WorldWideScience

Sample records for impaired childhood development

  1. Impaired childhood development and suicidal behaviour in a cohort of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Nordentoft, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the correlation between social circumstances during childhood and adult suicide behaviour in a prospective design. How indicators of impaired childhood development affect the risk of suicide behaviour before the age of 50 years are analysed in this study. MET...

  2. Brain visual impairment in childhood: mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozeis, N

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the leading causes of severe visual impairment in childhood. This article was written to highlight any new knowledge related to cerebral visual impairment in childhood.

  3. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eMizuno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a feature of childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. Several studies have demonstrated reduced attention control in CCFS patients in switching and divided attention tasks. In students, the extent of deterioration in task performance depends on the level of fatigue. Poor performance in switching and divided attention is common in both fatigued students and CCFS patients. Additionally, attentional functions show dramatic development from childhood to adolescence, suggesting that abnormal development of switching and divided attention may be induced by chronic fatigue. The brain structures associated with attentional control are situated in the frontal and parietal cortices, which are the last to mature, suggesting that severe fatigue in CCFS patients and students may inhibit normal structural and functional development in these regions. A combination of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication is effective to improve attentional control processing in CCFS patients. Studies identifying the features of neurocognitive impairment in CCFS have improved our current understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of CCFS.

  4. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Kant, Sarina G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Wever, Capi C.; Kunst, Henricus P. M.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Oudesluys-Murphy, A. M.; Korver, A. M. H.; Frijns, J. H. M.; Wever, C. C.; Konings, S.; Beers, W.; Dekker, F. W.; de Vries, J. J. C.; Vossen, A. C. T. M.; Kant, S. G.; van den Akker-van Marle, M. E.; Rieffe, C.; Ens-Dokkum, M. H.; van Straaten, H. L. M.; Uilenburg, N. N.; Elvers, B.; Loeber, G.; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, J.; Maré, M. J.; Van Zanten, G. A.; Goedegebure, A.; Coster, F.; Goverts, S. T.; Admiraal, R. J. C.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.; Kunst, H. P. M.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkhuizen, J.; Scharloo, M.; Hoeben, D.; Rijpma, G.; Graef, W.; Linschoten, D.; Kuijper, J.; Hof, N. J.; Pans, D.; Jorritsma, F.; van Beurden, M.; ter Huurne, C. T.; Brienesse, P.; Koldewijn, G. J.; Letourneur, K. G.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported

  5. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kant, S.G.; Dekker, F.W.; Wever, C.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Frijns, J.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the

  6. Survey of childhood blindness and visual impairment in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasamy, Sudha; Anninger, William V; Quinn, Graham E; Kroener, Brian; Zetola, Nicola M; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims In terms of blind-person years, the worldwide burden of childhood blindness is second only to cataracts. In many developing countries, 30–72% of childhood blindness is avoidable. The authors conducted this study to determine the causes of childhood blindness and visual impairment (VI) in Botswana, a middle-income country with limited access to ophthalmic care. Methods This study was conducted over 4 weeks in eight cities and villages in Botswana. Children were recruited through a radio advertisement and local outreach programmes. Those ≤15 years of age with visual acuity Blindness Eye Examination Record for Children with Blindness and Low Vision was used to record data. Results The authors enrolled 241 children, 79 with unilateral and 162 with bilateral VI. Of unilateral cases, 89% were avoidable: 23% preventable (83% trauma-related) and 66% treatable (40% refractive error and 31% amblyopia). Of bilateral cases, 63% were avoidable: 5% preventable and 58% treatable (33% refractive error and 31% congenital cataracts). Conclusion Refractive error, which is easily correctable with glasses, is the most common cause of bilateral VI, with cataracts a close second. A nationwide intervention is currently being planned to reduce the burden of avoidable childhood VI in Botswana. PMID:21242581

  7. Childhood Hearing Impairment: How Do Parents Feel About It ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Briggs. Abstract. Background Hearing impairment or deafness is a major disabling condition worldwide. Etiology of the hearing loss range from congenital to acquired, and includes common and preventable childhood infections like otitis ...

  8. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver, Anna M H; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Kant, Sarina G; Dekker, Friedo W; Wever, Capi C; Kunst, Henricus P M; Frijns, Johan H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported distribution of these causes. Population-based study and a systematic review. Inclusion criteria for population-based study: children born between 2003 and 2005, resident in The Netherlands at birth, known at an Audiology Center with PCHI at the age of 3-5 years. The causes of PCHI were determined prospectively by detection of congenital cytomegalovirus on dried blood spots and/or genetic diagnostic investigations in addition to reviewing data from medical records. A systematic review was carried out using three terms (hearing loss, infant, and etiology) and limited to articles published between January 1997 and July 2009. Main outcome measures were: the (weighted) proportions of the various causes of PCHI following diagnostic investigations. In the study-population (n = 185) a hereditary cause was found in 38.9%, acquired cause in 29.7%, miscellaneous cause in 7.1%, and the cause remained unknown in 24.3%. The systematic review of the literature (n = 9 articles) resulted in a weighted mean of 30.4% hereditary, 19.2% acquired, and 48.3% unknown causes of PCHI. The systematic review and the results of the population-based study provided little support for the generally accepted distribution of causes of PCHI. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Osteogenesis imperfecta in childhood: impairment and disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; van der Graaf, Y.; van Empelen, R.; Beemer, F. A.; Helders, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    To determine clinical characteristics in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) regarding impairment (range of joint motion and muscle strength) and disability (functional skills) in relation to the different types of the disease, and to study the correlation between characteristics of

  10. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research.

  11. Follow-up of permanent hearing impairment in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Volpe, A; De Lucia, A; Pastore, V; Bracci Laudiero, L; Buonissimo, I; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    Programmes for early childhood childhood hearing impairment identification allows to quickly start the appropriate hearing aid fitting and rehabilitation process; nevertheless, a large number of patients do not join the treatment program. The goal of this article is to present the results of a strategic review of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats connected with the audiologic/prosthetic/language follow-up process of children with bilateral permanent hearing impairment. Involving small children, the follow-up includes the involvement of specialised professionals of a multidisciplinary team and a complex and prolonged multi-faced management. Within the framework of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the purpose of this analysis was to propose recommendations that can harmonise criteria for outcome evaluation and provide guidance on the most appropriate assessment methods to be used in the follow-up course of children with permanent hearing impairment. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  12. Childhood thyromegaly: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, E.O.; Root, A.W.; Rettig, K.; Vargas, A.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of a child with goiter includes historical review, physical examination, and measurement of serum concentrations of PBI, T4 and T3RU, TSH, and titers of antithyroglobulin and antithyroid microsomal antibodies. If there are no indications for more intensive evaluation such as history of cervical irradiation, a palpable abnormality of the thyroid gland or unusual laboratory findings (e.g., a significant PBI-thyroxine iodine discrepancy in the absence of a positive antithyroid antibody titer), a trial of TSH-suppressive therapy with thyroxine is undertake, even if the cause of thyromegaly has not been identified. If thyroid size diminishes in the ensuing six to 12 months, treatment is maintained for approximately two years and then discontinued. If the goiter recurs, or if there is impaired thyroid function, treatment is resumed. Periodically, antithyroid antibody titers and indices of thyroid function are determined. If the goiter does not diminish after a reasonable trial of suppressive therapy with adequate amounts of thyroxine (i.e., those quantities which will inhibit TRH-induced secretion of TSH), subtotal thyroidectomy is recommended to be certain that an underlying neoplasm has not been overlooked. A biopsy of the thyroid is not performed routinely in such children prior to operative therapy. Almost invariably, examination of the surgical specimen reveals CLT. Postoperatively, suppressive doses of thyroxine are maintained indefinitely. Inasmuch as thyroxine suppression of TSH secretion is essential in the management of patients with thyroid neoplasms, a limited medical trial, as described, does not place the patient at undue risk

  13. Early Childhood Special Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, A. Dolunay

    2009-01-01

    Studies showing developmental delays in infants and children with visual impairments have triggered early childhood special education studies for this population. Early childhood special education guidelines for visually impaired infants and children range from individualized services to personnel preparation issues while all display certain…

  14. Causes of childhood blindness in a school for the visually impaired in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D S P; Lai, T Y Y; Cheung, E Y Y; Lam, D S C

    2005-04-01

    To identify the causes of blindness in children attending a school for the blind in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional observational study. School for blind children in Hong Kong. Eighty-two blind students at the Ebenezer School and Home for the Visually Impaired were examined between December 1998 and August 1999. Demographic data were obtained from students and a questionnaire assessment made of their medical and ocular history. Visual acuity was assessed and visual loss classified according to the World Health Organization classification of visual impairment. Complete ophthalmic assessments were performed in all students including slit-lamp examination and dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. The mean age of the students was 12.2 years. Ten (12.2%) had a family history of eye disease. Major past medical illnesses were reported in 50% with prematurity and diseases of the central nervous system found in 26.8% and 11.0% of students, respectively. The most common anatomical site for visual impairment was the retina (47.6%), followed by diseases of the optic nerve (14.6%), and diseases of the anterior segment and the lens (14.6%). The pattern of childhood blindness in Hong Kong is similar to that seen in other developed countries. Preventable causes of childhood blindness, such as prematurity and birth asphyxia, were responsible for a large proportion of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment of such conditions may reduce the incidence of childhood blindness in Hong Kong.

  15. Attention impairment in childhood absence epilepsy: an impulsivity problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this population. In this study, we investigated several components of attention in children with CAE using a unique computerized test battery for attention performance. Participants included 24 patients with CAE and 24 controls matched for age and sex. They were tested with a computerized test battery, which included the following tasks: selective attention, impulsivity, focused attention, divided attention, alertness, and vigilance. Compared with healthy controls, patients with CAE made more commission errors in the Go/No-Go task and more omission errors in the divided attention task. Childhood absence epilepsy patients also showed decreased reaction times in measures of selective attention and a great variability of reaction times in alertness and Go/No-Go tasks. Our findings suggest that patients with CAE were impaired in tonic and phasic alertness, divided attention, selective attention, and impulsivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Jaiswal, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency during foetal development and early childhood is associated with cognitive impairment. Randomised clinical studies in school-aged children encountered in the literature indicate that cognitive performance can be improved by iodine supplementation, but most studies suffer from

  17. Psychomotor development and psychopathology in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Raeymaecker, Dirk M J

    2006-01-01

    The sensorimotor developmental phase, leading to a gradual acquisition of skilled actions, is of crucial importance for the young child and its growing sense of competence. Three vital steps in motor development are mentioned: first, the smooth and spontaneous movements of the "graceful and elegant" baby, expression of his well-being and vitality, with their profound effect on the mother-infant relationship; second, the emergence of intentional and goal-oriented acts leading to Funktionslust and playful repetitions; and finally, the development of symbolic acts and increasing technical capacity to use playthings in imaginative play. The psychodynamic significance of the most important motor milestones for the child's ego development is set out. Motility is one of the most important avenues for exercising such functions as mastery, integration, reality testing (self-preservation), and control of impulses. One may consider this early childhood period of rapid motor development as the motor phase of ego and libido development. Hence, many forms of developmental psychopathology are attended with motor impairment or insufficient motor mastery and integration. From that clinical perspective pass in review: perinatal complications and motor disturbance, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dissociated motor development, low birth weight children and their developmental difficulties, developmental coordination disorder, aspects of pervasive developmental disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder.

  18. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  19. Attention impairment in childhood absence epilepsy : An impulsivity problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W.; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo

    Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this

  20. Childhood Hearing Impairment: How Do Parents Feel About It?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    childhood infections like otitis media and ... The parents demonstrated different attitudes towards the children. Majority, 34(94.59%) of them felt sad, others expressed .... reported by other authors. 14 ... can be done with the use of hearing aids.

  1. Hearing impairment after childhood bacterial meningitis dependent on etiology in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Mariia; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Childhood bacterial meningitis (BM) damages hearing, but the potential of different agents to cause impairment in developing countries is poorly understood. We compared the extent of hearing impairment in BM caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis among children aged 2 months to 13 years in Luanda, Angola. Hearing of 685 ears of 351 (78%) survivors among 723 enrolled patients was tested by brainstem-evoked response audiometry on day 7 of hospitalization. The causative agent was sought by cerebrospinal fluid culture, PCR or the latex-agglutination test. Altogether, 45 (12%) of the survivors were deaf (threshold >80 dB), and 20 (6%) had a threshold of 80 dB. The incidence of any kind of hearing loss, with ≥60 dB, was 34% with Hib, 30% with S. pneumoniae, 19% with N. meningitidis and 33% with other bacteria. Examining all ears combined and using the ≥60 dB threshold, the agents showed dissimilar harm (P=0.005), Hib being the most frequent and N. meningitidis the most infrequent cause. Compared to other agents, S. pneumoniae more often caused deafness (P=0.025) and hearing impairment at ≥60 dB (P=0.017) in infants, whereas this level of hearing loss in older survivors was most commonly caused by Hib (P=0.031). BM among children in Angola is often followed by hearing impairment, but the risk depends on the agent. S. pneumoniae is a major problem among infants, whereas Hib is mainly a risk beyond 12 months. N. meningitidis impairs hearing less frequently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Implicit mentalizing persists beyond early childhood and is profoundly impaired in children with autism spectrum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schuwerk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other's mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC. This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and nonverbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems.

  3. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  4. Adaptive psychological structure in childhood hearing impairment: audiological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, A; Spinato, G; Cocuzza, S; Licciardello, L; Pavone, P; Maiolino, L

    2017-06-01

    The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients. The experiment was performed on a group composed of 10 children (5 males and 5 females) aged 4 to 9 years and 54 to 108 months, affected by bilateral congenital hearing loss (severe to total), or hearing loss that developed in preverbal children the year before entering elementary school, or during the fourth year of elementary school. The selection criteria were based on: audiologic evaluation, neuro-psychological tests administered to assess general, cognitive as well as praxis and perceptive abilities, and clinical observations performed to assess psychopathology using tests that assess development of both visual perceptive (Coloured Progressive Matrices) and graphic representational abilities (Test of Human Figure Drawings and the Family Drawing Test). The instrument "cognitive" was the "Deaf Children Series", arranged by us, that consists of a mental status examination (MSE) that evaluates: level of cognitive (knowledge-related) ability, emotional mood, and speech and thought patterns at the time of evaluation. Deaf children show a reduced responsiveness to the expressions of sadness on the perceptive side. Through the test, we observed a psychodynamic defense mechanism considering perceptive understanding performance

  5. Childhood Social Withdrawal, Interpersonal Impairment, and Young Adult Depression: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shaina J.; Conway, Christopher C.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najmanm, Jake M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and…

  6. Achieving effective hearing aid fitting within one month after identification of childhood permanent hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastanza, G; Gallus, R; De Carlini, M; Picciotti, P M; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Orzan, E; Conti, G

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of child permanent hearing impairment (PHI) can be made with extreme timeliness compared to the past thanks to improvements in PHI identification through newborn hearing screening programmes. It now becomes essential to provide an effective amplification as quickly as possible in order to restore auditory function and favour speech and language development. The early fitting of hearing aids and possible later cochlear implantation indeed prompts the development of central auditory pathways, connections with secondary sensory brain areas, as well as with motor and articulatory cortex. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a strategic analysis that involves identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats regarding the process of achieving early amplification in all cases of significant childhood PHI. The analysis is focused on the Italian situation and is part of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  7. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with childhood visual impairment in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezabih L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidiya Bezabih,1 Tilaye Workneh Abebe,1 Robera Olana Fite2 1Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Adama General Hospital and Medical College, Adama, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Visual impairment is a significant loss of vision. It has an impact on the prosperity of different countries. It has been difficult to plan preventive measures against visual impairment due to the scarcity of data about the extent of the problem.Objectives: The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and identifying factors associated with visual impairment among school-age children in Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in four randomly selected schools found in Addis Ababa from May 15 to June 14, 2016. A total of 804 school-age students were selected using the simple random sampling method. Bivariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were conducted. A p-value <0.05 was taken as a significant association.Results: A total of 718 students participated in the study, obtaining a response rate of 89.3%. In all, 7.24% of school-age children were visually impaired, of whom 3.9% had low vision and 3.34% had severe visual impairment. Factors associated with visual impairment were being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–3.50, being in the age group of 10–13 years (AOR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.36–6.22, being in the age group of 14–18 years (AOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 2.17–11.95, being a private school student (AOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.81–4.41, watching television for 2–4 hours/day (AOR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.37–7.34, watching television at <1 m (AOR, 7.65; 95% CI, 2.59–34.61, watching television at 1–2 m (AOR, 6.89; 95% CI, 1.74–25.27, mobile exposure for 2–4 hours/day (AOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.35–4.58, mobile exposure for >4 hours/day (AOR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1

  9. Childhood Hearing Impairment: How do Parents Feel about it?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    burden of hearing impairment on the children and their ... The Nigerian Health Journal, Vol. 12, No 4 ... certain cultural misconception and. 9,10 ... school. Information collected included parents age, sex and questions related to the perception ... routine care needed to avoid hearing loss due to. 15 ... Mental health: New.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  11. THE CHILDHOOD ROMANCE THEORY OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUSKA, SHIRLEY A.; WRIGHT, BENJAMIN D.

    EXPLORATION OF PERSONALITY ORIENTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE GRADE LEVEL AT WHICH THE PROSPECTIVE TEACHER INTENDS TO TEACH INQUIRED INTO CHILDHOOD RECOLLECTIONS. 508 WOMEN ENROLLED IN 12 TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS COMPLETED A LOCALLY DEVELOPED SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL QUESTIONNAIRE. THOSE INTENDING TO TEACH AT LOWER SCHOOL LEVELS IDENTIFIED WITH THEIR…

  12. Executive abilities in children with congenital visual impairment in mid-childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; de Haan, Michelle; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi Jane

    2018-02-01

    The role of vision and vision deprivation in the development of executive function (EF) abilities in childhood is little understood; aspects of EF such as initiative, attention orienting, inhibition, planning and performance monitoring are often measured through visual tasks. Studying the development and integrity of EF abilities in children with congenital visual impairment (VI) may provide important insights into the development of EF and also its possible relationship with vision and non-visual senses. The current study investigates non-visual EF abilities in 18 school-age children of average verbal intelligence with VI of differing levels of severity arising from congenital disorders affecting the eye, retina, or anterior optic nerve. Standard auditory neuropsychological assessments of sustained and divided attention, phonemic, semantic and switching verbal fluency, verbal working memory, and ratings of everyday executive abilities by parents were undertaken. Executive skills were compared to age-matched typically-sighted (TS) typically-developing children and across levels of vision (mild to moderate VI [MVI] or severe to profound VI [SPVI]). The results do not indicate significant differences or deficits on direct assessments of verbal and auditory EF between the groups. However, parent ratings suggest difficulties with everyday executive abilities, with the greatest difficulties in those with SPVI. The findings are discussed as possibly reflecting increased demands of behavioral executive skills for children with VI in everyday situations despite auditory and verbal EF abilities in the typical range for their age. These findings have potential implications for clinical and educational practices.

  13. Causes of Childhood Vision Impairment in the School for the Blind in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Moodley, Vanessa R

    2017-12-01

    Our study provides the much-needed evidence on causes of childhood blindness in Eritrea. This will assist authorities to plan appropriate strategies and implement preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to address these causes of vision loss in children in this resource-limited country. This study aims to identify the causes of severe vision impairment and blindness in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. All children enrolled in the school were examined, and the World Health Organization form for the examination of visually impaired children was used to record the data. Examination included visual acuity, refraction, anterior segment, and fundus assessment. Causes of vision loss for children with severe vision impairment (visual acuity blindness (visual acuity blindness. The major causes of vision loss were corneal scars (16.9%), cataract (12.7%), phthisis bulbi (11.3%), congenital eye deformities (11.3%), optic atrophy (9.3%), and presumed chorioretinal Toxoplasma scars (7.0%). Hereditary factors were the major known etiological category (15.5%) followed by the sequel of eye injuries (12.7%). Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency was not found, whereas infectious causes such as measles and ophthalmia neonatorum were relatively absent (one case each). Potentially avoidable causes of vision impairment were accounted for in 47.9% of children. This study provides the first direct evidence on childhood vision impairment in Eritrea. Despite the limitations, it is clearly shown that nearly half of the vision loss is due to avoidable causes. Thus, preventive public health strategies, specialist pediatric eye care, and rehabilitative services are recommended to address childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.

  14. Helping Children with Visual Impairment Develop Humour: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Paul J.; Zambone, Alana M.; Kelley, Pat

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a highly regarded attribute and often forms the basis of childhood friendships. As much humor is visual, children with visual impairment are particularly vulnerable to missing out on this type of development. Recent research indicates that children can be taught to develop their sense of humor. Therefore, children with visual impairment…

  15. Emotional Aspects of Childhood Career Development: Importance and Future Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Íris M.; Taveira, Maria do Céu; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a central period for career and social-emotional development. However, the literature covering childhood career development and the role of emotions in careers is scarce. In this article, we advocate for the consideration of emotions in childhood career development. Emotional aspects of children's career exploration, key-figures and…

  16. Newborn hearing screening vs later hearing screening and developmental outcomes in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Konings, Saskia; Dekker, Friedo W.; Beers, Mieke; Wever, Capi C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne M.; de Vries, Jutte; Vossen, Ann; Kant, Sarina; van den Akker-van Marle, Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; Rieffe, Carolien; Ens-Dokkum, Martina; van Straaten, Irma; Uilenburg, Noelle; Elvers, Bert; Loeber, Gerard; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, Anneke; Maré, Marcel; van Zanten, Bert; Goedegebure, André; Coster, Francien; van Dijk, Pim; Goverts, Theo; Admiraal, Ronald; Cremers, Cor; Kunst, Dirk; de Leeuw, Marina; Dijkhuizen, Janette; Scharloo, Marleen; Hoeben, Dirk; Rijpma, Gerti; Graef, Wim; Linschoten, Dik; Kuijper, Jessica; Hof, Nanda; Koldewijn, Reinoud; Pans, Donné; Jorritsma, Frank; van Beurden, Maarten; ter Huurne, Christien; Brienesse, Patrick; Seekles, Lisanne; de Jong, Jantine; Thijssen, Andrea; Lievense, Andrea; van Egdom-van der Wind, Marina; Theunissen, Stephanie; Mooij, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening programs have been implemented in many countries because it was thought that the earlier permanent childhood hearing impairment is detected, the less developmentally disadvantaged children would become. To date, however, no strong evidence exists for universal introduction

  17. Characteristics of childhood uveitis leading to visual impairment and blindness in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Ymkje M; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; van Genderen, Maria; de Boer, Joke H

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of childhood uveitis leading to visual impairment or blindness. In this descriptive study, we reviewed data from the medical records of 58 children with visual impairment or blindness due to childhood uveitis, which were seen at an institute for visually impaired patients (Bartiméus) between January 1981 and December 2012, in a retrospective, cross-sectional manner. Thirty-two of the 58 children (55%) were visually impaired and 26 (45%) were legally blind. Uveitis was posterior in 76% of all cases. Infectious uveitis represented 74% of all cases, of which 86% was congenital. Five patients (9%) had uveitis related to a systemic disease, and ten patients (17%) had idiopathic uveitis. There was a decrease in infectious causes over the last decades (p = 0.04) and an increase in idiopathic uveitis (p children with posterior uveitis remained constant. There was an overall decrease in the number of children with uveitis referred to Bartiméus. The number of ocular complications at the time of intake was higher in children with acquired disease compared with congenital diseases (p children with non-infectious uveitis compared with infectious uveitis (p = 0.04). Most comorbidities that were noted were seen in children with infectious uveitis. Most patients suffering from visual impairment or blindness due to childhood uveitis had posterior and/or infectious uveitis, mostly congenital. There is a shift in causes which shows a decrease in infectious causes and an increase in idiopathic causes. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  20. Sibling influences on childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J

    1988-03-01

    To summarize the main points concerning sibling influence: 1. That siblings play a causal role in the development of aggressive behavior, in children's style of conflict behavior and in cooperative fantasy play is strongly suggested by recent research. 2. Marked problems in the sibling relationship are indicative of other problems, but a causal role for siblings is not established, other than for aggressive behavior. 3. Family factors are closely involved in the quality of sibling relationships--and thus in sibling influence, namely differential parental behavior, and the emotional climate of the family. That is, it is important not to consider the sibling relationship in isolation from other family relationships. 4. Studies of families under stress indicate heightened importance of these family factors. 5. It is likely, but not yet established, that later-born siblings are influenced by first-born in socio-cognitive development and gender identity. 6. Finally it should be noted that an important theme in current research on siblings is a concern with the question of why siblings develop to be so different from one another. It has been shown that the major source of environmental influence on the development of individual differences is within-family rather than between-family differences in experience (Plomin & Daniels, 1987). The different experiences each sibling may have within their relationship is one potential source of such differential environmental influence. Thus documenting the influence of siblings upon each other takes on added significance: By clarifying the extent and nature of this influence we will gain not only useful clinical information but illumination on a developmental principle of very general significance.

  1. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  2. Is there consensus in defining childhood cerebral visual impairment? A systematic review of terminology and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakki, Hanna E A; Dale, Naomi J; Sargent, Jenefer; Perez-Roche, Teresa; Bowman, Richard

    2018-04-01

    The childhood condition of visual difficulties caused by brain damage, commonly termed cortical or cerebral visual impairment (CVI), is well established but has no internationally accepted definition. Clarification of its core features is required to advance research and clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify the definitions of childhood CVI in the original scientific literature to describe and critically appraise a consensual definition of the condition. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and AMED databases were searched in January 2017. Studies were included if they (1) were published original research, (2) contained a childhood CVI sample, (3) contained a definition of CVI and (4) described their CVI identification/diagnostic method. Thematic analysis identified concepts within definitions and narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 1150 articles, 51 met inclusion criteria. Definitions were subdivided according to detail (descriptive definition, description not reaching definition status and diagnostic/operationalising criteria). Three themes concerning visual deficits, eye health and brain integrity were identified (each containing subthemes) and analysed individually across definitions. The most common themes were ' visual impairment' (n=20), 'retrochiasmatic pathway damage'(n=13) and 'normal/near normal eye health' (n=15). The most consensual definition identified here may not be the best quality for advancing our understanding of CVI. We argue for the alternative definition: CVI is a verifiable visual dysfunction which cannot be attributed to disorders of the anterior visual pathways or any potentially co-occurring ocular impairment. We propose reporting guidelines to permit comparison across studies and increase the evidence base for more reliable clinical assessment and diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  3. Uveitis in childhood : clinical and fundamental developments

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinina Ayuso, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aimed to gain new insights regarding the course and prognosis of uveitis in childhood, the pathogenesis of JIA-uveitis and the treatment of uveitis in children. The role of baseline prognostic factors in JIA-uveitis was studied by a retrospective analysis of 117 affected eyes of 65 patients with JIA-uveitis. Male gender is associated with a complicated course and poor visual prognosis in JIA-uveitis. Uveitis as initial manifestation of JIA is associated with development of posteri...

  4. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  5. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Speech Inconsistency in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech, Language Impairment, and Speech Delay: Depends on the Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Green, Jordan R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current research sought to determine (a) if speech inconsistency is a core feature of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) or if it is driven by comorbid language impairment that affects a large subset of children with CAS and (b) if speech inconsistency is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker that can differentiate between CAS and…

  7. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  8. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  9. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  10. A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence and Etiology of Childhood Visual Impairment in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chee Foong; McGhee, Charles N J; Dai, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    Childhood visual impairment has significant individual and socioeconomic costs with global differences in etiology and prevalence. This study aimed to determine prevalence, etiology, and avoidable causes of childhood visual impairment in New Zealand. Retrospective data analysis from a national referral center, the Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand, Auckland. The World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness eye examination records for visually impaired children, 16 years or younger, registered with the Auckland Visual Resource Centre, were included. Data analyzed included demographics, etiology, visual acuity, visual fields, educational setting, and rehabilitation plan. Charts of 340 children were examined, of which 267 children (144 blind, 123 low vision) were included in the analysis, whereas the remaining 73 charts of children with no visual impairment were excluded. The calculated prevalence of blindness and low vision was 0.05% and 0.04%, respectively, in the Auckland region. Principal causes of blindness affecting 91 children (63.9%) were cerebral visual impairment in 61 children (42.4%), optic nerve atrophy in 18 children (12.5%), and retinal dystrophy in 13 children (9.0%). The main potentially avoidable causes of blindness in 27 children (19%) were neonatal trauma, asphyxia in 9 children (33%), and nonaccidental injury 6 children (22%). This first report of prevalence for childhood blindness and low vision in New Zealand is similar to data from Established Market Economy countries. The leading causes of blindness are also comparable to other high-income countries; however, proportions of avoidable causes differ significantly.

  11. Development of force adaptation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczak, Jürgen; Jansen-Osmann, Petra; Kalveram, Karl-Theodor

    2003-03-01

    Humans learn to make reaching movements in novel dynamic environments by acquiring an internal motor model of their limb dynamics. Here, the authors investigated how 4- to 11-year-old children (N = 39) and adults (N = 7) adapted to changes in arm dynamics, and they examined whether those data support the view that the human brain acquires inverse dynamics models (IDM) during development. While external damping forces were applied, the children learned to perform goal-directed forearm flexion movements. After changes in damping, all children showed kinematic aftereffects indicative of a neural controller that still attempted to compensate the no longer existing damping force. With increasing age, the number of trials toward complete adaptation decreased. When damping was present, forearm paths were most perturbed and most variable in the youngest children but were improved in the older children. The findings indicate that the neural representations of limb dynamics are less precise in children and less stable in time than those of adults. Such controller instability might be a primary cause of the high kinematic variability observed in many motor tasks during childhood. Finally, the young children were not able to update those models at the same rate as the older children, who, in turn, adapted more slowly than adults. In conclusion, the ability to adapt to unknown forces is a developmental achievement. The present results are consistent with the view that the acquisition and modification of internal models of the limb dynamics form the basis of that adaptive process.

  12. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: measurement issues in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tricia S; Aranow, Cynthia; Ross, Gail S; Barsdorf, Alexandra; Imundo, Lisa F; Eichenfield, Andrew H; Kahn, Philip J; Diamond, Betty; Levy, Deborah M

    2011-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) by comparing published classification criteria, and to examine associations between NCI, disease characteristics, psychosocial well-being, and intelligence. cSLE patients and ethnicity- and age-matched healthy controls completed a neuropsychological research battery, and results were categorized by 3 different NCI classification criteria with different cutoff scores (e.g., >2, 1.5, or 1 SD below the mean) and the number of required abnormal tests or domains. Forty-one cSLE subjects and 22 controls were included. Subjects were predominantly female (~70%) and Hispanic (∼70%). Executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and fine motor speed were most commonly affected. Method 1 classified 34.1% of cSLE subjects with NCI compared to method 2 (14.6% with decline and 7.3% with NCI) and method 3 (63.4% with NCI). The prevalence of NCI was not significantly different between the controls and patients using any of the categorization methods. NCI was not associated with SLE disease activity or characteristics or with depression. Using method 3, patients in the cognitive impairment group reported significantly lower quality of life estimates (69.7 versus 79.3; P = 0.03). Below average intellectual functioning (intelligence quotient 1 and >1.5 SDs, but not >2 SDs below the mean. NCI was prevalent in cSLE, but varied according to the chosen categorization method. A similar proportion of cSLE patients and controls had NCI, reinforcing the importance of studying an appropriate control group. Categorical classification (i.e., impaired/nonimpaired) may oversimplify the commonly observed deficits in cSLE. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Uveitis in childhood : clinical and fundamental developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalinina Ayuso, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aimed to gain new insights regarding the course and prognosis of uveitis in childhood, the pathogenesis of JIA-uveitis and the treatment of uveitis in children. The role of baseline prognostic factors in JIA-uveitis was studied by a retrospective analysis of 117 affected eyes of 65

  14. Direct evidence of impaired neuronal Na/K-ATPase pump function in alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christine Q; Thompson, Christopher H; Cawthon, Bryan E; Westlake, Grant; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Ess, Kevin C; George, Alfred L

    2018-03-19

    Mutations in ATP1A3 encoding the catalytic subunit of the Na/K-ATPase expressed in mammalian neurons cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) as well as an expanding spectrum of other neurodevelopmental syndromes and neurological phenotypes. Most AHC cases are explained by de novo heterozygous ATP1A3 mutations, but the fundamental molecular and cellular consequences of these mutations in human neurons are not known. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of neurons generated from AHC patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to ascertain functional disturbances underlying this neurological disease. Fibroblasts derived from two subjects with AHC, a male and a female, both heterozygous for the common ATP1A3 mutation G947R, were reprogrammed to iPSCs. Neuronal differentiation of iPSCs was initiated by neurogenin-2 (NGN2) induction followed by co-culture with mouse glial cells to promote maturation of cortical excitatory neurons. Whole-cell current clamp recording demonstrated that, compared with control iPSC-derived neurons, neurons differentiated from AHC iPSCs exhibited a significantly lower level of ouabain-sensitive outward current ('pump current'). This finding correlated with significantly depolarized potassium equilibrium potential and depolarized resting membrane potential in AHC neurons compared with control neurons. In this cellular model, we also observed a lower evoked action potential firing frequency when neurons were held at their resting potential. However, evoked action potential firing frequencies were not different between AHC and control neurons when the membrane potential was clamped to -80 mV. Impaired neuronal excitability could be explained by lower voltage-gated sodium channel availability at the depolarized membrane potential observed in AHC neurons. Our findings provide direct evidence of impaired neuronal Na/K-ATPase ion transport activity in human AHC neurons and demonstrate the potential

  15. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Dawes

    Full Text Available It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development and adult height (an index of early childhood development. Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390 of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001. Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile, there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001. Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age.

  16. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  17. Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment: Aetiological Evaluation of Infants identified through the Irish Newborn Hearing Screening Programme

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, A

    2017-11-01

    The Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) was established in Cork University Maternity Hospital (CUMH) in April 2011. Between April 2011 and July 2014, 42 infants were identified with a Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI). Following this diagnosis, infants underwent a paediatric assessment according to recognised guidelines with the intention of identifying the underlying aetiology of the PCHI. The aim of this study was to assess the findings of this aetiological workup via retrospective chart review. PCHI data was obtained from the eSP database. This is a web based information system (eSP) used to track each baby through the screening and referral process A retrospective chart review of these patients was performed. Sixteen (38%) infants were diagnosed with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Two infants had congenital CMV infection. A Connexin 26 gene mutation was detected in one infant. Two infants were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome, One with Pendred syndrome and one with Pfeiffer syndrome. Five babies underwent cochlear implantation. Through adherence to the recommended protocol a possible cause of PCHI may be determined. This study has identified areas of future improvement for this service in Ireland.

