WorldWideScience

Sample records for impact wastewater treatment

  1. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  2. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  3. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  4. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-05

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases.

  5. Investigation of the environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment plants through a Life Cycle Assessment software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Ferrara, C

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the total and per capita environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment in the function of the population equivalent (PE) with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach using the processes of the Ecoinvent 2.2 database available in the software tool SimaPro v.7.3. Besides the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the study also considers the sewerage system. The obtained results confirm that there is a 'scale factor' for the wastewater collection and treatment even in environmental terms, in addition to the well-known scale factor in terms of management costs. Thus, the more the treatment plant size is, the less the per capita environmental impacts are. However, the Ecoinvent 2.2 database does not contain information about treatment systems with a capacity lower than 30 PE. Nevertheless, worldwide there are many sparsely populated areas, where it is not convenient to realize a unique centralized WWTP. Therefore, it would be very important to conduct an LCA study in order to compare alternative on-site small-scale systems with treatment capacity of few PE.

  6. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Villagrasa, Marta; López de Alda, Miren; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Barceló, Damià

    2013-01-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  7. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Villagrasa, Marta [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); López de Alda, Miren, E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc [AGBAR-Aigües de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 211, E-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  8. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  9. Glocal assessment of integrated wastewater treatment and recovery concepts using partial nitritation/Anammox and microalgae for environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiewwijit, Rungnapha; Rijnaarts, Huub; Temmink, Hardy; Keesman, Karel J

    2018-07-01

    This study explored the feasibility and estimated the environmental impacts of two novel wastewater treatment configurations. Both include combined bioflocculation and anaerobic digestion but apply different nutrient removal technologies, i.e. partial nitritation/Anammox or microalgae treatment. The feasibility of such configurations was investigated for 16 locations worldwide with respect to environmental impacts, such as net energy yield, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, CO 2 emission, and area requirements. The results quantitatively support the applicability of partial nitritation/Anammox in tropical regions and some locations in temperate regions, whereas microalgae treatment is only applicable the whole year round in tropical regions that are close to the equator line. Microalgae treatment has an advantage over the configuration with partial nitritation/Anammox with respect to aeration energy and nutrient recovery, but not with area requirements. Differential sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of microalgal biomass yield and wastewater nutrient concentrations on area requirements and effluent quality. This study provides initial selection criteria for worldwide feasibility and corresponding environmental impacts of these novel municipal wastewater treatment plant configurations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Operating household wastewater treatment plants in the light of binding quality standards for wastewater discharged to water bodies or to soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawecki Bartosz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the legal requirements concerning the quality of wastewater discharged to waterbodies and to soil after treatment in household wastewater treatment plants located in agglomerations or outside them. The procedure of stopping the operation of a household treatment plant that doesn’t meet the statutory wastewater treatment efficiency was presented. The decision ordering to stop the use of a household wastewater treatment plant has to be preceded by a decision ordering to take measures to limit its adverse impact on the environment. The clarification procedure has to determine the adverse impact on the environment in a doubtless manner and it has to be reflected in the documentation. The assessment of adverse impact should take into account the binding standards of use of the environment. Stopping the operation of a household wastewater treatment plant may result in issuing a decision ordering the user to connect to the sanitary sewage system.

  11. Sea level rise impacts on wastewater treatment systems along the U.S. coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, M.; Berry, M.; Stacey, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    As sea levels rise, coastal communities will experience more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding, and some low-lying areas may be permanently inundated. Critical components of lifeline infrastructure networks in these areas are also at risk of flooding, which could cause significant service disruptions that extend beyond the flooded zone. Thus, identifying critical infrastructure components that are vulnerable to sea level rise is an important first step in developing targeted investment in protective actions and enhancing the overall resilience of coastal communities. Wastewater treatment plants are typically located at low elevations near the coastline to minimize the cost of collecting consumed water and discharging treated effluent, which makes them particularly susceptible to coastal flooding. For this analysis, we used geographic information systems to assess the vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure to various sea level rise projections at the national level. We then estimated the number of people who would lose wastewater services, which could be more than three times as high as previous predictions of the number of people at risk of direct flooding due to sea level rise. We also considered several case studies of wastewater infrastructure in mid-sized cities to determine how topography and system configuration (centralized versus distributed) impact vulnerability. Overall, this analysis highlights the widespread vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure in the U.S. and demonstrates that local disruptions to infrastructure networks may have far-ranging impacts on areas that do not experience direct flooding.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  13. The impact of tertiary wastewater treatment on copper and zinc complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, C; Gardner, M; Comber, S D W; Scrimshaw, M D; Ellor, B

    2015-01-01

    Tightening quality standards for European waters has seen a move towards enhanced wastewater treatment technologies such as granulated organic carbon treatment and ozonation. Although these technologies are likely to be successful in degrading certain micro-organic contaminants, these may also destroy compounds which would otherwise complex and render metals significantly less toxic. This study examined the impact of enhanced tertiary treatment on the capacity of organic compounds within sewage effluents to complex copper and zinc. The data show that granulated organic carbon treatment removes a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction that is unimportant to complexation such that no detrimental impact on complexation or metal bioavailability is likely to occur from this treatment type. High concentrations of ozone (>1 mg O3/mg DOC) are, however, likely to impact the complexation capacity for copper although this is unlikely to be important at the concentrations of copper typically found in effluent discharges or in rivers. Ozone treatment did not affect zinc complexation capacity. The complexation profiles of the sewage effluents show these to contain a category of non-humic ligand that appears unaffected by tertiary treatment and which displays a high affinity for zinc, suggesting these may substantially reduce the bioavailability of zinc in effluent discharges. The implication is that traditional metal bioavailability assessment approaches such as the biotic ligand model may overestimate zinc bioavailability in sewage effluents and effluent-impacted waters.

  14. Evaluating the impacts of triclosan on wastewater treatment performance during startup and acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzem, R M; Gardner, C M; Gunsch, C K

    2018-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad range antimicrobial agent used in many personal care products, which is commonly discharged to wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs). This study examined the impact of TCS on wastewater treatment performance using laboratory bench-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) coupled with anaerobic digesters. The SBRs were continuously fed synthetic wastewater amended with or without 0.68 μM TCS, with the aim of determining the effect of chronic TCS exposure as opposed to a pulse TCS addition as previously studied. Overall, the present study suggests inhibition of nitrogen removal during reactor startup. However, NH 4 + removal fully rebounded after 63 days, suggesting acclimation of the associated microbial communities to TCS. An initial decrease in microbial community diversity was observed in the SBRs fed TCS as compared to the control SBRs, followed by an increase in community diversity, which coincided with the increase in NH 4 + removal. Elevated levels of NO 3 - and NO 2 - were found in the reactor effluent after day 58, however, suggesting ammonia oxidizing bacteria rebounding more rapidly than nitrogen oxidizing bacteria. Similar effects on treatment efficiencies at actual WWTFs have not been widely observed, suggesting that continuous addition of TCS in their influent may have selected for TCS-resistant nitrogen oxidizing bacteria.

