛皮机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅

    2009-01-01

    对广西柳州市冉达机械有限公司生产的RDM18型高速毛皮机的针刀分离割圈结构的设计思路、整体结构和关键零部件的改进作了详细介绍,该机舍弃了传统的割圈压盘,采用针刀分离的方式进行割圈,大大提高了布面质量.将该高速毛皮杌与传统普通毛皮机、双针床经编机的性能进行比较分析,认为经过创新改造的新型毛皮机在毛面品质、产量、操作等方面具有优势.

  10. Interpretation of Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Leather and Fur Making Industry%《制革及毛皮加工工业水污染物排放标准》解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈占光; 张正洁

    2014-01-01

    系统地介绍了《制革及毛皮加工工业水污染物排放标准》中对制革及毛皮加工企业水污染物排放限值、监测和监控要求,提出了新标准执行过程中的难点,并从产污控制及排污控制两方面综合考量,对达标排放技术进行分析讨论.

  11. 准确的测量是工业、社会和科学进步的保证%Richtiges messen-voraussetzung fur fortschritt in industrie gesellschaft und wissenschaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manfred Kochsiek

    2004-01-01

    回顾了计量学及国际计量组织的发展历史,讨论了现代科学、社会和工业中的计量学的作用与发展,并通过若干例子阐述了准确的计量是工业、社会和科学进步的保证.

  12. 东莞将出台《全棉仿毛针织品》地方标准%Dong Guan City is planning to establish the local standard of 'Pure Cotton Fur-like knitted fabrics'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    目前,由东莞市标准与编码所与东莞市纺织服装行业协会联合提出的《全棉仿毛针织品》标准已被正式批准为广东省地方标准制定计划项目,已正式上报。

  13. 在毛条喂入式人造毛皮圆机上开发毛圈织物%Development of terry fabrics on artificial fur circular sliver knitting machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆; 刘丽华

    2004-01-01

    为降低人造毛皮整个生产过程的损耗,在人造毛皮圆机上进行毛圈织物的开发.其基本方法是在普通人造毛皮圆机编织过程中,将第一次从针编弧间伸出的纤维束两端通过增加的反吹风装置再钩入织针,称之为二次吃毛,使后道整理工序发生较大变化,省却了剪毛工序,从而提高了产品的制成率.

  14. 新时期孟州桑坡毛皮产业发展问题研究%The Research on the Development of Fur and Leather Industry in Sangpo under New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马安博; 丁海毅

    2016-01-01

    针对目前桑坡村毛皮产业的现状,重点对桑坡村毛皮产业发展中存在问题进行深入的分析,并提出一系列详细的举措,以求找到改善当前毛皮产业发展困境的有效途径.

  15. 我国毛皮动物产业预警及风险防范策略的探讨%Primary Discussion on Policy to Foresee and Prevent Crisis in Fur Animal Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 刘秉宇

    2005-01-01

    采用系统工程的理论对我国毛皮动物产业建立预警系统的重要性、步骤与方法及生产场家如何规避市场风险等问题进行了初步探讨,以便预知市场风险和市场规律.

  16. Segmentation of tongue body and fur based on common color spaces of K-means clustering%基于K-均值聚类的常用色彩空间舌质舌苔分割研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宙; 杨学智; 司银楚; 朱庆文; 牛欣; 沙洪

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察常用色彩空间哪个通道(或分量)善于反映舌质舌苔的区别并有助于舌质舌苔的分割.方法 以典型舌图(淡红舌薄白苔、腻苔、黄苔等)和色温偏低的舌图为研究对象,在红、绿、蓝三色(RGB),国际照明委员会1976 L~*a~*b~*标准(CIELAB)和色调、饱和度、亮度(HSI)色彩空间下选择舌图上每个像素的特定色彩分量(a~*分量、L~*分量、H分量、R分量)作为聚类对象.使用K-均值聚类聚成2个集合,按照生成的2个集合的特征完成分割.结果 显示CIELAB色彩空间a~*分量对舌质舌苔分割的效果和抗干扰能力最好,不受光照角度、色温偏差、舌苔舌质类型等因素的影响.L~*分量、R分量的聚类结果受光照不均匀的影响明显,H分量的聚类结果多呈分割不完全状态.结论 基于K-均值聚类的以CIELAB色彩空间a*分量为指标对舌质舌苔进行分割的效果较稳定,在舌诊中有一定的实用价值.