  18. Playing in childhood: importance and singularities for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mara Zancanaro Pieczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated what kind of playing and how visually impaired children play in the family and educational contexts, aiming at understanding playing and the role of toys in these children‟s development. The study was based on the historical-cultural perspective, mainly considering Vygotsky‟s studies. Empirical material was collected from five families with blind or short-sighted children and from the specialized institution these children attend. We adopted semi-structured interviews with parents and educators and observation of the relevant contexts. The data collected was categorized and theorized through content analysis. We concluded that the mediation of another person during playing enables the visually impaired child to develop confidence to explore the physical space, objects and to elaborate concepts.

  19. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  20. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  1. The effect of impaired glucose metabolism on weight loss in multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloppenborg, Julie T; Gamborg, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius E

    2017-01-01

    and adolescents from the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbaek, Denmark. Anthropometrics, pubertal development, socioeconomic status (SES), and fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide, and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were collected at treatment entry and at follow......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether children and adolescents exhibiting an impaired glucose metabolism are more obese at treatment entry and less likely to reduce their degree of obesity during treatment. METHODS: The present study is a longitudinal observational study, including children...... mass index (BMI) z-score 2.94 (range 1.34-5.54) were included. The mean BMI z-score reduction was 0.31 (±0.46) after 13 months (range 6-18) of treatment. At treatment entry, patients with impaired estimates of glucose metabolism were more obese than normoglycemic patients. Baseline concentration of C...

  2. The role of candidate-gene CNTNAP2 in childhood apraxia of speech and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, T M; Sanmann, J N; Green, J R; Iuzzini-Seigel, J; Bartlett, C; Sanger, W G; Hogan, T P

    2015-10-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a debilitating pediatric speech disorder characterized by varying symptom profiles, comorbid deficits, and limited response to intervention. Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is an inherited pediatric language disorder characterized by delayed and/or disordered oral language skills including impaired semantics, syntax, and discourse. To date, the genes associated with CAS and SLI are not fully characterized. In the current study, we evaluated behavioral and genetic profiles of seven children with CAS and eight children with SLI, while ensuring all children were free of comorbid impairments. Deletions within CNTNAP2 were found in two children with CAS but not in any of the children with SLI. These children exhibited average to high performance on language and word reading assessments in spite of poor articulation scores. These findings suggest that genetic variation within CNTNAP2 may be related to speech production deficits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impairments in real-world executive function increase from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Michael; Wallace, Gregory L; Lawson, Rachel; Wills, Meagan C; Dixon, Eunice; Yerys, Benjamin E; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have investigated developmental trajectories of executive functioning (EF) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using lab-based tasks, no study to date has directly measured how EF skills in everyday settings vary at different ages. The current study seeks to extend prior work by evaluating age-related differences in parent-reported EF problems during childhood and adolescence in a large cross-sectional cohort of children with ASD. Children (N = 185) with an ASD without intellectual disability participated in the study. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (5-7, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-18-year-olds). The four age groups did not differ in IQ, sex ratio, or autism symptoms. There were significant age effects (i.e., worsening scores with increasing age) in three of G. A. Gioia, P. K. Isquith, S. Guy, and L. Kenworthy's (2000) BRIEF: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources scale scores: Initiate (p = .007), working memory (p = .003), and organization of materials (p = .023). In addition, analysis of the BRIEF scale profile revealed that, although multiple scales were elevated, the shift scale showed the greatest problems in both the youngest and oldest age cohorts. Older children with ASD show greater EF problems compared with the normative sample than younger children with ASD. Specifically, there is a widening divergence from the normative sample in metacognitive executive abilities in children with ASD as they age. This, in combination with significant, albeit more stable, impairments in flexibility, has implications for the challenges faced by high-functioning individuals with ASD as they attempt to enter mainstream work and social environments.

  4. Early definition of type, degree and audiogram shape in childhood hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, G; Gallus, R; Fetoni, A R; Martina, B M; Muzzi, E; Orzan, E; Bastanza, G

    2016-02-01

    In the context of permanent childhood hearing loss, early audiological diagnosis is a prerequisite for activation of an adequate rehabilitation program to prevent or limit the known effects that auditory deprivation determines on language development and cognitive skills in neonates. Audiological diagnosis consists schematically of three phases: identification of subjects at risk, definition of hearing loss and/or children features, verification of appropriateness of diagnosis itself and a rehabilitation programme. Strategies and methods of audiological diagnosis are well defined and include an integration of data coming from objective methods with clinical and behavioural data. Although the substantial effectiveness of procedures and a general consensus on their use and interpretation have been defined, there are several critical issues concerning the achievement of this objective, which will be discussed in this paper. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  5. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  6. Development of Object Permanence in Visually Impaired Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S. J.; Puchalski, C. B.

    1988-01-01

    Development of object permanence skills was examined longitudinally in 20 visually impaired infants (ages 4-25 months). Order of skill acquisition and span of time required to master skills paralleled that of sighted infants, but the visually impaired subjects were 8-12 months older than sighted counterparts when similar skills were acquired.…

  7. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.

  8. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  9. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients

  10. Effects of Early Chemotherapeutic Treatment on Learning in Adolescent Mice: Implications for Cognitive Impairment and Remediation in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Hineline, Philip N.; Walker, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40-70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Experimental Design Pre-weanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days following treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Results Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1h) and long (24h) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, were found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Conclusions Findings are consistent with clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy treatment. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice. PMID:23596103

  11. Effects of early chemotherapeutic treatment on learning in adolescent mice: implications for cognitive impairment and remediation in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Hineline, Philip N; Walker, Ellen A

    2013-06-01

    Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40% to 70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Preweanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days after treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1 hour) and long (24 hours) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, was found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Findings are consistent with those from clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice. ©2013 AACR

  12. Nutrition, Health and Safety in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the nutrition, health and safety status in Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes and its impact thereof on the quality of care and education in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The study is part of a larger study on assessing the quality of ...

  13. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  14. Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

  15. Personality and Development in Childhood: A Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Atkins, Robert; Fegley, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Applied a person-centered approach to childhood personality development in 28 diverse samples of 3- to 6-year-olds studied over 6 years. Identified resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality types. Found that the undercontrolled personality type related to intellectual decline over 6 years. The number of family risks predicted…

  16. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  17. Developing a Side Bias for Conspecific Faces during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2011-01-01

    Adults preferentially use information from the left side of face images to judge gender, emotion, and identity. In this study, we examined the development of this visual-field bias over middle childhood (5-10 years). Our goal was to both characterize the developmental trajectory of the left-side bias (should one exist) and examine the selectivity…

  18. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  19. Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on effects of music on the brain in childhood development. Areas include: (1) early synaptic growth; (2) nature versus nurture; (3) background music; (4) musical practice; (5) music learning and cognitive skills; (6) transfer of music learning; (7) musical instrument practice; (8) children and music; and (9) transfer effects.…

  20. Early Childhood Education: The Biological Bases: Malnutrition and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Merrill S.

    1972-01-01

    Malnutrition, contrasted with hunger, is defined as a state of impaired functional ability or development resulting from an inadequate supply of essential nutrients or calories to meet long-term biologic needs. (Author/MB)

  1. Career Development during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Lee, Bora

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a general perspective of vocational identity development as central to child and adolescent career development. A review of the pertinent literatures suggests that identity development is the product of three development strands--career exploration, commitment, and reconsideration--that appear to begin during…

  2. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

    2012-02-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society

  3. Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2007-05-01

    Controversial information exists on the contribution of several dietary factors for overweight development in childhood, but there is no doubt that obesity prevalence is increasing. We review the most up-to-date information in order to clarify the evidence-based dietary aspects influencing obesity development in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are the preferred method for analysing the relationship between dietary factors and obesity development. With the exception of infants, there are no conclusive associations between energy intake or diet composition and later overweight development in children. Among formula or mixed-fed infants, the increase in energy intake has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight during childhood. Breastfeeding seems to be a protective factor for later obesity development. In terms of food intake, longitudinal studies have only found a clear and positive association between obesity development and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; this is not the case with snacking, fast food or food portion sizes. Cross-sectional studies have found correlations between being overweight in childhood and buying lunch at school, eating supper while watching television or without family supervision, consuming less energy at breakfast or more at dinner, and missing breakfast. Results from longitudinal studies must be taken into account in order to design preventive strategies to counteract the increased prevalence of obesity and its consequences in children. Lack of breastfeeding, high early energy intake and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seem to be the main dietary factors contributing to obesity development.

  4. Impaired development of intrinsic connectivity networks in children with medically intractable localization-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Smith, Mary Lou; Donner, Elizabeth J; Wang, Frank; Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter

    2014-11-01

    Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countries in the near future. In a systematic review carried out through an electronic search of the literature from 1950-2007, the author compared data from surveys on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome among children living in developing countries. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight was found in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, whereas India and Sri Lanka had the lowest prevalence. The few studies conducted in developing countries showed a considerably high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among youth. These findings provide alarming data for health professionals and policy-makers about the extent of these problems in developing countries, many of which are still grappling with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Time trends in childhood obesity and its metabolic consequences, defined by uniform criteria, should be monitored in developing countries in order to obtain useful insights for primordial and primary prevention of the upcoming chronic disease epidemic in such communities.

  7. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  8. Networking and professional development among teachers of Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mérida Serrano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the professional development of 24 teachers involved in the Early Childhood Education-CPD Centre for Teachers-University Network ([blind review]. Collaborative research-action is carried out with teachers and pupils of Early Childhood Education, an adviser from the Continuing Professional Development (CPD Centre for Teachers, researchers, and teacher training undergraduates from the University of [blind review] ([blind review]. Taking a qualitative approach, through interviews, focus groups, and research journals, the benefits obtained by the teachers through their involvement in the [blind review] network are identified: (1 Their colleagues offer them emotional support and provide examples of good practices; (2 The teacher training undergraduates provide technological resources and the possibility of calmly observing what goes on in the classroom; (3 The researchers foster processes of reflection about practice and endorse the validity of the Project Approach; (4 The adviser provides continuing professional development.

  9. [Early childhood development and risk factors in rural China: a cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Gao, J Q; Yue, A; Tang, L; Luo, R F; Scott, Rozelle

    2018-02-02

    Objective: To investigate the development status and risk factors of infants and toddlers in rural China. Methods: In this cohort study, 603 infants (6-12 months of age, Phase Ⅰ) in the rural areas of QinLing-Bashan (Qin-Ba) in Shaanxi were recruited in the control group that received no intervention from April 2013 to October 2015. Three follow-up visits were performed every six months (Phase Ⅱ(12-18 months of age), Phase Ⅲ (18-24 months of age) and Phase Ⅳ(24-30 months of age)). In all the 4 phases (Ⅰ-Ⅳ), general data of the children and the families were collected by questionnaires, early childhood growth and development were assessed by door to door visits, children's hemoglobin levels were determined by laboratory tests, and the cognitive and motor development screening was conducted by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors affecting the development of infants and toddlers in rural areas and the data were analyzed in terms of risk factors from infants, guardians and family. Results: Phase Ⅱ, Phase Ⅲ and Phase Ⅳ survey recruited 497, 483 and 486 participants respectively. The incidences of cognitive impairment (mental development scoresdevelopment scoresdevelopment of 24-30-month-old children was the mothers' poor education background (≤9 years of school education) ( OR= 2.56, Pdevelopment were the mothers' poor education background (≤9 years of school education) ( OR= 2.64, Pgrowth retardation ( OR= 2.95, P= 0.07). Conclusions: The early childhood development (especially cognitive development) in the rural areas of Qin-Ba in Shaanxi of China is not optimistic. More attention should be paid to the early childhood development in rural China, especially to the development of children from the mothers with poor education background.

  10. Risk factors in the development of childhood in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I F Dementieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the most significant risk factors for the development of childhood under the contemporary conditions of the Russian family functioning. The specifics of the Russian society is determined by the implementation of fundamental social and economic reforms in the country in the last decades. The article provides a comprehensive analysis of key risk factors and defines possible negative consequences of their impact on the children personal development. Based on statistics and international legislation the article examines the issue of children protection from various forms of domestic violence. The demographic risk factors are considered from the perspective of raising a child in a one-child family, in the situation of childbirth out of wedlock and after the divorce, or the child’s health problems and the lack of conditions for its improvement. The author believes that the low quality of life is an important factor for the childhood risks development for it limits cognitive and physiological needs of the child. The article also points to the connection of the parents’ authority with their professional occupation and unemployment. Thus, the author comes to the following conclusions: childhood development is inevitably linked with the acquisition of life experience of overcoming risk situations; the family strategy to protection the child from all dangerous contacts is pedagogically unjustified and hinders the socialization process. In order to achieve positive results in overcoming the childhood risks, it is necessary to increase the educational competence of parents in the prevention of possible risks. The task of the family is not to isolate the child from the risks, but to teach the child to overcome them.

  11. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG').

  12. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Development of Human Brain Structural Networks Through Infancy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  14. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  15. Body Mass Index Development and Asthma Throughout Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Sandra; Magnusson, Jessica; Kull, Inger; Andersson, Niklas; Bottai, Matteo; Besharat Pour, Mohsen; Melén, Erik; Bergström, Anna

    2017-07-15

    Several studies have found an association between overweight and asthma, yet the temporal relationship between their onsets remains unclear. We investigated the development of body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence among 2,818 children with and without asthma from a Swedish birth cohort study, the BAMSE (a Swedish acronym for "children, allergy, milieu, Stockholm, epidemiology") Project, during 1994-2013. Measured weight and height were available at 13 time points throughout childhood. Asthma phenotypes (transient, persistent, and late-onset) were defined by timing of onset and remission. Quantile regression was used to analyze percentiles of BMI, and generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between asthma phenotypes and the risk of high BMI. Among females, BMI development differed between children with and without asthma, with the highest BMI being seen among females with persistent asthma. The difference existed throughout childhood but increased with age. For example, females with persistent asthma had 2.33 times' (95% confidence interval: 1.21, 4.49) greater odds of having a BMI above the 85th percentile at age ≥15 years than females without asthma. Among males, no clear associations between asthma and BMI were observed. In this study, persistent asthma was associated with high BMI throughout childhood among females, whereas no consistent association was observed among males. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  16. Osteogenesis imperfecta in childhood: perceived competence in relation to impairment and disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; Gulmans, V. A.; Uiterwaal, C. S.; Helders, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    To examine the perceived competence of children with different types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and to investigate the possible relationships between their perceived competence and impairment parameters. Cross-sectional study. National referral center (hospital) for the treatment of children

  17. Osteogenesis imperfecta in childhood: impairment and disability--a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; Beemer, F. A.; van der Graaf, Y.; Helders, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate differences over time (mean follow-up, 14 months) on impairment parameters (range of joint motion and muscle strength), functional limitation parameters (functional ability), and disability parameters (caregiver assistance in achieving functional skills) in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI),

  18. DNA Methylation Signatures of Early Childhood Malnutrition Associated With Impairments in Attention and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Cyril J; Fischer, Laura K; Kundakovic, Marija; Garg, Paras; Jakovcevski, Mira; Dincer, Aslihan; Amaral, Ana C; Ginns, Edward I; Galdzicka, Marzena; Bryce, Cyralene P; Ratner, Chana; Waber, Deborah P; Mokler, David; Medford, Gayle; Champagne, Frances A; Rosene, Douglas L; McGaughy, Jill A; Sharp, Andrew J; Galler, Janina R; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-11-15

    Early childhood malnutrition affects 113 million children worldwide, impacting health and increasing vulnerability for cognitive and behavioral disorders later in life. Molecular signatures after childhood malnutrition, including the potential for intergenerational transmission, remain unexplored. We surveyed blood DNA methylomes (~483,000 individual CpG sites) in 168 subjects across two generations, including 50 generation 1 individuals hospitalized during the first year of life for moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition, then followed up to 48 years in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Attention deficits and cognitive performance were evaluated with the Connors Adult Attention Rating Scale and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Expression of nutrition-sensitive genes was explored by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in rat prefrontal cortex. We identified 134 nutrition-sensitive, differentially methylated genomic regions, with most (87%) specific for generation 1. Multiple neuropsychiatric risk genes, including COMT, IFNG, MIR200B, SYNGAP1, and VIPR2 showed associations of specific methyl-CpGs with attention and IQ. IFNG expression was decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats showing attention deficits after developmental malnutrition. Early childhood malnutrition entails long-lasting epigenetic signatures associated with liability for attention and cognition, and limited potential for intergenerational transmission. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Speech Impairment in Early Childhood: Investigating Parents' and Speech-Language Pathologists' Perspectives Using the ICF-CY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the application of the Activities and Participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY, World Health Organization, 2007) as a framework for investigating the perceived impact of speech impairment in childhood. Method: A 32-item questionnaire based on…

  20. Impaired decision-making as a young adult outcome of girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Sheridan, Margaret; Cardoos, Stephanie L; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    We examined decision-making in young adulthood in a follow-up study of females diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between 6 and 12 years. Participants with childhood ADHD (n = 114) and matched comparison females (n = 77), followed prospectively for 10 years, performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) at ages 17-25 years. This task assesses preference for high-reward/high-risk chances that result in lower overall gains (disadvantageous decks of cards) compared to low-reward/low-risk chances that result in higher overall gains (advantageous decks of cards). Relative to comparison participants, young adult females with a history of ADHD did not increase their preference for advantageous decks across time blocks, suggesting difficulties in learning to change behavior over the course of the IGT. Overall, childhood diagnoses of ADHD were associated with disadvantageous decision-making in young adulthood. These results extend findings on decision-making in males with ADHD by demonstrating comparable levels of impairment in an all-female sample.

  1. Development of revitalisation technique for impaired lithium doped germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.S.B.; Rafi Ahmed, A.G.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors play very significant role in photon detection and are important tools in the field of gamma spectroscopy. Lithium doped germanium detectors belong to this category. The development of revitalisation technique for these impaired detectors are discussed in this report

  2. Review of Structural Social Determinants of Health in Early Childhood Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development is a dynamic and continuous phenomenon  that is under the influence of various factors forming a complicated multidimensional system together. Any impairment in these factors can lead to impaired development in children, which is one of the most common problems in children. Therefore, this study provides a brief overview of these factors and the way they affect early childhood development. A brief review was performed in databases including Google scholar, PUBMED, Proquest, SID, Magiran, Iranmedex, Irandoc with following keywords: child  development, income, occupation, education, employment, boy, girl,  gender, sex, social class, Race and Ethnicity. All of article was reviewed then categorized based on WHO model. Among the papers reviewed, most of the studies were about employment, education, and income and most of them investigated these risk factors in terms of socioeconomic status. Structural factors of social determinants of health had a close relationship with each other, and they  had affected development through each other. Given that, only few studies on structural factors, except for socioeconomic factors, have been conducted and little attention has been paid to the way these factors affect child development, further studies in this area are required to propose a model in order to better understand the interaction between these factors.

  3. Do Visually Impaired People Develop Superior Smell Ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Dorota; Eberhard, Julia; Kalaus, Barbara; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that visually impaired people perform better in orientation by sound than sighted individuals, but it is not clear whether this enhanced awareness also extends to other senses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe whether visually impaired subjects develop superior abilities in olfactory perception to compensate for their lack of vision. We investigated the odor perception of visually impaired individuals aged 7 to 89 ( n = 99; 52 women, 47 men) and compared them with subjects of a control group aged 8 to 82 years ( n = 100; 45 women, 55 men) without any visual impairment. The participants were evaluated by Sniffin' Sticks odor identification and discrimination test. Identification ability was assessed for 16 common odors presented in felt-tip pens. In the odor discrimination task, subjects had to determine which of three pens in 16 triplets had a different odor. The median number of correctly identified odorant pens in both groups was the same, 13 of the offered 16. In the discrimination test, there was also no significant difference observed. Gender did not influence results. Age-related changes were observed in both groups with olfactory perception decreasing after the age of 51. We could not confirm that visually impaired people were better in smell identification and discrimination ability than sighted individuals.

  4. The Challenge of Childhood Cancer in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-05-12

    May 12, 2016 ... Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health ... children under the age of 15 years due to cancer. Childhood cancer is the second leading .... collaboration on childhood leukaemia. Int J. Hematol 2003 ...

  5. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  6. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Impaired cortisol awakening response in eating disorder women with childhood trauma exposure: evidence for a dose-dependent effect of the traumatic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, A M; Monteleone, P; Volpe, U; De Riso, F; Fico, G; Giugliano, R; Nigro, M; Maj, M

    2018-04-01

    Childhood trauma is a non specific risk factor for adult eating disorders (ED), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis seems to mediate such a risk. Here we explored the impact of different types of childhood trauma and of traumatic load on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). Saliva samples were collected at awakening and after 15, 30, 60 min to measure cortisol levels by 121 women (44 AN patients, 36 BN patients and 41 healthy women). Participants filled in the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. AN and BN patients with childhood maltreatment exhibited an attenuated CAR compared with non-maltreated ones. In the whole ED patient group, the CAR showed a progressive impairment with the increasing number of reported trauma types. Although significant negative correlations emerged between the type or the number of traumas and the CAR, only the number of traumas remained significantly associated with the CAR in a stepwise multiple regression analysis. Present findings confirm that childhood trauma is associated with an impaired CAR in adult AN and BN patients and demonstrate for the first time a negative dose-dependent effect of the traumatic load on HPA axis activity.

  8. Developing a schedule to identify social communication difficulties and autism spectrum disorder in young children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absoud, Michael; Parr, Jeremy R; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi

    2011-03-01

    Available observational tools used in the identification of social communication difficulties and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely partly on visual behaviours and therefore may not be valid in children with visual impairment. A pilot observational instrument, the Visual Impairment and Social Communication Schedule (VISS), was developed to aid in identifying social communication difficulties and ASD in young children with visual impairment affected by congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system (disorders of the globe, retina, and anterior optic nerve). The VISS was administered to 23 consecutive children (age range 1 y 9 mo-6 y 11 mo, mean 4 y 1 mo [SD 1.6]; 12 males, 11 females) with visual impairment (nine with severe and 14 with profound visual impairment). Item analysis was carried out by fit of the items to the Rasch model. Validity of the VISS was explored by comparison with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, and the clinical ASD diagnosis (n=9). Correlation between the VISS and CARS total scores was highly significant (Spearman's rho=-0.89; p=0.01). Below threshold rating on the VISS (score of 35) showed good agreement with the clinical ASD diagnosis (sensitivity 89%, specificity 100%). This preliminary study shows the VISS to be a promising schedule to aid the identification of ASD in young children with visual impairment. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  9. The development of the physical fitness construct across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Strauss, B; Naul, R

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of physical fitness (PF) is an important factor from many different perspectives. PF is a determinant of healthy child development as it is related to several health outcomes. However, existing taxonomies of the construct and frequently used fitness assessments vary concerning their theoretical assumptions and practical implications. From a theoretical perspective, the construct of physical fitness covers a variety of motor domains, such as cardiovascular endurance, strength, coordination, or flexibility (eg, Caspersen et al., 1985). However, most fitness assessments provide a single (composite) score including all items as test outcome. This implicitly relates to a one-dimensional structure of physical fitness, which has been shown for other motor performance assessments in early childhood (eg, Utesch et al., 2016). This study investigated this one-dimensional structure for 6- to 9-year-old children within the item response theory framework (Partial Credit Model). Seven fitness subtests covering a variety of motor dimensions (6-minute run, pushups, sit-ups, standing broad jump, 20 m sprint, jumping sideways, and balancing backwards) were conducted to a total of 790 six-year-olds, 1371 seven-year-olds, 1331 eight-year-olds, and 925 nine-year-olds (48.2% females). Each item was transformed into five performance categories controlling for sex and age. This study indicates that a one-dimensional testing of PF is feasible across middle childhood. Furthermore, for 6- and 7-year-olds, all seven items including balancing backwards can be accumulated to one factor. From the age of about 8 and 9 years balancing backwards seems to become too easy. Altogether, analyses show no diversification of PF across childhood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  11. Developing explanatory models of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study...... in developing and delivering this multi-centre study. Experience gained will support the development of substantive trials and longitudinal studies to address the considerable international health disparity of childhood dental caries....... protocol and development of two standardised measures. First, to investigate how parental attitudes may impact on their children's oral health-related behaviours and second, to assess how dentists' attitudes may impact on the provision of dental care. SUBJECTS: Core research team, lead methodologists, 44...

  12. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-05-08

    To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2(nd) edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions.

  13. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  14. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J

    2017-05-01

    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Causes of childhood visual impairment and unmet low-vision care in blind school students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntim-Amponsah, C T; Amoaku, W M K

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of childhood visual impairment and blindness in students of a school for blind children, to determine how many students had some residual vision, and to evaluate any unmet low-vision care. A survey of students in the blind school was conducted in two parts in May-June and then October 2003. The sample consisted of 201 students who became blind before the age of 16. Information was obtained from student interviews, doctors' referral notes and ophthalmic examination of all students who consented. Students with residual vision had low-vision assessments. These investigations were supplemented with active participation of the investigators in Parent-Teacher Association meetings and focus group discussions with parents. One hundred and ninety-nine students consented and were recruited, whereas two declined. Ninety-six became visually impaired within their first year of life and 33 by the age of 5 years. Pathology of the cornea and then the lens were the commonest causes of blindness. One hundred and eight students were totally blind, whereas 87 (43.7%) had some residual vision and formed the target for the second part of the study. Fifty-one out of 77 of this target group who turned up for low-vision examination had useful residual vision by the World Health Organisation (WHO) low-vision examination chart. Spectacle magnifiers aided two students to read normal print at N5 and N8, respectively. Different visual aids would help enhance the residual vision in some of the others. Emotional trauma was apparent in parents and teachers. Children who became blind later in life remained in shock for a longer time and adapted less well to their visual impairment. Visual impairment in the population is not uncommon. Some causes are preventable. There is a significant unmet need for low-vision care, particularly amongst children in Ghana, and perhaps many countries in the West Africa subregion. It is hoped that the findings from

  16. Unexpected plateauing of childhood obesity rates in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin; Moss, Anja; Kromeyer-Hauschild, Katrin

    2014-01-31

    Surveys performed in the past 10 to 15 years show a yet unexplained stabilization or decline in prevalence rates of childhood obesity in developed countries. The projected continuous increase in obesity prevalence throughout future decades seems not to occur at present. Apparently, saturation has been reached, which might be related to societal adjustments. Hence, we postulate a cumulative effect of public health programs for obesity prevention resulting, for example, in an increase in physical activity, and a decline in television viewing and in the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by children. Effective public health programs are urgently needed for developing countries, where obesity rates in children still continued to increase during the past decade.

  17. The development of sex typing in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, L A; Powlishta, K K; Gulko, J

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined the development of sex typing during middle childhood, using a sample of 558 children aged 5-12 years. The purpose of the study was to provide information about the developmental course and stability of various aspects of sex typing during this period and to examine the relative contributions of cognitive and environmental factors to sex-role development. Multiple measures of sex typing were obtained, including indices of personal preference, knowledge of stereotypes, and flexibility in the domains of activities, occupations, and traits. We also collected information about the child's cognitive maturity, exposure to sex-typed models at home, and socioeconomic status. Results supported the need for an integrative theory of sex-role development, incorporating factors emphasized by cognitive-developmental, schematic-processing, and social learning theories. Knowledge of stereotypes, flexibility, and sex-typed personal preferences all increased with age during middle childhood. There were also individual differences in sex typing that were stable over a 1-year period. Distinct "cognitive" and "affective" aspects of sex typing were identified using a principal components analysis. Cognitive elements (flexibility and knowledge of stereotypes) were largely a function of the child's cognitive maturity level, although social-environmental factors such as father's presence in the home also had some effect. Affective elements (sex-typed preferences for activities, occupations, and peers), on the other hand, were related more consistently to sex typing of the home environment. Children whose mothers frequently modeled "reversed" sex-role behaviors (i.e., traditionally "masculine" household and child-care tasks) were less sex typed in their own preferences. However, cognitive factors were also important, in that children who believed gender stereotypes to be flexible were less sex typed in their choices of activities, occupations, and peers. In sum

  18. Childhood trauma and the development of paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowski, Monisha; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    Belief in the paranormal is fairly prevalent in the general population. Previous research has shown a link between several personological characteristics and paranormal beliefs. The current study attempted to further investigate this link by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. In addition, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. The results imply that researchers need to take into account how a person responds to trauma via the development of coping strategies to accurately understand any observed relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs.

  19. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  20. Perceptions and Attitudes of Early Childhood Teachers in Korea about Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhye; Kim, Heejin; Yu, Sunyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions and attitudes of Korean early childhood teachers about education for sustainable development (ESD). A total of 301 Korean early childhood teachers participated in a survey which was purposefully developed for this research. The survey focused on three areas of interest: understanding of concepts about…

  1. ENERGY IMBALANCE UNDERLYING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN HISPANIC CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity arises from dysregulation of energy balance; however, the energetics for the development of childhood obesity are poorly delineated. We therefore developed a mathematical model based on empirical data and current understanding of energy balance to predict the total energy cost of w...

  2. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  3. The Impact of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development: A Literature Review and Supporting Handouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Professional Development in Chilean State-Funded Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Mariel; Ford, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on professional development in Chilean state-funded early childhood education. Based on a multiple-case study design and drawing on qualitative methods we explored teachers' perspectives on professional development at two early childhood educational centers. Two centers' directors and four early…

  5. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  6. Community-based interventions to optimize early childhood development in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-08-01

    Interventions targeting the early childhood period (0 to 3 years) help to improve neuro-cognitive functioning throughout life. Some of the more low cost, low resource-intensive community practices for this age-group are play, reading, music and tactile stimulation. This research was conducted to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of such strategies on child development, with particular focus on techniques that may be transferable to developing countries and to children at risk of developing secondary impairments. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for studies involving the above strategies for early intervention. Reference lists of these studies were scanned and other studies were incorporated based on snow-balling. Overall, 76 articles corresponding to 53 studies, 24 of which were randomized controlled trials, were identified. Sixteen of those studies were from low- and middle-income countries. Play and reading were the two commonest interventions and showed positive impact on intellectual development of the child. Music was evaluated primarily in intensive care settings. Kangaroo Mother Care, and to a lesser extent massage, also showed beneficial effects. Improvement in parent-child interaction was common to all the interventions. Play and reading were effective interventions for early childhood interventions in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to judge the effectiveness of music. Kangaroo Mother Care is effective for low birth weight babies in resource poor settings, but further research is needed in community settings. Massage is useful, but needs more rigorous research prior to being advocated for community-level interventions.

  7. Workshop on programming beta cell development, impairment and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Scott; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2012-01-01

    Helsingør, the city of Hamlet in Denmark, provided the site for the workshop "Programming Beta Cell Development, Impairment and Regeneration" on October 23-26th, 2011. The same location has held two EASD Islet study group meetings, while the previous three workshops were held in Helsinki, Finland...... (2003), El Perello, Spain (2006) and Peebles, Scotland (2009). The meeting drew 190 attendees from 12 different countries. There were 37 main oral presentations, and 68 posters covered virtually all aspects of the pancreas and provided a dynamic snapshot of the most interesting areas of current...

  8. The interplay of childhood behavior problems and IQ in the development of later schizophrenia and affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Seidman, Larry J; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Buka, Stephen L

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are both associated with impaired social functioning, but the extent to which childhood behavioral impairments are present prior to onset of illness is less well studied. Moreover, the concurrent relationship of childhood behavior problems and premorbid IQ with subsequent psychotic disorder has not been established. We investigated whether childhood behavior problems are associated with increased risk for adult schizophrenia or affective psychosis, independently and in combination with IQ. The study included individuals with schizophrenia (N=47), affective psychoses (N=45) and non-psychotic controls (N=1496) from the New England Family Study. Behavior problems were prospectively assessed from standardized clinician observations at ages 4 and 7. IQ was assessed with the Stanford-Binet at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. We found externalizing problems at age 4 and externalizing and internalizing problems at age 7 were associated with later schizophrenia, and both internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 4 and 7 were associated with later development of affective psychoses. Lower IQ at ages 4 and 7 was associated with schizophrenia, while lower IQ was associated with affective psychoses at age 7 only. Examined simultaneously, both lower IQ and behavior problems remained associated with risk of schizophrenia, while only behavior problems remained associated with affective psychoses. Behavior problems appear to be a general marker of risk of adult psychotic disorder, while lower childhood IQ is more specific to risk of schizophrenia. Future research should clarify the premorbid evolution of behavior and cognitive problems into adult psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood lead toxicity and impaired release of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseman, C.A.; Moriarty, C.M.; Angle, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Decreased stature of children is epidemiologically associated with increased blood lead independent of multiple socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Since endocrine dysfunction occurs in adult lead workers, they studied two girls, 2 years of age, before and after calcium disodium edetate chelation for blood leads (PbB) of 19-72 μg/dl. The height of both children had crossed from the 50th to below the 10th percentile during the course of chronic lead toxicity. Basal free T 4 , T 4 , T 3 , cortisol, somatomedin C, and sex steroids were normal. A decrease in the growth hormone response and elevation of basal prolcatin and gonadotropins were noted in one. Both children demonstrated blunted thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in six of seven challenges. This prompted in vitro studies of cultured cells from rat pituitarities. After incubation of pituitary cells with 0.1-10 μM Pb 2+ for 2 hr, followed by the addition of TRH, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of TSH release Lead did not interfere with the assay of TSH. To investigate the interaction of lead and calcium, 45 Ca 2+ kinetic analyses were done on rat pituitary slices after 1 hr incubation with 1.0 μM lead. The impaired late efflux was consistent with a decrease in the size and exchangeability of the tightly bound pool of intracellular microsomal or mitochondrial calcium. The rat pituitary cell model provides a model for the decreased TSH release of lead poisoning, supports the biological plausibility of a neuroendocrine effect on growth, and suggests that interference with calcium-mediated intracellular responses is a basic mechanism of lead toxicity

  10. The role of nutrition in children’s neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett eNyaradi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the current evidence for a possible connection between nutritional intake (including micronutrients and whole diet and neurocognitive development in childhood. Earlier studies which have investigated the association between nutrition and cognitive development have focused on individual micronutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, choline, iron, iodine and zinc, and single aspects of diet. The research evidence from observational studies suggests that micronutrients may play an important role in the cognitive development of children. However, the results of intervention trials utilising single micronutrients are inconclusive. More generally, there is evidence that malnutrition can impair cognitive development, whilst breastfeeding appears to be beneficial for cognition. Eating breakfast is also beneficial for cognition. In contrast, there is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the association between obesity and cognition. Since individuals consume combinations of foods, more recently researchers have become interested in the cognitive impact of diet as a composite measure. Only a few studies to date have investigated the associations between dietary patterns and cognitive development. In future research, more well designed intervention trials are needed, with special consideration given to the interactive effects of nutrients.

  11. Stable intergenerational associations of childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups of chil......: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups...