  15. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  16. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  17. Two-year survey of specific hospital wastewater treatment and its impact on pharmaceutical discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Laure; Chonova, Teofana; Bergé, Alexandre; Baudot, Robert; Bessueille-Barbier, Frédérique; Ayouni-Derouiche, Linda; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that pharmaceuticals are not completely removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Hospital effluents are of major concern, as they present high concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds. Despite this, these specific effluents are usually co-treated with domestic wastewaters. Separate treatment has been recommended. However, there is a lack of information concerning the efficiency of separate hospital wastewater treatment by activated sludge, especially on the removal of pharmaceuticals. In this context, this article presents the results of a 2-year monitoring of conventional parameters, surfactants, gadolinium, and 13 pharmaceuticals on the specific study site SIPIBEL. This site allows the characterization of urban and hospital wastewaters and their separate treatment using the same process. Flow proportional sampling, solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used in order to obtain accurate data and limits of quantification consistent with ultra-trace detection. Thanks to these consolidated data, an in-depth characterization of urban and hospital wastewaters was realized, as well as a comparison of treatment efficiency between both effluents. Higher concentrations of organic carbon, AOX, phosphates, gadolinium, paracetamol, ketoprofen, and antibiotics were observed in hospital wastewaters compared to urban wastewaters. Globally higher removals were observed in the hospital wastewater treatment plant, and some parameters were shown to be of high importance regarding removal efficiencies: hydraulic retention time, redox conditions, and ambient temperature. Eleven pharmaceuticals were still quantified at relevant concentrations in hospital and urban wastewaters after treatment (e.g., up to 1 μg/L for sulfamethoxazole). However, as the urban flow was about 37 times higher than the hospital flow, the hospital contribution appeared relatively low compared to

  18. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  19. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  20. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  1. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  2. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  3. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  4. Sea Level Rise Impacts on Wastewater Treatment Systems Along the U.S. Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle A.; Berry, Matthew S.; Stacey, Mark T.

    2018-04-01

    As sea levels rise, coastal communities will experience more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding, and some low-lying areas may be permanently inundated. Critical components of lifeline infrastructure networks in these areas are also at risk of flooding, which could cause significant service disruptions that extend beyond the flooded zone. Thus, identifying critical infrastructure components that are exposed to sea level rise is an important first step in developing targeted investment in protective actions and enhancing the overall resilience of coastal communities. Wastewater treatment plants are typically located at low elevations near the coastline to minimize the cost of collecting consumed water and discharging treated effluent, which makes them particularly susceptible to coastal flooding. For this analysis, we used geographic information systems to assess the exposure of wastewater infrastructure to various sea level rise projections at the national level. We then estimated the number of people who would lose wastewater services, which could be more than five times as high as previous predictions of the number of people at risk of direct flooding due to sea level rise. We also performed a regional comparison of wastewater exposure to marine and groundwater flooding in the San Francisco Bay Area. Overall, this analysis highlights the widespread exposure of wastewater infrastructure in the United States and demonstrates that local disruptions to infrastructure networks may have far-ranging impacts on areas that do not experience direct flooding.

  5. Wastewater treatment by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanti, R.; Susanto, H.

    2018-03-01

    Lower energy consumption compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and higher rejection compared to ultrafiltration make nanofiltration (NF) membrane get more and more attention for wastewater treatment. NF has become a promising technology not only for treating wastewater but also for reusing water from wastewater. This paper presents various application of NF for wastewater treatments. The factors affecting the performance of NF membranes including operating conditions, feed characteristics and membrane characteristics were discussed. In addition, fouling as a severe problem during NF application is also presented. Further, future prospects and challenges of NF for wastewater treatments are explained.

  6. Life cycle environmental impacts of advanced wastewater treatment techniques for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon Tarpani, Raphael Ricardo; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-06-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are of increasing interest because of their ecotoxicological properties and environmental impacts. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the main pathway for their release into freshwaters due to the inefficiency of conventional WWTPs in removing many of these contaminants from effluents. Therefore, different advanced effluent treatment techniques have been proposed for their treatment. However, it is not known at present how effective these treatment methods are and whether on a life cycle basis they cause other environmental impacts which may outweigh the benefits of the treatment. In an effort to provide an insight into this question, this paper considers life cycle environmental impacts of the following advanced treatment techniques aimed at reducing freshwater ecotoxicity potential of PPCPs: granular activated carbon (GAC), nanofiltration (NF), solar photo-Fenton (SPF) and ozonation. The results suggest that on average NF has the lowest impacts for 13 out of 18 categories considered. GAC is the best alternative for five impacts, including metals and water depletion, but it has the highest marine eutrophication. SPF and ozonation are the least sustainable for eight impacts, including ecotoxicity and climate change. GAC and NF are also more efficient in treating heavy metals while avoiding generation of harmful by-products during the treatment, thus being more suitable for potable reuse of wastewater. However, releasing the effluent without advanced treatment to agricultural land achieves a much higher reduction of freshwater ecotoxicity than treating it by any of the advanced treatments and releasing to the environment. Therefore, the use of advanced effluent treatment for agricultural purposes is not recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives on modelling micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouzot, Ludiwine; Cloutier, Frédéric; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Models for predicting the fate of micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been developed to provide engineers and decision-makers with tools that they can use to improve their understanding of, and evaluate how to optimize, the removal of MPs and determine their impact......) addressing advancements in WWTP treatment technologies, (iii) making use of common approaches to data acquisition for model calibration and (iv) integrating ecotoxicological effects of MPs in receiving waters....... on the receiving waters. This paper provides an overview of such models, and discusses the impact of regulation, engineering practice and research on model development. A review of the current status of MP models reveals that a single model cannot represent the wide range of MPs that are present in wastewaters...

  8. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  9. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    Since the era of industrialization, concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have tremendously increased in the atmosphere, as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, improper waste management, transport, and other economic activities (Boer, 2008).This has led to a great accumulation of greenhouse gases, forming a blanket around the Earth which contributes in the so-called "Global Warming". Over the last decades, wastewater treatment has developed strongly and has become a very important asset in mitigating the impact of domestic and industrial effluents on the environment. There are many different forms of wastewater treatment, and one of the most effective treatment technology in terms COD, N and P removal, activated sludge is often criticized for its high energy use. Some other treatment concepts have a more "green" image, but it is not clear whether this image is justified based on their greenhouse gas emission. This study focuses on the estimation of GHG emissions of four different wastewater treatment configurations, both conventional and innovative systems namely: (1) Harnaschpolder, (2) Sneek, (3) EIER-Ouaga and (4) Siddhipur. This analysis is based on COD mass balance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for estimating CO2 and CH4, and literature review. Furthermore, the energy requirements for each of the systems were estimated based on energy survey. The study showed that an estimated daily average of 87 g of CO2 equivalent, ranging between 38 to 192 g, was derived to be the per capita CO2 emission for the four different wastewater treatment scenarios. Despite the fact that no electrical energy is used in the treatment process, the GHG emission from EIER Ouaga anaerobic pond systems is found to be the highest compared to the three other scenarios analysed. It was estimated 80% higher than the most favourable scenario (Sneek). Moreover, the results indicate that the GHGs emitted from these WWTPs are

  10. Optimizing the selection of small-town wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Siqi

    2018-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment is energy-intensive. This high energy consumption causes high sewage treatment plant operating costs and increases the energy burden. To mitigate the adverse impacts of China’s development, sewage treatment plants should adopt effective energy-saving technologies. Artificial fortified natural water treatment and use of activated sludge and biofilm are all suitable technologies for small-town sewage treatment. This study features an analysis of the characteristics of small and medium-sized township sewage, an overview of current technologies, and a discussion of recent progress in sewage treatment. Based on this, an analysis of existing problems in municipal wastewater treatment is presented, and countermeasures to improve sewage treatment in small and medium-sized towns are proposed.