  17. [The quality of integration and care in workshops for the handicapped--The path to TQM in the workshops of the Gemeinschaftswerks fu"r Be- hinderte GmbH, Landstuhl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, B; Seyl, K H

    1999-02-01

    Workshops for the Handicapped are exposed, as are other providers of social services, to powerful changes in social and economic conditions. Legal obligations (e.g. under the Federal Social Assistance Act BSHG), increasing customer demands and stronger competition make the ability to change a prerequisite, so that the quality and cost of providing services to the handicapped become a central theme. These changes in conditions have led the Gemeinschftswerk für Behinderte GmbH, Landstuhl, to intensively consider the themes Quality and Total Quality Management (TQM). The efforts to introduce TQM were concentrated initially on the DIN EN ISO 9000 certification of the production processes in the workshops. Currently, the themes of Integration and Care were examined. After the central processes had been identified the performance descriptions of system, structure, process, result, and steering committee were extended by process diagrams and responsibility matrixes. This paper describes the path that workshops of the Gemeinschaftswerk für Behinderte GmbH have taken towards TQM, with emphasis on presentation of the themes regarding quality of Integration and Care.

  18. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  19. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  20. Investigation of the real-time operating system based control system of the jacquard artificial fur knitting machine%基于实时操作系统的提花人造毛皮机控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凤翔; 王琪; 万光逵; 俞子荣; 吴开志

    2008-01-01

    介绍了一种基于实时操作系统的提花人造毛皮机控制系统,给出了系统的硬件和对应软件设计方案.实现了在S3C4480X处理器基本系统的硬件平台上,嵌入uC/OS-Ⅱ实时操作系统,在提花控制系统中各个软件模块之间进行任务调度、任务管理、时间管理、内存管理和任务间通信,实时控制整个提花过程.实践证明,ARM技术以及嵌入式操作系统的介入,优化了整个提花毛皮机微电脑控制系统的硬件和软件设计,提高了可靠性和处理速度.

  1. Design of a jacquard artificial fur knitting system based on ARM and μC/OS-Ⅱ%基于ARM和μC/OS-Ⅱ的人造提花毛皮机控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凤翔; 万光逵; 王琪; 俞子荣; 吴开志

    2008-01-01

    介绍了一种基于ARM及μC/OS-Ⅱ的人造提花毛皮机控制系统.在ARM的硬件平台上嵌入μC/OS-Ⅱ实时操作系统,实时控制整个提花过程,并采用新型的USB技术及LCD显示技术给传统提花机控制系统注入了新元素.

  2. 针织人造毛皮底板涂层剂--聚醚型聚氨酯微乳%Coating agent of polyether-polyurethane micro-capsulated in bottom plate of knitted artificial fur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周康龙; 陈大俊; 潘红霞

    2004-01-01

    文章介绍了新一代涂层剂"聚醚型聚氨酯微乳".聚醚型聚氨酯是一种弹性体,可提高底布柔软度和回弹性,微乳的粒径较小,乳液呈透明或半透明状,有较强的渗透性和粘结力,能较大程度地降低人造毛皮的脱毛率.

  3. The pattern data transferring system of the artificial fur machine based on USB technology%基于USB技术的人造毛皮机花型数据传输系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永生; 万光逵; 师庆红

    2005-01-01

    阐述了基于USB技术的人造毛皮机花型数据传输系统整体结构,介绍了该系统的USB主机模块、USB主机控制器模块、主机与USB设备(U盘)的接口模块等硬件的设计,同时介绍了组成该系统软件设计的一些函数集及软件系统流程图.USB以其速度较快、可靠性好、支持即插即用及扩展性好等优点给数据传输带来了极大的方便.

  4. 新型人造毛皮提花编织机自动控制系统%A research on the automatic control system of the new type artificial-fur used for jacquard weft knitting machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓辉; 戴伏生; 林茂六; 乔晓林

    2006-01-01

    针对市场对人造毛皮质量要求的不断提高和当前使用的人造毛皮编织机成本高、操作复杂、维护不便的缺点,提出了一种基于多单片机、DSP和配置触摸屏工业控制计算机的新型人造毛皮机自动控制系统的实现方案.其中工业控制计算机完成花型数据的处理功能、参数输入、控制与状态显示;DSP完成故障诊断、选针控制、喂毛控制和花型控制功能;系统共有18个梳理头,每个梳理头的喂毛控制和步进电机控制分别由一个单片机完成.编辑的花型数据通过U盘方便地传送给控制系统;工业控制计算机与DSP采用并口EPP模式进行通信;DSP与18路梳理头控制单片机采用串行通信模式.文中详细说明了选针器控制、喂毛控制、花型控制、故障诊断、数据通信等关键技术的实现方法.分析了停车线现象产生的原因,给出了基于密度补偿的具体补偿方式.该系统完成了1 184针和1 056针两种类型毛皮编织机的自动控制,编织质量好、效率高、操作简便、维护方便.