  12. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  13. Building the Leadership Capacity of Early Childhood Directors: An Evaluation of a Leadership Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…

  14. Current Status and Future Agenda for the Theory, Research, and Practice of Childhood Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and a future agenda for childhood career development theory, research, and practice. The fragmented nature of the current state of the literature is noted, and a call is made for a reexamination and reconsideration of the childhood developmental pathways of life's work. It is suggested that the study of…

  15. The development of episodic future thinking in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, F; Chiera, A; Nicchiarelli, S; Adornetti, I; Magni, R; Vicari, S; Valeri, G; Marini, A

    2018-02-01

    The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341-361. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2005.05.001, 2005) in order to avoid potential linguistic effects on children's performance. The results showed that this task can be used to assess the development of EFT at least until the age of 8. Furthermore, EFT scores correlated with measures of phonological short-term and verbal working memory. These results support the possibility that cognitive factors such as working memory play a key role in EFT.

  16. Perinatal stroke and the risk of developing childhood epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Garg, Bhuwan P.; Carvalho, Karen S.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Williams, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of epilepsy after 6 months-of-age in children with perinatal stroke and examine whether perinatal data predict epilepsy onset and resolution. Study design A retrospective review of 64 children with perinatal stroke. In children with at least 6 months of follow-up data, Kaplan-Meier curves, univariate log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine predictors of time to development of seizures, and time to resolution of seizures in children with epilepsy. The association of risk factors with the presence of epilepsy at any time after 6 months-of-age was examined using Fisher’s exact test. Results Forty-one of the 61 children with at least 6 months of follow-up data (67%) had epilepsy between 6 months-of-age and last follow-up, but in 13 of 41 seizures eventually resolved and anticonvulsants were discontinued. Infarct on prenatal ultrasound (p=0.0065) and family history of epilepsy (p=0.0093) were significantly associated with time to development of seizures after 6 months-of-age in the univariate analysis. No assessed variables were associated with time to resolution of epilepsy or with the presence of epilepsy after 6 months-of-age. Conclusions Childhood epilepsy is frequent after perinatal stroke. Evidence of infarction on prenatal ultrasound and a family history of epilepsy predict earlier onset of active seizures. PMID:17889079

  17. Hippocampal development in youth with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Groote, Inge; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with enhanced risk of psychiatric illness and reduced subcortical grey matter in adulthood. The hippocampus and amygdala, due to their involvement in stress and emotion circuitries, have been subject to extensive investigations regarding the effect of CM. However, the complex relationship between CM, subcortical grey matter and mental illness remains poorly understood partially due to a lack of longitudinal studies. Here we used segmentation and linear mixed effect modelling to examine the impact of CM on hippocampal and amygdala development in young people with emerging mental illness. A total of 215 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 123 individuals (age: 14-28 years, 79 female), 52 of whom were scanned twice or more. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes increased linearly with age, and their developmental trajectories were not moderated by symptom severity. However, exposure to CM was associated with significantly stunted right hippocampal growth. This finding bridges the gap between child and adult research in the field and provides novel evidence that CM is associated with disrupted hippocampal development in youth. Although CM was associated with worse symptom severity, we did not find evidence that CM-induced structural abnormalities directly underpin psychopathology. This study has important implications for the psychiatric treatment of individuals with CM since they are clinically and neurobiologically distinct from their peers who were not maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood tuberculosis is associated with decreased abundance of T cell gene transcripts and impaired T cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Hemingway

    Full Text Available The WHO estimates around a million children contract tuberculosis (TB annually with over 80 000 deaths from dissemination of infection outside of the lungs. The insidious onset and association with skin test anergy suggests failure of the immune system to both recognise and respond to infection. To understand the immune mechanisms, we studied genome-wide whole blood RNA expression in children with TB meningitis (TBM. Findings were validated in a second cohort of children with TBM and pulmonary TB (PTB, and functional T-cell responses studied in a third cohort of children with TBM, other extrapulmonary TB (EPTB and PTB. The predominant RNA transcriptional response in children with TBM was decreased abundance of multiple genes, with 140/204 (68% of all differentially regulated genes showing reduced abundance compared to healthy controls. Findings were validated in a second cohort with concordance of the direction of differential expression in both TBM (r2 = 0.78 p = 2x10-16 and PTB patients (r2 = 0.71 p = 2x10-16 when compared to a second group of healthy controls. Although the direction of expression of these significant genes was similar in the PTB patients, the magnitude of differential transcript abundance was less in PTB than in TBM. The majority of genes were involved in activation of leucocytes (p = 2.67E-11 and T-cell receptor signalling (p = 6.56E-07. Less abundant gene expression in immune cells was associated with a functional defect in T-cell proliferation that recovered after full TB treatment (p<0.0003. Multiple genes involved in T-cell activation show decreased abundance in children with acute TB, who also have impaired functional T-cell responses. Our data suggest that childhood TB is associated with an acquired immune defect, potentially resulting in failure to contain the pathogen. Elucidation of the mechanism causing the immune paresis may identify new treatment and prevention strategies.

  19. Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Service Standard Guidelines on Physical Facilities in Public and Private Early Childhood Education Centres Kakamega County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…

  20. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  1. Coping With Diverse Sex Development: Treatment Experiences and Psychosocial Support During Childhood and Adolescence and Adult Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Katinka; Brunner, Franziska; Gedrose, Benjamin; Handford, Christina; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, retrospective, and correlational study was to examine the relationships between childhood treatment experiences, parental care, and social support, and outcome in adults with different diverse sex development (DSD). The data of 69 participants from an exploratory questionnaire were collected in a retrospective German study. The majority received medical treatment in relation to their DSD during childhood and adolescence. Seventy percent reported having had a best friend and 29% a confidant during childhood. Sixty-one percent showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and 45% reported suicidal thoughts at least at one point in their lives. Quality of parental care and having had a best friend correlated positively with adult outcome, whereas treatment experiences correlated with aspects of impaired adjustment. Social support and DSD-related treatment experiences appear to have an impact on adult well-being. Appropriate psychosocial care including peer-to-peer support should be made available to children with DSD and their families. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.

  3. A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Early Childhood Professional Development for Providers and Recipients in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Sandra M.; Rembert, Kellye; Simpson, Amber; Ramey, M. Deanna

    2016-01-01

    This multi-phase mixed-methods study explores provider and recipient perceptions of the current state of early childhood professional development in a southeastern area of the United States. Professional development for the early childhood workforce has been shown to positively influence the quality of early childhood classrooms. This study…

  4. A Novel Method of Notification to Profile Childhood Visual Impairment in Scotland to Meet the Needs of Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, John; Blaikie, Andrew; Macewen, Caroline; O'Hare, Anne; Creswell, Lyn; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to pilot a new notification system for children with visual impairment (VI) and describe the initial summary findings. A system of notification of children in Scotland with VI was established. Information concerning this system was distributed to professionals working with visually impaired children to forward to…

  5. Identity Development in German Adolescents with and without Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here assessed the exploration of identity and commitment to an identity in German adolescents with and without visual impairments. Methods: In total, 178 adolescents with visual impairments (blindness or low vision) and 526 sighted adolescents completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire. Results: The levels of…

  6. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  7. Using Intervention Mapping for child development and wellbeing programs in early childhood education and care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Challenges of childhood obesity in a developing economy: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-24

    Feb 24, 2015 ... critical period of opportunity when exposure of the fetus could predict ..... under – or over-estimate the risk of childhood obesity in ... are all diseases arising in obese adults, efforts should be ... School absenteeism: Owing to prolonged period of ill – .... obesity by increasing energy expenditure and resting.

  9. Development of Attention Networks and Their Interactions in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelos, Joan P.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J.; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6-to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106),…

  10. Development of visual working memory precision in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Zokaei, Nahid; van der Staaij, Irene; Bays, Paul M; Husain, Masud

    Visual working memory (VWM) is the facility to hold in mind visual information for brief periods of time. Developmental studies have suggested an increase during childhood in the maximum number of complete items that can simultaneously be stored in VWM. Here, we exploit a recent theoretical and

  11. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Development of Childhood Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; McArtor, Daniel B.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a large sample of twins participating in the Netherlands Twin Register (n = 42,827, age range 3-16) were analyzed to investigate the genetic and environmental contributions to childhood aggression. Genetic auto-regressive (simplex) models were used to assess whether the same genes are involved or whether new genes come into…

  13. Having older siblings is associated with gut microbiota development during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first 3 years of life. Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which could contribute to the substantiation...... of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes influence development of allergies later...... in childhood....

  14. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Fogliarini, Celine; Viola, Angele; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Cozzone, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm 3 (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated

  15. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: nadine.girard@ap-hm.fr; Fogliarini, Celine [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viola, Angele [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Confort-Gouny, Sylviane [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Le Fur, Yann [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viout, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Levrier, Olivier [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Cozzone, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France)

    2006-02-15

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm{sup 3} (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated.

  16. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  19. Links Between Contexts and Middle to Late Childhood Social-Emotional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-12-01

    Guided by the social-emotional learning (SEL) framework, we studied developmental trajectory patterns of five key competency outcomes spanning middle through late childhood: altruism, empathy, self-efficacy, aggression, and hyperactivity. We then assessed their links to middle childhood home, parental, and community contexts. Data from the Institute of Education Sciences' Social and Character Development Program, which comprised nearly 2,400 elementary school students who were followed from Grades 3 through 5, were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Three trajectory groups emerged for each outcome, which were linked to childhood contexts. Positive parenting was associated with a lower likelihood of following a negative empathy trajectory among children. Neighborhood intergenerational closure promoted a stable self-efficacy trajectory. Residing in a high-risk community was linked to increasing normative beliefs about aggression. These findings suggest an important role of contexts in influencing childhood social-emotional development in the later elementary school years. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  20. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in cases involving adult recollections of childhood experiences.

  1. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  2. Quantifying brain development in early childhood using segmentation and registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabar, P.; Bhatia, K. K.; Murgasova, M.; Hajnal, J. V.; Boardman, J. P.; Srinivasan, L.; Rutherford, M. A.; Dyet, L. E.; Edwards, A. D.; Rueckert, D.

    2007-03-01

    In this work we obtain estimates of tissue growth using longitudinal data comprising MR brain images of 25 preterm children scanned at one and two years. The growth estimates are obtained using segmentation and registration based methods. The segmentation approach used an expectation maximisation (EM) method to classify tissue types and the registration approach used tensor based morphometry (TBM) applied to a free form deformation (FFD) model. The two methods show very good agreement indicating that the registration and segmentation approaches can be used interchangeably. The advantage of the registration based method, however, is that it can provide more local estimates of tissue growth. This is the first longitudinal study of growth in early childhood, previous longitudinal studies have focused on later periods during childhood.

  3. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    .006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...

  4. Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schady, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects of…

  5. Timing of motor milestones achievement and development of overweight in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P

    2014-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: The risk of childhood obesity is influenced by a number of pre- and post-natal factors. The risk of childhood obesity is correlated with body weight during infancy, which might be related to the psychomotor development of the child. The previous literature...... on motor milestones and childhood overweight is limited and results are inconsistent. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Weight status in early life and timing of achievement of gross motor milestones (the ability to sit and walk) are largely independent of each other. Timing of achievement of motor milestones in early...... life does not predict overweight or increased BMI later in childhood. BACKGROUND: Overweight may hinder achievement of gross motor milestones and delayed achievement of milestones may increase the risk of later overweight for reasons involving physical activity and the building of lean body mass...

  6. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: Breastfeeding Complications Due to Impaired Breast Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlbuhl-Becker, Mandy; Faschingbauer, Florian; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schneider, Holm

    2017-04-01

    in breastfeeding because of their impaired breast development. This causal relationship needs to be taken into account in lactation counseling.

  7. Feeling Older and the Development of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Subjective age is a biopsychosocial marker of aging associated with a range of outcomes in old age. In the domain of cognition, feeling older than one's chronological age is related to lower cognitive performance and steeper cognitive decline among older adults. The present study examines whether an older subjective age is associated with the risk of incident cognitive impairment and dementia. Participants were 5,748 individuals aged 65 years and older drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. Measures of subjective age, cognition, and covariates were obtained at baseline, and follow-up cognition was assessed over a 2- to 4-year period. Only participants without cognitive impairment were included at baseline. At follow-up, participants were classified into one of the three categories: normal functioning, cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND), and dementia. An older subjective age at baseline was associated with higher likelihood of CIND (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18; 1.09-1.28) and dementia (OR = 1.29; 1.02-1.63) at follow-up, controlling for chronological age, other demographic factors, and baseline cognition. Physical inactivity and depressive symptoms partly accounted for these associations. An older subjective age is a marker of individuals' risk of subsequent cognitive impairment and dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Corpus callosum tissue loss and development of motor and global cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....

  9. Development and Standardization of an Alienation Scale for Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Poonam; Berwal, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken to develop a valid and reliable scale for measuring a feeling of alienation in students with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision). Methods: In this study, a pool of 60 items was generated to develop an Alienation Scale for Visually Impaired Students (AL-VI) based on a…

  10. Impact of Vitamin D on development of early childhood caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Rahim, A.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the levels of vitamin D in children with early childhood caries and children with healthy sound dentition. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Islamic International Medical College from September 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: Eighty children, between 2-8 years of age, were recruited after fulfilling a questionnaire from their parents or caregiver. The sample population was divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children suffering from dental caries and was comprised of 60 patients. Group 2 consisted of children with sound healthy teeth and was comprised of 20 children. Questions assessing ch s socioeconomic background, dietary habits particularly frequency of sweet and milk intake, outdoor activity and dental hygiene related behavior were included. The diagnosis of childhood caries was based on oral health diagnostic criteria defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Overall total caries score (decayed missing filled teeth index) was obtained. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was measured from serum samples of the children participating in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis was done with Pearson correlation and t-test was applied. Results: Results have established association of Vitamin D levels in children with early childhood caries. Pearson correlation and t-test have revealed that total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) caries score was also associated with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30ng/ml, decreased oral hygiene, lower monthly income, increased sugar consumption, decreased milk intake and decrease outdoor activities. This cross-sectional study showed that carries and lower serum vitamin D are closely related with each other. Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related. Improving children's vitamins D status may be an

  11. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  12. A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Childhood Education with Integrated Speech Therapy for Children with Significant Language Impairment in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Dieter; Ullrich, Katja; Marten, Magret

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Lower Saxony, Germany, pre-school children with language- and speech-deficits have the opportunity to access kindergartens with integrated language-/speech therapy prior to attending primary school, both regular or with integrated speech therapy. It is unknown whether these early childhood education treatments are helpful and…

  13. Neural Changes Underlying the Development of Episodic Memory During Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is central to the human experience. In typically developing children, episodic memory improves rapidly during middle childhood. While the developmental cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory remains largely uncharted, recent research has begun to provide important insights. It has long been assumed that hippocampus-dependent binding mechanisms are in place by early childhood, and that improvements in episodic memory observed during middle childhood result from the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex. We revisit the notion that binding mechanisms are age-invariant, and propose that changes in the hippocampus and its projections to cortical regions also contribute to the development of episodic memory. We further review the role of developmental changes in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices in this development. Finally, we discuss changes in white matter tracts connecting brain regions that are critical for episodic memory. Overall, we argue that changes in episodic memory emerge from the concerted effort of a network of relevant brain structures. PMID:22770728

  14. Individual development in Low Back Pain during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Lars; Kjær, Per; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. The purposes of this presentation is to show how early LBP predicts later.......0931). Among the 22% of the children with LBP at the middle age 49% reported LBP at the age of 16 where as among the children without LBP only 35% reported LBP at the age of 16 (OR=1.8, p=0.0314). Including both LBP at the age of 10 and at the age of 13 as predictors for LBP at the age of 16 indicated that LBP...... at the age of 10 did not seem to influence the LBP at 16 (OR=0.7 CI: 0.2-2.6, p=0.5806). Conclusion: This study confirmed a rapid increase in the prevalence of LBP from childhood to adolescence. There is tracking of LBP over the 3-year periods but no long term (6 years) predictability at these ages....

  15. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Parental Factors Influencing the Development of Early Childhood Caries in Developing Nations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanjot Kaur Rai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEarly childhood caries (ECC is one of the most prevalent and chronic conditions of childhood. Various factors including biological and dietary factors along with an overlay of parental social factors have been found to be associated with the progression of ECC. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize available literature and to identify parent-level proximal and distal risk factors associated with the development of ECC in developing nations.MethodsStudies conducted in developing nations, published between 2005 and 2017 in English, that included children younger than 6 years and examined ECC were included. The outcome of interest were parental risk factors, which included parental knowledge, behavior, attitudes, sense of coherence (SOC, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, education, and breastfeeding duration. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, and PubMed.ResultsThe search yielded 325 studies, of which 18 were considered eligible for inclusion in this review. Ten studies found maternal education, and seven studies found parental education to be significantly associated with ECC. SES was significantly associated with ECC in 13 studies in the form of annual household income and occupation level. Four studies observed the significant association between oral health knowledge and attitudes with ECC, whereas only two studies found maternal attitude to be associated with ECC. Breastfeeding duration was a significant risk factor in four studies. One study each found significant associations of SOC, parental distress, and secondary smoke with ECC.ConclusionTo date, most of the researches done in developing countries have reported distal parental factors such as income and education being significant risk factors in caries development compared to proximal risk factors in low-income groups. Only a few studies analyzed the psychosocial and behavioral factors. Interventions could be designed to improve

  17. The Better Early Childhood Development Program: An Innovative Brazilian Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alessandra; Ramires, Vera Regina; Paiva, Maria da Graca Gomes; Almeida, Leila

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the pioneering experience of the Programa Primeira Infancia Melhor (the Better Early Childhood Development Program), also known as "PIM" that has been developed since 2003 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PIM's goal is to "provide guidance to families, based on their own culture and experiences, to…

  18. Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and the longitudinal development of childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Maternal diet during pregnancy has the potential to affect airway development and to promote T-helper-2-cell responses during fetal life. This might increase the risk of developing childhood asthma or allergy. Objectives: We investigated the influence of maternal food consumption during

  19. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  20. Timing Childhoods: An Alternative Reading of Children's Development through Philosophy of Time, Temporality, Place and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that the denial of development can be a productive space and a liberating time for children in the current outcomes-driven times. The author offers an alternative reading of childhood, considering children's development differently through various philosophical theorizations of events, which emerge through utilizing philosophy…

  1. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  2. Parenting Behaviours and Children's Development from Infancy to Early Childhood: Changes, Continuities and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Feinstein, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of parenting behaviours and children's development from infancy to early childhood, associations between parenting behaviours and children's development and how these associations vary according to socioeconomic indicators. Mothers and children were examined from an ongoing longitudinal study of families…

  3. Reaching Out to Develop the Creative Reading Potential of the Hearing Impaired in Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Audree L.

    Hearing impaired students need the opportunity to develop their creative reading ability (the ability to acquire ideas and information through printed words, to apply them to personal problems, and to attempt to resolve those problems). Although many hearing impaired students have the intelligence to be successful readers, they have been…

  4. The Development of Early Childhood Education as an Academic Discipline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva Hujala

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Education (ECE as an academic discipline has gained an academic legitimacy in Finland in 2005. In accordance with internationally established practice, Early Childhood Education as an academic field and a field of research has been set to cover the period from birth to eight years of age. The focus of ECE re- search is to analyse and define the development and upbringing of young children, including such themes as learning and teaching and the complex connection between child development to the growth environment. In recent years in Finland, the internal paradigmatic discussions within academic ECE have been both enlightened and critical. The emergence of an academic Early Childhood Education paradigm has been apparent in the discussions of early pedagogy, professional growth, leadership, management and quality and as a definer of pedagogy to support children’s learning. The challenge of academic Early Childhood Education is to introduce into the discussion ontological and epistemological issues of early childhood and thereby activate teachers and other professional educators and parents to consider personal and professional conceptions of the child, of learning and of the role of adults in the upbringing of young children from birth to eight years of age.

  5. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2017-01-07

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [ SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [ SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [ SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  7. Bilingual instruction in early childhood education, can it better develop children?

    OpenAIRE

    Djahimo Santri E. P.; Indahri Yulia

    2018-01-01

    This is a case study of teaching and learning using bilingual instruction in two schools of Early Childhood Education in Kupang-NTT, Indonesia. The aims of this study are to find out whether or not bilingual instruction in Early Childhood Education can better develop children (the outcomes) and if the issue of ‘the younger, the better” in children’s language acquisition in bilingual setting is acceptable and true. 4 students from one bilingual and one monolingual schools have been observed. I...

  8. Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Development in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, B. C.; Gillon, G. T.; Dodd, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is associated with phonological awareness, reading, and spelling deficits. Comparing literacy skills in CAS with other developmental speech disorders is critical for understanding the complexity of the disorder. Aims: This study compared the phonological awareness and reading development of children…

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  10. Why Education for Sustainable Development Needs Early Childhood Education: The Case of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kristin Gregers

    2013-01-01

    With this article, the author intends to outline a legitimising basis for implementing education for sustainable development (ESD) in early childhood education, in juridical, pedagogical and political terms. Starting from our current ecological crisis, the ontological assumptions of modern culture are considered obstructive to possibilities for…

  11. Role of childhood adversity in the development of medical co-morbidities associated with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike

    Objective: A role for childhood adversity in the development of numerous medical conditions in adults has been described in the general population, but has not been examined in patients with bipolar disorder who have multiple medical comorbidities which contribute to their premature mortality.

  12. The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

  13. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development : Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Kluemper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kraemer, Ursula; Larroque, Beatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Remy; Sorensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardon, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran; Sunyer, Jordi

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands),

  14. The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Prinzie, P.; Deković, M.; de Haan, A.D.; Asscher, J.J.; Widiger, T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5

  15. Introducing the Cycle of Inquiry System: A Reflective Inquiry Practice for Early Childhood Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock

    2011-01-01

    The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…

  16. Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

  17. Republic of Kiribati Early Childhood Development : SABER and NSA-ECD Country Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) subsector, including programs and policies that affect young children in the Republic of Kiribati. This was a collaborative effort between UNICEF and the World Bank Group; it combines the World Bank Group’s Systems Approach for Better Education Results SABER-ECD framework, which includes analysis of early learningan...

  18. Childhood Poverty and Cognitive Development in Latin America in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segretin, M. Soledad; Hermida, M. Julia; Prats, Lucía M.; Fracchia, Carolina S.; Ruetti, Eliana; Lipina, Sebastián J.

    2016-01-01

    For at least eight decades, researchers have analyzed the association between childhood poverty and cognitive development in different societies worldwide, but few of such studies have been carried out in Latin America. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the empirical studies that have analyzed the associations between…

  19. Effective Early Childhood Care and Education: Successful Approaches and Didactic Strategies for Fostering Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    This research article attempts to determine strategies that can be used to support children's cognitive and social-emotional development in early childhood care and education programs. By synthesizing empirical evidence about pedagogical techniques that promote children's competencies, the article aims to identify those characteristics of programs…

  20. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Klümper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krämer, Ursula; Larroque, Béatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardón, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands),

  1. Identifying Local Benefits of Early Childhood Development Programs Using Regional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…

  2. The Effects of Early Childhood Classroom Size and Duration on Development of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbeldek, Merve; Isikoglu Erdogan, Nesrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The numbers of early childhood education programs are dramatically increasing throughout Turkey, and the regulations to ensure quality are frequently changing. A very limited number of studies have examined the quality of Turkish ECE programs on children's development. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the effects of…

  3. High, low, and in between : Self-esteem development from middle childhood to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, Joanne M.; Hutteman, Roos; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Denissen, Jaap J.A.

    2017-01-01

    We describe self-esteem development in a German sample (N = 240, 48% female) followed longitudinally from middle childhood to young adulthood, using data spanning 20 years. Data from the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985) and the Self-Description Questionnaire III (Marsh & O'Neill,

  4. High, low, and in between : Self-esteem development from middle childhood to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, J.M.H.; Hutteman, Roos; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Denissen, J.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    We describe self-esteem development in a German sample (N = 240, 48% female) followed longitudinally from middle childhood to young adulthood, using data spanning 20 years. Data from the Self-Perception Profile for Children ( Harter, 1985) and the Self-Description Questionnaire III (Marsh & O’Neill,

  5. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was…

  6. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, B.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Ellis, J.; Schnitzspahn, K.M.; Krause, I.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task

  7. Implementing an Early Childhood Professional Development Course across 10 Sites and 15 Sections: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Kraft-Sayre, Marcia; Pianta, Robert C.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Downer, Jason T.; Leach, Allison; Burchinal, Margaret; Howes, Carollee; La Paro, Karen; Scott-Little, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe the design and implementation of the National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education's (NCRECE's) college-level course and its delivery to teachers across 10 settings and 15 instructional sections. This professional development intervention, found effective in changing teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and actual…

  8. Development of assistive technology for the visually impaired: use of the male condom

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Giselly Oseni Laurentino; Wanderley, Luana Duarte; Reboucas, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Oliveira, Paula Marciana Pinheiro de; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to develop and evaluate an assistive technology for the use of the male condom by visually impaired men. It was a technology development study with the participation of seven subjects. Three workshops were performed between April and May of 2010; they were all filmed and the statements of the participants were transcribed and analyzed by content. Three categories were established: Sexuality of the visually impaired; Utilization of the text, For avoiding STDs, condoms we wi...

  9. A COMPARISON OF SOCIAL SKILLS OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS AND TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Fatih Emrah; Ozdemir, Selda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of students with visual impairments with social skills of typically developing students. The study groups consisted of 64 students with visual impairments and 68 typically developing students from the first to fourth grade. The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) Teacher Form was used to evaluate the social skills of both groups. The results of the study indicated that cooperation, assertiveness, and self-control sub-scale scores and o...

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior.

  11. Child care and the development of behavior problems among economically disadvantaged children in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N=349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High-quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Structural maturation and brain activity predict future working memory capacity during childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Henrik; Almeida, Rita; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-29

    Human working memory capacity develops during childhood and is a strong predictor of future academic performance, in particular, achievements in mathematics and reading. Predicting working memory development is important for the early identification of children at risk for poor cognitive and academic development. Here we show that structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data explain variance in children's working memory capacity 2 years later, which was unique variance in addition to that predicted using cognitive tests. While current working memory capacity correlated with frontoparietal cortical activity, the future capacity could be inferred from structure and activity in basal ganglia and thalamus. This gives a novel insight into the neural mechanisms of childhood development and supports the idea that neuroimaging can have a unique role in predicting children's cognitive development.

  13. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  14. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  15. The Development of Multiple Intelligence Capabilities for Early Childhood Development Center, Local Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Supandee, Terdsak; Raksapuk, Chunpit; Poopayang, Piangkhae; Kratoorerk, Sangsan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to promote multiple intelligence capabilities for Early Childhood Care Center of a Sub-district Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province. The sample applied were 61 children aging between 3 and 5 years old at Child Development Center, Tambon Ban Kok, Amphoe Chaturus, Chaiyaphum Province, who were selected…

  16. Bridging Immigrants and Refugees with Early Childhood Development Services: Partnership Research in the Development of an Effective Service Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Nimmon, Laura; Ng, Kelly; Cho, Sarah; Foster, Susan; Hertzman, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the availability and accessibility of early childhood development (ECD) services to ethno-cultural communities in the Tri-Cities region of British Columbia. Primary participants were recent immigrant and refugee parents from three ethnic communities: Chinese (both Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking) and Korean-, and Farsi-speaking groups…

  17. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight of the longditudinal development of childhood constipation: The generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Escher, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, M.K.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on

  18. Psychological preconditions of game activity development in the early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriya Spitsyna; Ekaterina Saraykina

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted for detection the psychological preconditions of game activity development at early age and interrelation of game formation with the development of subject actions, informative activity and procedural game.

  19. Site Development and Teaching of Motor Skills in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gil Madrona

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the stage of Early Childhood Education children continue a progressive discovery of their body itself as a source of feelings and sensations, exploring the different possibilities of action and body functions, will constitute the necessary experiences upon which children’s thought is being built. Besides, affective relationships established in situations of psychomotor education, and particularly through game, will be essential for children’s emotional development. In this sense, this article is focused on justifying the necessary presence of Psychomotor education in Early Childhood Education as well as on showing a pedagogical proposal based on an attractive and entertaining motor intervention for children at this stage. This article contains concepts and assumptions about the psychomotor development, movement contents, motor game and the methodological approach where psychomotor storytelling, learning corners, workshops and projects based on action and adventure spaces shine in their own right. Moreover, a didactic design based on programming motor skills at this stage of Early Childhood Education in a funny and lively way also plays a relevant role in this article. We argue that professionals working in the field of Early Childhood psychomotor skills may know and recognize the value of the proposals shown here so that they can teach us to be more critical regarding our professional practice, increasing our concern about the development of motor skills – physical education in Early Childhood Education in its systematic form – which without any doubt will result in children’s higher levels of welfare and health with regards to their own construction of the reality which surrounds them.

  20. The Development of Expressive Drawing Abilities during Childhood and into Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Delphine; Gauthier, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The way children portray emotions in their drawings of human and nonhuman topics is assumed to reflect their artistic, emotional, and cognitive development. This study was designed to investigate the development of expressive drawings during childhood and into adolescence, using a large age range (5–15 years) and sample size (N=480), so as to provide a precise and comprehensive view of age-related changes in children’s ability to produce expressive drawings. More specifically, we focused on c...

  1. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neur...

  2. Childhood exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is linked to epigenetic modifications and impaired systemic immunity in T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, K. M.; Walker, A. I.; Kohli, A.; Garcia, M.; Syed, A.; McDonald-Hyman, C.; Noth, E. M.; Mann, J. K.; Pratt, B.; Balmes, J.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Eisen, E. A.; Nadeau, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Evidence suggests that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases atopy; it is unclear how PAH exposure is linked to increased severity of atopic diseases. Objective We hypothesized that ambient PAH exposure is linked to impairment of immunity in atopic children (defined as children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis) from Fresno, California, an area with elevated ambient PAHs. Methods We recruited 256 subjects from Fresno, CA. Ambient PAH concentrations (ng/m3) were measured using a spatial-temporal regression model over multiple time periods. Asthma diagnosis was determined by current NHLBI criteria. Phenotyping and functional immune measurements were performed from isolated cells. For epigenetic measurements, DNA was isolated and pyrosequenced. Results We show that higher average PAH exposure was significantly associated with impaired Treg function and increased methylation in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) locus (P < 0.05), conditional on atopic status. These epigenetic modifications were significantly linked to differential protein expression of FOXP3 (P < 0.001). Methylation was associated with cellular functional changes, specifically Treg dysfunction, and an increase in total plasma IgE levels. Protein expression of IL-10 decreased and IFN-γ increased as the extent of PAH exposure increased. The strength of the associations generally increased as the time window for average PAH exposure increased from 24 hr to 1 year, suggesting more of a chronic response. Significant associations with chronic PAH exposure and immune outcomes were also observed in subjects with allergic rhinitis. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased ambient PAH exposure is associated with impaired systemic immunity and epigenetic modifications in a key locus involved in atopy: FOXP3, with a higher impact on atopic children. The results suggest that increased atopic clinical symptoms in children

  3. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  4. Changes in ventromedial prefrontal and insular cortex support the development of metamemory from childhood into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandakova, Yana; Selmeczy, Diana; Leckey, Sarah; Grimm, Kevin J; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A; Ghetti, Simona

    2017-07-18

    Metamemory monitoring, or the ability to introspect on the accuracy of one's memories, improves considerably during childhood, but the underlying neural changes and implications for intellectual development are largely unknown. The present study examined whether cortical changes in key brain areas hypothesized to support metacognition contribute to the development of metamemory monitoring from late childhood into early adolescence. Metamemory monitoring was assessed among 7- to 12-y-old children ( n = 145) and adults ( n = 31). Children returned for up to two additional assessments at 8 to 14 y of age ( n = 120) and at 9 to 15 y of age ( n = 107) ( n = 347 longitudinal scans). Results showed that metamemory monitoring continues to improve from childhood into adolescence. More pronounced cortical thinning in the anterior insula and a greater increase in the thickness of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex over the three assessment points predicted these improvements. Thus, performance benefits are linked to the unique patterns of regional cortical change during development. Metamemory monitoring at the first time point predicted intelligence at the third time point and vice versa, suggesting parallel development of these abilities and their reciprocal influence. Together, these results provide insights into the neuroanatomical correlates supporting the development of the capacity to self-reflect, and highlight the role of this capacity for general intellectual development.

  5. Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David

    2012-12-01

    Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experience of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of adult obesity is still poorly understood, even if often simply attributed to too much food and too little exercise. A few studies have suggested that adverse psychological factors may predispose the development of adult obesity among normal weight children Aims The aim...... of this study was to examine if separation from parents, parental loss and living in a "children's home" during childhood could be associated with development of adult obesity Key Methods: A total of 146 complete adult twin pairs discordant for BMI (one had a normal BMI and the co-twin a BMI > 30 kg/m) were...... separation from mother and paternal death was related to less discordance. However, none of these differences were significant. Conclusion: The present study did not demonstrate independent effects of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood....

  7. The development of trust and altruism during childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, A.M.; Athenstaedt, U.; Krueger, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing when to trust is an essential skill, but little is known about its cognitive development. No previous studies have examined the development of trust while controlling for age differences in altruism. We hypothesized that older children are more likely to trust, and that this age-related

  8. Understanding Transgender Identity Development in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Many sexuality educators and professionals, even those involved in program development and planning, are not aware of the biological and social factors involved in gender identity development in youth. As such, this topic is often not as well addressed in whole life educational curricula as better understood topics, such as reproductive anatomy,…

  9. The neonatal brain : early connectome development and childhood cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, K.

    2017-01-01

    The human brain is a vastly complex system that develops rapidly during human gestation. Its developmental pace is unprecedented in any other period of human development. By the time of normal birth the brain's layout verges on the adult human brain. All major structures have come into place,

  10. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  11. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  12. mPneumonia: Development of an Innovative mHealth Application for Diagnosing and Treating Childhood Pneumonia and Other Childhood Illnesses in Low-Resource Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sarah Ginsburg

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide. Each year, pneumonia kills an estimated 935,000 children under five years of age, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The current approach for pneumonia diagnosis in low-resource settings--using the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI paper-based protocols and relying on a health care provider's ability to manually count respiratory rate--has proven inadequate. Furthermore, hypoxemia--a diagnostic indicator of the presence and severity of pneumonia often associated with an increased risk of death--is not assessed because pulse oximetry is frequently not available in low-resource settings. In an effort to address childhood pneumonia mortality and improve frontline health care providers' ability to diagnose, classify, and manage pneumonia and other childhood illnesses, PATH collaborated with the University of Washington to develop "mPneumonia," an innovative mobile health application using an Android tablet. mPneumonia integrates a digital version of the IMCI algorithm with a software-based breath counter and a pediatric pulse oximeter. We conducted a design-stage usability field test of mPneumonia in Ghana, with the goal of creating a user-friendly diagnostic and management tool for childhood pneumonia and other childhood illnesses that would improve diagnostic accuracy and facilitate adherence by health care providers to established guidelines in low-resource settings. The results of the field test provided valuable information for understanding the usability and acceptability of mPneumonia among health care providers, and identifying approaches to iterate and improve. This critical feedback helped ascertain the common failure modes related to the user interface design, navigation, and accessibility of mPneumonia and the modifications required to improve user experience and create a tool aimed at decreasing

  13. Development of gender attitude traditionality across middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M; Osgood, D Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The development of gender attitudes in 402 youth (201 firstborn and 201 secondborn siblings) in 201 European American families was examined using data collected on seven occasions across 9 years. Pooling across siblings and using multilevel modeling, we examined gender attitude development from ages 7 to 19. Consistent with an ecological perspective, the combined effects of individual (i.e., sex, age, birth order) and contextual (i.e., parents' gender attitudes, sibling sex) characteristics predicted patterns of change. Although most youth declined in traditionality, the attitudes of firstborn boys with brothers and traditional parents became more traditional over time. No one longitudinal pattern captured the development of gender attitudes; trajectories varied as a function of contextual and personal characteristics.