  11. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  12. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2009-11-01

    Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970-2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper, plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970-2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power production from the remaining organic municipal waste. Wastewater treatment has changed from direct discharge of untreated wastewater to full organic matter and nutrient (N, P) removal combined with anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production with power and heat generation. These changes in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO( 2)-eq. capita(-1) in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO(2)-eq. capita(-1) in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rodriguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination

  14. Impact of mine wastewaters on greenhouse gas emissions from northern peatlands used for mine water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn; Hynynen, Jenna; Maljanen, Marja

    2015-04-01

    The amount of wastewaters generated during mining operations is increasing along with the increasing number of operation mines, which poses great challenges for mine water management and purification. Mine wastewaters contain high concentrations of nitrogen compounds such as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) originating from remnant explosives as well as sulfate (SO42-) originating from the oxidation of sulfidic ores. At a mine site in Finnish Lapland, two natural peatlands have been used for cost-effective passive wastewater treatment. One peatland have been used for the treatment of drainage waters (TP 1), while the other has been used for the treatment of process-based wastewaters (TP 4). In this study, the impact of mine water derived nitrogen compounds as well as SO42- on the emission of the potent greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from those treatment peatlands was investigated. Contaminant concentrations in the input and output waters of the treatment peatlands were monitored which allowed for the calculation of contaminant-specific retention efficiencies. Treatment peatlands showed generally good retention efficiencies for metals and metalloids (e.g. nickel, arsenic, antimony, up to 98% reduction in concentration) with rather low input-concentrations (i.e., in the μg/l-range). On the other hand, retention of contaminants with high input-concentrations (i.e., in mg/l-range) such as NO3-, NH4+ and SO42- was much lower (4-41%, 30-60% and -42-30%, respectively), indicating the limited capability of the treatment peatlands to cope with such high input concentrations. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were determined in surface and pore water from TP 4 in July 2013 as well as in surface water from TP 1 and TP 4 in October 2013. Up to 720 μM NO3- and up to 600 μM NH4+ were detected in surface water of TP 4 in July 2013. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations in surface waters were highest near the mine wastewater distribution ditch and decreased with

  15. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  16. Impact of a wastewater treatment plant on microbial community composition and function in a hyporheic zone of a eutrophic river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Aydin, R.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Sipkema, D.; Hamonts, K.; Lahti, Leo; Maphosa, F.; Kruse, T.; Saccenti, E.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.; Smidt, H.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the installation of a technologically advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the benthic microbial community of a vinyl chloride (VC) impacted eutrophic river was examined two years before, and three and four years after installation of the WWTP. Reduced dissolved organic carbon

  17. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: Before and after plant shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph W.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  18. Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review.

  19. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  20. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  2. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  3. Wastewater treatment plant effluent introduces recoverable shifts in microbial community composition in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Price, J. R.; Ryan, M. O.; Toran, L.; Sales, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies are allowing for intense scrutiny of the impact of land use on microbial communities in stream networks. We used a combination of analytical chemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and targeted amplicon sequencing for a preliminary study on the impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharge on urban streams. Samples were collected on two dates above and below treatment plants on the Wissahickon Creek, and its tributary, Sandy Run, in Montgomery County, PA, USA. As expected, effluent was observed to be a significant source of nutrients and human and non-specific fecal associated taxa. There was an observed increase in the alpha diversity at locations immediately below effluent outflows, which contributed many taxa involved in wastewater treatment processes and nutrient cycling to the stream's microbial community. Unexpectedly, modeling of microbial community shifts along the stream was not controlled by concentrations of measured nutrients. Furthermore, partial recovery, in the form of decreasing abundances of bacteria and nutrients associated with wastewater treatment plant processes, nutrient cycling bacteria, and taxa associated with fecal and sewage sources, was observed between effluent sources. Antecedent moisture conditions impacted overall microbial community diversity, with higher diversity occurring after rainfall. These findings hint at resilience in stream microbial communities to recover from wastewater treatment plant effluent and are vital to understanding the impacts of urbanization on microbial stream communities.

  4. Stepwise impact of urban wastewater treatment on the bacterial community structure, antibiotic contents, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Shen, Weitao; Yan, Lei; Wang, Xin-Hua; Xu, Hai

    2017-12-01

    Bacteria, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance determinants are key biological pollutants in aquatic systems, which may lead to bacterial infections or prevent the cure of bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated how the wastewater treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) affect these pollutants. We found that the addition of oxygen, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and polyacrylamide (PAM), as well as ultraviolet (UV) disinfection could significantly alter the bacterial communities in the water samples. An overall shift from Gram-negative bacteria to Gram-positive bacteria was observed throughout the wastewater treatment steps, but the overall bacterial biomass was not reduced in the WWTP samples. The antibiotic contents were reduced by the WWTP, but the size of the reduction and the step when antibiotic degradation occurred differed among antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin could be removed completely by the WWTP, whereas cephalexin could not. The removal of ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and erythromycin occurred in the anaerobic digester, whereas the removal of sulfamethoxazole occurred after the addition of PAC and PAM, and UV disinfection. Antimicrobial resistance determinants were highly prevalent in all of the samples analyzed, except for those targeting vancomycin and colistin. However, wastewater treatment was ineffective at removing antimicrobial resistance determinants from wastewater. There were strong correlations between intI1, floR, sul1, and ermB, thereby suggesting the importance of integrons for the spread of these antimicrobial resistance genes. In general, this study comprised a stepwise analysis of the impact of WWTPs on three biological pollutants: bacteria, antibiotics, and antimicrobial resistance determinants, where our results suggest that the design of WWTPs needs to be improved to address the threats due to these pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RECENT ADVANCES IN LEATHER TANNERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOFRANO Giusy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is one of the most important economic sectors in many countries, representing an important economic field also in developing countries. Leather tannery industry is water intensive and originates highly polluted wastewater that contain various micropollutants raising environmental and health concerns. Tannery wastewater is difficult to treat biologically because of complex characteristics like high salinity e high content of xenobiotics compounds. After conventional treatment (i.e., chromium precipitation–primary sedimentation–biological oxidation–secondary sedimentation, effluents still do not meet the required limits, at least for some parameters such as BOD, COD, salinity, ammonia and surfactants. The leather industry is being pressured to search cleaner, economically as well as environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technologies alternative or integrative to the conventional treatment in order to face the challenge of sustainability. The most spread approach to manage tannery wastewater is the steam segregation before conveying wastewaters to in treatment plants that typically include pre-treatment, mechanical and physico-chemical treatment, biological treatment, and treatment of the generated sludge. Thus proper treatment technologies are needed to handle tannery wastewater to remove effectively the environmental benign pollutants. However among various processes applied or proposed the sustainable technologies are emerging concern. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater.