  5. A research on one step multi-color discharge artificial fur printing technology%一步式多套拔染印花人造毛皮工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂珍; 徐修智; 张立成; 张波

    2009-01-01

    一步式多套拔染印花人造毛皮工艺即为选用可拔白性阳离子染料与耐拔性阳离子染料,对腈纶散纤进行染色.再对腈纶织物同时进行拔色与多套印染的深道加工工艺.介绍了工艺路线和方法,并对该工艺中的各个工序进行具体分析,详细阐述了腈纶散纤染色、拔染印花浆配方,以及操作中的注意要点.试制产品通过检验测试,表明该工艺解决了多套拔染印花过程中搭色、渗透、色变等问题.

  6. Transmission and disposal system of jacquard artificial fur knitting based on ARM%基于ARM的人造提花毛皮机花型传输及处理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凤翔; 万光逵; 肖永生

    2007-01-01

    本文阐述了基于ARM的提花毛皮机花型数据传输及处理系统的整体结构,详细介绍了微处理器系统模块、USB控制器模块、键盘/LCD模块和花型存储模块的硬件电路设计以及相关软件设计.系统具备电路简洁、处理速度快、可靠性高等优点,能便捷地从USB中获取花型数据并进行花型处理和存储.

  7. 喂入式针织人造毛皮面毛耗用量计算方法%A Research on the Calculation Method of Raw Material Consumption for Sliver-fed Knitted Artificial Fur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平野; 聂平勇

    2013-01-01

    毛条喂入式针织人造毛皮由于花样较多,受到广大消费者的欢迎,但其产品所需要的纤维组合较复杂,在实际生产中没有统一的计算公式,原料耗用量计算误差较大.针对这一情况,结合针织人造毛皮产品的组成和生产流程,剪毛损耗的计算方法,并引入损耗系数,得出一套适合喂入式针织人造毛皮面毛用料量计算的经验公式,指出面毛用料量与成品布质量、地丝质量、剪毛损耗量及损耗系数有关.通过与实际用料量进行对比分析,证实所提出的用料计算公式对产品的用料量估算有实际意义.

  8. 带液晶触摸屏提花人造毛皮机控制系统%With LCD touch-screen machine jacquard artificial fur microcomputer control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔文; 万光逵

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了带液晶触摸屏提花人造毛皮控制系统的主要功能,.详细叙述了新提花毛皮花型文件格式及提花毛皮花型图像的通讯过程,文中说明了动态显示编织图像的方法.该系统操作简便,实时显示提花毛皮花型图像,花型传输效率高.

  9. 人造皮草市场现状及设计发展趋势分析%Analysis of the Market Status and Trend of Design Development in Artificial Fur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘科江

    2016-01-01

    中国现已成为国际最大的人造皮草加工基地和消费市场,但由于我国人造皮草行业起步晚、设计能力弱;加工生产和创新研发比重失衡;设计感缺乏,产品附加值低;以及人们审美意识的提高等原因,使中国人造皮草的发展遇到了极大瓶颈.因此,探索培养专业设计研发人才、加强设计研发能力、开展多学科跨界研究、拓展产品应用范围,将大力提高人造皮草的设计美感和产品附加值;创新设计也将成为来来皮草设计的发展趋势,为我们的生活带来更多精彩.

  10. Der Zitier-Index (Science-Citation-Index): Eine Datenbank fur das Ermitteln von neuen Ideen und Konzepten (The Science Citation Index: A Database for the Discovery of New Ideas and Concepts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hans-Reiner; Thormann, K.-D.

    This report discusses the use of the Science Citation Index produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) as a given "expert system" in the experimental study of different search levels. The inquiry has two objectives: (1) to test whether a "traditional" information system will also produce the rudiments of a…

  11. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Leibniz Institut Fur Meereswissenschaften at OceanSITES site TENATSO from 2006-07-08 to 2008-02-19 (NCEI Accession 0130540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, LATITUDE,...