  14. Neural changes underlying the development of episodic memory during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Bunge, Silvia A

    2012-10-01

    Episodic memory is central to the human experience. In typically developing children, episodic memory improves rapidly during middle childhood. While the developmental cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory remains largely uncharted, recent research has begun to provide important insights. It has long been assumed that hippocampus-dependent binding mechanisms are in place by early childhood, and that improvements in episodic memory observed during middle childhood result from the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex. We revisit the notion that binding mechanisms are age-invariant, and propose that changes in the hippocampus and its projections to cortical regions also contribute to the development of episodic memory. We further review the role of developmental changes in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices in this development. Finally, we discuss changes in white matter tracts connecting brain regions that are critical for episodic memory. Overall, we argue that changes in episodic memory emerge from the concerted effort of a network of relevant brain structures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise R.

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7–11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. PMID:26395342

  16. Diet, growth, and obesity development throughout childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2015-10-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children covering diet, growth, and obesity development during childhood are reviewed. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires and food records. Growth data were collected by routine measurements, and in standardized clinics, body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance and DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. Diets changed dramatically during the preschool period with an increase in the intake of free (added) sugars (12.3% rising to 16.4% of energy) that remained similar until adolescence. This was due to increased intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Two periods of rapid growth were identified; infancy and mid-childhood (ages 7-11 y) and both were associated with obesity development. Diets with high energy density were associated with increasing fat mass from mid-childhood until adolescence. Genetic and dietary factors showed independent associations with increasing adiposity. At all ages studied, there were dietary inequalities related to maternal educational attainment that may influence inequalities found in obesity development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has provided valuable insights into how disparities in diet and growth may affect the development of ill health in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. How Different Guilt Feelings Can Affect Social Competence Development in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Ponti, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined how the two different dimensions of guilt feelings, needed for reparation and fear of punishment, could influence social conduct, such as prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and how they are linked to popularity in childhood. The authors hypothesized a theoretical model that they tested, fitting it with empirical data obtained from a sample of 242 Italian children 9-11 years old. Both dimensions of guilt predict prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the feeling of guilt linked to the need for reparation tends to negatively predict aggressive behaviors, and positively predict prosocial behaviors. The feeling of guilt linked to the fear of punishment, on the contrary, tends to positively affect aggressive and negatively affect prosocial conducts in children. These results highlight that the different feelings of guilt can represent a relevant risk or protective factor for the development of social competence in childhood. Limitations, strengths, and further development of the present study are discussed.

  18. Low physical fitness in childhood is associated with the development of asthma in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Lambrechtsen, J; Siersted, H C

    2000-01-01

    Intense physical activity in children may either improve fitness and protect against asthma, or may trigger symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical fitness in childhood has an impact on the development of asthma. In this prospective, community-based study, 757 (84...... in the subjects at follow-up. During the 10-yr study period, 51 (6.7%) of the previously asymptomatic children developed asthma. These subjects had a lower mean physical fitness in 1985 than their peers: (3.63 versus 3.89 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in boys and (3.17 versus 3.33 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in girls. A weak...... correlation was found between physical fitness in childhood and airway responsiveness to methacholine at follow-up when adjusted for body mass index, age and sex (r=0.11; p...

  19. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  20. Developing Professional Ethics for Social Educators and Early Childhood Educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribers, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Danish labour unions have been working continuously on developing professional ethical codes and guidelines for social educators and early childhood and youth educators in Denmark. The majority of empirical research projects studying ethical dimensions of social work...... empirical research results on ethical issues in the professional practice and in the education of welfare professionals. The paper discusses the current state of professional ethics in childhood and youth work and debates the constellation between educational policies, the political process of developing...... and education in Denmark has not previously been published for an international audience. Consequently, many of the important findings and insights remain accessible only in Danish research reports, books and articles written in Danish or other Scandinavian languages. The scope of this paper is to discuss...

  1. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangchonlatip Kanchana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. Methods A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Results Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p Conclusion In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability services for older people and optimizing received social support will be vital in rural areas in developing countries.

  2. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Melanie A; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramupitak, Tawanchai; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Leese, Morven

    2009-07-16

    There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p effect of paralysis was -2.97, p = 0.001). In this Thai setting, received support from children and from others and perceived good support from and to children were all independently associated with greater wellbeing whereas actual support to children was associated with lower wellbeing. Low received support from children interacted with paralysis in being especially associated with low wellbeing. In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability

  3. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  4. Energy imbalance underlying the development of childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a model based on empirical data and human energetics to predict the total energy cost of weight gain and obligatory increase in energy intake and/or decrease in physical activity level associated with weight gain in children and adolescents. One-year change...

  5. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-expression; and (ii) Supports the emerging communication skills of infants and toddlers by providing daily...) Provides each child with opportunities for success to help develop feelings of competence, self-esteem, and... to help children gain the skills and confidence necessary to be prepared to succeed in their present...

  6. Enriching diets for childhood mental and physical development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure optimal growth and development, strict diets should be discouraged and sound meal patterns should be encouraged, including starting the day with breakfast, and eating a variety of foods to ensure adequate intakes of nutrients and fibre. Regular physical activity promotes a healthy body weight and normal bone ...

  7. A Review of Peer Social Development in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, Robin P.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature on young children's peer social development. Addresses implications of social learning theory and empirical research. Discusses recurring themes, including child/peer versus child/adult interactions, incorporation of toys and games, influence of mothers, and gender peer preferences. Considers areas lacking empirical support…

  8. Challenges of childhood obesity in a developing economy: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Obesity once considered a high income country's malady is now on the rise in most developing countries particularly in urban settings. Most of these ... Also obese children have higher risk of orthopaedic problems and psychological disturbances like low -self esteem and bullying. This can also lead to ...

  9. Development of a voice database to aid children with hearing impairments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzman, M G; Agüero, P D; Tulli, J C; Gonzalez, E L; Cervellini, M P; Uriz, A J

    2011-01-01

    In the development of software for voice analysis or training, for people with hearing impairments, a database having sounds of properly pronounced words is of paramount importance. This paper shows the advantage that will be obtained from getting an own voice database, rather than using those coming from other countries, even having the same language, in the development of speech training software aimed to people with hearing impairments. This database will be used by software developers at the School of Engineering of Mar del Plata National University.

  10. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in ca...

  11. Development in the Organization of Episodic Memories in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Yan eChen; Helena Margaret McAnally; Elaine eReese

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use “lifetime periods” to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story – an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take a...

  12. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  13. Development of sedentary behavior across childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis of the Gateshead Millennium Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Xanne; Mann, Kay D.; Basterfield, Laura; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Reilly, Jessica K.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world policy and research interventions to modify sedentary behavior of children and adolescents are now being developed. However, the evidence to inform these interventions (e.g. how sedentary behavior changes across childhood and adolescence) is limited. This study aimed to assess longitudinal changes in sedentary behavior, and examine the degree of tracking of sedentary behavior from age 7y to 15y. Methods Participants were part of the Gateshead Millennium S...

  14. CHILDHOOD RISK FACTORS PREDICT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, IMPAIRED FASTING GLUCOSE PLUS TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS, AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE 26 YEARS LATER AT MEAN AGE 38: THE PRINCETON-LRC FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J.; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective Assess whether pediatric risk factors predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) + type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and high blood pressure (HBP) in young adulthood. Materials/Methods Prospective follow-up of 909 public-parochial suburban schoolchildren first studied at ages 6–18 and 26 years later at mean age 38. Pediatric triglycerides (TG), blood pressure, LDL cholesterol (LDLC), BMI, and glucose above and HDL cholesterol (HDLC) below established pediatric cutoffs, along with race, cigarette smoking, family history of CVD, T2DM, and HBP were assessed as determinants of young adult CVD, a composite variable including IFG + T2DM, and HBP. Results By stepwise logistic regression, adult CVD (19 yes, 862 no) was associated with pediatric high TG, odds ratio (OR) 5.85, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.3–14.7. High TG in pediatric probands with young adult CVD was familial, and was associated with early CVD in their high TG parents. Adult IFG + T2DM (114 yes, 535 no) was associated with parental T2DM (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.38–3.6), high childhood glucose (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2–9.7), and childhood cigarette smoking (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03–2.61). Adult HBP (133 yes, 475 no) was associated with pediatric high BMI (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7–4.3) and HBP (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.5–4.3). Conclusions Pediatric risk factors are significantly, independently related to young adult CVD, IFG+T2DM, and HBP. Identification of pediatric risk factors for CVD, IFG+T2DM, and HBP facilitates initiation of primary prevention programs to reduce development of adult CVD, IFG+T2DM, and HBP. PMID:22001337

  15. Development of a psychosocial adaptation questionnaire for Chinese patients with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-jie; Wang, Ai-ping

    2011-10-01

    To develop a psychosocial adaptation questionnaire for Chinese patients with visual impairments and to examine its reliability and validity. Psychosocial adaptation with disease has been studied, however, there have been few reports on the impact of visual impairment on psychosocial adaptation. An instrument has not been developed to assess psychosocial adaptation with visual impairment specifically for patients in China. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. A questionnaire was developed based on the concept of psychosocial adaptation with visual impairment. Items for the questionnaire were developed by reviewing the literature and carrying out a semi-structured interview with 12 visually impaired patients. Five ophthalmologists and ten patients evaluated the content validity and face validity of the questionnaire, respectively. The method of convenient sampling was used to select 213 visually impaired patients in the Ophthalmology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University to participate in the study. Discriminative index and item-total correlation analyses were used to delete items that were lower than a set criterion. Regarding construct validity, factor analysis was performed. The Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Self Acceptance Questionnaire (SAQ) were used to evaluate criterion validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used as an index of internal consistency. To evaluate test-retest reliability, 50 patients were re-evaluated after 24 hours. A total of 204 questionnaire items were created. 22 items were deleted by discriminative index and item-total correlation before factor analysis; 38 items were entered into the model for factor analysis. Seven factors were extracted by using principal factor analysis and varimax rotation, with a cumulative contribution of 59·18%. The correlation coefficients between the psychosocial adaptation questionnaire for visual impairment

  16. How does the prosocial self-perception develop in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 順子

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of the prosocial self-perception (sense of value, efficacy). Thirty 5-year-olds, one hundred one 6-year-olds, sixty three 7-yearolds, eighty seven 8-year-olds, and seventy eight 9-year-olds were administrated the Prosocial Self-Perception Scale which consisted of 10 prosocial items. Children were asked their sense of value and efficacy for each item : how they thought they had better be prosocial (sense of value) and could be prosocial ...

  17. Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2016-10-01

    The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Componential Skills in Second Language Development of Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language tasks representing different language skills…

  19. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  20. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  1. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, David J; Carter, R McKell; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision-making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 5- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the youngest sample of children in an fMRI decision-making task. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision-making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g., insula, hippocampus, and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk-averse showed increased activation during decision-making in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision-making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  2. Health, employment and relationships: Correlates of personal wellbeing in young adults with and without a history of childhood language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We examine the potential associations between self-rated health, employment situation, relationship status and personal wellbeing in young adults with and without a history of language impairment (LI). In total, 172 24-year-olds from the UK participated, with approximately half (N = 84) having a history of LI. Personal wellbeing was measured using ratings from three questions from the Office for National Statistics regarding life satisfaction, happiness and life being worthwhile. There were similarities between individuals with a history of LI and their age-matched peers in self-rated personal wellbeing. However, regression analyses revealed self-rated health was the most consistent predictor of personal wellbeing for individuals with a history of LI in relation to life satisfaction (21% of variance), happiness (11%) and perceptions that things one does in life are worthwhile (32%). None of the regression analyses were significant for their peers. Similarities on ratings of wellbeing by young adults with and without a history of LI can mask heterogeneity and important differences. Young adults with a history of LI are more vulnerable to the effects of health, employment and relationship status on their wellbeing than their peers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotic use in early childhood and the development of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, K; Pearce, N; Crane, J; Beasley, R

    1999-06-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the role of infections in infancy in promoting or protecting against the subsequent development of asthma. A related hypothesis concerns the possible role of medical responses to infections, including the widespread use of antibiotics. We chose children at Rudolf Steiner schools to test this latter hypothesis because a significant proportion of parents rejects the use of conventional treatments, including antibiotics. Seventy-five per cent (n = 456) of parents of children aged 5-10 years attending Rudolf Steiner schools throughout New Zealand completed questionnaires which included questions on the use of antibiotics and a history of asthma and wheeze in their children. After controlling for potential confounders, antibiotic use was significantly associated with having a history of asthma (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.10-6.85) or wheeze (OR = 1. 86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.26) but not with current wheeze (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.54-2-16). The adjusted odds ratio for asthma was 4.05 (95% CI: 1.55-10.59) if antibiotics were used in the first year of life and 1. 64 (95% CI: 0.60-4.46) if antibiotics had been used only after the first year of life when compared with children who had never used antibiotics. The number of courses of antibiotics during the first year of life was also associated with increased odds ratios for asthma: 2.27 (95% CI: 1.14-4.51) for one to two courses and 4.02 (95% CI: 1.57-10.31) for three or more courses when compared with no antibiotic use in the first year of life. Although not significant, the association of antibiotics and hay fever (OR = 1.99 [95% CI: 0. 93-4.26]) was of a similar strength to the association of antibiotics with a history of wheeze. Antibiotics were not significantly associated with eczema (OR = 1.23 [95% CI: 0.71-2.13]). Antibiotic use in infancy may be associated with an increased risk of developing asthma. Further study is required to determine the reasons for this association.

  4. A prospective investigation of the impact of childhood sexual abuse on the development of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Trickett, Penelope K; Putnam, Frank W

    2003-06-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth controlefficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence (simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion) was predicted by pathological dissociation. Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence.

  5. Role of breastfeeding in childhood cognitive development: a propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, James C

    2012-09-01

    To examine whether the association between breastfeeding and childhood cognitive development is direct or whether the association is spurious owing to confounding variables. The current study conducted a propensity score matching (PSM) analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort.   The results of PSM models revealed that prior to matching, the association between breastfeeding and cognitive functioning was significant (mean difference = 3.20, t-value = 7.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.40-4.00, P ≤ 0.05). After controlling for a range of confounding factors, the mean difference was reduced by 40% (mean difference = 1.92, t-value = 3.75, 95% CI = 0.92-2.93, P ≤ 0.05); however, significant differences remained between groups. The results produced in the current study provide tentative evidence that breastfeeding may have an influence on the development of cognitive abilities in children. Additional research is necessary, however, in order to further evaluate the causal impact and exact developmental pathway of breastfeeding on childhood cognitive growth. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Childhood life events, immune activation and the development of mood and anxiety disorders: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, I; Rosmalen, J G M; Schoevers, R A

    2017-05-02

    The experience of childhood life events is associated with higher vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. One of the pathways suggested to lead to this vulnerability is activation of the immune system. The aim of this study is to find out whether the association between childhood life events and the development of mood and anxiety disorders is predicted by the activation of the immune system. This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective population cohort, from which a subgroup was selected (N=1084, 54.3% female, mean age 19.0 (s.d., 0.6)). Childhood life events before age 16 were assessed using questionnaires at age 12, 14, 16 and 19. Immune activation was assessed at age 16 by elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and by levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the herpes viruses herpes simplex virus 1, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. At age 19, the presence of mood and anxiety disorders was determined using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0. Regression analyses were used to study the association between life events, the inflammatory markers and mental health. We found that childhood life events score was associated with risk of mood disorders (B=0.269, P<0.001) and anxiety disorders (B=0.129, P<0.001). Childhood life events score was marginally associated with elevated hsCRP (B=0.076, P=0.006), but not with the antibody levels. This was especially due to separation trauma (P=0.015) and sexual abuse (P=0.019). Associations lost significance after correcting for lifestyle factors such as body mass index and substance abuse (P=0.042). None of the inflammatory markers were associated with development of anxiety disorders or mood disorders. In conclusion, the life event scores predicted the development of anxiety disorders and mood disorders at age 19. Life event scores were associated with elevated hsCRP, which was partly explained by lifestyle factors. Elevated hs

  7. A Study of Early Childhood Development in Kenya : Case Study of Kipungani Village in Lamu Island

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Maho; Utsumi, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the current situation of Early Childhood Development (ECD) in Kenya, and the background of issues on repetition at ECD stage. Kenya is known for its development in ECD in Sub-Saharan Africa. The roll of ECD in developing countries is as a preparation to primary education focusing on playing and learning from experience. The Kenyan government emphasizes this roll and is trying to include ECD as a part of basic education. However, it was revealed that the ECD ed...

  8. Childhood bladder stones-an endemic disease of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, B.

    2015-01-01

    and poor socio-economic conditions were major risk factors identified for development of bladder stones. (author)

  9. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  10. Childhood cognitive development in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawner, Samuel J R A; Doherty, Joanne L; Moss, Hayley; Niarchou, Maria; Walters, James T R; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2017-10-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a high risk of childhood as well as adult psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Childhood cognitive deterioration in 22q11.2DS has previously been reported, but only in studies lacking a control sample. Aims To compare cognitive trajectories in children with 22q11.2DS and unaffected control siblings. Method A longitudinal study of neurocognitive functioning (IQ, executive function, processing speed and attention) was conducted in children with 22q11.2DS ( n = 75, mean age time 1 ( T 1 ) 9.9, time 2 ( T 2 ) 12.5) and control siblings ( n = 33, mean age T 1 10.6, T 2 13.4). Results Children with 22q11.2DS exhibited deficits in all cognitive domains. However, mean scores did not indicate deterioration. When individual trajectories were examined, some participants showed significant decline over time, but the prevalence was similar for 22q11.2DS and control siblings. Findings are more likely to reflect normal developmental fluctuation than a 22q11.2DS-specific abnormality. Conclusions Childhood cognitive deterioration is not associated with 22q11.2DS. Contrary to previous suggestions, we believe it is premature to recommend repeated monitoring of cognitive function for identifying individual children with 22q11.2DS at high risk of developing schizophrenia. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  11. Frequency specific patterns of resting-state networks development from childhood to adolescence: A magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lu; Xiang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated frequency dependent developmental patterns of the brain resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were recorded from 20 healthy subjects at resting-state with eyes-open. The resting-state networks (RSNs) was analyzed at source-level. Brain network organization was characterized by mean clustering coefficient and average path length. The correlations between brain network measures and subjects' age during development from childhood to adolescence were statistically analyzed in delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha (8-12Hz), and beta (12-30Hz) frequency bands. A significant positive correlation between functional connectivity with age was found in alpha and beta frequency bands. A significant negative correlation between average path lengths with age was found in beta frequency band. The results suggest that there are significant developmental changes of resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence, which matures from a lattice network to a small-world network. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Advances in early childhood development: from neurons to big scale programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Alonso-Cuevas, Aranzazú; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development. ECD requires access to good nutrition and health services from gestation, responsive caregiving according to the child's developmental stage, social protection and child welfare, and early stimulation and learning opportunities. Six actions are recommended to improve national ECD programs: expand political will and funding; create a supportive, evidence-based policy environment; build capacity through inter-sectoral coordination; ensure fair and transparent governance of programs and services; increase support for multidisciplinary research; and promote the development of leaders. Mexico has made significant progress under the leadership of the Health Ministry, but still faces significant challenges. The recent creation of a national inter-sectoral framework to enable ECD with support of international organizations and the participation of civil society organizations can help overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Social isolation in childhood and adult inflammation: evidence from the National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Bartley, Mel

    2014-12-01

    Social isolation is known to be associated with poorer health amongst adults, including coronary heart disease. It is hypothesized that this association may be mediated by inflammation. There has been little prospective research on the long-term impact of social isolation in childhood on adult health or the pathways which might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social isolation in childhood is associated with increased adult inflammation and the mechanisms involved across the life course. This study used multiply-imputed data on 7462 participants of the National Child Development Study in Great Britain. The association between child social isolation (7-11 yrs) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in middle age (44 yrs) was examined. We additionally investigated the role of adult social isolation, psychological distress, health behaviors and socioeconomic factors as potential mediators using path analysis and concurrent measurements made across the life course. Socially isolated children had higher levels of C-reactive protein in mid-life (standardized coefficient=0.05, p≤0.001). In addition, children who were socially isolated tended to have lower subsequent educational attainment, be in a less advantaged social class in adulthood, were more likely to be psychologically distressed across adulthood and were more likely to be obese and to smoke. All of these factors partially explained the association between childhood social isolation and CRP. However, this association remained statistically significant after considering all mediators simultaneously. Social isolation in childhood is associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein in mid-life. This is explained in part through complex mechanisms acting across the life course. Identification and interventions targeted toward socially isolated children may help reduce long-term adult health risk. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  15. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate r...

  16. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; van Dijk, C.; Vasić, N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Avrutin, S.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  17. Impaired dynamic cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia predicts development of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Vascular impairment in regions of NAWM that progresses to WMH consists not only of decreased magnitude of ssCVR, but also a pathological decrease in the speed of vascular response. These findings support the association between cerebrovascular dysregulation and the development of WMH.

  18. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Masoud; Waninge, Aly; Rameckers, E.A.A.; van der Steen, J; Krijnen, W.P.; van der Schans, C.P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;

  19. Language Development and Impairment in Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F.; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including…

  20. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  1. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Waninge, A.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; van der Steen, J.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    Aim The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;

  2. Beyond Sally's missing marble: further development in children's understanding of mind and emotion in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Kramer, Hannah J; Kennedy, Katie; Hjortsvang, Karen; Goldfarb, Deborah; Tashjian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Research on the development of theory of mind (ToM), the understanding of people in relation to mental states and emotions, has been a vibrant area of cognitive development research. Because the dominant focus has been addressing when children acquire a ToM, researchers have concentrated their efforts on studying the emergence of psychological understanding during infancy and early childhood. Here, the benchmark test has been the false-belief task, the awareness that the mind can misrepresent reality. While understanding false belief is a critical milestone achieved by the age of 4 or 5, children make further advances in their knowledge about mental states and emotions during middle childhood and beyond. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of children's sociocognitive abilities in older age groups is necessary to understand more fully the course of ToM development. The aim of this review is to outline continued development in ToM during middle childhood. In particular, we focus on children's understanding of interpretation-that different minds can construct different interpretations of the same reality. Additionally, we consider children's growing understanding of how mental states (thoughts, emotions, decisions) derive from personal experiences, cohere across time, and interconnect (e.g., thoughts shape emotions). We close with a discussion of the surprising paucity of studies investigating individual differences in ToM beyond age 6. Our hope is that this chapter will invigorate empirical interest in moving the pendulum toward the opposite research direction-toward exploring strengths, limitations, variability, and persistent errors in developing theories of mind across the life span. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.

  4. Air pollution during pregnancy and childhood cognitive and psychomotor development: six European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klümper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krämer, Ursula; Larroque, Béatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardón, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M T; Verhulst, Frank C; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATION R (The Netherlands), DUISBURG (Germany), EDEN (France), GASPII (Italy), RHEA (Greece), and INMA (Spain)-that recruited mother-infant pairs from 1997 to 2008. Air pollution levels-nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) in all regions and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of psychomotor development was assessed between 1 and 6 years of age. Adjusted region-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. A total of 9482 children were included. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2, was associated with reduced psychomotor development (global psychomotor development score decreased by 0.68 points [95% confidence interval = -1.25 to -0.11] per increase of 10 μg/m in NO2). Similar trends were observed in most regions. No associations were found between any air pollutant and cognitive development. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2 (for which motorized traffic is a major source), was associated with delayed psychomotor development during childhood. Due to the widespread nature of air pollution exposure, the public health impact of the small changes observed at an individual level could be considerable.

  5. Perception Development of Complex Syntactic Construction in Children with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Teymouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory perception or hearing ability is critical for children in acquisition of language and speech hence hearing loss has different effects on individuals’ linguistic perception, and also on their functions. It seems that deaf people suffer from language and speech impairments such as in perception of complex linguistic constructions. This research was aimed to study the perception of complex syntactic constructions in children with hearing-impairment. Methods: The study design was case-control. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty children with severe to profound hearing impairment, aged 8-12 years and twenty normal-hearing children, aged 6-7 years were selected in a simple random sampling from exceptional schools for deaf people and from normal kindergartens and schools for normal cases. The perception of sentences was tested by using a researcher-made task called sentence-picture matching task. At first the content validity was determined and then the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach Alpha Test. Data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Independent Samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U Test using SPSS. Results: Perception of the group with hearing-impairment was significantly lower than the normal control group. The hearing-impaired children failed to perceive complex syntactic structures. Linguistic function of the group with hearing-impairment on perception of sentences with simple word order was better than on complex sentences. Discussion: If rich linguistic inputs are not available for children during the critical period of the first language acquisition, the syntactic skill, especially in complex syntactic constructions, will not normally develop. In order to establish a foundation for a healthy perfect development of syntax, at the early years of life, children should be exposed to a natural language.

  6. Does Growth Impairment Underlie the Adverse Effects of Dexamethasone on Development of Noradrenergic Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Ko, Ashley; Seidler, Frederic J

    2018-06-20

    Glucocorticoids are given in preterm labor to prevent respiratory distress but these agents evoke neurobehavioral deficits in association with reduced brain region volumes. To determine whether the neurodevelopmental effects are distinct from growth impairment, we gave developing rats dexamethasone at doses below or within the therapeutic range (0.05, 0.2 or 0.8 mg/kg) at different stages: gestational days (GD) 17-19, postnatal days (PN) 1-3 or PN7-9. In adolescence and adulthood, we assessed the impact on noradrenergic systems in multiple brain regions, comparing the effects to those on somatic growth or on brain region growth. Somatic growth was reduced with exposure in all three stages, with greater sensitivity for the postnatal regimens; brain region growth was impaired to a lesser extent. Norepinephrine content and concentration were reduced depending on the treatment regimen, with a rank order of deficits of PN7-9 > PN1-3 > GD17-19. However, brain growth impairment did not parallel reduced norepinephrine content in magnitude, dose threshold, sex or regional selectivity, or temporal pattern, and even when corrected for reduced brain region weights (norepinephrine per g tissue), the dexamethasone-exposed animals showed subnormal values. Regression analysis showed that somatic growth impairment accounted for an insubstantial amount of the reduction in norepinephrine content, and brain growth impairment accounted for only 12%, whereas specific effects on norepinephrine accounted for most of the effect. The adverse effects of dexamethasone on noradrenergic system development are not simply related to impaired somatic or brain region growth, but rather include specific targeting of neurodifferentiation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of Childhood Asthma on the Development of Obesity among School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Alderete, Tanya L; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M; Berhane, Kiros; Gilliland, Frank D

    2017-05-01

    Asthma and obesity often occur together in children. It is unknown whether asthma contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic. We aimed to investigate the effects of asthma and asthma medication use on the development of childhood obesity. The primary analysis was conducted among 2,171 nonobese children who were 5-8 years of age at study enrollment in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS) and were followed for up to 10 years. A replication analysis was performed in an independent sample of 2,684 CHS children followed from a mean age of 9.7 to 17.8 years. Height and weight were measured annually to classify children into normal, overweight, and obese categories. Asthma status was ascertained by parent- or self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to assess associations of asthma history with obesity incidence during follow-up. We found that children with a diagnosis of asthma at cohort entry were at 51% increased risk of developing obesity during childhood and adolescence compared with children without asthma at baseline (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.10) after adjusting for confounders. Use of asthma rescue medications at cohort entry reduced the risk of developing obesity (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.96). In addition, the significant association between a history of asthma and an increased risk of developing obesity was replicated in an independent CHS sample. Children with asthma may be at higher risk of obesity. Asthma rescue medication use appeared to reduce obesity risk independent of physical activity.

  8. Early childhood development in Africa: interrogating constraints of prevailing knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan R; Marfo, Kofi

    2008-04-01

    The past two decades have been characterized by renewed attention to the importance of early childhood development (ECD) policies and services in the world's richest and most industrialized countries. During the same period, we have witnessed unprecedented efforts to place ECD policies on the national development planning agenda of the economically less advantaged countries of the Majority World. This paper is premised on the concern that the purposes that have led bilateral and multilateral international agencies to promote and support ECD services in Africa may also be paving the way for uncritical adoption of program and service delivery models grounded in value systems and knowledge bases that may not be appropriate for the continent. We present two critiques to highlight the dangers of ignoring the sociocultural contexts of the knowledge bases that inform ECD policies and practices. We describe one capacity-building effort, under the auspices of the Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU), to promote culturally relevant knowledge and prepare leadership personnel for Africa's emerging ECD movement. Finally, based on an exercise designed for an ECDVU cohort to engage and reflect on critiques of mainstream research and theorizing on child development, we share insights that are suggestive of the ways in which African perspectives can contribute to and enrich a global knowledge base on child development.

  9. A systematic literature review of sex differences in childhood language and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Andrew; Adhikari, Aditi; Weinberg, Lauren S; Choo, Ai Leen; Garnett, Emily O; Chow, Ho Ming; Chang, Soo-Eun

    2018-06-01

    The extent of sex differences in childhood language development is unclear. We conducted a systematic literature review synthesizing results from studies examining sex differences in brain structure and function relevant to language development during childhood. We searched PubMed and Scopus databases, and this returned a total of 46 published studies meeting criteria for inclusion that directly examined sex differences in brain development relevant to language function in children. The results indicate that: (a) sex differences in brain structure or function do not necessarily lead to differences in language task performance; (b) evidence for sex differences in brain and language development are limited; (c) when present, sex differences often interact with a variety of factors such as age and task. Overall, the magnitude of sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories associated with language is not as significant as previously thought. Sex differences were found, however, in studies employing tighter age ranges. This suggests that sex differences may be more prominent during certain developmental stages but are negligible in other stages, likely due to different rates of maturation between the sexes. More research is needed to improve our understanding of how sex differences may arise due to the influence of sex hormones and developmental stages, and how these differences may lead to differences in various language task performance. These studies are expected to provide normative information that may be used in studies examining neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently affect more males than females, and also often affect language development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Will Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Childhood Alter the Risk of Developing Gastric Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Bourke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen for gastric cancer. It is estimated that there is between a two- and sixfold increase in the risk of developing gastric cancer among infected patients. Among different populations, the risk of H pylori-infected individuals developing gastric cancer varies greatly. However, on a worldwide scale, gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, H pylori eradication could help prevent up to three to four million gastric cancer deaths per year. H pylori is usually acquired in childhood. Because infected children have not harboured the organism for long enough to have developed precancerous lesions, childhood is theoretically an attractive time for H pylori eradication and, thus, could help prevent gastric cancer later in life. However, as H pylori prevalence and the incidence of gastric cancer are falling rapidly in developed nations, widespread population screening programs aimed at the eradication of H pylori in these countries would be enormously expensive. Therefore, except in groups with a high risk for development of gastric cancer (eg, Japanese or those with a strong positive family history of gastric cancer, a population-based test-and-treat policy is not justified.

  11. Longitudinal study of parental smoking habits and development of asthma in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Hara, Megumi; Harada, Shohei; Gon, Yasuhiro; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Ohida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental smoking habits and the development of asthma in early childhood by using representative samples. The survey subjects included all of the 53,575 babies born in Japan during the periods January 10-17 and July 10-17, 2001. The families of the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires that were delivered by post at 6 months, 1 year 6 months, 2 years 6 months, 3 years 6 months, and 4 years 6 months postpartum. The first survey contained questions regarding the smoking habits of the parents. The second to fifth surveys asked if the child had needed medical attention for the treatment of asthma. Data from 36,888 subjects (collection rate: 68.9%) were analyzed. The 4-year cumulative incidence of asthma was 12.0%. Maternal indoor smoking significantly increased the risk of asthma development in children, 4-year risk 14.4% vs. 11.7%, risk ratio=1.24, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.38. No statistically significant association was found between paternal smoking and asthma development in children. In order to prevent the development of asthma in early childhood, it is necessary to formulate measures to stop or discourage maternal smoking. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. ENHANCED IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE THROUGH INTERVENTIONS FOR CHILDHOOD CLUSTER DISEASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Sheh; Somronghtong, Ratana; Kumar, Ramesh; Ghaffar, Abdul; Chapman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Globally immunisation has to be considered as a most effective and efficient public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children. Most of the children from developing countries are still not fully immunized due to multiple factors including lack of interventions, awareness, and financial constraints and due to limited resource. Conversely, this review has identified the effectiveness of interventions to increase the immunisation coverage among children of developing countries. Systematic review by using PRISMA statement ("preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses") has been conducted in English. published articles on Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline and ISI by searching keywords like immunizations, childhood vaccination and developing countries has been accessed. Only randomised controlled trial and quasi-experimental studies designs were included in the final analysis based on quality assessment by adopting the Down and Black checklist and finally pooled analysis was done by random effect model. This systematic review has been approved and registered by University of York. A total of 16,570 published articles were accessed and finally 10 fulfilled our criteria that were analysed and interpreted. It demonstrated that the interventions has shown significantly increase vaccine coverage for childhood cluster diseases (OR 2.136 and p 0.05) and full vaccination schedule (OR 1.342 and p>0.05). Systematic review has concluded that the professional interventions are an effective while in improving the child immunisation coverage for cluster diseases in developing countries, major effect on DTP an.d measles.

  13. Does Motor Development in Infancy Predict Spinal Pain in Later Childhood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Steven J; Williams, Christopher M; Hestbaek, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Longitudinal cohort study. Background Spinal pain is responsible for a huge personal and societal burden but the aetiology remains unclear. Deficits in motor control have been implicated with spinal pain in adults, and delayed motor development is associated with a range of health...... a child first sits or walks without support does not influence the likelihood that they will experience spinal pain in later childhood. Level of Evidence Etiology 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 15 Sep 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7484....