  6. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  7. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  8. Environmental impact of recycling nutrients in human excreta to agriculture compared with enhanced wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spångberg, J. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Tidåker, P. [Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 7033, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Jönsson, H., E-mail: hakan.jonsson@slu.se [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Human excreta are potential sources of plant nutrients, but are today usually considered a waste to be disposed of. The requirements on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to remove nitrogen and phosphorus are increasing and to meet these requirements, more energy and chemicals are needed by WWTPs. Separating the nutrient-rich wastewater fractions at source and recycling them to agriculture as fertiliser is an alternative to removing them at the WWTP. This study used life cycle assessment methodology to compare the environmental impact of different scenarios for recycling the nutrients in the human excreta as fertiliser to arable land or removing them in an advanced WWTP. Three scenarios were assessed. In blackwater scenario, blackwater was source-separated and used as fertiliser. In urine scenario, the urine fraction was source-separated and used as fertiliser and the faecal water treated in an advanced WWTP. In NP scenario, chemical fertiliser was used as fertiliser and the toilet water treated in an advanced WWTP. The emissions from the WWTP were the same for all scenarios. This was fulfilled by the enhanced reduction in the WWTP fully removing the nutrients from the excreta that were not source-separated in the NP and urine scenarios. Recycling source-separated wastewater fractions as fertilisers in agriculture proved efficient for conserving energy and decreasing global warming potential (GWP). However, the blackwater and urine scenarios had a higher impact on potential eutrophication and potential acidification than the WWTP-chemical fertiliser scenario, due to large impacts by the ammonia emitted from storage and after spreading of the fertilisers. The cadmium input to the arable soil was very small with urine fertiliser. Source separation and recycling of excreta fractions as fertiliser thus has potential for saving energy and decreasing GWP emissions associated with wastewater management. However, for improved sustainability, the emissions from storage and

  9. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  10. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  11. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  12. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  13. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  15. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  16. Wastewater treatments and the impact on environment and agriculture: A case city of Annaba (north eastern of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abour, Fella; Hannouche, Mani; Belksier, Mohamed Salah

    2018-05-01

    The present study deals with wastewater treatment which represents a real challenge in the world especially for developing countries. Our investigation takes place in the Annaba (North Eastern of Algeria) which represents one of big cities in the country. The wastewater is treated collectively in the Allalik station which provides a global wastewater treatment to guarantee the sustainability of the ecosystem. The obtained results on treated wastewater show a contamination with Selenium (IS index for Selenium = 5.9). Whereas the other analysed parameters highlight values without exceeding standards excepting the nitrites. The microbiological analyses and Bourgeois index indicate the human origin for pollution (IB >1). In spite of the actual treatment, the pollution selenium and nitrites suggest the improvement of the process of wastewater treatment.

  17. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  19. Population Growth and Its Impact on the Design Capacity and Performance of the Wastewater Treatment Plants in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z.; Kamika, I.; Coetzee, M. A. A.; Momba, M. N. B.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of population growth on the performance of the targeted wastewater treatment plants in Sedibeng District and Soshanguve peri-urban area, South Africa. The impact of population growth was assessed in terms of plant design, operational capacity (flow rate) and other treatment process constraints. Between 2001 and 2007, the number of households connected to the public sewerage service increased by 15.5, 17.2 and 37.8 % in Emfuleni, Lesedi and Midvaal Local Municipalities, respectively. Soshanguve revealed a 50 % increment in the number of households connected to the sewerage system between 1996 and 2001. Except for Sandspruit (-393.8 %), the rate of influent flows received by Meyerton increased by 6.8 ML/day (67.8 %) and 4.7 ML/day (46.8 %) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The flow rate appeared to increase during the wet season by 6.8 ML/day (19.1 %) in Leeuwkuil and during the dry season by 0.8 ML/day (3.9 %) in Rietgat. Underperformance of the existing wastewater treatment plants suggests that the rapid population growth in urban and peri-urban areas (hydraulic overloading of the wastewater treatment plants) and operational constraints (overflow rate, retention time, oxygen supply capacity of the plants and chlorine contact time) resulted in the production of poor quality effluents in both selected areas. This investigation showed that the inefficiency of Meyerton Wastewater Treatment Plant was attributed to the population growth (higher volumes of wastewater generated) and operational constraints, while the cause of underperformance in the other three treatment plants was clearly technical (operational).

  20. Final environmental impact statement supplement for wastewater management systems, North Jefferson County, Kentucky wastewater facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement (FEISS) serves to update the wastewater treatment alternatives presented in the original EIS (The North County Area Environmental Impact Statement, Jefferson County, KY, July 1984), determine the best alternative, and compare that alternative to the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District's North County Action Plan (NCAP). The NCAP was determined to have the greatest cost effectiveness, lowest environmental impact, and best implementability and reliability and so is the preferred alternative in the FEISS. Significant environmental impacts of the alternative are described and mitigative measures discussed

  1. Tetracycline removal during wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godos, Ignacio de; Muñoz, Raúl; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tetracycline removal was most likely caused by photodegradation and biosorption. ► Tetracycline presence was linked to biomass deflocculation and poor settleability. ► Deflocculation did not impact treatment efficiency. ► Deflocculation may hamper biomass recover during full-scale treatment. - Abstract: With the hypothesis that light supply can impact the removal of veterinary antibiotics during livestock wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds (HRAPs), this study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of tetracycline removal in these systems. For this purpose, two HRAPs were fed with synthetic wastewater for 46 days before tetracycline was added at 2 mg L −1 to the influent of one of the reactors (Te-HRAP). From day 62, dissolved tetracycline removal stabilized around 69 ± 1% in the Te-HRAP and evidence from batch assays suggests that this removal was mainly caused by photodegradation and biosorption. Tetracycline addition was followed by the deflocculation of the Te-HRAP biomass but had otherwise no apparent impact on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biomass productivity. The results from the batch assays also suggested that the light-shading and/or pollutant-sequestrating effects of the biomass limited tetracycline removal in the pond. For the first time, these results demonstrate that the shallow geometry of HRAPs is advantageous to support the photodegradation of antibiotics during wastewater biological treatment but that the presence of these pollutants could hamper biomass recovery. These findings have significant implications for algal-based environmental biotechnologies and must be confirmed under field conditions.