  12. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  13. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  14. Evaluation of diagnostic methods for Myocoptes musculinus according to age and treatment status of mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kelly A; Albacarys, Lauren K; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Perkins, Cheryl; Henderson, Kenneth S; Watson, Julie

    2013-11-01

    Detecting and controlling murine fur mites continues to be challenging. Here we compared the efficacy of fur-pluck, cage PCR, and fur PCR testing of mice naturally infested with Myocoptes musculinus and make recommendations regarding the application of these diagnostic strategies in aged or treated mice. We compared all 3 diagnostic methods in groups of infested and noninfested control mice over time. For fur plucks, we used a scoring system to quantitatively compare mite infestations across ages. Mice that were 4 wk old had higher egg and mite scores than did older mice, with average scores at 4 wk corresponding to 40 to 100 individual fur mites and eggs per sample. Furthermore, 15% and 20% of samples from infested mice at 24 and 28 wk of age, respectively, lacked all fur mites and eggs. Cage PCR results varied as mice grew older. Fur PCR testing was the most sensitive and specific assay in untreated infested mice, particularly when mite densities were low. In addition, we compared fur-pluck and fur PCR tests for evaluating the efficacy of selamectin treatment. Two treatments with selamectin eliminated Myocoptes fur-mite infestations. At 8 wk after treatment, all fur-pluck samples were negative, but one-third of treated infested cages remained positive by fur PCR assay; at 16 wk after treatment, all cages were negative by fur PCR assay. Because offspring of infested mice were invariably heavily infested, breeding of suspected infested mice with subsequent testing of offspring was the definitive testing strategy when fur-pluck and PCR results conflicted.

  15. Den svenska modellen för nanoteknik – mer effektiv än reflexiv?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Fogelberg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Syftet med artikeln är att diskutera organiseringen av svensk nanoteknik och varför denna skiljer sig från de länder inom vilka det sker en mer sammanhållen aktörsmobilisering kring nanoteknik, och där tillväxtfokus i högre grad än i Sverige integreras med fokus på miljö och samhällsmässiga aspekter. Utvecklingen av svensk nanoteknik visar att vetenskaplig effektivitet inte nödvändigtvis betyder att frågor om innovation eller effekter av denna innovation också hanteras effektivt. Stora vetenskapsprogram drivs utan samordnande hantering av nanoteknik som innovationsobjekt. Forskning om miljö och samhälleliga aspekter sker i liten skala och utan tydlig koppling till nanoteknikens innovationssystem. Förklaringar söks i den svenska modellens implikation för FoU i allmänhet och nanoteknik i synnerhet. Modellen är centrerad kring storindustrins behov och har sitt fokus på expertis. Sammantaget har Sverige haft svårt både att hantera nanoteknik som utvecklingsprojekt och att bredda diskussionen kring nanoteknik som samhällsprojekt.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i2.1695

  16. International trade and specialisation between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialisation within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions...... and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major...... share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export of raw fur skin from Europe to Asia, and a major export of fur garments from Asia to Europe including Russia. The conclusion is...

  17. Metal-responsive promoter DNA compaction by the ferric uptake regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Roncarati, Davide; Pelliciari, Simone; Doniselli, Nicola; Maggi, Stefano; Vannini, Andrea; Valzania, Luca; Mazzei, Luca; Zambelli, Barbara; Rivetti, Claudio; Danielli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Short-range DNA looping has been proposed to affect promoter activity in many bacterial species and operator configurations, but only few examples have been experimentally investigated in molecular detail. Here we present evidence for a metal-responsive DNA condensation mechanism controlled by the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an orthologue of the widespread Fur family of prokaryotic metal-dependent regulators. H. pylori Fur represses the transcription of the essential ar...

  18. A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of furosemide using zinc(II)-1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Jian; Li, Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    A novel spectrofluorometric method for the determination of furosemide (FUR) is described. The method is based on enhancement of fluorescence emission of FUR in the presence of zinc (II) complexes of 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is linearly related to the concentration of FUR. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of FUR in pharmaceutical preparations. The possible mechanism of this reaction is discussed briefly based on data from fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 75 FR 8736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Request for Scoping Comments and Intent To Prepare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ..., but unregulated hunting following the fur trade, westward expansion of European settlement, and severe..., local, State, and Federal government agencies; the scientific community; industry; or any other...

  20. 76 FR 60808 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15471-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... specimens from South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) and South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) for scientific research had been submitted by the above- named applicant. The requested...