  14. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many

  15. The development of multisensory speech perception continues into the late childhood years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lars A; Molholm, Sophie; Blanco, Daniella; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Saint-Amour, Dave; Foxe, John J

    2011-06-01

    Observing a speaker's articulations substantially improves the intelligibility of spoken speech, especially under noisy listening conditions. This multisensory integration of speech inputs is crucial to effective communication. Appropriate development of this ability has major implications for children in classroom and social settings, and deficits in it have been linked to a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism. It is clear from structural imaging studies that there is a prolonged maturational course within regions of the perisylvian cortex that persists into late childhood, and these regions have been firmly established as being crucial to speech and language functions. Given this protracted maturational timeframe, we reasoned that multisensory speech processing might well show a similarly protracted developmental course. Previous work in adults has shown that audiovisual enhancement in word recognition is most apparent within a restricted range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, we investigated when these properties emerge during childhood by testing multisensory speech recognition abilities in typically developing children aged between 5 and 14 years, and comparing them with those of adults. By parametrically varying SNRs, we found that children benefited significantly less from observing visual articulations, displaying considerably less audiovisual enhancement. The findings suggest that improvement in the ability to recognize speech-in-noise and in audiovisual integration during speech perception continues quite late into the childhood years. The implication is that a considerable amount of multisensory learning remains to be achieved during the later schooling years, and that explicit efforts to accommodate this learning may well be warranted. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  16. Oppositionality and socioemotional competence: interacting risk factors in the development of childhood conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Skuse, David; Steer, Colin; St Pourcain, Beate; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2013-07-01

    Oppositional behavior in childhood is a probabilistic risk factor for the subsequent development of more serious conduct problems characteristic of conduct disorder (CD). The capacity to understand the subjective states of others (socioemotional competence) helps regulate antisocial behavior in typical development. We hypothesized that socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between oppositionality and CD symptoms, such that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms pose the greatest risk for subsequent CD symptoms in children with poor socioemotional competence. Parent-report data were collected for 6,218 children at 7 and 10 years of age. Bootstrap multiple regression predicting CD symptoms at age 10 was used to test for an interaction between socioemotional competence and ODD symptoms, while also accounting for direct effects and controlling for sex, maternal education, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and CD symptoms at 7 years. We further tested whether the interaction applied to both males and females, and to both aggressive and rule-breaking CD symptoms. A significant interaction was found between ODD and socioemotional competence: the association between oppositionality at 7 years and CD traits at 10 years was strongest for children with poor socioemotional capacities. As predicted, this moderation effect was significant in a model predicting aggression, but it was not significant for rule-breaking CD symptoms. Socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between mid-childhood oppositionality and more serious conduct problems in later childhood. A capacity to understand the subjective states of others may buffer the risk posed by oppositionality for later CD symptoms, including aggression. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of positive and negative childhood events in the risk of developing personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, M

    2015-01-01

    Existing research has predominantly focused on a limited range of childhood events and personality disorders, such as childhood maltreatment and borderline personality disorder. Moreover, researchers rarely account for multiple risk factors within the same study, despite the reality that childhood events do not occur in isolation. Therefore, the current research aims to contribute to the knowledge on childhood events and personality disorder symptoms by investigating a wider range of risk and...

  18. Childhood growth and development associated with need for full-time special education at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerkoski, Minna; Aberg, Laura; Hoikkala, Marianne; Sarna, Seppo; Kaski, Markus; Autti, Taina; Heiskala, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    To explore how growth measurements and attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood reflect the need for full-time special education (SE). After stratification in this population-based study, 900 pupils in full-time SE groups (age-range 7-16 years, mean 12 years 8 months) at three levels and 301 pupils in mainstream education (age-range 7-16, mean 12 years 9 months) provided data on height and weight from birth to age 7 years and head circumference to age 1 year. Developmental screening was evaluated from age 1 month to 48 months. Statistical methods included a general linear model (growth measurements), binary logistic regression analysis (odds ratios for growth), and multinomial logistic regression analysis (odds ratios for developmental milestones). At 1 year, a 1 standard deviation score (SDS) decrease in height raised the probability of SE placement by 40%, and a 1 SDS decrease in head size by 28%. In developmental screening, during the first months of life the gross motor milestones, especially head support, differentiated the children at levels 0-3. Thereafter, the fine motor milestones and those related to speech and social skills became more important. Children whose growth is mildly impaired, though in the normal range, and who fail to attain certain developmental milestones have an increased probability for SE and thus a need for special attention when toddlers age. Similar to the growth curves, these children seem to have consistent developmental curves (patterns).

  19. A link between maternal malnutrition and depletion of glutathione in the developing lens: a possible explanation for idiopathic childhood cataract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepa; Lim, Julie C; Donaldson, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Lens cataract is the leading cause of blindness in developing countries. While cataract is primarily a disease of old age and is relatively rare in children, accounting for only four per cent of global blindness, childhood cataract is responsible for a third of the economic cost of blindness. While many of the causes of cataract in children are known, over half of childhood cataracts are idiopathic with no known cause. The incidence of idiopathic cataract is highest in developing countries and studies have discovered that low birth weight is a risk factor in the development of idiopathic childhood cataract. As low birth weight is a reflection of poor foetal growth, it is possible that maternal malnutrition, which is endemic in some developing countries, results in the altered physiology of the foetal lens. We have conducted a review of the literature that provides evidence for a link between maternal malnutrition, low birth weight and the development of childhood cataract. Using our accumulated knowledge on the pathways that deliver nutrients to the adult lens, we propose a cellular mechanism, by which oxidative stress caused by maternal malnutrition affects the development of antioxidant defence pathways in the embryonic lens, leading to an accelerated onset of nuclear cataract in childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  20. Lithium Impairs Kidney Development and Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Collecting Duct Principal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    level significantly whereas total GSK-3β abundance was unaltered. Li+ treatment increased α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) protein level significantly whereas E-cadherin expression was unaltered. In summary, Li+ treatment impairs postnatal development of the kidney cortex and outer medulla and increases pGSK......The postnatal rat kidney is highly susceptible to Lithium (Li+), which leads to significant tissue injury. We hypothesized that Li+ impairs development of the kidney through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron, inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) through phosphorylation...... on serine9 (pGSK-3β)and subsequent epithelial to mesenchymal dedifferentiation (EMT). GSK-3β immunoreactive protein was associated with collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. Total GSK-3β protein abundance was stable in medulla while it decreased in cortex in the postnatal period...

  1. Signatures in the gut microbiota of Japanese infants who developed food allergies in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Korenori, Yuki; Washio, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Takako; Momoda, Rie; Kiyohara, Chikako; Kuroda, Aki; Saito, Yuka; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial colonization in infancy is considered crucial for the development of the immune system. Recently, there has been a drastic increase in childhood allergies in Japan. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study with 56 infants on the relationship between gut microbiota in the first year of life and the development of allergies during the first 3 years. In the lactation period, organic acid producers such as Leuconostoc, Weissella and Veillonella tended to be underrepresented in subjects who developed food allergies (FA, n = 14) within the first two years. In the weaning period, children in the FA group were highly colonized by unclassified Enterobacteriaceae and two Clostridium species closely related to Clostridium paraputrificum and C. tertium, and the whole tree phylogenetic diversity index was significantly lower in the FA group. All of these differences in the weaning period were statistically significant, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A higher abundance of unclassified Enterobacteriaceae was also found in the other allergic group (n = 15), whereas the two Clostridium species were highly specific to the FA group. The mode of action of these Clostridium species in childhood food allergies remains unknown, warranting further investigation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Early Childhood Professional Development: An Experimental Study of Adult Teaching Practices Derived from Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Mayrer, Melissa M.

    Research that describes how adults acquire and use new information, collectively called adult learning theory, has potentially important implications for facilitating such adult learning experiences as educator professional development. The purpose of this study was to examine whether integrating adult teaching practices derived from adult learning theories into early childhood educators professional development would result in better gains in educator engagement in professional development, phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness knowledge, and language and literacy beliefs. The impact on educator engagement and educator proximal knowledge was analyzed using one way ANOVA. The impact on educator phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness general knowledge, and beliefs was analyzed using a 3 X (2 X S) mixed analyses of variance to examine the pretest to posttest change between educators participating the three conditions. Results revealed significant findings for increased engagement in professional learning and gains in educators general knowledge. This study is a first step in understanding effective adult teaching practices that may or may not contribute to better educator outcomes and promoting more effective professional learning experiences for early childhood educators.

  3. An EEG/ERP investigation of the development of empathy in early and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawei; Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Empathic arousal is the first ontogenetic building block of empathy to appear during infancy and early childhood. As development progresses, empathic arousal becomes associated with an increasing ability to differentiate between self and other, which is a critical aspect of mature empathetic ability (Decety and Jackson, 2004). This allows for better regulation of contagious distress and understanding others mental states. In the current study, we recorded electroencephalographic event-related potentials and mu suppression induced by short visual animations that depicted painful situations in 57 typically developing children aged between 3 and 9 years as well as 15 young adults. Results indicate that the difference wave of an early automatic component (N200), indexing empathic arousal, showed an age-related decrease in amplitude. In contrast, the difference wave of late-positive potentials (LPP), associated with cognitive appraisal, showed an age-related gain. Only early LPP was detected in children, whereas both early and late LPP were observed in adults. Furthermore, as compared with adults, children showed stronger mu suppression when viewing both painful and non-painful stimuli. These findings provide neurophysiological support for the development of empathy during childhood, as indicated by a gradual decrease in emotional arousal and an increase in cognitive appraisal with age. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. An EEG/ERP investigation of the development of empathy in early and middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empathic arousal is the first ontogenetic building block of empathy to appear during infancy and early childhood. As development progresses, empathic arousal becomes associated with an increasing ability to differentiate between self and other, which is a critical aspect of mature empathetic ability (Decety and Jackson, 2004. This allows for better regulation of contagious distress and understanding others mental states. In the current study, we recorded electroencephalographic event-related potentials and mu suppression induced by short visual animations that depicted painful situations in 57 typically developing children aged between 3 and 9 years as well as 15 young adults. Results indicate that the difference wave of an early automatic component (N200, indexing empathic arousal, showed an age-related decrease in amplitude. In contrast, the difference wave of late-positive potentials (LPP, associated with cognitive appraisal, showed an age-related gain. Only early LPP was detected in children, whereas both early and late LPP were observed in adults. Furthermore, as compared with adults, children showed stronger mu suppression when viewing both painful and non-painful stimuli. These findings provide neurophysiological support for the development of empathy during childhood, as indicated by a gradual decrease in emotional arousal and an increase in cognitive appraisal with age.

  5. The Development of Expressive Drawing Abilities during Childhood and into Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Picard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The way children portray emotions in their drawings of human and nonhuman topics is assumed to reflect their artistic, emotional, and cognitive development. This study was designed to investigate the development of expressive drawings during childhood and into adolescence, using a large age range (5–15 years and sample size (N=480, so as to provide a precise and comprehensive view of age-related changes in children’s ability to produce expressive drawings. More specifically, we focused on children’s developing ability to use the techniques of literal and metaphorical expression, either alone or in combination. We also examined the effects of sex, topics (house, tree, or person, and the depicted emotion (happiness or sadness on the use of each expressive technique. The main findings were that there is a developmental shift between childhood (5–10 years and adolescence (11–15 years in the use of expressive techniques, from simple (literal to more complex forms of expression (metaphorical.

  6. Developing Identities in the Workplace: Students' Experiences of Distance Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…

  7. Development and validation of an exercise performance support system for people with lower extremity impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, M A; Reid, J C; Griffin, J Z; Pittman, C B; Patrick, T B; Cutts, J H

    1998-02-01

    To identify innovative strategies to support appropriate, self-directed exercise that increase physical activity levels of people with arthritis. This article reports on one interactive, multimedia exercise performance support system (PSS) for people with lower extremity impairments in strength or flexibility. An interdisciplinary team developed the PSS using self-report of lower extremity musculoskeletal impairments (flexibility and strength) to produce an individualized exercise program with video and print educational materials. Initial evaluation has investigated the validity and reliability of program assessments and recommendations. PSS self-report and professional assessments were similar, with more impairments indicated by self-report. PSS exercise recommendations were similar to those made by 3 expert physical therapists using the same exercise data base. Results of PSS impairment assessments were stable over a 1-week period. PSS exercise recommendations appear to be reliable and a valid reflection of current exercise knowledge in rheumatology. Furthermore, users were able to complete the computer-based program with minimal assistance and reported it to be enjoyable and informative.

  8. Which Way Is Up? Thomas S. Kuhn's Analogy to Conceptual Development in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Alexander T.

    In the Preface to his Structure Of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn let it be known that his view of scientific development was indebted to the work of pioneering developmental psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget's model of conceptual development in childhood, on which the child passes through several discontinuous stages, served as the template for Kuhn's reading of the history of a scientific discipline, on which mutually incommensurable periods of normal science are separated by scientific revolutions. The analogy to conceptual change in childhood pervades Kuhn's corpus, serving as the central motif in his well-known essays, A Function for Thought Experiments and Second Thoughts on Paradigms. But it is deeply problematic. For as a careful student of Piaget might note, Piaget, and the developmental psychologists he inspired, relied on the same analogy, but with the order of epistemic dependencies reversed. One begins to worry that Kuhn's use of the analogy, and its subsequent re-use by developmental psychologists, sneaks a vicious circularity into our understanding of important processes. This circularity is grounds for some concern on the part of science educators accustomed to employing such Kuhnian notions as incommensurability and paradigm.

  9. Early Childhood Education, Child Development and School Readiness: Evidence from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Simmons Zuilkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While early childhood education has received increasing attention in the developing world in recent years, relatively little evidence is available from sub-Saharan Africa on its effects on child development and subsequent school enrolment. We use a prospective case-control design to evaluate the developmental impact of a community-based early childhood center in an urban area in Zambia. Comparing 40 children attending the center to 40 children not attending the center from the same community, we find that center attendance was associated with significantly better performance in an assessment of task orientation, and was also weakly associated with increased letter familiarity. We also observed higher performance among center students on tests of receptive language and pencil-related fine motor skills. These associations were, however, smaller and not statistically significant. We conducted a follow-up one year after the initial assessment, when children were seven years old and should have been in first grade. At follow-up, 27% of non-attendees were not yet enrolled in primary school, compared to just 11% of center students, suggesting that participation in early education encourages a timely transition into first grade.

  10. Childhood development and adult longevity in an archaeological population from Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    Changing patterns of stress indicators were used to examine the impact of external biocultural changes on childhood development and to explore the association between developmental health and adult longevity in a small market town in Lincolnshire, England. Cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH), vertebral neural canal (VNC) size, craniofacial fluctuating asymmetry and femoral length were recorded in 267 adult skeletons dating from an earlier agricultural community (n=157) (AD1150-1700) and a later urbanised, middle-class community (n=110) (AD1700-1855) buried at St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber. The only stress indicator to display a statistical difference between periods was VNC size, which increased significantly in AD1700-1855. Analysis of stress indicators according to adult age-at-death revealed that cribra orbitalia, small VNC diameter and short femoral length in males and cribra orbitalia and craniofacial asymmetry in females were associated with a younger age-at-death in AD1150-1700. During AD1700-1855 both sexes showed selectivity for small VNC size. This demonstrates that external biocultural changes at Barton-upon-Humber had limited impact on growth, but did alter the long term sequelae of health insults experienced during childhood development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat, and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of "becoming obese" based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother's education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Among males, 74.7% had a "normal" body fat pattern, 14.6% had a "becoming obese" pattern, and 10.7% had a "consistently obese" pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 min MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.16, 6.58). An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Management of severe childhood pneumonia by day care approach in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Jahan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of child mortality among children under 5 years, worldwide. Pneumonia infection may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by the World Health Organization(WHO in September (2013, pneumonia can be classified into severe pneumonia, pneumonia and no pneumonia. Most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia.Methods: Disease management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification,prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality care. Under 5 years old children with severe pneumonia should receive day care, with antibiotic treatment, feeding, and supportive care with similar 24-hour hospital treatment.Discussion: Considering that difficulties, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research,Bangladesh (ICDDR, B initiated Day Care Approach (DCA model, as an innovative, safe,effective and less expensive alternative to hospital management of severe childhood pneumonia.A 24 months old girl came to the health care center with severe breathing difficulty, cough,history of fever and head nodding. The management described below was continued daily until there was clinical improvement; no fever, no fast breathing, no lower chest wall in drawing, no danger signs, no rales on auscultation, and no hypoxemia. Conclusion: Considering the WHO case management protocol for severe pneumonia, DCA recommends that diagnosis of severe pneumonia should be based primarily on visible clinical parameters. On that basis, severe childhood pneumonia can be successfully managed at daycare clinics including for children with hypoxemia who is required prolong (4-6 hours oxygen therapy.

  13. The Association Between Maternal Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Growth, Development, and Childhood Intelligence: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahong; Chen, Hui; Jing, Chen; Li, FuPin

    2018-06-01

    To explore the association between maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy and the somatic and intellectual development of their offspring. Using RevMan 5.3 software, a meta-analysis of cohort studies published from inception to May 2017, focusing on the association between maternal SCH in pregnancy and childhood growth, development and intelligence, was performed. Sources included the Cochrane Library, Pub-Med, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wan Fang Data. Analysis of a total of 15 cohort studies involving 1.896 pregnant women with SCH revealed that SCH in pregnancy was significantly associated with the intelligence (p=0.0007) and motor development (pdevelopment, low birth weight, premature delivery, fetal distress and fetal growth restriction.

  14. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther

    2017-07-01

    This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p early childbearing was not the sole pathway through which girl child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  16. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in treated normal-tension glaucoma: 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung; Kim, Seok Hwan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the risk and risk factors for newly developed visual impairment in treated patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) followed up on for 10 years. Patients with NTG, who did not have visual impairment at the initial diagnosis and had undergone intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering treatment for more than 7 years, were included on the basis of a retrospective chart review. Visual impairment was defined as either low vision (0.05 [20/400] ≤ visual acuity (VA) visual field (VF) visual impairment, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear mixed effects models were utilized. During the 10.8 years mean follow-up period, 20 eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed as visual impairment (12 eyes as low vision, 8 as blindness) among 623 eyes of 411 patients. The cumulative risk of visual impairment in at least one eye was 2.8% at 10 years and 8.7% at 15 years. The risk factors for visual impairment from treated NTG were worse VF mean deviation (MD) at diagnosis and longer follow-up period. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in the treated patients with NTG was relatively low. Worse VF MD at diagnosis and longer follow-up period were associated with development of visual impairment. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young adults exposed to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynskey, M T; Fergusson, D M

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the factors which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood from those young people exposed to CSA who did not develop psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties by age 18. Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New Zealand children studied from birth to the age of 18 on (a) exposure to CSA; (b) patterns of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties at age 18 years; (c) factors that may have influenced responses to CSA including characteristics of the abuse, parental bonding, parental characteristics, and adolescent peer affiliations. Just over 10% of the cohort reported CSA. Those reporting CSA were at increased risks of a range of difficulties at age 18 (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, other substance abuse/dependence, post sexual abuse trauma, attempted suicide). However, not all of those exposed to CSA developed difficulties and approximately a quarter of those exposed to CSA did not meet criteria for any adjustment difficulty. Further analysis suggested that the extent of adjustment difficulties in those exposed to CSA was influenced by two additional factors: (a) the extent of affiliations with delinquent or substance using peers in adolescence; and (b) the extent of paternal care or support in childhood. The findings of this study suggest that while young people exposed to CSA are at increased risks of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties in young adulthood, not all individuals exposed to CSA will develop adjustment difficulties. Important factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young people experiencing CSA appear to be the nature and quality of peer and family relationships.

  18. Development of rostral inferior parietal lobule area functional connectivity from late childhood to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Haifeng; Du, Xiaoxia

    2017-06-01

    Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the PFt area with other brain areas and whether these networks change over time. Here, we investigated the FC development of the PFt area-based network in 59 healthy subjects aged 7-26 years at resting-state to study brain development from late childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. The bilateral PFt showed similar core FC networks, which included the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyri, the insula, the somatosensory cortex, the precuneus, the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum posterior lobes. Furthermore, the FC between the left PFt and the left IPL exhibited a significantly positive correlation with age, and the FC between the left PFt and the right postcentral gyrus exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. In addition, the FC between the right PFt and the right putamen exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. Our findings suggest that the PFt area-based network develops and is reorganized with age. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A narrative literature review of the development of obesity in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Yardy, Katie; Carter, Victoria

    2012-12-01

    This narrative review explains the development of excess weight gain in babies and children. It takes a life course approach which includes genetics, pre-conception, pregnancy, infancy and childhood. The paper focuses on feeding behaviours, physical activity, parental influences and the wider social and environmental context. Risk factors which can cumulatively lead to excess childhood weight gain include: under- or overweight during pregnancy; the presence of diabetes during pregnancy; low or high birth weight; having obese parents; early weaning; prolonged formula feeding; rapid weight gain in the first year; disinhibited eating patterns and the consistent availability of energy dense food at home; feeding practices which are not responsive to the child's cues; insufficient sleep among preschool children; sedentary parents; low parental education; living in poor socio-economic circumstances; absence, or perceived absence, of safe play areas; parents who lack time or confidence to authoritatively parent; environments where there is poor access to affordable lower energy dense foods; and parents who do not accept that excess weight is a health problem. Recommendations for health professionals are made.

  20. The development of a screening questionnaire for childhood cruelty to animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guymer, E C; Mellor, D; Luk, E S; Pearse, V

    2001-11-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals may be a marker of poor prognosis amongst conduct disordered children. However, other than semistructured interviews with parents or children, there are no screening instruments for this behavior. The aim of this study was to develop such an instrument. In the first phase of the study, a parent-report questionnaire, Children's Attitudes and Behaviors Towards Animals (CABTA) was designed and piloted on 360 elementary school children, enabling community norms and a factor structure for the instrument to be derived. In the second phase, the questionnaire was completed by the parents of a small sample of children (N = 17) to establish its test-retest reliability. In the third phase of the study, the CABTA was completed by the parents of 19 children who had been diagnosed with either a Disruptive Behavioral Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and the results were compared with the outcome of a semistructured interview with parents regarding their child's behavior toward animals. The results of the various phases of the study indicated that the CABTA consists of two factors. Typical and Malicious Cruelty to animals, and is a reliable and valid tool for detecting childhood cruelty to animals. Possible use and adaptations of the CABTA as a screening instrument in clinical and community samples are discussed.

  1. Development of Brain EEG Connectivity across Early Childhood: Does Sleep Play a Role?

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    Monique K. LeBourgeois

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has beneficial effects on brain function and learning, which are reflected in plastic changes in the cortex. Early childhood is a time of rapid maturation in fundamental skills—e.g., language, cognitive control, working memory—that are predictive of future functioning. Little is currently known about the interactions between sleep and brain maturation during this developmental period. We propose coherent electroencephalogram (EEG activity during sleep may provide unique insight into maturational processes of functional brain connectivity. Longitudinal sleep EEG assessments were performed in eight healthy subjects at ages 2, 3 and 5 years. Sleep EEG coherence increased across development in a region- and frequency-specific manner. Moreover, although connectivity primarily decreased intra-hemispherically across a night of sleep, an inter-hemispheric overnight increase occurred in the frequency range of slow waves (0.8–2 Hz, theta (4.8–7.8 Hz and sleep spindles (10–14 Hz, with connectivity changes of up to 20% across a night of sleep. These findings indicate sleep EEG coherence reflects processes of brain maturation—i.e., programmed unfolding of neuronal networks—and moreover, sleep-related alterations of brain connectivity during the sensitive maturational window of early childhood.

  2. GEOGRAPHY IN CHILDHOOD FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS: the use of a multi-sensorial landscape model for the learning of the landscape concept

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    Luciana Maria Santos de Arruda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Geography for the visually impaired students needs to be re-contextualized so that this leaner may build up his knowledge through multi sensorial experiences, in which the other senses may be used. Rethinking the teaching of Geography for the visually impaired students regarding the landscape concept, from a sensorial experience, makes possible to build the concept through a dimension of textures, smell, sounds, and flavors, being necessary to exploit touch, smell, hearing and taste. This article aims to present multi-sensorial didactic material using the experiences lived by students in the landscape of the Institute Benjamin Constant (IBC. By means of sensorial activities, didactic materials were built so as to help students in the understanding of the landscape concept and enabling the use of the senses. In order to do so, IBC itself was one of the starting points for the observations that were made. As a result, four sensorial materials were obtained. However, in this article a multi-sensorial model was used to work the landscape concept with the blind students of the first year, searching to go through situations with these students that favored the concept of construction in them. The theoretical reference for the research was based on Tuan (2012 and Soler (1999, considering the multi-sensorial landscape and on Lopes (2010 concerning Geography and childhood. O Ensino de Geografia para alunos com Deficiência Visual, precisa ser recontextualizado para que esses educandos possam construir seus conhecimentos através de experiências multissensoriais, nas quais os outros sentidos sejam utilizados. Repensar o Ensino de Geografia para alunos com Deficiência Visual no que tange ao conceito de paisagem, a partir de uma vivência sensorial, torna-se possível por meio da construção do conceito através de uma dimensão de texturas, aromas, sons e sabores, sendo necessário explorar o tato, o olfato, a audição e o paladar. Esse

  3. Prevalence of motor-skill impairment in preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Motor skill impairment is a common negative outcome in children born preterm who do not develop cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of current data to provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of non-CP motor impairment in preterm children at school age. We searched the Medline, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases and relevant journals to identify all studies published post-1990 that reported the prevalence of motor impairment in school-aged children born preterm (children was 40.5/100. and for moderate motor impairment the estimate was 19.0/100. There was also a trend for lower motor impairment levels in samples born before 1990 compared with those born after 1990. Children born preterm are at increased risk of motor impairment, with prevalence three to four times greater than in the general population. This highlights the need for improved surveillance and intervention strategies in this group of children.

  4. Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Whiteman, Shawn; Crouter, Ann C

    2004-09-01

    The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender role attitudes and sex-typed personality qualities, academic interests, and school grades. During 7 nightly phone interviews each year, children reported on their activities. Boys were more sex-typed than girls in their peer activities, and children were least sex-typed in their activities with siblings. Sex-typed activities in middle childhood predicted individual differences in gender development in early adolescence. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  5. STUDYING OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE TIMES OF UNR BY MEANS OF ELECTRONIC PRESENTATION

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    L.V. Artemova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of the students’ competences which consist of the three main groups (general, instrumental, interpersonal provides education of high quality. The instrumental one means “computer skills and information management abilities”. That is the reason why pedagogical staff and students have to master information technologies on the appropriate level. Structural and methodological peculiarities of e-presentations usage on “Early Childhood Education Development in the Times of UNR” topic at lectures, seminars and students’ individual work are considered in the article. The represented methodology of e-presentations usage supplies interactive educational activities of students and teachers. It is considered as a complex of different tasks. It promotes cognitive activities, encourages interest for mastering the content, directs students to use active methods of teaching.

  6. Poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries: a multi-national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Kupek, Emil

    2010-10-01

    The importance of reducing childhood undernutrition has been enshrined in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the relationship between alternative indicators of poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries within the context of a multi-national cohort study (Young Lives). Approximately 2000 children in each of four countries - Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam - had their heights measured and were weighed when they were aged between 6 and 17 months (survey one) and again between 4.5 and 5.5 years (survey two). The anthropometric outcomes of stunted, underweight and wasted were calculated using World Health Organization 2006 reference standards. Maximum-likelihood probit estimation was employed to model the relationship within each country and survey between alternative measures of living standards (principally a wealth index developed using principal components analysis) and each anthropometric outcome. An extensive set of covariates was incorporated into the models to remove as much individual heterogeneity as possible. The fully adjusted models revealed a negative and statistically significant coefficient on wealth for all outcomes in all countries, with the exception of the outcome of wasted in India (Andhra Pradesh) and Vietnam (survey one) and the outcome of underweight in Vietnam (surveys one and two). In survey one, the partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of stunting, being underweight and wasting was to reduce them by between 1.4 and 5.1 percentage points, 1.0 and 6.4 percentage points, and 0.3 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, with each unit (10%) increase in wealth. The partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of anthropometric outcomes were larger in the survey two models. In both surveys, children residing in the lowest wealth quintile households had significantly increased probabilities of being stunted in all four study countries and of being underweight in

  7. State-Sponsored Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Who Participates and Associated Implications for Future Offerings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Mayrer, Melissa M.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Professional development (PD) for early childhood educators has received increased attention as a means of bolstering young children's learning and development. Theory and research indicate that educators' characteristics play roles in both their own learning and that of children; however, little research has explored who participates in PD. This…

  8. Specific language impairment as a maturational lag: evidence from longitudinal data on language and motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V; Edmundson, A

    1987-08-01

    Longitudinal language-test data on 87 language-impaired children assessed at the ages of four, 4 1/2 and 5 1/2 years were converted to age-equivalent scores to compare the rates of development of children who recover from early language delay with those who have more persisting problems. On most measures, over the 18-month period all the children progressed by about 18 months. Thus although children with good and poor outcomes were distinguished in terms of initial level of performance, they did not differ in rate of progress. Speed on a peg-moving task was closely related to language performance. Children who had a good outcome after early language delay had significantly impaired scores at four years, but subsequently were indistinguishable from a control group. Quantitative but not qualitative differences in peg-moving performance were found for children with good and poor outcomes. No association was found between presumptive aetiological factors and language or pegboard performance. These findings are interpreted in terms of a theory which attributes specific language impairment to a maturational lag in neurological development.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE LEARNING MODULE FOR CHILDRENT WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

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    Ahmad Marzuqi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are the absence of teaching materials in accordance with the characteristics and conditions of a hearing impairment children in terms of learning, especially science subjects. The characteristics of hearing impairment children is poor in their vocabularies, so that, the teaching materials emphasizing the visual aspect is necessary. This study used a Research and Development (R & D adapted by the Sugiyono model in order to produce teaching materials in the form of pictorial modules and to test their effectiveness. The result of the research showed that it was a very valid criteria with a score of 97% of the materials experts, 85% of media experts, and 93% of skilled practitioners. The score of the effectiveness of the modules was 75% with the effective criteria.

  10. Enhanced immunization coverage through interventions for childhood cluster diseases in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mureed, S.; Somronghtong, R.; Kumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Globally immunisation has to be considered as a most effective and efficient public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children. Most of the children from developing countries are still not fully immunized due to multiple factors including lack of interventions, awareness, and financial constraints and due to limited resource. Conversely, this review has identified the effectiveness of interventions to increase the immunisation coverage among children of developing countries. Methods: Systematic review by using PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) has been conducted in English published articles on Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline and ISI by searching keywords like immunizations, childhood vaccination and developing countries has been accessed. Only randomised controlled trial and quasi-experimental studies designs were included in the final analysis based on quality assessment by adopting the Down and Black checklist and finally pooled analysis was done by random effect model. This systematic review has been approved and registered by University of York. Results: A total of 16,570 published articles were accessed and finally 10 fulfilled our criteria that were analysed and interpreted. It demonstrated that the interventions has shown significantly increase vaccine coverage for childhood cluster diseases (OR 2.136 and p <0.05).Furthermore, it has been proved that an effect was more prominent for DTP (OR 2.397 and p<0.05) and measles (OR 2.628 and p<0.05), not as much for polio (OR 2.284 and p>0.05) and full vaccination schedule (OR 1.342 and p>0.05). Conclusions: Systematic review has concluded that the professional interventions are an effective while in improving the child immunisation coverage for cluster diseases in developing countries, major effect on DTP and measles. (author)

  11. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence

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    Sissela eBergman Nutley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM during development. Subjects (n = 352 between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64 on two or three occasions, two years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, Verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002, processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027 and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001 across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008, areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, Verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006 but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090. These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other afterschool activites. In conclusion, these results indicates that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  12. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-07

    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  13. The Development of Early Childhood Education as an Academic Discipline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva Hujala

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Early Childhood Education (ECE as an academic discipline has gained an academic legitimacy in Fin- 

    land in 2005. In accordance with internationally established practice, Early Childhood Education as an academic 

    field and a field of research has been set to cover the period from birth to eight years of age. The focus of ECE re- 

    search is to analyse and define the development and upbringing of young children, including such themes as 

    learning and teaching and the complex connection between child development to the growth environment. In re- 

    cent years in Finland, the internal paradigmatic discussions within academic ECE have been both enlightened and 

    critical. The emergence of an academic Early Childhood Education paradigm has been apparent in the discus- 

    sions of early pedagogy, professional growth, leadership, management and quality and as a definer of pedagogy 

    to support children’s learning. The challenge of academic Early Childhood Education is to introduce into the dis- 

    cussion ontological and epistemological issues of early childhood and thereby activate teachers and other

  14. Psychosocial function in the first year after childhood stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Mardee; Anderson, Vicki; Hearps, Stephen; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Mackay, Mark T; Monagle, Paul; Gordon, Anne L

    2017-10-01

    Childhood stroke disrupts brain development and emerging neural networks. Motor, cognitive, and language deficits are well recognized, yet little is known about psychosocial function after childhood stroke. This study aims to describe psychosocial function within the first year after childhood stroke, and to identify factors associated with outcome. Thirty-seven children were involved in a prospective, longitudinal study investigating recovery over the first year after childhood stroke. Children's social functioning was assessed at 6-months and 12-months poststroke and psychological function at 12-months poststroke, using standardized measures. Mean social function was poorer at both 6-months and 12-months poststroke, compared to prestroke. Psychological problems were more common than expected, with emotional difficulties and hyperactivity-inattention most significantly affected. Poorer social function was associated with older age at onset, acute neurological impairment, and prestroke social impairment. Social and psychological problems were associated with parent mental health. While not all children are affected, psychosocial impairment affects a significant minority after childhood stroke. Older age at onset, acute neurological impairment, prestroke social problems, and poorer parent mental health were associated with deficits. Identifying early predictors of poorer outcome will facilitate early intervention. Of particular importance is parent mental health, suggesting support for families may improve child outcome. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Development of the multiple sclerosis (MS) early mobility impairment questionnaire (EMIQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Phillips, Glenn; Shah, Ruchit; Mathias, Adam; Foley, Catherine; Coon, Cheryl; Sen, Rohini; Lee, Andrew; Agarwal, Sonalee

    2016-10-01

    The Early Mobility Impairment Questionnaire (EMIQ) was developed to facilitate early identification of mobility impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We describe the initial development of the EMIQ with a focus on the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire using classical and item response theory methods. The initial 20-item EMIQ was constructed by clinical specialists and qualitatively tested among people with MS and physicians via cognitive interviews. Data from an observational study was used to make additional updates to the instrument based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and item response theory (IRT) analysis, and psychometric analyses were performed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the final instrument's scores and screening properties (i.e., sensitivity and specificity). Based on qualitative interview analyses, a revised 15-item EMIQ was included in the observational study. EFA, IRT and item-to-item correlation analyses revealed redundant items which were removed leading to the final nine-item EMIQ. The nine-item EMIQ performed well with respect to: test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.858); internal consistency (α = 0.893); convergent validity; and known-groups methods for construct validity. A cut-point of 41 on the 0-to-100 scale resulted in sufficient sensitivity and specificity statistics for viably identifying patients with mobility impairment. The EMIQ is a content valid and psychometrically sound instrument for capturing MS patients' experience with mobility impairments in a clinical practice setting. Additional research is suggested to further confirm the EMIQ's screening properties over time.