  2. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Spreading Oil and Gas Wastewater on Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, T L; Burgos, W D; Piotrowski, P; Castillo-Meza, L; Blewett, T A; Ganow, K B; Stallworth, A; Delompré, P L M; Goss, G G; Fowler, L B; Vanden Heuvel, J P; Dorman, F; Warner, N R

    2018-06-19

    Thirteen states in the United States allow the spreading of O&G wastewaters on roads for deicing or dust suppression. In this study, the potential environmental and human health impacts of this practice are evaluated. Analyses of O&G wastewaters spread on roads in the northeastern, U.S. show that these wastewaters have salt, radioactivity, and organic contaminant concentrations often many times above drinking water standards. Bioassays also indicated that these wastewaters contain organic micropollutants that affected signaling pathways consistent with xenobiotic metabolism and caused toxicity to aquatic organisms like Daphnia magna. The potential toxicity of these wastewaters is a concern as lab experiments demonstrated that nearly all of the metals from these wastewaters leach from roads after rain events, likely reaching ground and surface water. Release of a known carcinogen (e.g., radium) from roads treated with O&G wastewaters has been largely ignored. In Pennsylvania from 2008 to 2014, spreading O&G wastewater on roads released over 4 times more radium to the environment (320 millicuries) than O&G wastewater treatment facilities and 200 times more radium than spill events. Currently, state-by-state regulations do not require radium analyses prior to treating roads with O&G wastewaters. Methods for reducing the potential impacts of spreading O&G wastewaters on roads are discussed.

  3. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  4. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  6. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  7. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  8. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  9. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  10. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  11. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  12. Full-scale Applications of Membrane Filtration in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Marek; Plotěný, K.; Dvořák, L.; Gómez, M.; Růžičková, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2012), s. 479-486 ISSN 1863-0650 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : membrane bioreactors * wastewater treatment * full-scale application Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2012

  13. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  15. Impact assessment of treated wastewater on water quality of the receiver using the Wilcoxon test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofman Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is a process which aims to reduce the concentration of pollutants in wastewater to the level allowed by current regulations. This is to protect the receivers which typically are rivers, streams, lakes. Examination of the quality of treated wastewater allows for quick elimination of possible negative effects, and the study of water receiver prevents from excessive contamination. The paper presents the results of selected physical and chemical parameters of treated wastewater from the largest on the region in north-eastern Poland city of Bialystok municipal wastewater treatment and Biała River, the receiver. The samples for research were taken 3–4 a month in 2015 from two points: before and after discharge. The impact of the wastewater treatment plant on the quality of the receiver waters was studied by using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. This test determined whether the analyzed indicators varied significantly depending on different sampling points of the river, above and below place of discharge of treated wastewater. These results prove that the treated wastewater does not affect the water quality in the Biała River.

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  17. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  18. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  20. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  1. Nutrients requirements in biological industrial wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both these wastewaters nutrients were not added. A simple formula is introduced to calculate nutrient requirements based on removal efficiency and observed biomass yield coefficient. Key Words: Olive mill wastewater; anaerobic treatment; aerobic treatment; sequencing batch reactor; biomass yield; nutrient requirement.

  2. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  3. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The development of an on-site wastewater treatment system with monitoring capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Shigeizumi, Koga; Noguchi, Shuntaro; Kita, Shingo; Egawa, Moritoshi; Takeshima, Toshikatsu

    2015-01-01

    A compact Wastewater Treatment Unit that can monitor its own decontamination efficiency by using an underwater dosimeter and turbidity meter was developed. This equipment is so compact as to be able to be loaded up a 1t-class truck and is efficient enough to decrease radioactivity level of wastewater to under 10 Bq/L. There are high levels of correlation between radioactivity and turbidity and underwater radiation dose (URD). Turbidity has the advantage of measuring low radiation density, whilst URD can measure radioactive contamination independently of other factors affecting water quality. However experiments showed that the relationship between turbidity and radioactivity density was changed according to radioactivity of the suspensoid, and that air dose rate had an impact on determination limit of URD index. As this Wastewater Treatment Unit has a dual-meter system, it is possible to calibrate the turbidity index with the measured URD. This dual-meter system would be able to monitor low radioactivity levels in a range of wastewaters. (author)

  5. Spatial and temporal shifts in gross primary productivity, respiration, and nutrient concentrations in urban streams impacted by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Toran, L.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of wastewater treatment plant effluent on nutrient retention and stream productivity are highly varied. The working theory has been that large pulses of nutrients from plants may hinder in-stream nutrient retention. We evaluated nitrate, total dissolved phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen in Wissahickon Creek, an urban third-order stream in Montgomery and Philadelphia counties, PA, that receives effluent from four wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plant effluent had nitrate concentrations of 15-30 mg N/L and total dissolved phosphorus of 0.3 to 1.8 mg/L. Seasonal longitudinal water quality samples showed nitrate concentrations were highest in the fall, peaking at 22 mg N/L, due to low baseflow, but total dissolved phosphorous concentrations were highest in the spring, reaching 0.6 mg/L. Diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns above and below one of the treatment plants provided estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). A site 1 km below effluent discharge had higher GPP in April (80 g O2 m-2 d-1) than the site above the plant (28 g O2 m-2 d-1). The pulse in productivity did not continue downstream, as the site 3 km below the plant had GPP of only 12 g O2 m-2 d-1. Productivity fell in June to 1-2 g O2 m-2 d-1 and the differences in productivity above and below plants were minimal. Ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern in April, increasing from -17 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant to -47 g O2 m-2 d-1 1 km below the plant, then decreasing to -8 g O2 m-2 d-1 3 km below the plant. Respiration dropped to -3 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant in June but only fell to -9 to -10 g O2 m-2 d-1 at the two downstream sites. These findings indicate that large nutrient pulses from wastewater treatment plants spur productivity and respiration, but that these increases may be strongly seasonally dependent. Examining in-stream productivity and respiration is critical in wastewater impacted streams to understanding the seasonal and

  6. Removing nitrogen from wastewater with side stream anammox: What are the trade-offs between environmental impacts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauck, M.; Maalcke-Luesken, F.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a novel way to reduce nitrogen in ammonium rich wastewater. Although aquatic eutrophication will certainly be reduced, it is unknown how other environmental impacts may change by including anammox in the treatment of wastewater. Here, life cycle assessment

  7. Operation and effluent quality of a small rural wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of effluent and sludge discharges of an abattoir wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the operation of a municipal aerated pond WWTP. Experiments were carried out in Cervera WWTP, located in northeastern Spain, which comprises four ponds operating in series.

  8. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  9. Olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Ghannam, Noor; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan A.; Alshawawreh, Fida'a.; Odeh, Fadwa; Abu-Dalo, Muna A.

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW) pollution is a public concern. OMW contains high levels of phenols, organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), microorganisms, nutrients, and toxic compounds. The treatment of OMW has been investigated by many researchers in the Mediterranean region, using several treatment techniques to remove contaminants from OMW. These techniques include chemical, biological, physiochemical, and biophysical techniques. Surfactants and some adsorbents were used in chemical techniques, anaerobic and aerobic in biological techniques, while the combined treatment methods used Electroosmosis, ozonation and electrocoagulation processes as physiochemical methods, and ultrasonic irradiation combined with aerobic biodegradation as biophysical method. The effects of OMW, whether treated or untreated, have been evaluated on both plants’ growth and soil properties. The treatment methods as well as the environmental impact of OMW in Jordan were summarized in this review.