  16. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  17. On Becoming Trauma-Informed: Role of the Adverse Childhood Experiences Survey in Tertiary Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and the Association with Standard Measures of Impairment and Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdul; Perri, Andrea; Deegan, Avril; Kuntz, Jennifer; Cawthorpe, David

    2018-01-01

    There is a movement toward trauma-informed, trauma-focused psychiatric treatment. To examine Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) survey items by sex and by total scores by sex vs clinical measures of impairment to examine the clinical utility of the ACE survey as an index of trauma in a child and adolescent mental health care setting. Descriptive, polychoric factor analysis and regression analyses were employed to analyze cross-sectional ACE surveys (N = 2833) and registration-linked data using past admissions (N = 10,400) collected from November 2016 to March 2017 related to clinical data (28 independent variables), taking into account multicollinearity. Distinct ACE items emerged for males, females, and those with self-identified sex and for ACE total scores in regression analysis. In hierarchical regression analysis, the final models consisting of standard clinical measures and demographic and system variables (eg, repeated admissions) were associated with substantial ACE total score variance for females (44%) and males (38%). Inadequate sample size foreclosed on developing a reduced multivariable model for the self-identified sex group. The ACE scores relate to independent clinical measures and system and demographic variables. There are implications for clinical practice. For example, a child presenting with anxiety and a high ACE score likely requires treatment that is different from a child presenting with anxiety and an ACE score of zero. The ACE survey score is an important index of presenting clinical status that guides patient care planning and intervention in the progress toward a trauma-focused system of care.

  18. Impaired DNA repair as assessed by the ``comet`` assay in patients developing thyroid carcinoma after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprat, F.; Sarasin, A.; Suarez, H.G. [Institut de Recherches sur le Cancer, 94 - Villesuif (France); Leprat, F.; Alapetite, C.; Rosselli, F.; Ridet, A.; Moustacch, E.; Alapetite, C. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Schlumberger, M. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1997-03-01

    A defective cellular response to DNA lesions induced be genotoxic agents may be associated to an increased cancer proneness. This has been clearly identified in some rare but extensively studied genetic diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Fanconi anemia (FA). In practical oncology, most patients receive genotoxic therapeutic agents and the presence of so far unidentified sensitive genotypes could account for an increased susceptibility to cancer in a subgroup of exposed patients. The thyroid gland of children is especially sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation. Evidence for risk is reported even at doses as low as 0.1 Gy, and the excess relative risk to develop a thyroid tumor following a radiation dose of 1 Gy in childhood is of 7.7 [l]. In order to determine if a defect in repair of DNA strand breaks could be involved, as an early step, in the development of secondary thyroid tumors after radiotherapy, we examined, using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE or `comet`), the response to in vitro {gamma}-rays exposure of lymphocytes of a small group of patients who developed thyroid carcinoma after radiotherapy for a primary tumor. Because of its practical advantages, the alkaline comet assay offers the opportunity to question the role of DNA strand beaks rejoining capacity of the individual in the radiation induced carcinogenesis of thyroid tumors. This preliminary study of a small group of patients with therapeutic irradiation at childhood for a primary tumor indicates that, at the time of blood sampling, lymphocytes of some of these patients demonstrated reduced rejoining capacity. These results suggest that the comet assay might help to distinguish a subgroup of individuals at risk for radiation induced genomic instability and encourage further investigation. (authors)

  19. The effect of birthweight on childhood cognitive development in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia; Echevarría, Ghislaine

    2011-08-01

    Intra-uterine growth is a powerful predictor of infant mortality and of health, developmental and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The question about whether this relationship is causal rather than driven by unobserved characteristics of low-weight infants is, however, still open. We use twin models to examine the hypothesis that in utero growth has a detrimental impact on cognitive development in childhood. We merge birth registry information on birthweight with standardized Math and Spanish test scores for all fourth graders in Chile to create a prospective data set. Twin fixed-effects models are used to estimate the causal effect of intra-uterine growth on test scores. Fixed-effect estimates are compared with traditional regression results in a cross-section of births to gauge the omitted variable bias emerging from unobserved genetic, maternal and pregnancy-related factors in cross-sectional models. Birthweight differences within twin pairs have a substantial effect on test scores. A 400-g increase in birthweight results in a 15% standard deviation increase in Math scores. The effect is larger among (estimated) monozygotic than dizygotic pairs, reaching >20% standard deviation. The effect varies across family socioeconomic status. It is strong among disadvantaged families but it nearly disappears among advantaged ones. Scarcity of uterine resources resulting in intra-uterine growth restriction has a detrimental effect on cognitive development in childhood. This effect interacts with family socioeconomic status (SES), so that low-SES families reinforce the effect of low birthweight and high-SES families fully compensate for it. Findings are particularly relevant in the developing world, where intra-uterine growth restriction is the main determinant of low birthweight.

  20. A face detection bias for horizontal orientations develops in middle childhood

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    Benjamin J Balas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Faces are complex stimuli that can be described via intuitive facial features like the eyes, nose, and mouth, configural features like the distances between facial landmarks, and features that correspond to computations performed in the early visual system (e.g. oriented edges. With regard to this latter category of descriptors, adult face recognition relies disproportionately on information in specific spatial frequency and orientation bands: Many recognition tasks are performed more accurately when adults have access to mid-range spatial frequencies (8-16 cycles/face and horizontal orientations (Dakin & Watt, 2009. In the current study, we examined how this information bias develops in middle childhood. We recruited children between the ages of 5-10 years old to participate in a simple categorization task that required them to label images according to whether they depicted a face or a house. Critically, children were presented with face and house images comprised either of primarily horizontal orientation energy, primarily vertical orientation energy, or both horizontal and vertical orientation energy. We predicted that any bias favoring horizontal information over vertical should be more evident in faces than in houses, and also that older children would be more likely to show such a bias than younger children. We designed our categorization task to be sufficiently easy that children would perform at near-ceiling accuracy levels, but with variation in response times that would reflect how they rely on different orientations as a function of age and object category. We found that horizontal bias for face detection (but not house detection correlated significantly with age, suggesting an emergent category-specific bias for horizontal orientation energy that develops during middle childhood. These results thus suggest that the tuning of high-level recognition to specific low-level visual features takes take place over several years of visual

  1. Development of reaching during mid-childhood from a Developmental Systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M; Otten, Egbert; Mouton, Leonora J; Bongers, Raoul M

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the Developmental Systems perspective, we studied the development of reaching during mid-childhood (5-10 years of age) not just at the performance level (i.e., endpoint movements), as commonly done in earlier studies, but also at the joint angle level. Because the endpoint position (i.e., the tip of the index finger) at the reaching target can be achieved with multiple joint angle combinations, we partitioned variability in joint angles over trials into variability that does not (goal-equivalent variability, GEV) and that does (non-goal-equivalent variability, NGEV) influence the endpoint position, using the Uncontrolled Manifold method. Quantifying this structure in joint angle variability allowed us to examine whether and how spatial variability of the endpoint at the reaching target is related to variability in joint angles and how this changes over development. 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children and young adults performed reaching movements to a target with the index finger. Polynomial trend analysis revealed a linear and a quadratic decreasing trend for the variable error. Linear decreasing and cubic trends were found for joint angle standard deviations at movement end. GEV and NGEV decreased gradually with age, but interestingly, the decrease of GEV was steeper than the decrease of NGEV, showing that the different parts of the joint angle variability changed differently over age. We interpreted these changes in the structure of variability as indicating changes over age in exploration for synergies (a family of task solutions), a concept that links the performance level with the joint angle level. Our results suggest changes in the search for synergies during mid-childhood development.

  2. [The role of the microbial environment for the development of childhood asthma and allergies].

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    Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Asthma and allergies are among the most frequent chronic diseases in childhood. Their prevalence has increased during the second half of the twentieth century but seem to stabilize in recent years in many Western European countries such as Switzerland. Although the genetic background is known to have a strong impact on an individual's risk to develop asthma or allergy it seems likely that environmental factors are mostly responsible for the increase in prevalence over time. Much research has been devoted to environmental risk factors promoting the development of asthma and allergies. Yet, there is increasing interest in environmental factors which might protect from the development of these diseases and which might have been reduced along with the development of a "Western lifestyle". The role of environmental allergens, the hygiene hypothesis and the role of the farm environment on the development of asthma and allergies are discussed. An emphasis is put on the microbial environment as encountered in the farming environment which has been shown to confer protection from the development of asthma and allergies. It is likely that among other factors the development of a "Western lifestyle" went along with a marked change of the microbial environment children are exposed to.

  3. Gender-specific impairments on cognitive and behavioral development in mice exposed to fenvalerate during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiu-Hong; Liu, Ping; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Xu, Zhong-Mei; Chen, Gui-Hai; Xu, De-Xiang

    2011-06-24

    In human and rodent models, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the development of cognition and behaviors. Fenvalerate is a potential EDC. The purpose of this study was to examine whether pubertal fenvalerate exposure altered behavioral development. Mice were orally administered with either vehicle or fenvalerate (7.5 or 30 mg/kg/day) from postnatal day (PND) 28 to PND56. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris Water Maze. Aggressive performance was evaluated by aggressive behavior test. Anxiety-related activities were detected by three tests: open-field, plus-maze and black-white alley. Sensorimotor function was analyzed using beam walking and tightrope. Results found that the impairment for spatial learning and memory was more severe in fenvalerate-exposed female mice than in male mice. In addition, pubertal fenvalerate exposure inhibited aggressive behavior in males. Moreover, pubertal fenvalerate exposure increased anxiety activities in females. Altogether, these results suggest that pubertal fenvalerate exposure impairs spatial cognition and behavioral development in a gender-dependent manner. These findings identify fenvalerate as candidate environmental risk factors for cognitive and behavioral development, especially in the critical period of development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review.

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    Mosca, Renata; Kritzinger, Alta; van der Linde, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI) are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013) was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. All the selected articles (n = 9) were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.

  5. Oral Articulatory Control in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

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    Grigos, Maria I.; Moss, Aviva; Lu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine spatial and temporal aspects of articulatory control in children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), children with speech delay characterized by an articulation/phonological impairment (SD), and controls with typical development (TD) during speech tasks that increased in word length. Method:…

  6. Strengthening systems for integrated early childhood development services: a cross-national analysis of governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; van Ravens, Jan; Ponguta, Liliana Angelica; Reyes, Maria; Oh, Soojin; Dimaya, Roland; Nieto, Ana María; Seder, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While there has been substantial growth in early childhood development (ECD) services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is considerable inequity in their distribution and quality. Evidence-based governance strategies are necessary, but currently they are insufficient for widespread, quality implementation. In particular, there is a limited understanding of the use of systems approaches for the analysis of ECD services as they go to scale. The aim of this paper is to present findings from four countries, using a cross-national case study approach to explore governance mechanisms required to strengthen national systems of ECD services. While different sets of governance strategies and challenges were identified in each country, overarching themes also emerged with implications for systems strengthening. Study results focus on local, mid-level and central governance, with recommendations for effective coordination and the integration of ECD services in LMICs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Assessing anger regulation in middle childhood: development and validation of a behavioral observation measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lara Rohlf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92 participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection.

  8. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  9. Beyond Boys’ Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children’s cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys’ behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented. PMID:28579646

  10. Sibling influences on gender development in middle childhood and early adolescence: a longitudinal study.

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    McHale, S M; Updegraff, K A; Helms-Erikson, H; Crouter, A C

    2001-01-01

    The development of gender role qualities (attitudes, personality, leisure activities) from middle childhood to early adolescence was studied to determine whether siblings' gender role qualities predicted those of their sisters and brothers. Participants were 198 firstborn and second-born siblings (Ms = 10 years 9 months and 8 years 3 months, respectively, in Year 1) and their parents. Families were interviewed annually for 3 years. Firstborn siblings' qualities in Year 1 predicted second-born children's qualities in Year 3 when both parent and child qualities in Year 1 were controlled, a pattern consistent with a social learning model of sibling influence. Parental influence was more evident and sibling influence less evident in predicting firstborns' qualities; for firstborns, sibling influences suggested a de-identification process.

  11. Development of an Android-based Learning Media Application for Visually Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Azmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop the English for Disability (EFORD application, on Android-based learning english media for Visually Impaired students and determine its based this on assessment of matter expert, media expert, special needs teacher and students. The research method adopted in this research is Research and Development (R&D. The development of this application through five phases: (1 Analysis of problems, through observation and interviews. (2 Collecting information as product planning / analysis of the needs of the media as required of blind children. (3 The design phase of products such as the manufacture of flow and storyboard navigation map.(4 Design validation phase form of an expert assessment of the media is developed. (5 testing products phase, such as assessment of the application by blind students. The results of this research is EFORD application which is feasible to be used as English learning media for visual impairment application based on assessment: 1Media expert it's obtained a percentage scored 95%, include for very worthy category, 2Subject matter, expert its obtained percentage scored 75% include for worthy category and 3 Special needs teacher it's obtained a percentage scored 83% include for very worthy category. Upon demonstration, students indicated the positive response of ≥ 70% in each indicator. Therefore English learning media with Android based application English for Disability (EFORD is very feasible to be used as an English learning media especially grammar and speaking English content for students of visual impairment for a number of reasons. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  12. Prenatal stress challenge impairs fetal lung development and asthma severity sex-specifically in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazara, Dimitra E; Perani, Clara V; Solano, María E; Arck, Petra C

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is an increasing health problem worldwide. Interestingly, prenatal challenges such as stress have been associated with an increased risk for asthma during childhood. The underlying pathogenesis of how prenatal stress increases the risk for asthma still remains unclear. Potential targets could be that the fetal immune ontogeny or fetal lung development are compromised by prenatal challenges. Here, we aimed to identify whether prenatal stress challenge affects fetal lung development in mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were challenged with sound stress and fetal lung development was assessed histologically. Whilst prenatal stress challenge did not profoundly affect lung development in male fetuses, it resulted in less extensive terminal sacs, surrounded by thicker mesenchymal tissue in female fetuses. Thus, prenatal stress disrupted fetal lung development sex-specifically. Interestingly, upon prenatal stress challenge, the airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation- two hallmarks of asthma - were significantly increased in adult female offspring, whilst regulatory CD4+ T cells were reduced. These findings strongly underpin the sex-specific association between s challenged fetal development and a sex-specific altered severity of asthma in adult offspring. Our model now allows to identify maternal markers through which the risk for asthma and possible other diseases is vertically transferred before birth in response to challenges. Such identification then opens avenues for primary disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

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    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  14. Influence of behavioral concerns and early childhood expulsions on the development of early childhood mental health consultation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Sarah D; Kubicek, Lorraine F; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Zundel, Claudia; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2012-05-01

    This article examines how the Colorado study Children With Social, Emotional and Behavioral Concerns and the Providers Who Support Them (S.D. Hoover, 2006) was used to advance a statewide agenda for early childhood mental health consultation in Colorado. The study involved a survey of licensed childcare providers throughout the state asking about the behavior of children in their care and their responses to that behavior. Exclusion of children from early care and education settings due to challenging behavior was found to be a significant problem taking a toll on families, children, and early care and education providers. Importantly, results from the survey indicated that the rate of exclusion of children from care due to challenging behavior was lower for family childcare providers who had access to mental health consultation. Recommendations are offered regarding the infrastructure needed to sustain mental health consultation capacity in early care and education settings, and related policies and practices. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Where It All Begins: The Impact of Preconceptional and Prenatal Care on Early Childhood Development. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

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    Lu, Michael C.; Bragonier, Robert; Silver, Ellen R.; Bemis-Heys, Rose

    In 1998, California voters approved Proposition 10, the Children and Families First Act, which placed an additional tax on cigarette sales; monies generated will be used to improve early childhood development for birth to five. In terms of early childhood development, the starting point is not birth but long before; care of women of reproductive…

  16. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

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    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  17. Early growth and development impairments in patients with ganglioside GM3 synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, A; Wang, D; Bright, A; Sency, V; Zhou, A; Xin, B

    2016-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GSD) causes a complete absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The individuals affected by this disorder manifest severe irritability, intractable seizures and profound intellectual disability. However, we have found that most newborns seem symptom-free for a period of time after birth. In order to further understand the onset of the disease, we investigated the early growth and development of patients with this condition through this study. We compared 37 affected individuals with their normal siblings and revealed that all children with GSD had relatively normal intrauterine growth and development, as their weight, length and head circumference were similar to their normal siblings at birth. However, the disease progresses quickly after birth and causes significant constitutional impairments of growth and development by 6 months of age. Neither breastfeeding nor gastrostomy tube placement made significant difference on growth and development as all groups of patients showed the similar pattern. We conclude that GSD causes significant postnatal growth and developmental impairments and the amount of gangliosides in breast milk and general nutritional intervention do not seem to alter these outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. "Communicate to vaccinate": the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Natalie; Hill, Sophie; Kaufman, Jessica; Lewin, Simon; Kis-Rigo, John; De Castro Freire, Sara Bensaude; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2013-05-11

    Vaccination is a cost-effective public health measure and is central to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality. However, childhood vaccination coverage remains sub-optimal in many settings. While communication is a key feature of vaccination programmes, we are not aware of any comprehensive approach to organising the broad range of communication interventions that can be delivered to parents and communities to improve vaccination coverage. Developing a classification system (taxonomy) organised into conceptually similar categories will aid in: understanding the relationships between different types of communication interventions; facilitating conceptual mapping of these interventions; clarifying the key purposes and features of interventions to aid implementation and evaluation; and identifying areas where evidence is strong and where there are gaps. This paper reports on the development of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' taxonomy. The taxonomy was developed in two stages. Stage 1 included: 1) forming an advisory group; 2) searching for descriptions of interventions in trials (CENTRAL database) and general health literature (Medline); 3) developing a sampling strategy; 4) screening the search results; 5) developing a data extraction form; and 6) extracting intervention data. Stage 2 included: 1) grouping the interventions according to purpose; 2) holding deliberative forums in English and French with key vaccination stakeholders to gather feedback; 3) conducting a targeted search of grey literature to supplement the taxonomy; 4) finalising the taxonomy based on the input provided. The taxonomy includes seven main categories of communication interventions: inform or educate, remind or recall, teach skills, provide support, facilitate decision making, enable communication and enhance community ownership. These categories are broken down into 43 intervention types across three target groups: parents or soon-to-be-parents; communities, community

  19. Impact of Bug-in-Ear Professional Development on Early Childhood Co-Teachers' Use of Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Grygas Coogle, Christan; Rahn, Naomi L.; Spear, Caitlin F.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to build the capacity of early childhood teachers to implement evidence-based strategies. We investigated the efficacy of professional development with bug-in-ear peer coaching in improving teachers' use of communication strategies, the teachers' maintenance of strategies post intervention, and the social validity of the…

  20. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  1. Early Childhood Studies--Students' Participation in the Development of a Learning Space in a Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyal, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    The article argues for the participation and involvement of students in developing learning spaces within higher education. In early childhood education there is a strong emphasis upon rights, democracy and planning learning through listening to young children. Taking inspiration from this, the study explores the use of participatory approaches in…

  2. Do you see my growth? : Two longitudinal studies on personality development from childhood to young adulthood from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luan, Z.; Hutteman, R.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Asendorpf, J.B.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Personality developmental studies typically rely on single reporter data, while multi-informant studies are rare. In two longitudinal studies, the present investigation examined inter-judge differences in the development of the Big Five personality traits from childhood to young adulthood. Study 1

  3. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method: The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical…

  4. Development of a Systems Science Curriculum to Engage Rural African American Teens in Understanding and Addressing Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Young, Tiffany L.; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2018-01-01

    Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural…

  5. Inclusive Early Childhood Development: Ensuring the Rights and Well-Being of Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald

    2018-01-01

    The science and practice of early childhood development now stands ready to address the needs and ensure the rights of infants and young children with disabilities and their families, among the most underserved and marginalized in all regions of the world. Synergies in global policies such as the "United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  6. Development and Feasibility of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program for Rural Families: Application of the Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Linda L.; Myers, Harriet H.; Black, Sheila; Robinson, Darlene; Awololo, Yawah; Clark, Debra; Parker, Carson L.; Douglas, Joy W.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective childhood obesity prevention programs for preschool children are limited in number and focus on changes in the child care environment rather than the home environment. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop and test the feasibility of a home environment obesity prevention program that incorporates mindful eating…

  7. Body Size at Birth, Physical Development and Cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich sample created from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between body size at birth and early childhood cognitive skills is mediated by physical development indicators. Consistent with existing evidence from other countries, we find a significant relationship between body…

  8. Developing Leadership for Early Childhood Professionals through Oral Inquiry: Strengthening Equity through Making Particulars Visible in Dilemmas of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Julie Marie; Kroll, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Developing leadership among early childhood professionals has become increasingly important as investing in children's early years has been championed as a public and private national and international priority. Two case studies present how oral inquiry and specifically, the Prospect Center's Descriptive Review of a Professional Dilemma of…

  9. Brain development of very preterm and very low‐birthweight children in childhood and adolescence: a meta‐analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, J.F.; Zoetebier, L.; van Elburg, R.M.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born <32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing <1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge,

  10. Brain development of very preterm and very low-birthweight children in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born <32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing <1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. METHOD The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge,

  11. Development of depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-level life course conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Erica C; Brinkman, Tara M; Baker, Justin N

    2017-06-01

    As therapeutic and supportive care interventions become increasingly effective, growing numbers of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors face a myriad of physical and psychological sequelae secondary to their disease and treatment. Mental health issues, in particular, present a significant problem in this unique patient population, with depression affecting a sizable number of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Multiple key determinants impact a survivor's risk of developing depression, with variables traversing across biologic, individual, family, community, and global levels, as well as spanning throughout the life course of human development from the preconception and prenatal periods to adulthood. A multi-level life course conceptual model offers a valuable framework to identify and organize the diverse variables that modulate the risk of developing depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. This review describes the first multi-level life course perspective applied to development of depression in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. This conceptual framework may be used to guide the investigation of mental health interventions for SCACs to ensure that key determinants of depression occurrence are adequately addressed across various levels and throughout the life trajectory.

  12. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component.Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households.This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  13. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years were screened. Results. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80% reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80% showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  14. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  15. Nutrition and growth: assessing the impact of regional nutritional intake on childhood development and metacarpal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christian; Covino, Jessica

    2018-03-01

    Measuring skeletal development throughout juvenile growth can provide a greater understanding into the health, hormonal function and genetics of children. The metacarpals have been of interest for their potential to provide insights into healthy juvenile skeletal development. This study investigated the growth patterns of developing females from isolated communities who had varied diets. Anthropometrical measurements and hand-wrist X-rays were taken of 353 juvenile females from three populations: Pari Coastal Village and Bundi Highlands Village, Papua New Guinea (PNG); and Brisbane, Australia between 1968 to 1983. Radiographs were digitized, and the length and width of the second and third metacarpals compared to each subject's height and weight. As subject heights increased, metacarpal length and width increased. However, stature and second metacarpal length indicated the strongest correlation ( P regional intake of protein in their diets. The second metacarpal presents particularly accurate measurements when determining the height or development of a child. Nutritional intake appears to have a major influence normal childhood growth, with a potential for protein deficiency to strongly inhibit growth. Any delayed growth is particularly evident in the child's stature, as well as in the development of the metacarpal long bones of the hand.

  16. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  17. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention : methods, progress and international development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; Jebb, S.A.; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C.; Richard, D.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S.; Swinburn, B.

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for

  18. Developing Professional Early Childhood Educators in England and Hungary: Where Has All the Love Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity; Georgeson, Janet; Varga, Anikó Nagy

    2015-01-01

    European education agendas have emphasized the importance of early childhood education in providing the foundations for lifelong learning. Central to the success of early childhood education is the quality of provision, with the workforce being key. While qualifications levels are frequently cited as important for the quality of provision here we…

  19. Swimming attendance during childhood and development of asthma: Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriani, Federica; Protano, Carmela; Vitali, Matteo; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The association between asthma and swimming pool attendance has not been demonstrated and currently there are conflicting results. In order to clarify the association between asthma diagnosis in children and swimming pool attendance, and to assess the consistency of the available epidemiological studies, we completed a literature analysis on the relationship between the exposure to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pools during childhood and asthma diagnosis. Following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching MEDLINE via PubMed, TOXNET, and Scopus databases (from inception to 20 April 2015) using the key word "Asthma" together with "swimming pool", "disinfection by-products", "indoor air pollution" and "children". Inclusion criteria were: English language, a complete analytic study design involving a cohort of children (0-16 years), a well-defined definition of exposure, and the presence of data on effect and variance. Studies on in vivo, in vitro or professional and accidental exposure were excluded. After a screening process, seven reports (n = 5851 subjects) were included out of a total of 2928 references. The reported OR of the association between swimming pool attendance and asthma prevalence ranged from 0.58 to 2.30. The present meta-analysis failed to identify a significant difference in asthma development between children attending swimming pools and controls (OR, 1.084; 95% CI: 0.89-1.31). Swimming in childhood does not increase the likelihood of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Based on this meta-analysis review, the association of the disease with indoor pool attendance is still unclear. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Early childhood development in Rwanda: a policy analysis of the human rights legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Scott, Kirstin W; Harward, Sardis H

    2016-01-12

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a critical period that continues to impact human health and productivity throughout the lifetime. Failing to provide policies and programs that support optimal developmental attainment when such services are financially and logistically feasible can result in negative population health, education and economic consequences that might otherwise be avoided. Rwanda, with its commitment to rights-based policy and program planning, serves as a case study for examination of the national, regional, and global human rights legal frameworks that inform ECD service delivery. In this essay, we summarize key causes and consequences of the loss of early developmental potential and how this relates to the human rights legal framework in Rwanda. We contend that sub-optimal early developmental attainment constitutes a violation of individuals' rights to health, education, and economic prosperity. These rights are widely recognized in global, regional and national human rights instruments, and are guaranteed by Rwanda's constitution. Recent policy implementation by several Rwandan ministries has increased access to health and social services that promote achievement of full developmental potential. These ECD-centric activities are characterized by an integrated approach to strengthening the services provided by several public sectors. Combining population level activities with those at the local level, led by local community health workers and women's councils, can bolster community education and ensure uptake of ECD services. Realization of the human rights to health, education, and economic prosperity requires and benefits from attention to the period of ECD, as early childhood has the potential to be an opportunity for expedient intervention or the first case of human rights neglect in a lifetime of rights violations. Efforts to improve ECD services and outcomes at the population level require multisector collaboration at the highest echelons

  1. Impaired B cell development in the absence of Krüppel-like factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Thanh; Gatto, Dominique; Turner, Vivian; Funnell, Alister P W; Mak, Ka Sin; Norton, Laura J; Kaplan, Warren; Cowley, Mark J; Agenès, Fabien; Kirberg, Jörg; Brink, Robert; Pearson, Richard C M; Crossley, Merlin

    2011-11-15

    Krüppel-like factor 3 (Klf3) is a member of the Klf family of transcription factors. Klfs are widely expressed and have diverse roles in development and differentiation. In this study, we examine the function of Klf3 in B cell development by studying B lymphopoiesis in a Klf3 knockout mouse model. We show that B cell differentiation is significantly impaired in the bone marrow, spleen, and peritoneal cavity of Klf3 null mice and confirm that the defects are cell autonomous. In the bone marrow, there is a reduction in immature B cells, whereas recirculating mature cells are noticeably increased. Immunohistology of the spleen reveals a poorly structured marginal zone (MZ) that may in part be caused by deregulation of adhesion molecules on MZ B cells. In the peritoneal cavity, there are significant defects in B1 B cell development. We also report that the loss of Klf3 in MZ B cells is associated with reduced BCR signaling strength and an impaired ability to respond to LPS stimulation. Finally, we show increased expression of a number of Klf genes in Klf3 null B cells, suggesting that a Klf regulatory network may exist in B cells.

  2. DPP6 Loss Impacts Hippocampal Synaptic Development and Induces Behavioral Impairments in Recognition, Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available DPP6 is well known as an auxiliary subunit of Kv4-containing, A-type K+ channels which regulate dendritic excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. We have recently reported, however, a novel role for DPP6 in regulating dendritic filopodia formation and stability, affecting synaptic development and function. These results are notable considering recent clinical findings associating DPP6 with neurodevelopmental and intellectual disorders. Here we assessed the behavioral consequences of DPP6 loss. We found that DPP6 knockout (DPP6-KO mice are impaired in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Results from the Morris water maze and T-maze tasks showed that DPP6-KO mice exhibit slower learning and reduced memory performance. DPP6 mouse brain weight is reduced throughout development compared with WT, and in vitro imaging results indicated that DPP6 loss affects synaptic structure and motility. Taken together, these results show impaired synaptic development along with spatial learning and memory deficiencies in DPP6-KO mice.

  3. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  4. Rhythmic Interlimb Coordination Impairments and the Risk for Developing Mobility Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Travison, Thomas; Kennedy, David N; Tucker, Katherine L; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S; Bean, Jonathan F

    2017-08-01

    The identification of novel rehabilitative impairments that are risk factors for mobility limitations may improve their prevention and treatment among older adults. We tested the hypothesis that impaired rhythmic interlimb ankle and shoulder coordination are risk factors for subsequent mobility limitations among older adults. We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults (N = 99) aged 67 years and older who did not have mobility limitations (Short Physical Performance Battery score > 9) at baseline. Participants performed antiphase coordination of the right and left ankles or shoulders while paced by an auditory metronome. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined odds ratios (ORs) for mobility limitations at 1-year follow-up as a function of coordination variability and asymmetry. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, Mini-Mental State Examination score, number of chronic conditions, and baseline Short Physical Performance Battery score, ORs were significant for developing mobility limitations based on a 1 SD difference in the variability of ankle (OR = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.05) and shoulder (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.17-3.29) coordination. ORs were significant for asymmetry of shoulder (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.25-3.57), but not ankle (OR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.59-1.55) coordination. Similar results were found in unadjusted analyses. The results support our hypothesis that impaired interlimb ankle and shoulder coordination are risk factors for the development of mobility limitations. Future work is needed to further examine the peripheral and central mechanisms underlying this relationship and to test whether enhancing coordination alters mobility limitations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Prelinguistic communication development in children with childhood apraxia of speech: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highman, Chantelle; Leitão, Suze; Hennessey, Neville; Piek, Jan

    2012-02-01

    In a retrospective study of prelinguistic communication development, clinically referred preschool children (n = 9) aged 3-4 years, who as infants had failed a community-based screening program, were evaluated for features of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Four children showed no features and either delayed or normal language, five had from three-to-seven CAS features and all exhibited delayed language. These children were matched by age with 21 children with typically-developing (TD) speech and language skills. Case-control comparisons of retrospective data from 9 months of age for two participants with more severe features of CAS at preschool age showed a dissociated pattern with low expressive quotients on the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Assessment-Second Edition (REEL-2) and records of infrequent babbling, but normal receptive quotients. However, other profiles were observed. Two children with milder CAS features showed poor receptive and expressive development similar to other clinically referred children with no CAS features, and one child with severe CAS features showed poor receptive but normal expressive developmental milestones at 9 months and records of frequent babbling. Results suggest some but not all children with features of suspected CAS have a selective deficit originating within speech motor development.

  6. Development and Plasticity of Cognitive Flexibility in Early and Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttelmann, Frances; Karbach, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility, the ability to flexibly switch between tasks, is a core dimension of executive functions (EFs) allowing to control actions and to adapt flexibly to changing environments. It supports the management of multiple tasks, the development of novel, adaptive behavior and is associated with various life outcomes. Cognitive flexibility develops rapidly in preschool and continuously increases well into adolescence, mirroring the growth of neural networks involving the prefrontal cortex. Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in interventions designed to improve cognitive flexibility in children in order to support the many developmental outcomes associated with cognitive flexibility. This article provides a brief review of the development and plasticity of cognitive flexibility across early and middle childhood (i.e., from preschool to elementary school age). Focusing on interventions designed to improve cognitive flexibility in typically developing children, we report evidence for significant training and transfer effects while acknowledging that current findings on transfer are heterogeneous. Finally, we introduce metacognitive training as a promising new approach to promote cognitive flexibility and to support transfer of training.

  7. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica David Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code.

  8. Serious game development as a strategy for health promotion and tackling childhood obesity 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jéssica David; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Cheng Lu, Jennifer Kaon; Otsuka, Joice Lee; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and assess a serious game on healthy eating and physical activity to promote health and tackle childhood obesity. Method: a descriptive, applied and methodological study.For the development of the game, the following steps were taken: conceptualization, pre-production with the development of the game documentation, prototyping, production and assessment of thecomputer and health experts. Results: a prototype has been developed up to beta version. The game was positively assessed both in terms of gameplay and mechanics, and in relation to the content presented, standing out as a powerful strategy for health promotion. The information from the assessment phase contributed to the settings in the software in order to make it available in the future for the target population of this research. The greatest advantage of the proposed game is the fact that it is an open educational resource. Conclusions: the expert assessments showed that the game has great educational potential and it is considered suitable for future application to the target audience.The serious game can become a technological teaching resource available for use in schools and health facilities, and can also be reused for the production of other educational games by accessing its source code. PMID:27533268

  9. Brain-specific Crmp2 deletion leads to neuronal development deficits and behavioural impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Eunchai; Wang, Yaqing; Yang, Chaojuan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Chen, Zheyu; Zhang, Chen; Christian, Kimberly M; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-06-01

    Several genome- and proteome-wide studies have associated transcription and translation changes of CRMP2 (collapsing response mediator protein 2) with psychiatric disorders, yet little is known about its function in the developing or adult mammalian brain in vivo. Here we show that brain-specific Crmp2 knockout (cKO) mice display molecular, cellular, structural and behavioural deficits, many of which are reminiscent of neural features and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. cKO mice exhibit enlarged ventricles and impaired social behaviour, locomotor activity, and learning and memory. Loss of Crmp2 in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation, abnormal NMDA receptor composition, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation in CA1 neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of crmp2 specifically in newborn neurons results in stage-dependent defects in their development during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings reveal a critical role for CRMP2 in neuronal plasticity, neural function and behavioural modulation in mice.

  10. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Ö. Raeker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues.