  10. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract and impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Woolsey, Ian David; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  11. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level

  12. Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik; Stensel, David

    2014-11-01

    Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. However, substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning the overall community structure, population dynamics and metabolism of different organic carbon sources. This systematic review provides a summary of current findings pertaining to the microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes. DNA fingerprinting-based analysis has revealed a high level of microbial diversity in denitrification reactors and highlighted the impacts of carbon sources in determining overall denitrifying community composition. Stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays and meta-omics further link community structure with function by identifying the functional populations and their gene regulatory patterns at the transcriptional and translational levels. This review stresses the need to integrate microbial ecology information into conventional denitrification design and operation at full-scale. Some emerging questions, from physiological mechanisms to practical solutions, for example, eliminating nitrous oxide emissions and supplementing more sustainable carbon sources than methanol, are also discussed. A combination of high-throughput approaches is next in line for thorough assessment of wastewater denitrifying community structure and function. Though denitrification is used as an example here, this synergy between microbial ecology and process engineering is applicable to other biological wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  14. The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2009-02-01

    A 5-month monitoring program was undertaken in South Wales in the UK to determine the fate of 55 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) in two contrasting wastewater plants utilising two different wastewater treatment technologies: activated sludge and trickling filter beds. The impact of treated wastewater effluent on the quality of receiving waters was also assessed. PPCPs were found to be present at high loads reaching 10kgday(-1) in the raw sewage. Concentrations of PPCPs in raw sewage were found to correlate with their usage/consumption patterns in Wales and their metabolism. The efficiency of the removal of PPCPs was found to be strongly dependent on the technology implemented in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In general, the WWTP utilising trickling filter beds resulted in, on average, less than 70% removal of all 55 PPCPs studied, while the WWTP utilising activated sludge treatment gave a much higher removal efficiency of over 85%. The monitoring programme revealed that treated wastewater effluents were the main contributors to PPCPs concentrations (up to 3kg of PPCPsday(-1)) in the rivers studied. Bearing in mind that in the cases examined here the WWTP effluents were also major contributors to rivers' flows (dilution factor for the studied rivers did not exceed 23 times) the effect of WWTP effluent on the quality of river water is significant and cannot be underestimated.

  15. A summary of studies on mine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yao; Hu Baoqun; Sun Zhanxue

    2006-01-01

    The composition of mine wastewater is complicated and is harmful to the environment. The mine wastewater treatment methods include mainly neutralization, constructed wetland and microorganism methods. The three methods are summarized, with focus on the microorganism method. The mechanisms, characteristics and influencing factors of the sulfate reducing bacteria and the iron oxidizing bacteria are described in detail. The treatment methods of uranium mine wastewater are presented. (authors)

  16. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  17. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE.

  18. Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Abdel Rehim, F.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60 Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD

  19. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  20. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide-arsenate ...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  1. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  2. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  3. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  4. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, S.A.; Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF) contains 0.5 L/min test systems which provide a wide range of physical and chemical separation unit operations. The facility is a modified 48 foot trailer which contains all the unit operations of the ORNL's Process Waste Treatment Plant and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant including chemical precipitation, clarification, filtration, ion-exchange, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, and zeolite system. This facility has been used to assess treatability of potential new wastewaters containing mixed radioactive, hazardous organic, and heavy metal compounds. With the ability to simulate both present and future ORNL wastewater treatment systems, the WTTF has fast become a valuable tool in solving wastewater treatment problems at the Oak Ridge reservation

  5. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  6. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  7. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  8. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  10. Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is

  11. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  12. Treatment of persistent organic pollutants in wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation in synergy with advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmus, Kassim Olasunkanmi; Tijani, Jimoh Oladejo; Massima, Emile; Petrik, Leslie

    2018-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are very tenacious wastewater contaminants. The consequences of their existence have been acknowledged for negatively affecting the ecosystem with specific impact upon endocrine disruption and hormonal diseases in humans. Their recalcitrance and circumvention of nearly all the known wastewater treatment procedures are also well documented. The reported successes of POPs treatment using various advanced technologies are not without setbacks such as low degradation efficiency, generation of toxic intermediates, massive sludge production, and high energy expenditure and operational cost. However, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have recently recorded successes in the treatment of POPs in wastewater. AOPs are technologies which involve the generation of OH radicals for the purpose of oxidising recalcitrant organic contaminants to their inert end products. This review provides information on the existence of POPs and their effects on humans. Besides, the merits and demerits of various advanced treatment technologies as well as the synergistic efficiency of combined AOPs in the treatment of wastewater containing POPs was reported. A concise review of recently published studies on successful treatment of POPs in wastewater using hydrodynamic cavitation technology in combination with other advanced oxidation processes is presented with the highlight of direction for future research focus.

  13. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  14. Phosphate Recovery from Human Waste via the Formation of Hydroxyapatite during Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Clément A; Jasper, Justin T; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2018-03-05

    Electrolysis of toilet wastewater with TiO 2 -coated semiconductor anodes and stainless steel cathodes is a potentially viable onsite sanitation solution in parts of the world without infrastructure for centralized wastewater treatment. In addition to treating toilet wastewater, pilot-scale and bench-scale experiments demonstrated that electrolysis can remove phosphate by cathodic precipitation as hydroxyapatite at no additional energy cost. Phosphate removal could be predicted based on initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, and up to 80% total phosphate removal was achieved. While calcium was critical for phosphate removal, magnesium and bicarbonate had only minor impacts on phosphate removal rates at concentrations typical of toilet wastewater. Optimal conditions for phosphate removal were 3 to 4 h treatment at about 5 mA cm -2 (∼3.4 V), with greater than 20 m 2 m -3 electrode surface area to reactor volume ratios. Pilot-scale systems are currently operated under similar conditions, suggesting that phosphate removal can be viewed as an ancillary benefit of electrochemical wastewater treatment, adding utility to the process without requiring additional energy inputs. Further value may be provided by designing reactors to recover precipitated hydroxyapatite for use as a low solubility phosphorus-rich fertilizer.

  15. Carbon and energy footprint analysis of tannery wastewater treatment: A Global overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giaccherini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the carbon footprint and power demand of tannery wastewater treatment processes for the largest bovine leather producing regions were quantified and analysed. Moreover, we present a case in which we benchmarked the carbon footprint and energy demand analysis of tannery wastewater treatment to municipal wastewater treatment. We quantified the greenhouse gas direct and indirect emissions from tannery wastewater treatment facilities. Our results show that the total CO2-equivalent emission for tannery wastewater treatment is 1.49 103 tCO2,eq d−1. Moreover, the energy intensity of tannery wastewater treatment processes are evaluated at 3.9 kWh kg−1bCOD,removed, compared to 1.4 kWh kg−1bCOD,removed of municipal wastewater treatment processes. Based on this work in the field of tannery wastewater treatment, an effort to innovate suitable treatment trains and technologies has the strong potential to reduce the carbon footprint.

  16. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  17. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  18. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  19. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  20. Impacts of NF concentrate recirculation on membrane performance in an integrated MBR and NF membrane process for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappel, C.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Temmink, B.G.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Rijnaarts, H.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2014-01-01

    As water shortages are increasing, the need for sustainable water treatment and the reuse of water is essential. Water reuse from wastewater can be accomplished in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in the secondary activated sludge stage of a wastewater treatment plant. To remove viruses, dissolved

  1. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  2. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  3. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  4. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  5. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  6. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  7. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chlorid...

  8. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  9. Tertiary treatment of pulp mill wastewater by solar photo-Fenton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Marco S.; Peres, José A.; Amor, Carlos; Prieto-Rodríguez, Lucía; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Malato, Sixto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We firstly report a real pulp mill wastewater treatment by solar photo-Fenton in a CPC reactor. Fenton reagent experiments were tested firstly. ► Solar photo-Fenton presents excellent ability to treat the pulp mill wastewater. ► Experimental conditions were optimised. ► Biodegradability and toxicity tests (respirometry assays and BOD 5 /COD ratio) were performed during the wastewater treatment. ► A way to reduce the economic and environmental impact was evaluated. - Abstract: This work reports on pulp mill wastewater (PMW) tertiary treatment by Fenton (Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 ) and solar photo-Fenton (Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 /UV) processes in a pilot plant based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). Solar photo-Fenton reaction is much more efficient than the respective dark reaction under identical experimental conditions. It leads to DOC mineralisation, COD and total polyphenols (TP) removal higher than 90%. The solar photo-Fenton experiment with 5 mg Fe L −1 reaches 90% of DOC mineralisation with 31 kJ L −1 of UV energy and 50 mM of H 2 O 2 . The initial non-biodegradability of PMW, as shown by respirometry assays and BOD 5 /COD ratio, can be changed after a solar photo-Fenton treatment. Experiments with 20 and 50 mg Fe L −1 revealed that solar photo-Fenton can reach the same DOC degradation (90%), however, consuming less H 2 O 2 and time. Diluting the initial organic load to 50% also diminishes the dosage of H 2 O 2 and the necessary reaction time to achieve high DOC removals. Accordingly, solar photo-Fenton can be considered an alternative or complementary process to improve the performance of a biologic treatment and, subsequently, achieve legal limits on discharge into natural waters.

  10. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1975-01-01

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, G.; Nieto, J. [Environmental Science Center EULA - Chile, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H.D. [Lab. of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bornhardt, C. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pre-treatment. The relationships of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L.d. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. (orig.)

  12. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  13. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C ∼ -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 ∼ 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD

  14. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  15. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho [Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m{sup 3}/day of wastewater from 80,000m{sup 3}/day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  16. Industrial wastewater treatment with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Ko, Jaein; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri; Chung, Wooho

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1945, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  17. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  18. PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR TREATMENT WETLAND APPLICATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN DISPERSED DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the conducted analyses of pre-feasibility study of different approaches for wastewater management in a settlement of 180 persons. In the assessment both technical and economic aspects were analyzed. The costs were calculated for three different and, at the same time, most popular as well as possible technical solutions like: (i construction of local wastewater treatment plant with gravitational and pressurized networks, (ii construction of single family wastewater treatment plants, (iii construction of sealed septic tanks. Carried out analyses of investment and maintenance costs revealed that at the stage of construction the most expensive is local sewer network with treatment plant, while the construction of a single family treatment plant has similar cost regardless of the technology used. When the long term operation and investment cost are accounted the most economical reasonable solution is the application of wetland treatment for household wastewater treatment.

  19. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  20. Off Grid Photovoltaic Wastewater Treatment and Management Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlace, Lucas A.; Moody, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    The SSC wastewater treatment system is comprised of key components that require a constant source of electrical power or diesel fuel to effectively treat the wastewater. In alignment with the President's new Executive Order 13653, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, this project aims to transform the wastewater treatment system into a zero emissions operation by incorporating the advantages of an off grid, photovoltaic system. Feasibility of implementation will be based on an analytical evaluation of electrical data, fuel consumption, and site observations.

  1. An experimental investigation of wastewater treatment using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Meibodi, M.; Parsaeian, M. R.; Amraei, R.; Banaei, M.; Anvari, F.; Tahami, S. M. R.; Vakhshoor, B.; Mehdizadeh, A.; Fallah Nejad, N.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Mostafavi, S. J.; Mousavi, S. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electron beam (EB) is used for disinfection and treatment of different types of sewage and industrial wastewater. However, high capital investment required and the abundant energy consumed by this process raise doubts about its cost-effectiveness. In this paper, different wastewaters, including two textile sewages and one municipal wastewater are experimentally studied under different irradiation strategies (i.e. batch, 60 l/min and 1000 m3/day) in order to establish the reliability and the optimum conditions for the treatment process. According to the results, EB improves the efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment methods, but, for textile samples, coagulation before EB irradiation is recommended. The cost estimation of EB treatment compared to conventional methods shows that EB has been more expensive than chlorination and less expensive than activated sludge. Therefore, EB irradiation is advisable if and only if conventional methods of textile wastewater treatment are insufficient or chlorination of municipal wastewater is not allowed for health reasons. Nevertheless, among the advanced oxidation processes (AOP), EB irradiation process may be the most suitable one in industrial scale operations.

  2. Environmental impact of submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) technology used to treat urban wastewater at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of a submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) system in the treatment of urban wastewater at different temperatures: ambient temperature (20 and 33°C), and a controlled temperature (33°C). To this end, an overall energy balance (OEB) and life cycle assessment (LCA), both based on real process data, were carried out. Four factors were considered in this study: (1) energy consumption during wastewater treatment; (2) energy recovered from biogas capture; (3) potential recovery of nutrients from the final effluent; and (4) sludge disposal. The OEB and LCA showed SAnMBR to be a promising technology for treating urban wastewater at ambient temperature (OEB=0.19 kW h m(-3)). LCA results reinforce the importance of maximising the recovery of nutrients (environmental impact in eutrophication can be reduced up to 45%) and dissolved methane (positive environmental impact can be obtained) from SAnMBR effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sediment microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bojun; Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been intensively investigated for the harvest of energy from natural sediment, but studies of their application for wastewater treatment mainly occurred in the past 2-3 years. SMFCs with simple structures can generate electrical energy while decontaminating wastewater. Most SMFCs used for wastewater treatment contain plants to mimic constructed wetlands. Both synthetic and real wastewaters have been used as substrates in SMFCs that achieved satisfact...