  11. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeker, Maide Ö.; Russell, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues. PMID:22190853

  12. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight on the longitudinal development of childhood constipation: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Escher, Johanna C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-10-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipation. The aim of this study was to assess whether common dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and childhood overweight are associated with constipation in childhood. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective birth cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire at the child's age of 14 months (n = 2420). The adherence scores on a 'Health conscious' and 'Western-like' diet were extracted from principal component analysis. At the age of 24, 36 and 48 months, information on constipation and sedentary behaviour, and weight and height was obtained by parental-derived questionnaires and from the child health centres, respectively. Adherence to a 'Western-like' dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of constipation up to 48 months [adjusted odds ratio (aOR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39; 1.02-1.87], which was not mediated by overweight or sedentary behaviour. Adherence to a 'Health Conscious' dietary pattern was only associated at short term, with a lower prevalence of constipation at 24 months (aOR; 95%CI: 0.65; 0.44-0.96). No association was found between overweight, sedentary behaviour and constipation. Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns in early childhood could be associated with higher or lower risks for constipation, but these effects are time-dependent. Overweight and sedentary behaviour seem to not have a major role on constipation in childhood. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effect of deworming on early childhood development in Peru: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serene A; Casapía, Martín; Lazarte, Fabiola; Rahme, Elham; Pezo, Lidsky; Blouin, Brittany; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2015-12-01

    There is a knowledge gap on the effect of early childhood deworming on development in low- and middle-income countries. This evidence is important in the critical window of growth and development before two years of age. A randomized controlled trial of the benefit, and optimal timing and frequency, of deworming on development was conducted in Iquitos, Peru. Children were enrolled during routine 12-month growth and development visits and randomly allocated to: (1) deworming at the 12-month visit and placebo at the 18-month visit; (2) placebo at the 12-month visit and deworming at the 18-month visit; (3) deworming at the 12 and 18-month visits; or (4) placebo at the 12 and 18-month visits. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was used to assess cognitive, language and motor skills at the 12 and 24-month visits. One-way ANOVA analyses used an intention-to-treat approach. Between September 2011 and June 2012, 1760 children were enrolled. Attendance at the 24-month visit was 88.8% ( n =1563). Raw scores on all subtests increased over 12 months; however, cognitive and expressive language scaled scores decreased. There was no statistically significant benefit of deworming, or effect of timing or frequency, on any of the development scores. Baseline height and weight and maternal education were associated with development scores at 24 months. After 12 months of follow-up, an overall benefit of deworming on cognition, language or fine motor development was not detected. Additional integrated child and maternal interventions should be considered to prevent developmental deficits in this critical period.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TELEPON KALENG GAME AS A MEDIA TO STIMULATE LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Yulia Wulansari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the validity of telepon kaleng game as a medium to stimulate the linguistic intelligence of early childhood, as well as to know the merits and drawbacks of telepon kaleng game as learning media. The research method used is research and development (R & D. Development procedures include planning, design, and development. Product validation is done by alpha test, beta test, and final evaluation. Apha test is validated by an expert in material development and an expert in teaching-media development. Meanwhile, the subjects in beta test are students BA Aisyiah Yanggong and BA Aisyiah Wonoasri Jenangan District, Ponorogo Regency. The result of this research is the development of telepon kaleng game as a media to stimulate linguistic intelligence of early child. The tools and materials used in this development are used-can, thread / rope, flannel, scissors, and double tape. Material experts and media experts have validated telepon kaleng products developed. From validation, the results need to improve the use of tin cans and the improvement of learning materials. In the next stage, feasibility testing for users in BA 'Aisyiah Yanggong and BA' Aisyiah Wonoasri Jenang Subdistrict of Ponorogo Regency, from the result of the experiment showed that telepon kaleng could be used to stimulate the linguistic intelligence of early child. These telepon kalengs, when used in unlimited form by children, stimulate linguistic intelligence more than IN structured-form. The merit of telepon kaleng as a linguistic intelligence stimulus medium is an attractive form of the child compared totelepon kaleng without any accessories. Children tend to prefer things that are bright and engaging. The drawback of this telepon kaleng, if it is used continuously, is that it will lead to monotonous learning process so it needs to alternate with other game equipment.

  15. Early childhood cortisol reactivity moderates the effects of parent-child relationship quality on the development of children’s temperament in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Dyson, Margret W.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Olino, Thomas M.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    Positive parenting has been related both to lower cortisol reactivity and more adaptive temperament traits in children, whereas elevated cortisol reactivity may be related to maladaptive temperament traits, such as higher negative emotionality (NE) and lower positive emotionality (PE). However, no studies have examined whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as measured by cortisol reactivity, moderates the effect of the quality of the parent-child relationship on changes in temperament in early childhood. In this study, 126 3-year olds were administered the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith et al., 1995) as a measure of temperamental NE and PE. Salivary cortisol was collected from the child at 4 time points during this task. The primary parent and the child completed the Teaching Tasks battery (Egeland et al., 1995), from which the quality of the relationship was coded. At age 6, children completed the Lab-TAB again. From age 3 to 6, adjusting for age 3 PE or NE, a better quality relationship with their primary parent predicted decreases in NE for children with elevated cortisol reactivity and predicted increases in PE for children with low cortisol reactivity. Results have implications for our understanding of the interaction of biological stress systems and the parent-child relationship in the development of temperament in childhood. PMID:26689860

  16. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  17. The gradience of multilingualism in typical and impaired language development: Positioning bilectalism within comparative bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthes K. Grohmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli 2014: age of onset of children’s exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children’s performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann 2014b: language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed ‘comparative bilingualism’. The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  18. The lexical development of children with hearing impairment and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Leticia Macedo; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Alves, Cláudia Regina Lindgren

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the association between the lexical development of children with hearing impairment and their psychosocial and socioeconomic characteristics and medical history. An analytic transversal study was conducted in an Auditive Health Attention Service. One hundred and ten children from 6 to 10 years old using hearing aids and presenting hearing loss that ranged from light to deep levels were evaluated. All children were subjected to oral, written language and auditory perception tests. Parents answered a structured questionnaire to collect data from their medical history and socioeconomic status, and questionnaires about the features of the family environment and psychosocial characteristics. Multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression, being the initial model composed by variables with panalysis. In the final model, we adopted a significance level of 5%. The final model of the multivariate analysis showed an association between the performance on the vocabulary test and the results of phonemic discrimination test (OR=0.81; 95%CI 0.73-0.89). The results show the importance of stimulating the auditory processing, particularly the phonemic discrimination skill, throughout the rehabilitation process of children with hearing impairment. This stimulation can enhance lexical development and minimize the metalanguage and learning difficulties often observed in these children.

  19. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M.; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26590911

  1. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  2. Etiology of Childhood Infectious Diarrhea in a Developed Region of China: Compared to Childhood Diarrhea in a Developing Region and Adult Diarrhea in a Developed Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hao; Xia, Shengli; Duan, Ran; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shan, Guangliang; Jing, Huaiqi

    2015-01-01

    In China, great differences in economy, social characteristics and hygiene exist between developing and developed regions. A comparative study of infectious diarrhea between two regions was needed. Three groups of diarrheal patients were collected: children ≤5 year-olds from Beijing (developed region) and Henan Province (developing region), and adults over 18 year-olds from Beijing. A questionnaire was used to survey and feces samples were examined for 16 enteropathogens. We enrolled 1422 children and 1047 adults from developed region and 755 children from developing region. Virus positive rates were 32.98% for children and 23.67% for adults in developed region. The most prevalent pathogen for children was rotavirus whereas for adults was norovirus. Bacterial isolation rates were 13.92% for children from developed region, while 29.14% for children from the developing regions. For the greatest difference, Shigella accounted for 50.79% and was the dominant pathogen in the developing region, whereas in the developed region it was only 1.45%. There was no significant relationship between the local levels of development with diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) categories. But it was seen the notable differences between the population with different age: enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAggEC) were the primary classes of DEC in children from both regions, whereas it was enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) in adults. The symptoms of Shigella and Salmonella infection, such as bloody stools, white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) positivity and fever were similar in children, which may lead to the misidentification. Yersinia enterocolitica and shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) infections were firstly reported in Beijing. There was a large difference in etiology of bacterial diarrhea between children in developing and developed regions of China.

  3. Childhood malnutrition and the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Anne V; Dinh, Duy M; Ward, Honorine D

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 y, particularly those who live in resource-constrained areas. Those who survive frequently suffer from long-term sequelae including growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment. Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle of impaired immunity, recurrent infections, and worsening malnutrition. Recently, alterations in the gut microbiome have also been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. It has been suggested that malnutrition may delay the normal development of the gut microbiota in early childhood or force it toward an altered composition that lacks the required functions for healthy growth and/or increases the risk for intestinal inflammation. This review addresses our current understanding of the beneficial contributions of gut microbiota to human nutrition (and conversely the potential role of changes in that community to malnutrition), the process of acquiring an intestinal microbiome, potential influences of malnutrition on the developing microbiota, and the evidence directly linking alterations in the intestinal microbiome to childhood malnutrition. We review recent studies on the association between alterations in the intestinal microbiome and early childhood malnutrition and discuss them in the context of implications for intervention or prevention of the devastation caused by malnutrition.

  4. The emergence, structure and development of ethnic identity during childhood: the case of Roma identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Geka, Maria; Divane, Maria

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the emergence, development and structure of ethnic identity during childhood. Forty Roma children living in Greece aged between 2.8 and 11.9 years answered questions about their awareness/recognition of four aspects of their ethnic identity-namely place of habitation, traditional costumes, the Roma language, and early betrothal of children-their identity and their sense of stability and constancy. The study also investigates how the children feel about the abandonment of those four aspects. The evidence from the current data supports the hypothesis that awareness of ethnic identity emerges before the age of 4. Moreover, this study offers direct empirical evidence of the multidimensionality of ethnic identity. A model of three concentric rings is proposed, extending from a core containing the most highly valued aspects of ethnic identity to the outer annulus that comprises the nonpermanent and nonstable aspects of ethnic identity. The aspects in each annulus differ in terms of the development of the sense of stability and constancy and the feelings associated with loss of the aspects in question. Even the youngest participants considered the aspects in the core to be stable and constant as well as emotionally charged; and even the 11-year-olds did not consider the aspects contained in the outer, more fluid annulus as stable and constant aspects of their ethnic identity. The development of an aspect is determined by what the majority of adults in a society, at a particular time in history, consider to be most important.

  5. African indigenous care-giving practices: Stimulating early childhood development and education in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Wadende

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous communities in Africa, specifically Kenya, which is the focus of this article, had their own well-developed motivational systems that positively enhanced teaching and learning programmes in the community. These motivational systems were manifested in behaviours that were presented as sequential cultural tasks that demanded active engagement from children at every stage of development. The philosophical tenets of African indigenous education underscored education as preparation for life. This was a culturally based education that addressed the physical, emotional, mental and social aspects of a child’s successful development. It offered the child an opportunity to participate in practical, productive and responsible livelihood activities. This article suggests that a concert of research into these indigenous motivational care-giving practices and community participation in the activities of early childhood education may offer important insights into transitioning children from life in the home environment to that of the school and its accompanying academic tasks. When these motivational care-giving practices are incorporated in the process of transitioning children to formal schooling, then their chances of success in these new educational programmes could be enhanced.

  6. Unpacking the associations between heterogeneous externalising symptom development and academic attainment in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    This study explores children's externalising symptom development pathways between 8 and 11 years of age (three time points across 2 years) and examines their sociodemographic correlates and associations with change in academic attainment. Externalising symptoms were assessed for 5485 children across three consecutive years (M age = 8.7 years, SD = 0.30 at time 1). National standardised test scores served as an index of academic attainment. Using latent class growth analysis, six distinct trajectories of externalising symptom development were identified. Children who showed increasing externalising symptomatology across the three time points were more likely to be male or have special educational needs. These derived trajectories differentially predicted children's subsequent academic attainment (controlling for earlier attainment). Children with increasing externalising symptomatology were significantly more likely to demonstrate negative change in academic achievement compared with children with consistently low externalising problems. The study helps to clarify the longitudinal association between externalising symptom development and academic attainment, and highlights the importance of early intervention for children with increasing externalising symptoms across middle childhood.

  7. Neurofunctional Abnormalities during Sustained Attention in Severe Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Simmons, Andrew; Mirza, Kah; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with adverse affective and cognitive consequences including impaired emotion processing, inhibition and attention. However, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in childhood maltreatment have examined emotion processing, while very few studies have tested the neurofunctional substrates of cognitive functions and none of attention. This study investigated the association between severe childhood abuse and fMRI brain activation during a parametric sustained attention task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention in 21 medication-naïve, drug-free young people with a history of childhood abuse controlling for psychiatric comorbidities by including 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses, and 27 healthy controls. Behaviorally, the participants exposed to childhood abuse showed increased omission errors in the task which correlated positively trend-wise with the duration of their abuse. Neurofunctionally, the participants with a history of childhood abuse, but not the psychiatric controls, displayed significantly reduced activation relative to the healthy controls during the most challenging attention condition only in typical attention regions including left inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula and temporal areas. We therefore show for the first time that severe childhood abuse is associated with neurofunctional abnormalities in key ventral frontal-temporal sustained attention regions. The findings represent a first step towards the delineation of abuse-related neurofunctional abnormalities in sustained attention, which may help in the development of effective treatments for victims of childhood abuse. PMID:27832090

  8. Pervasive influence of maternal and paternal criminal offending on early childhood development: a population data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, K R; Tzoumakis, S; Kariuki, M; Green, M J; Hamde, M; Harris, F; Carr, V J; Dean, K

    2017-04-01

    Parental criminal offending is an established risk factor for offending among offspring, but little evidence is available indicating the impact of offending on early childhood functioning. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine associations between exposure to parental offending and a range of developmental outcomes at age 5 years. Multi-generation data in 66 477 children and their parents from the New South Wales Child Development Study were combined using data linkage. Logistic and multinomial regressions tested associations between any and violent offending histories of parents (fathers, mothers, or both parents) obtained from official records, and multiple measures of early childhood developmental functioning (social, emotional-behavioural, cognitive, communication and physical domains) obtained from the teacher-reported 2009 Australian Early Development Census. Parental offending conferred significantly increased risk of vulnerability on all domains, particularly the cognitive domain. Greater risk magnitudes were observed for offending by both parents and by mothers than by fathers, and for violent than for any offending. For all parental offending exposures, vulnerability on multiple domains (where medium to large effects were observed) was more likely than on a single domain (small to medium effects). Relationships remained significant and of comparable magnitude following adjustment for sociodemographic covariates. The effect of parental offending on early childhood developmental outcomes is pervasive, with the strongest effects on functioning apparent when both parents engage in violent offending. Supporting affected families in early childhood might mitigate both early developmental vulnerability and the propensity for later delinquency among these offspring.

  9. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mosca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. Objectives: This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. Method: A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013 was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. Results: All the selected articles (n = 9 were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Conclusion: Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.

  10. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Knowledge Test BEC). Participants were 27 professionals working in research or clinical treatment of body dissatisfaction or eating disorders, and 75 parents of children aged 2-6 years, who completed the measures via an online questionnaire. Seven scenarios were developed for the Parenting Intentions BEC to describe common experiences about the body and food that parents might need to respond to in front of their child. Parents ranked four behavioural intentions, derived from the current literature on parenting risk factors for body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in children. Two subscales were created, one representing positive behavioural intentions, the other negative behavioural intentions. After piloting a larger pool of items, 13 statements were used to construct the Knowledge Test BEC. These were designed to be factual statements about the influence of parent language, media, family meals, healthy eating, and self-esteem on child eating and body image. The validity of both measures was tested by comparing parent and professional scores, and reliability was assessed by comparing parent scores over two testing occasions. Compared with parents, professionals reported significantly higher scores on the Positive Intentions subscale and significantly lower on the Negative Intentions subscale of the Parenting Intentions BEC; confirming the discriminant validity of six out of the seven scenarios. Test-retest reliability was also confirmed as

  11. Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV): Building Health and Early Development with the Pediatric Family-Centered Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, David W.

    2013-01-01

    President Obama announced his Early Learning Agenda during his Second Inaugural Address. This announcement has galvanized a special focus on early childhood policy and practices, for the prenatal to 5-year-old period, to improve educational outcomes for America's youth. The emergent science of early childhood development places an emphasis on…

  12. Taking Inspiration from Reggio Emilia: An Analysis of a Professional Development Workshop on Fostering Authentic Art in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Wendy K.

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the implementation of a professional development workshop on the Reggio Emilia approach in early childhood art education. It describes how early childhood educators participated in a collaborative collage experience and how a similar art activity can be engaging for young children. It also highlights philosophies,…

  13. Childhood Caregiving Roles, Perceptions of Benefits, and Future Caregiving Intentions among Typically Developing Adult Siblings of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Coberly, Ben; Diesel, Sara J.

    2018-01-01

    Typically developing siblings (TDS) of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently serve as caregivers during childhood, known as parentification, and primary caregivers for siblings in adulthood. In order to evaluate mechanisms linking these roles, we surveyed emerging-adult TDS (N = 108) about childhood parentification roles…

  14. [Development and validation of the Inventory of Needs in Memory Impairment (BIG-65): illness-related needs in people with cognitive impairment and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, R; Eschen, A; Rüegger-Frey, B; Martin, M

    2013-06-01

    There is growing evidence that individuals with cognitive impairment and dementia require systematic assessment of needs for the selection of optimal treatments. Currently no valid instrument is applicable for illness-related need assessment in this growing population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new instrument ("Bedürfnisinventar bei Gedächtnisstörungen", BIG-65) that systematically assesses illness-related needs. The development was based on an adequate theoretical framework and standardised procedural guidelines and validated to an appropriate sample of individuals attending a Swiss memory clinic (n = 83). The BIG-65 provides a comprehensive range of biopsychosocial and environmental needs items and offers a dementia-friendly structure for the assessment of illness-related needs. The BIG-65 has high face validity and very high test-retest reliability (rtt = 0,916). On average 3.5 (SD = 3.7) unmet needs were assessed. Most frequently mentioned needs were: "forget less" (50%), "better concentration" (23.2%), "information on illness" (20.7%), "information on treatments" (17.1%), "less worry", "less irritable", "improve mood", "improve orientation" (13.4% each). Needs profiles differed between patients with preclinical (subjective cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment) and clinical (dementia) diagnosis. The BIG-65 reliably assesses illness-related needs in individuals with moderate dementia. With decreasing cognitive functions or an MMSE cognitive impairment and dementia pursue individual strategies to stabilize their quality of life level. In addition to the assessment of objective illness symptoms the selection of optimal treatments may profit from a systematic needs assessment to optimally support patients in their individual quality of life strategies.

  15. Clubfoot Does Not Impair Gross Motor Development in 5-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Karina A; Karol, Lori A; Jeans, Kelly A; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the gross motor development of 5-year-olds using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd Edition (PDMS-2), test after initial nonoperative management of clubfoot as infants. The PDMS-2 Stationary, Locomotion, and Object Manipulation subtests were assessed on 128 children with idiopathic clubfeet at the age of 5 years. Children were categorized by their initial clubfoot severity as greater than 13, unilateral or bilateral involvement, and required surgery. Children with treated clubfeet had average gross motor scores (99 Gross Motor Quotient) compared with age-matched normative scores. Children with more severe clubfeet required surgery significantly more than children with less severe scores (P < .01). Peabody scores were not significantly different according to initial clubfoot severity, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, and surgical versus nonsurgical outcomes. Clubfoot does not significantly impair gross motor development in 5-year-olds.

  16. Disruption of Transient Serotonin Accumulation by Non-Serotonin-Producing Neurons Impairs Cortical Map Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms that alter serotonin transporter SERT expression and functionality increase the risks for autism and psychiatric traits. Here, we investigate how SERT controls serotonin signaling in developing CNS in mice. SERT is transiently expressed in specific sets of glutamatergic neurons and uptakes extrasynaptic serotonin during perinatal CNS development. We show that SERT expression in glutamatergic thalamocortical axons (TCAs dictates sensory map architecture. Knockout of SERT in TCAs causes lasting alterations in TCA patterning, spatial organizations of cortical neurons, and dendritic arborization in sensory cortex. Pharmacological reduction of serotonin synthesis during the first postnatal week rescues sensory maps in SERTGluΔ mice. Furthermore, knockdown of SERT expression in serotonin-producing neurons does not impair barrel maps. We propose that spatiotemporal SERT expression in non-serotonin-producing neurons represents a determinant in early life genetic programming of cortical circuits. Perturbing this SERT function could be involved in the origin of sensory and cognitive deficits associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Loss of molars early in life develops behavioral lateralization and impairs hippocampus-dependent recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Masatsuna; Ono, Yumie; Ohno, Akinori; Kawamoto, Shoichi; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2014-01-04

    Using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), we examined whether reduced mastication from a young age affects hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. We anesthetized male SAMP8 mice at 8 weeks of age and extracted all maxillary molar teeth of half the animals. The other animals were treated similarly, except that molar teeth were not extracted. At 12 and 24 weeks of age, their general behavior and their ability to recognize novel objects were tested using the open-field test (OFT) and the object-recognition test (ORT), respectively. The body weight of molarless mice was reduced significantly compared to that of molar-intact mice after the extraction and did not recover to the weight of age-matched molar-intact mice throughout the experimental period. At 12 weeks of age, molarless mice showed significantly greater locomotor activity in the OFT than molar-intact mice. However, the ability of molarless mice to discriminate a novel object in the ORT was impaired compared to that of molar-intact mice. The ability of both molarless and molar-intact SAMP8 mice to recognize objects was impaired at 24 weeks of age. These results suggest that molarless SAMP8 mice develop a deficit of cognitive function earlier than molar-intact SAMP8 mice. Interestingly, both at 12 and 24 weeks of age, molarless mice showed a lateralized preference of object location in the encoding session of the ORT, in which two identical objects were presented. Their lateralized preference of object location was positively correlated with the rightward turning-direction preference, which reached statistical significance at 24 weeks of age. Loss of masticatory function in early life causes malnutrition and chronic stress and impairs the ability to recognize novel objects. Hyperactivation and lateralized rotational behavior are commonly observed with dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, therefore, reduced masticatory function may deplete the mesolimbic and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems

  18. Development of the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Rimmer, James H; Kviz, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    Despite the widely known benefits of physical activity, people with disabilities are more likely to be inactive when compared to people without disabilities. Previous questionnaires that measure barriers physical activity for people with disabilities do not measure barriers from an ecological perspective. The purpose of this study was to develop the Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments (BPAQ-MI) that measures barriers using an ecological framework. This study consisted of two phases. In Phase one, developed the content validity by (a) developing an item bank, (b) identifying missing items and combining items using a Delphi panel, and (c) refine item wording via cognitive interviews. In Phase two, people with mobility impairments took part in in-person interviews to establish test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the BPAQ-MI. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the BPAQ-MI was comprised of eight subscales or factors: health; beliefs and attitudes; family; friends; fitness center built environment; staff and policy; community built environment; and safety. The BPAQ-MI demonstrated very good test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.792 to 0.935. The BPAQ-MI showed significant negative correlations with exercise (minutes/week) and significant positive correlations between BPAQ-MI subscales and inactivity (hours/day). The BPAQ-MI is the first questionnaire that places greater equity at measuring barriers to physical activity across the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community domains. The BPAQ-MI has the potential to assist researchers in understanding the complex relationship between barriers and ultimately develop physical activity interventions that address these barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early deprivation, atypical brain development, and internalizing symptoms in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, J; Fox, N; Zeanah, C; Nelson, C A

    2017-02-07

    Children exposed to extreme early-life neglect such as in institutional rearing are at heightened risk for developing depression and anxiety disorders, and internalizing problems more broadly. These outcomes are believed to be due to alterations in the development of neural circuitry that supports emotion regulation. The specific neurodevelopmental changes that contribute to these difficulties are largely unknown. This study examined whether microstructural alterations in white matter pathways predicted long-term risk for internalizing problems in institutionally reared children. Data from 69 children were drawn from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized clinical trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. White matter was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) when children were between 8 and 10years of age. Internalizing symptoms were assessed at the time of the MRI scan, and once children reached 12-14years of age. Results indicated that neglect-associated alterations in the external capsule and corpus callosum partially explained links between institutional rearing status and internalizing symptoms in middle childhood and early adolescence. Findings shed light on neural mechanisms contributing to increased risk for emotional difficulties among children reared in adverse conditions and have implications for prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Development in the Organization of Episodic Memories in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eChen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use lifetime periods to group episodic memories together into life story chapters. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12 to 21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European and New Zealand Chinese adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. New Zealand Chinese adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than New Zealand European adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence.

  1. Development in the organization of episodic memories in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena Margaret; Reese, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use "lifetime periods" to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story - an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12-21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European (NZE) and New Zealand Chinese (NZC) adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. NZC adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than NZE adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence.

  2. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M C; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4-6, 7-9, and 10-13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  3. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: Implications for self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs, and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4 to 6, 7 to 9, and 10 to 13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  4. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M. C.; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4–6, 7–9, and 10–13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation. PMID:24795676

  5. Weighed down by development: Reflections on early childhood care and education in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachyshyn Darcey M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken in West Nile Uganda and Coastal Kenya as part of a broader development project. A wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, parents, and early childhood practitioners were involved in sharing their perspectives of what life is like for young children (birth to age 8 in their homes, communities, and institutions. Data gathered were then brought back to community members to solicit action plans. The author brings to the data her reflections and lived experience as a mzungu (white person brought to the region under the guise of development work and the ethical issues that ensued. It was clear that minority world discourses and conceptions of what constitutes a good life for children had permeated the value systems and goals of many adults in this majority world context. However, when challenged to think deeply about the systemic issues affecting their children, participants began to see the importance of finding ways to meld indigenous values, beliefs, and practices with the globalization agenda.

  6. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) impairs fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David R J; McClure, Neil; Cosby, S Louise; Stevenson, Michael; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2009-03-01

    To determine the effects of sildenafil citrate, a cyclic monophosphate-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor known to affect sperm function, on fertilization and early embryo cleavage. This acute mammal study included male and female mice assigned randomly, the females sacrificed after mating and their oocytes/embryos evaluated at four time periods after treatment. Academic research environment. Male and female CBAB(6) mice. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 IU gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate follicular growth and induce ovulation. They were each caged with a male that had been gavaged with sildenafil citrate (0.06 mg/0.05 mL) and allowed to mate. After 12, 36, 60, and 84 h, females were killed, their oviducts were dissected out, and retrieved embryos were assessed for blastomere number and quality. Fertilization rates and numbers of embryos were evaluated after treatment. Fertilization rates (day 1) were markedly reduced (-33%) in matings where the male had taken sildenafil citrate. Over days 2-4, the numbers of embryos developing in the treated group were significantly fewer than in the control group. There was also a trend for impaired cleavage rates within those embryos, although this did not reach significance. The impairments to fertility caused by sildenafil citrate have important implications for infertility centers and for couples who are using this drug precoitally while attempting to conceive.

  7. Changes of brain and cerebrospinal fluid area with development in childhood on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Chizuru; Hiraiwa, Mikio; Abe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Ryochi; Ohmi, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    There have been reported about changes of the brain CT (Computed Tomography) findings with development in childhood. These reports have been applied with one dimensional measurement, and we previously reported that one dimensional measurement was insufficient for objective judgement of CT findings, compared with our two dimensional measurement. Brain CT were performed in sixty-six children (thirty-four males and thirty-two females, aged from ten-day-old to twelve-year-old). Two dimensional measurement were played on the slice through foramen of Monro. We measured intracranial area (IC), brain area (BA), ventricular area (VA), and bifrontal fluid collection area (BFC). IC and BA were increased with development, but VA had no obvious change. Increase of IC and BA were disclosed significantly in infancy and toddling period. BFC was decreased with development on the average, and invisible in many cases over three-year-old. Thus, in the cases under three-year-old there lay massive variation of BFC in size. About the relationship between large BFC and central coordination difficulty in infancy, we reported in the last number of this journal. Variation of BFC in the cases under three-year-old might be due to selection of our subjects, those including eighteen infants with central coordination difficulty. Index of BA (BA x 100/IC), VA (VA x 100/IC), and BFC (BFC x 100/IC) were well matched to changes of BA, VA, and BFC with development. This is the first report for application of two dimensional measurement in CT findings of children with development. (author)

  8. Diet and the development of atherosclerosis: a whole-diet approach from childhood to adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkilä, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality in the world. Studies of the impact of single nutrients on the risk for CVD have often provided inconclusive results, and recent research in nutritional epidemiology with a more holistic whole-diet approach has proven fruitful. Moreover, dietary habits in childhood and adolescence may play a role in later health and disease, either independently or by tracking into adulthood. The main aims of this study were to find childhood a...

  9. THE EFFECT OF POLYMORPHISM IN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES ON THE DEVELOPING SECOND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS AFTER LEUKEMIA TREATMENT IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Jazbec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Survivors of childhood leukemia have an increased risk of developing second malignant neoplasms and specific treatment factors such as alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors and radiation have been associated with their occurrence. Genetic polymorphism in drug-metabolizing enzymes may result in impared detoxification of chemotherapeutics and may lead to increased risk for cancer.Methods. To test if polymorphism in glutathione S-transferases (GST genes is associated with occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasms, we compared GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes among 16 patients treated for childhood leukemia in whom second neoplasm occurred and matched the control group.Results. GSTM1 null genotype was found in 44% of patients with second neoplasms and in 50% in control group (p = 0.768, GSTT1 null genotype in 19% of cases and in 29% of controls (p = 0.729 and GSTP1 105 Ile/ile in 50% of cases and 37% of controls (p = 0.537. Differences in distribution of GST genotypes in patients with second neoplasms after childhood leukemia, compared to a matched control group of patients were not statistically significant.Conclusions. In our study we were not able to show relation between GST genotype and occurrence of second neoplasms after the childhood acute leukemia.

  10. The Development of English as a Second Language With and Without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of ELLs is organized around 3 topics: timeframe and characteristics of typical English L2 development, comparison of the English L2 development of children with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and strategies for more effective assessment with ELLs. ELLs take longer than 3 years to converge on monolingual norms and approach monolingual norms asynchronously across linguistic subdomains. Individual variation is predicted by age, first language, language learning aptitude, length of exposure to English in school, maternal education, and richness of the English environment outside school. ELLs with SLI acquire English more slowly than ELLs with typical development; their morphological and nonword repetition abilities differentiate them the most. Use of strategies such as parent questionnaires on first language development and ELL norm referencing can result in accurate discrimination of ELLs with SLI. Variability in the language abilities of ELLs presents challenges for clinical practice. Increased knowledge of English language learning development with and without SLI together with evidence-based alternative assessment strategies can assist in overcoming these challenges.

  11. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood b...... resemblance increased, possibly reflecting changes in family relationships, and unlikely to have influenced the epidemic.......BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood.......001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at ages 13-7 years (0.001/year, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: During the obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI...

  12. Causes of childhood blindness in a developing country and an underdeveloped country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Bueso, E; Dorronzoro-Ramírez, E; Gegúndez-Fernández, J A; Vinuesa-Silva, J M; Vinuesa-Silva, I; García-Sánchez, J

    2015-05-01

    The causes of childhood blindness depend on factors such as geographic location or the human development index of the populations under study. The main causes in developed countries are genetic and hereditary diseases, while infectious and contagious diseases, together with nutritional and vitamin deficiencies, are the main causes in underdeveloped countries (UDCs). Study of the causes of blindness among children admitted to a regional centre in Nador, Morocco, and among children in Mekele, Ethiopia. The study was carried out in collaboration with two non-governmental organizations based in Madrid, Spain. First, we worked with Fudación Adelias in June 2010, and with Proyecto Visión in October 2012. The study comprised a total of 27 children in Morocco and 85 in Ethiopia. The average age of the children was 10.92 and 6.94 years, respectively. The main causes of blindness in Morocco were hereditary pathologies (25.92%) and refractive errors (14.82%), although trauma (7.40%) and corneal disease (7.40%) are relevant. Among the children from Ethiopia, corneal disease (27.05%) and trauma (20%) were the main causes of blindness, while congenital and hereditary diseases had a lower prevalence (4.70%). The causes of blindness depend on the human development index of the populations under study. While corneal disease and trauma are the main causes observed in UDCs like Ethiopia, hereditary pathologies and refractive errors are the main causes within the Moroccan population studied. A mixed form can be observed in this country, as the cause of blindness found in developed countries, such as congenital and hereditary pathologies which are present alongside the causes normally found in LDCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.

  14. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood (7–8 years old and early adolescence (11–12 years old constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across

  15. Influence of Family and Childhood Memories in the Development and Manifestation of Paranoid Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Célia Barreto; da Motta, Carolina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Peixoto, Ermelindo

    2016-09-01

    Several studies point out to the influence of social experiences on perceptions of the environment and others in cognitive functioning and different aspects of psychopathology. The current study aimed at studying the influence of the psychosocial risk factors in a mixed sample of participants from the general population and affected by paranoid schizophrenia. The extent to which the existence of negative life events and events that are threatening to the inner models of the self (i.e., history of maltreatment, physical, social or psychological abuse) or the memories of these traumatic events occurring during childhood are related to the existence of paranoid beliefs in adulthood was explored. Results suggested that memories of parental behaviours characterized by antipathy from both parental figures, submissiveness and bullying victimization were important predictors of paranoid ideation in adult life. This further emphasizes the need for understanding the family and social dynamics of people presenting paranoid ideations to the development of therapeutic interventions that can effectively reduce the invalidation caused by severe psychopathology, as is the case of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Memories of family dynamics characterized by behaviours of antipathy from both parental figures, submissiveness and bullying victimization are important predictors of paranoid ideation in adult life. The study highlights the importance of exploring subjective recalls of feelings and behaviours associated with early rearing experiences, peer relationships and themes related to social rank theory in the roots of internal models of relationship with the self and others in the general sample, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Our findings indicate that schizophrenic patients in active phase differ regarding memories of threat and submission and are more likely to remember childhood experiences perceived as

  16. Generation of global political priority for early childhood development: the challenges of framing and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawar, Yusra Ribhi; Shiffman, Jeremy

    2017-01-07

    Despite progress, early childhood development (ECD) remains a neglected issue, particularly in resource-poor countries. We analyse the challenges and opportunities that ECD proponents face in advancing global priority for the issue. We triangulated among several data sources, including 19 semi-structured interviews with individuals involved in global ECD leadership, practice, and advocacy, as well as peer-reviewed research, organisation reports, and grey literature. We undertook a thematic analysis of the collected data, drawing on social science scholarship on collective action and a policy framework that elucidates why some global initiatives are more successful in generating political priority than others. The analysis indicates that the ECD community faces two primary challenges in advancing global political priority. The first pertains to framing: generation of internal consensus on the definition of the problem and solutions, agreement that could facilitate the discovery of a public positioning of the issue that could generate political support. The second concerns governance: building of effective institutions to achieve collective goals. However, there are multiple opportunities to advance political priority for ECD, including an increasingly favourable political environment, advances in ECD metrics, and the existence of compelling arguments for investment in ECD. To advance global priority for ECD, proponents will need to surmount the framing and governance challenges and leverage these opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deaf and hearing children's development of theory of mind, peer popularity, and leadership during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; O'Reilly, Karin; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-09-01

    This study had two primary aims. First, we compared deaf and hearing children during middle and late childhood on (a) cognitive understanding of basic and advanced theory of mind (ToM) and (b) social dimensions of peer group relations, including popularity, isolation, leadership, and the disposition to interact positively with peers. Second, using correlational analyses, we examined ToM's connections with these social variables to see whether and how ToM impacts children's social lives. A total of 57 children (36 deaf children of hearing parents and 21 hearing children) 6 to 14years of age completed a 6-step developmental ToM Scale, and their teachers reported on the social variables. Hearing children outperformed deaf children on ToM and all teacher-rated variables. For deaf children, popularity correlated positively, and social isolation correlated negatively, with ToM even after controlling for age, gender, and language ability. For hearing children, the only ToM link was a weak correlation with leadership. Possible reasons for the differences between deaf and hearing groups are discussed, together with the likelihood of bidirectional causal links and implications for deaf children's social development in school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Development of a tool to analyze the menus provided in early childhood daycare centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Élodie; Marquis, Marie; Côté, Stéphanie; Deschamps, Julie; Brochu, Mylène Duplessis; Grand, Philippe; Leblanc, Marie-Josée

    2011-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that there are currently no tools available to analyze the quality of the menus provided in daycare centres. An analysis grid has been developed for this purpose, specifically targeting the food served to preschool children aged 18 months and over. The tool was produced on the basis of findings from recent scientific research. The final version of the grid features 25 statements that cover types of menus, the food groups and recommendations of Canada's Food Guide, sources of protein, the supply of beverages,processed foods, cariogenic products, nutritional variety,allergens and sensory properties of foods. The data gathered using this grid will help establish recommendations for daycare administrators and kitchen managers with respect to various considerations that are key to promoting healthy eating habits in early childhood. The limitations to its use stem from the need to complement these recommendations by conducting an analysis of the recipes and ingredients used, the beverages served and the portion sizes offered.

  19. Measurement equivalence of the newly developed Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Goodwin, Shane W; Sabaz, Mark; Speechley, Kathy N

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine measurement equivalence of the newly developed Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55) across age, sex, and time in a representative sample of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Data come from 373 children enrolled in the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES), a multisite prospective cohort study. Measurement equivalence was examined using a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis framework, whereby increasingly stringent parameter constraints are imposed on the model. Comparison groups were stratified based on age (4-7 years vs. 8-12 years), sex (male vs. female), and time (measurement of health-related quality of life at diagnosis vs. 24 months later). The QOLCE-55 demonstrated measurement equivalence at the level of strict invariance for each model tested--age: χ(2) (3,123) = 4,097.3, p QOLCE-55 are perceived similarly among groups stratified by age, sex, and time and provide further evidence supporting the validity of the scale in children with epilepsy. Health professionals and researchers should be confident that group comparisons made using the QOLCE-55 are unbiased and that any group differences detected are meaningful; that is, not related to differences in the interpretation of items by informants. Future research replicating these findings is encouraged. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  1. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  2. Social skills as resources for the development of strengths in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong relationship between social competence during childhood and the subsequent psychological functioning has been found. Therefore, learning and practising social skills contribute to the development of psychological strengths in children. The aims of this paper were a to describe a series of social skills in pre-school children from San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina who live under poverty conditions, and b to identify if the presence of social skills reduces the frequency of occurrence of disruptive behaviour. We worked with a sample of 120 5- year olds from outskirts of San Miguel de Tucumán who attend public schools kindergartens. In the research their parents were administered the Scale of Social Skills (Lacunza, 2005, the Guide for Behaviour Observation (Ison & Fachinelli, 1993 and a sociodemographic survey. The results showed significant statistical differences in the social skills according to the gender and in the dimensions of physical and/or verbal aggression and transgression in the behavioural scale. Children with disruptive behaviour showed fewer social skills, according to their parents’ perception. These results show that social skills in children prevent the occurrence of dysfunctional behaviour, particularly aggressiveness and negativism. These data show that the practice of social behaviour contributes to adaptation, acceptance of others, positive reinforcement, well-being, among other salugenic resources. 

  3. Prenatal exposure to fenugreek impairs sensorimotor development and the operation of spinal cord networks in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Khalki

    Full Text Available Fenugreek is a medicinal plant whose seeds are widely used in traditional medicine, mainly for its laxative, galactagogue and antidiabetic effects. However, consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida in humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prenatal treatment of fenugreek seeds on the development of sensorimotor functions from birth to young adults. Pregnant mice were treated by gavage with 1 g/kg/day of lyophilized fenugreek seeds aqueous extract (FSAE or distilled water during the gestational period. Behavioral tests revealed in prenatally treated mice a significant delay in righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis responses and the swimming development. In addition, extracellular recording of motor output in spinal cord isolated from neonatal mice showed that the frequency of spontaneous activity and fictive locomotion was reduced in FSAE-exposed mice. On the other hand, the cross-correlation coefficient in control mice was significantly more negative than in treated animals indicating that alternating patterns are deteriorated in FSAE-treated animals. At advanced age, prenatally treated mice displayed altered locomotor coordination in the rotarod test and also changes in static and dynamic parameters assessed by the CatWalk automated gait analysis system. We conclude that FSAE impairs sensorimotor and coordination functions not only in neonates but also in adult mice. Moreover, spinal neuronal networks are less excitable in prenatally FSAE-exposed mice suggesting that modifications within the central nervous system are responsible, at least in part, for the motor impairments.

  4. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Dong, Qi; Niu, Haijing

    2018-04-01

    Early childhood (7-8 years old) and early adolescence (11-12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across development. Copyright

  5. Effects of Using Child Personas in the Development of a Digital Peer Support Service for Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnestål, Pontus; Svedberg, Petra; Lindberg, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of using child personas in the development of a digital peer support service for childhood cancer survivors. Methods The user group’s needs and behaviors were characterized based on cohort data and literature, focus group interviews with childhood cancer survivors (n=15, 8-12 years), stakeholder interviews with health care professionals and parents (n=13), user interviews, and observations. Data were interpreted and explained together with childhood cancer survivors (n=5) in three explorative design workshops and a validation workshop with children (n=7). Results We present findings and insights on how to codesign child personas in the context of developing digital peer support services with childhood cancer survivors. The work resulted in three primary personas that model the behaviors, attitudes, and goals of three user archetypes tailored for developing health-promoting services in this particular use context. Additionally, we also report on the effects of using these personas in the design of a digital peer support service called Give Me a Break. Conclusions By applying our progressive steps of data collection and analysis, we arrive at authentic child-personas that were successfully used to design and develop health-promoting services for children in vulnerable life stages. The child-personas serve as effective collaboration and

  6. Annual Research Review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems: implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.; Packard, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a “cognitive” memory system that depends upon the hippocampus and a stimulus-response “habit” memory system that depends upon the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

  7. The Role of Motive Objects in Early Childhood Teacher Development Concerning Children's Digital Play and Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…

  8. Development of constructivist theory of mind from middle childhood to early adulthood and its relation to social cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Parault Dowds, Susan J; Fabricius, William V; Schwanenflugel, Paula J; Suh, Go Woon

    2017-02-01

    Two studies examined the development of constructivist theory of mind (ToM) during late childhood and early adolescence. In Study 1, a new measure was developed to assess participants' understanding of the interpretive and constructive processes embedded in memory, comprehension, attention, comparison, planning, and inference. Using this measure, Study 2 tested a mediational model in which prosocial reasoning about conflict mediated the relation between constructivist ToM and behavior problems in high school. Results showed that the onset of constructivist ToM occurs between late childhood and early adolescence and that adolescents who have more advanced constructivist ToM have more prosocial reasoning about conflict, which in turn mediated the relation with fewer serious behavior problems in high school, after controlling for academic performance and sex. In both studies, girls showed more advanced constructivist ToM than boys in high school. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. El porque de la importancia de la ninez: Dedicando esfuerzos a la atencion y desarrollo de la primera infancia (Why Children Matter: Investing in Early Childhood Care and Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ruth; Chetley, Andrew

    This Spanish-language publication reflects the philosophy and support of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for early childhood care and development. It highlights different approaches to early childhood care and development and explains why the foundation believes that investing in early childhood is one of the best ways of building a brighter,…

  10. What the Dynamic Systems Approach Can Offer for Understanding Development: An Example of Mid-childhood Reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M; Otten, Egbert; Mouton, Leonora J; Bongers, Raoul M

    2017-01-01

    The Dynamic Systems Approach (DSA) to development has been shown to be a promising theory to understand developmental changes. In this perspective, we use the example of mid-childhood (6- to 10-years of age) reaching to show how using the DSA can advance the understanding of development. Mid-childhood is an important developmental period that has often been overshadowed by the focus on the acquisition of reaching during infancy. This underrepresentation of mid-childhood studies is unjustified, as earlier studies showed that important developmental changes in mid-childhood reaching occur that refine the skill of reaching. We review these studies here for the first time and show that different studies revealed different developmental trends, such as non-monotonic and linear trends, for variables such as movement time and accuracy at target. Unfortunately, proposed explanations for these developmental changes have been tailored to individual studies, limiting their scope. Also, explanations were focused on a single component or process in the system that supposedly causes developmental changes. Here, we propose that the DSA can offer an overarching explanation for developmental changes in this research field. According to the DSA, motor behavior emerges from interactions of multiple components entailed by the person, environment, and task. Changes in all these components can potentially contribute to the emerging behavior. We show how the principles of change of the DSA can be used as an overarching framework by applying these principles not only to development, but also the behavior itself. This underlines its applicability to other fields of development.

  11. Threads: theory of Vygotsky to learning processes and child development in early childhood education mediated by toy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Reina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objectivity to point out some of the threads of the cultural historical theory of Vygotsky partner to the process of learning and development of children in early childhood education mediated by the construction of toys and games. In this direction, looking to approach the foundations of this theory in order to internalize the reader in his work in search of reflections and readings on the theme proposed here.

  12. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Conversations about mental states and theory of mind development during middle childhood: A training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Despite 30years of productive research on theory of mind (ToM), we still know relatively little about variables that influence ToM development during middle childhood. Recent experimental studies have shown that conversations about the mind affect ToM abilities, but they have not explored the mechanisms underlying this developmental effect. In the current study, we examined two potential mechanisms through which conversations about mental states are likely to influence ToM: an increased frequency of references to mental states when explaining behavior and an increased accuracy of mental-state attributions. To this aim, we conducted a training study in which 101 children were assigned to either an intervention condition or a control condition. The conversation-based intervention was made up of four sessions scheduled over 2weeks. Children completed a battery of assessments before and after the intervention as well as 2months later. The groups were equivalent at Time 1 (T1) for age, family affluence, vocabulary, and executive functions. The ToM group showed an improvement in ToM skills (as evaluated on both the practiced tasks and a transfer task). Mediation analyses demonstrated that the accuracy of mental-state attributions, but not the mere frequency of mental-state references, mediated the positive effect of conversations about the mind on ToM development. Our results indicate that conversational experience can enhance mental-state reasoning not by simply drawing children's attention to mental states but rather by scaffolding a mature understanding of social situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and assessment of molecular diagnostic tests for 15 enteropathogens causing childhood diarrhoea: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Kabir, Furqan; Manneh, Jainaba; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Begum, Sharmin; Gratz, Jean; Becker, Steve M; Operario, Darwin J; Taniuchi, Mami; Janaki, Lalitha; Platts-Mills, James A; Haverstick, Doris M; Kabir, Mamun; Sobuz, Shihab U; Nakjarung, Kaewkanya; Sakpaisal, Pimmada; Silapong, Sasikorn; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Qureshi, Shahida; Kalam, Adil; Saidi, Queen; Swai, Ndealilia; Mujaga, Buliga; Maro, Athanasia; Kwambana, Brenda; Dione, Michel; Antonio, Martin; Kibiki, Gibson; Mason, Carl J; Haque, Rashidul; Iqbal, Najeeha; Zaidi, Anita K M; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-08-01

    Childhood diarrhoea can be caused by many pathogens that are difficult to assay in the laboratory. Molecular diagnostic techniques provide a uniform method to detect and quantify candidate enteropathogens. We aimed to develop and assess molecular tests for identification of enteropathogens and their association with disease. We developed and assessed molecular diagnostic tests for 15 enteropathogens across three platforms-PCR-Luminex, multiplex real-time PCR, and TaqMan array card-at five laboratories worldwide. We judged the analytical and clinical performance of these molecular techniques against comparator methods (bacterial culture, ELISA, and PCR) using 867 diarrhoeal and 619 non-diarrhoeal stool specimens. We also measured molecular quantities of pathogens to predict the association with diarrhoea, by univariate logistic regression analysis. The molecular tests showed very good analytical and clinical performance at all five laboratories. Comparator methods had limited sensitivity compared with the molecular techniques (20-85% depending on the target) but good specificity (median 97·3%, IQR 96·5-98·9; mean 95·2%, SD 9·1). Positive samples by comparator methods usually had higher molecular quantities of pathogens than did negative samples, across almost all platforms and for most pathogens (pMolecular diagnostic tests can be implemented successfully and with fidelity across laboratories around the world. In the case of diarrhoea, these techniques can detect pathogens with high sensitivity and ascribe diarrhoeal associations based on quantification, including in mixed infections, providing rich and unprecedented measurements of infectious causes. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Next Generation Molecular Diagnostics Project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cesarean section delivery and development of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma, Evangelia; Triga, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may predispose to allergic disorders, presumably due to alterations in the establishment of normal gut microbiota in early infancy. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between CS and physician-diagnosed food allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life, using data from a homogeneous, population-based, birth cohort. A total of 459 children born and cared for in the same tertiary maternity unit were examined at birth and followed up at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Participants with symptoms suggestive of food allergy or atopic dermatitis were evaluated by a pediatric allergy specialist to confirm the diagnosis based on well-defined criteria. The rate of CS was 50.8% (n = 233). Food allergy was diagnosed in 24 participants (5.2%) while atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 62 children (13.5%). Cesarean section (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14-8.70), atopic dermatitis of the child (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.18-7.80), parental atopy (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.73-12.1), and gestational age (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07-2.37) were significant and independent predictors of food allergy. Children with at least one allergic parent delivered by CS had higher probability of developing food allergy compared with vaginally delivered children of non-allergic parents (OR 10.0; 95% CI 3.06-32.7). Conversely, the effect of CS on atopic dermatitis was not significant (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.74-2.47). Delivery by CS predisposes to the development of food allergy but not atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Cesarean section delivery seems to upregulate the immune response to food allergens, especially in children with allergic predisposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  17. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Kuh, Diana L

    2015-01-01

    Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention. Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64. Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered. Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  18. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Stafford

    Full Text Available Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention.Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64.Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered.Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  19. Differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences in the development of mental health symptoms in post-war adolescents in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-09-09

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.

  20. Development of a Primary Care-Based Clinic to Support Adults With a History of Childhood Cancer: The Tactic Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, Linda S; Moss, Kerry M; Kilbourn, Kristin; Risendal, Betsy; Jones, Alison F; Greffe, Brian S; Garrington, Timothy; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; Yamashita, Traci E; Kutner, Jean S

    2015-01-01

    Describe the development and evolution of a primary-care-based, multidisciplinary clinic to support the ongoing care of adult survivors of childhood cancer. A consultative clinic for adult survivors of childhood cancer has been developed that is located in an adult, academic internal medicine setting and is based on a long-term follow-up clinic model available at Children's Hospital Colorado. The clinic opened in July 2008. One hundred thirty-five patients have been seen as of April 2014. Referrals and clinic capacity have gradually increased over time, and a template has been developed in the electronic medical record to help facilitate completion of individualized care plan letters. A primary care-based, multidisciplinary consultative clinic for adults with a history of childhood cancer survivor is feasible and actively engages adult primary care resources to provide risk-based care for long-term pediatric cancer survivors. This model of care planning can help support adult survivors of pediatric cancer and their primary care providers in non-academic, community settings as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Renée; Thienel, Anna; Mitternacht, Jürgen; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Alves-Pinto, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the developing brain may lead to impairment of the hand motor function and negatively impact on patients’ quality of life. Development of manual dexterity and finger and hand motor function may be promoted by learning to play the piano. The latter brings together music with the intensive training of hand coordination and fine finger mobility. We investigated if learning to play the piano helped to improve hand motor skills in 18 youths with hand motor disorders resulting from damage during early brain development. Participants trained 35–40 minutes twice a week for 18 months with a professional piano teacher. With the use of a Musical Instrument Digital Interface piano, the uniformity of finger strokes could be objectively assessed from the timing of keystrokes. The analysis showed a significant improvement in the uniformity of keystrokes during the training. Furthermore, the youths showed strong motivation and engagement during the study. This is nevertheless an open study, and further studies remain needed to exclude effects of growth and concomitant therapies on the improvements observed and clarify which patients will more likely benefit from learning to play the piano. PMID:26345312

  3. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2017-08-01

    To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and 28 children with normal vision (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 4 months); 14 boys) participated in the study. The ManuVis age band for 3-year-old children comprised two one-handed tasks, two two-handed tasks, and a pre-writing task. Children with visual impairment needed more time on all tasks (p children with normal vision (p Children aged 42-47 months performed significantly faster on two tasks and had better total scores than children aged 36-41 months (p children is appropriate to assess fine motor skills, and is sensitive to differences between children with visual impairment and normal vision and between half-year age groups. Reference scores are provided for 3-year-old children with visual impairment to identify delayed fine motor development.

  4. Picture Naming in Typically Developing and Language-Impaired Children: The Role of Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R.; Roelofs, Ardi; Scheper, Annette R.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems not only with language performance but also with sustained attention, which is the ability to maintain alertness over an extended period of time. Although there is consensus that this ability is impaired with respect to processing stimuli in the auditory perceptual…

  5. Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood : Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence

  6. How changes in nutrition have influenced the development of allergic diseases in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi correlati. Gli alimenti che

  7. How changes in nutrition have influenced the development of allergic diseases in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peroni Diego G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi

  8. Early Childhood Nutritional Status in CARICOM Countries: An Overview with respect to Five Nutrition Related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Gaskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  9. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  10. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... among girls and boys and at all ages between 6 and 13 years. Furthermore, the association between birth weight and increased risk of overweight in childhood remained stable across a 48-year period. DISCUSSION: The increase in the prevalence of overweight could not be explained by time trends...... in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity...

  11. An Approach towards Promoting Iranian Caregivers’ Knowledge on Early Childhood Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO, parents need to be informed about Early Childhood Development (ECD. Different methods of parents’ education include group-based, face-to-face, book, booklet, web-based, technology-based, and mobile learning using laptops, tablets, and cell phones. Paying attention to caregivers' attitudes is the first step to their education. The objectives of this study were to determine parental education requirements and the best approach towards promoting caregivers` knowledge about ECD, from the perspective of the Iranian main child caregivers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach with directional content analysis method was used. Participants were selected through purposive sampling. Thirty-one child-caregivers participated in 5 individual interviews and 5 focus group discussions (FGDs. Participants were parents and grandparents that had less than the 36-month child (grandchild, and kindergarten staffs. Four criteria namely: validity, transferability, reliability and verifiability were used to validate data. Results: According to the perspective of participants, two main themes were requirements for parent education (educators, educational content, time, place, and approach to educate child caregivers (mobile learning, group and face-to-face education, electronic learning, media, physical resources, totally 98 sub-themes. Finally the best approach to educate child caregivers was a multi-model approach includes group or face-to-face education with mobile learning. Conclusion: Participants suggested a multi-model approach based on traditional and modern technological methods, especially mobile learning (smartphone. They believed that the educational approach should be flexible and selectable, so caregivers can choose an appropriate individual method.

  12. The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; De Haan, Amaranta D; Asscher, Jessica J; Widiger, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5 years), mothers and fathers reported the Big Five personality dimensions 4 times across 8 years. Children's vector length in a 5-dimensional configuration of the Big Five dimensions represented personality extremity. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported children's internalizing and externalizing problems at the 1st and final measurement. In a cohort-sequential design, we modeled personality extremity in children and adolescents from ages 6 to 17 years. Growth mixture modeling revealed a similar solution for both mother and father reports: a large group with relatively short vectors that were stable over time (mother reports: 80.3%; father reports: 84.7%) and 2 smaller groups with relatively long vectors (i.e., extreme personality configuration). One group started out relatively extreme and decreased over time (mother reports: 13.2%; father reports: 10.4%), whereas the other group started out only slightly higher than the short vector group but increased across time (mother reports: 6.5%; father reports: 4.9%). Children who belonged to the increasingly extreme class experienced more internalizing and externalizing problems in late adolescence, controlling for previous levels of adjustment problems and the Big Five personality dimensions. Personality extremity may be important to consider when identifying children at risk for adjustment problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F; Abela, John R Z; Smolen, Andrew; Jenness, Jessica L; Gulley, Lauren D; Technow, Jessica R; Gottlieb, Andrea Barrocas; Cohen, Joseph R; Oppenheimer, Caroline W

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental illness with clear developmental patterns from childhood through late adolescence. Here, we present data from the Gene Environment Mood (GEM) study, which used an accelerated longitudinal cohort design with youth (N = 665) starting in 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades, and a caretaker, who were recruited from the general community, and were then assessed repeatedly through semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months over 3 years (7 waves of data) to establish and then predict trajectories of depression from age 8 to 18. First, we demonstrated that overall prevalence rates of depression over time, by age, gender, and pubertal status, in the GEM study closely match those trajectories previously obtained in past developmental epidemiological research. Second, we tested whether a genetic vulnerability-stress model involving 5-HTTLPR and chronic peer stress was moderated by developmental factors. Results showed that older aged adolescents with SS/SL genotype, who experienced higher peer chronic stress over 3 years, were the most likely to be diagnosed with a depressive episode over time. Girls experiencing greater peer chronic stress were the most likely to develop depression. This study used repeated assessments of diagnostic interviewing in a moderately large sample of youth over 3 years to show that depression rates increase in middle to late adolescence, or postpubertally, and that the gender difference in depression emerges earlier in adolescence (age 12.5), or postpubertally. Additionally, genetically susceptible older adolescents who experience chronic peer stress were the most likely to become depressed over time. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Development and assessment of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Shane W; Ferro, Mark A; Speechley, Kathy N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a brief version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). A secondary aim was to compare the results described in previously published studies using the QOLCE-55 with those obtained using the new brief version. Data come from 373 children involved in the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study, a multicenter prospective cohort study. Item response theory (IRT) methods were used to assess dimensionality and item properties and to guide the selection of items. Replication of results using the brief measure was conducted with multiple regression, multinomial regression, and latent mixture modeling techniques. IRT methods identified a bi-factor graded response model that best fits the data. Thirty-nine items were removed, resulting in a 16-item QOLCE (QOLCE-16) with an equal number of items in all 4 domains of functioning (Cognitive, Emotional, Social, and Physical). Model fit was excellent: Comparative Fit Index = 0.99; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.052 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.041-0.064); weighted root mean square = 0.76. Results that were reported previously using the QOLCE-55 and QOLCE-76 were comparable to those generated using the QOLCE-16. The QOLCE-16 is a multidimensional measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with good psychometric properties and a short-estimated completion time. It is notable that the items were calibrated using multidimensional IRT methods to create a measure that conforms to conventional definitions of HRQoL. The QOLCE-16 is an appropriate measure for both clinicians and researchers wanting to record HRQoL information in children with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Assessing locomotor skills development in childhood using wearable inertial sensor devices: the running paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Bergamini, Elena; Pesce, Caterina; Getchell, Nancy; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2013-04-01

    Objective quantitative evaluation of motor skill development is of increasing importance to carefully drive physical exercise programs in childhood. Running is a fundamental motor skill humans adopt to accomplish locomotion, which is linked to physical activity levels, although the assessment is traditionally carried out using qualitative evaluation tests. The present study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using inertial sensors to quantify developmental differences in the running pattern of young children. Qualitative and quantitative assessment tools were adopted to identify a skill-sensitive set of biomechanical parameters for running and to further our understanding of the factors that determine progression to skilled running performance. Running performances of 54 children between the ages of 2 and 12 years were submitted to both qualitative and quantitative analysis, the former using sequences of developmental level, the latter estimating temporal and kinematic parameters from inertial sensor measurements. Discriminant analysis with running developmental level as dependent variable allowed to identify a set of temporal and kinematic parameters, within those obtained with the sensor, that best classified children into the qualitative developmental levels (accuracy higher than 67%). Multivariate analysis of variance with the quantitative parameters as dependent variables allowed to identify whether and which specific parameters or parameter subsets were differentially sensitive to specific transitions between contiguous developmental levels. The findings showed that different sets of temporal and kinematic parameters are able to tap all steps of the transitional process in running skill described through qualitative observation and can be prospectively used for applied diagnostic and sport training purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early childhood development: the role of community based childcare centres in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Alister C; Mvula, Peter M; Silo, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Somatic changes including growth and development of the brain of a human being occur very early in life. Programmes that enhance early childhood development (ECD) therefore should be part of the national agenda. Cognizant of this fact, the Malawi Government together with development partners facilitated the establishment of community-based child care centres (CBCCs) which are owned and managed by community members. This study was aimed at understanding how CBCCs operated and their core functions. Using information from databases kept by the District Social Welfare Officers from all the 28 districts in Malawi, coupled with snowballing, all functioning CBCCs were enumerated. A questionnaire was administered to the head of the CBCC or a care giver. Highly trained Research Assistants also carried our observations of the structures around the centres and the activities that actually happened. Data was analysed using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Communities provide structures, support for care givers, food, utensils, labour and play materials for the children in CBCCs. The first ECD centre was established in 1966 but the real surge in establishing these happened towards the end of the 1990s and by 2007 there were 5,665 CBCCs in Malawi caring for 407,468 children aged between 3 and 5 years. CBCCs were established to provide pre-primary school learning, and in some cases provide special care to orphans and other vulnerable. Despite the fact that most CBCC premises and structures fell short of the standards laid down by the CBCC profile, the activities and services provided were mostly to the book. Children were provided with nutritious foods and subjected to play that stimulated their cognitive and mental development. Despite the fact that some members of the community do not realize the value of the CBCCs, the existence of these institutions is an opportunity for the community to take care of their children communally, a task that has become imperative as a

  17. 20 CFR 404.1511 - Definition of a disabling impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of a disabling impairment. 404... Definition of a disabling impairment. (a) Disabled workers, persons disabled since childhood and, for months... disabling impairment is an impairment (or combination of impairments) which, of itself, is so severe that it...

  18. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H; Butters, Meryl A; Gentry, Amanda L; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Klunk, William E; Mattos, Meghan K; Parker, Lisa A; Roberts, J Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-03-08

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test disclosures of amyloid imaging research results in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using simulated sessions, persons with MCI and their family care partners (N = 10 dyads) received fictitious but realistic information regarding brain amyloid status, followed by an explanation of how results impact Alzheimer's disease risk. Satisfaction surveys, comprehension assessments, and focus group data were analyzed to evaluate the materials developed. The majority of persons with MCI and their care partners comprehended and were highly satisfied with the information presented. Focus group data reinforced findings of high satisfaction and included 6 recommendations for practice: 1) offer pre-test counseling, 2) use clear graphics, 3) review participants' own brain images during disclosures, 4) offer take-home materials, 5) call participants post-disclosure to address emerging questions, and 6) communicate seamlessly with primary care providers. Further analysis of focus group data revealed that participants understood the limitations of amyloid imaging, but nevertheless viewed the prospect of learning one's amyloid status as valuable and empowering.

  19. A Development of a Knowledge Management Model of Supervision of Practicum Students in Early Childhood Education, Faculty of Education, Mahasarakham University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikunyarphat Rangsriborwornkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a model of knowledge management of supervision of practicum students in early childhood education. The target groups were 1 four supervisors in Early Childhood Education program, faculty of Education, Mahasarakham University and 2 thirty-three fifth-year practicum students in early childhood education practicing in professional experience at schools which located in Mahasarakham, Khonkaen, and Roi-Et provinces. The research tool was a survey form of supervision of practicum students. Content analysis was used. The research findings showed that 1 a development of the knowledge management model of supervision of practicum students in early childhood education contained 3 phases: phase I – studying need assessment, phase II – developing a model and phase III – conclusion and 2 data from the survey form of knowledge management of supervision categorized into two aspects, namely, appropriate practices and inappropriate practices.

  20. Speech Motor Development in Childhood Apraxia of Speech : Generating Testable Hypotheses by Neurocomputational Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a highly controversial clinical entity, with respect to both clinical signs and underlying neuromotor deficit. In the current paper, we advocate a modeling approach in which a computational neural model of speech acquisition and production is utilized in order to

  1. Speech motor development in childhood apraxia of speech: generating testable hypotheses by neurocomputational modeling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; Maassen, B.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a highly controversial clinical entity, with respect to both clinical signs and underlying neuromotor deficit. In the current paper, we advocate a modeling approach in which a computational neural model of speech acquisition and production is utilized in order to

  2. Performance: A Strategy for Professional Development in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann; Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Susan; Peck, Nancy F.; Zheng, Yu Zhu; Kruse, Aryn; Haines, Shana J.; Weigel, Cindy J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose performance as a creative instructional strategy to convey complex competencies related to understanding and working effectively with families in early childhood education. Performance derives from performance ethnography, which is a qualitative research methodology. Its application to professional…

  3. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  4. The Role of Reinforcement Sensitivity in the Development of Childhood Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to childhood personality at three levels of the hierarchical structure, mid-level traits, the Big Five and two higher-order factors, and the moderating role of sex and age in a sample of 3-18-year-olds. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and…

  5. An Effective Approach to Developing Function-Based Interventions in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brenna K.; Ferro, Jolenea B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unique features of early childhood classrooms, teachers routinely modify the social and physical environment to support children with mild to moderate challenges. Yet despite their access to behavioral consultants, school-based prekindergarten programs are more likely to expel young children from their classroom settings compared with…

  6. The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social…

  7. Creative Connecting: Early Childhood Nature Journaling Sparks Wonder and Develops Ecological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    While nature journaling with elementary age children has recently increased in popularity, journaling with children of ages 2-6 is often overlooked. This article focuses specifically on why journaling is a valid practice in early childhood and the practitioner application of journaling techniques modified for the young child. Young children have…

  8. Current Provision, Recent Developments, and Future Directions for Early Childhood Intervention in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Lim, Ai-Keow

    2012-01-01

    Singapore is a young island nation with a diverse population. Its support for young children at risk has its roots in the 1950s, but early childhood intervention (ECI) programs for young children with disabilities emerged only in the 1980s. ECI programs have proliferated in the subsequent years, offering an increasing range of service delivery…

  9. Indices of Neonatal Prematurity as Discriminators of Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Harvey B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The comparative value of various parameters of neonatal prematurity for differentiating intellective, scholastic, and social functioning in middle childhood was assessed for a sample of 38 prematurely born and 26 maturely born subjects aged 7 to 9.5 years. (Author/JMB)

  10. Biology of childhood osteogenic sarcoma and potential targets for therapeutic development : Meeting summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorlick, R; Anderson, P; Andrulis, [No Value; Arndt, C; Beardsley, GP; Bernstein, M; Bridge, J; Cheung, NK; Dome, JS; Ebb, D; Gardner, T; Gebhardt, M; Grier, H; Hansen, M; Healey, J; Helman, L; Hock, J; Houghton, J; Houghton, P; Huvos, A; Khanna, C; Kieran, M; Kleinerman, E; Ladanyi, M; Lau, C; Malkin, D; Marina, N; Meltzer, P; Meyers, P; Schofield, D; Schwartz, C; Smith, MA; Toretsky, J; Tsokos, M; Wexler, L; Wigginton, J; Withrow, S; Schoenfeldt, M; Anderson, B

    2003-01-01

    Childhood osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is a rare bone cancer occurring primarily in adolescents. The North American pediatric cooperative groups have performed a series of clinical treatment trials in this disease over the past several decades, and biology studies of tumor tissue have been an important

  11. Some effects of radiation therapy during early childhood on facial growth and tooth development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.P.; Nortje, C.J.; Lucchesi, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Case histories of the dental examinations of 2 children who were treated by radiation therapy for retinoblastomas in early childhood are discussed. The evidence presented here seems to indicate that in both patients early irradiation of the orbits and, as a result thereof, the jaws, could be partly responsible for the underdevelopment of this region

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  13. Praxis, Ethics and Power: Developing Praxeology as a Participatory Paradigm for Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The discipline and practice of participatory, practice-led research has grown rapidly in recent years and it is now widely accepted as making an important and serious contribution to the knowledge base of early childhood. Despite this progress recently we have come to understand that our worldview has needed to shift again in response to the…

  14. Early Childhood Education and Care in the Netherlands : Quality, Curriculum, and Relations with Child Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    The studies reported in this dissertation are part of the national cohort study pre-COOL to evaluate the developmental and educational effects of early childhood education and care (ECEC) provisions in the Netherlands. More specifically, we evaluated the quality of a large representative sample of

  15. The Role of Verbal Threat Information in the Development of Childhood Fear. "Beware the Jabberwock!"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.P. Field (Andy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRachman's (Behaviour Research and Therapy 15:372-387, 1977; Clinical Psychology Review 11:155-173, 1991) three pathways theory proposed that childhood fears not only arise as a consequence of direct learning experiences, but can also be elicited by means of threat information

  16. The Role of Verbal Threat Information in the Development of Childhood Fear. "Beware the Jabberwock!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Field, Andy P.

    2010-01-01

    Rachman's ("Behaviour Research and Therapy" 15:372-387, 1977; "Clinical Psychology Review" 11:155-173, 1991) three pathways theory proposed that childhood fears not only arise as a consequence of direct learning experiences, but can also be elicited by means of threat information transmission. This review looks at the scientific evidence for this…

  17. Health problems in childhood cancer survivors: Linkage studies and guideline development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Gonzalez, A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis comprises two parts. The first part of this thesis aims to increase the evidence on the burden of disease in childhood cancer survivors and to define high-risk groups of survivors by using medical record linkage studies. A two-step record linkage methodology between Dutch national

  18. Identifying Children at Risk of Problematic Development: Latent Clusters Among Childhood Arrestees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, C.A.M.L.; van Domburgh, L.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Bouwmeester, S.; Galindo Garre, F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of clusters characterized by distinct profiles of individual, family and peer characteristics among childhood arrestees was investigated and cluster membership stability after 2 years was determined. Identification of such clusters in this heterogeneous at-risk group can extend insight

  19. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS: a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective : To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method : The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222, an internet sample (n=123, and psychiatric outpatients (n=30. Results : The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions : Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted.

  20. Classification of functioning and impairment: the development of ICF core sets for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; de Schipper, Elles; Robison, John E; Wong, Virginia C N; Selb, Melissa; Singhal, Nidhi; de Vries, Petrus J; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-02-01

    Given the variability seen in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), accurate quantification of functioning is vital to studying outcome and quality of life in affected individuals. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive, universally accepted framework for the description of health-related functioning. ICF Core Sets are shortlists of ICF categories that are selected to capture those aspects of functioning that are most relevant when describing a person with a specific condition. In this paper, the authors preview the process for developing ICF Core Sets for ASD, a collaboration with the World Health Organization and the ICF Research Branch. The ICF Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) was derived from the ICF and designed to capture the specific situation of the developing child. As ASD affects individuals throughout the life span, and the ICF-CY includes all ICF categories, the ICF-CY will be used in this project ("ICF(-CY)" from now on). The ICF(-CY) categories to be included in the ICF Core Sets for ASD will be determined at an ICF Core Set Consensus Conference, where evidence from four preparatory studies (a systematic review, an expert survey, a patient and caregiver qualitative study, and a clinical cross-sectional study) will be integrated. Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for ASD will be developed with the goal of providing useful standards for research and clinical practice and generating a common language for functioning and impairment in ASD in different areas of life and across the life span. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.