  4. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m 3 was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m 3 for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  5. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  6. A Highly Effective Photochemical System for Complex Treatment of Heavily Contaminated Wastewaters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krystyník, Pavel; Klusoň, Petr; Hejda, S.; Mašín, P.; Tito, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 11 (2014), s. 2212-2220 ISSN 1061-4303 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/065 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : advanced oxidation processes * photochemical oxidation * wastewater treatment Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.865, year: 2014

  7. Domestic wastewater treatment using electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.

    1995-01-01

    This work aims the application of an industrial electron beam accelerator to disinfect sludge and to remove organic matter existent in the influent and effluent from the Mairipora domestic wastewater treatment plant. The in vitro Co-60 radiosensitivity of the major representative Salmonella species in wastewater from Sao Paulo city was also studied. (author). 66 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  9. Development of chemical flocculant for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Jin; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S

    2000-12-01

    Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' which were developed as coagulants for industrial wastewater treatment in the study showed far superior performance to the existing inorganic coagulants such as Alum and Iron salt(FeSO4) when compared to their wastewater treatment performance in color and COD removal. Besides, it was not frozen at -25 deg C {approx} -30 deg C. When reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' were used as coagulant for wastewater treatment, the proper dosage was ranged from 0.1% to 0.5%(v/v) and proper pH range was 10.5 {approx} 11.5 in the area of alkaline pH.Reagents 'KAERI-I and KAERI-II' showed good performance with 95% or more removal of color-causing material and 60% or more removal of COD.

  10. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  11. Life cycle assessment applied to wastewater treatment; Analyse de cycle de vie appliquee aux systemes de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renou, S.

    2006-01-15

    Nowadays, the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems are not properly analyzed. Thus, the development of an exhaustive and reliable method is needed to help stakeholders to choose the best environmental solutions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was selected as a starting point to answer this problem. LCA has been tested. This tool is essential to analyze the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems. In order to fulfill our goal, the best compromise seems to be the association of LCA, to assess global impacts, with others methodologies, to assess local impacts. Finally, a software has been developed to compare urban sludge treatment and recovering process trains. Two impacts, energy and greenhouse effect, are currently included in. The software and its development steps are described and illustrated through two case studies. This tool has made LCA easier to apply and more useful to wastewater field stakeholders. (author)

  12. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  13. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  14. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Livestock wastewater treatment by zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Ryul; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2008-01-01

    Livestock wastewater containing high concentrations of organic matters and ammonia-nitrogen has been known as one of the recalcitrant wastewater. It is difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation treatment of livestock wastewater. The removal efficiencies of SCOD Cr and NH3-N were significantly enhanced by gamma-ray irradiation after zeolite ion exchange as a pre-treatment. However, the effects of zeolite particle size on the SCOD Cr and NH 3 -N removal efficiencies were insignificant. These results indicate that the combined process of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation has potential for the treatment of livestock wastewater

  16. Electron beam treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 of textile dyeing wastewater per day with electron beam has constructed and operated continuously in Daegu, Korea since 1998. This plant is combined with biological treatment system and it shows the reduction of chemical reagent consumption, and also the reduction in retention time with the increase in removal efficiencies of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30∼40%. Increase in biodegradability after radiation treatment of aqueous-organic systems is due to radiolytical conversions of non-biodegradable compounds. On the basis of data obtained from pilot plant operation, construction of actual industrial scale plant has started in 2003, and will be finished by 2005. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility (Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex) and to have treatment capacity 10,000 m 3 of wastewater per day using one 1 MeV, 400 kW accelerator, and combined with existing bio- treatment facility. The overall construction cost and the operation cost in the radiation processing, when compared to other conventional and advanced oxidation techniques, are more cost-effective and convenient for wastewater treatment. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. (author)

  17. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  18. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  19. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs

  20. Life cycle assessment in wastewater treatment: : Influence of site-oriented normalization factors, life cycle impact assessment methods, and weighting methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Shunwen; Wang, Xiuheng; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Xinyue; Ren, N

    2017-01-01

    This present study aims to analyze the differences in results of different site-directional life cycle assessment
    (LCA) methods applied in the field of wastewater treatment. Site-generic methods were employed and
    compared with China-specific methods on a full-scale wastewater treatment case.

  1. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  2. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, M.; Fitzhenry, K.; O'Flaherty, V.; Dore, W.; Keaveney, S.; Cormican, M.; Rowan, N.; Clifford, E.

    2016-01-01

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm"2 (6900 mJ/cm"2) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of low pressure UV and novel high-intensity pulsed UV disinfection in NoVs removal. • Reduction of FRNA bacteriophage was seen in clarified wastewater after settling. • Adsorption of viral particles to solids

  3. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Fitzhenry, K. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); O' Flaherty, V. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Dore, W.; Keaveney, S. [Marine Institute, Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Centre for Health from Environment, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Rowan, N. [Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Clifford, E., E-mail: eoghan.clifford@nuigalway.ie [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2016-10-15

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm{sup 2} (6900 mJ/cm{sup 2}) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of low pressure UV and novel high-intensity pulsed UV disinfection in NoVs removal. • Reduction of FRNA bacteriophage was seen in clarified wastewater after settling. • Adsorption of viral particles

  4. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  5. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  6. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  7. Research on common methods for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities of iron and steel enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Considering the large quantities of wastewater generated from iron and steel enterprises in China, this paper is aimed to research the common methods applied for evaluating the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises. Based on survey results on environmental protection performance, technological economy, resource & energy consumption, services and management, an indicator system for evaluating the operation effect of integrated wastewater treatment facilities is set up. By discussing the standards and industrial policies in and out of China, 27 key secondary indicators are further defined on the basis of investigation on main equipment and key processes for wastewater treatment, so as to determine the method for setting key quantitative and qualitative indicators for evaluation indicator system. It is also expected to satisfy the basic requirements of reasonable resource allocation, environmental protection and sustainable economic development, further improve the integrated wastewater treatment effect of iron and steel enterprises, and reduce the emission of hazardous substances and environmental impact.

  8. Technical, hygiene, economic, and life cycle assessment of full-scale moving bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Sawant, Megha; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Kazmi, Absar; Aymerich, Enrique; Starkl, Markus; Ghangrekar, Makarand; Philip, Ligy

    2018-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a highly effective biological treatment process applied to treat both urban and industrial wastewaters in developing countries. The present study investigated the technical performance of ten full-scale MBBR systems located across India. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, pathogens, and nutrient removal efficiencies were low as compared to the values claimed in literature. Plant 1 was considered for evaluation of environmental impacts using life cycle assessment approach. CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology was adopted, in which 11 impact categories were considered. The life cycle impact assessment results revealed that the main environmental hot spot of this system was energy consumption. Additionally, two scenarios were compared: scenario 1 (direct discharge of treated effluent, i.e., no reuse) and scenario 2 (effluent reuse and tap water replacement). The results showed that scenario 2 significantly reduce the environmental impact in all the categories ultimately decreasing the environmental burden. Moreover, significant economic and environmental benefits can be obtained in scenario 2 by replacing the freshwater demand for non-potable uses. To enhance the performance of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), there is a need to optimize energy consumption and increase wastewater collection efficiency to maximize the operating capacity of plant and minimize overall environmental footprint. It was concluded that MBBR can be a good alternative for upgrading and optimizing existing municipal wastewater treatment plants with appropriate tertiary treatment. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  9. The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery

  10. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS TRANSFORMATIONS DURING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Bogumiła Przywara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper exploitation of waste water treatment plant is strictly connected with monitoring of basic parameters and effectiveness of particular its stages. Legal requirements include not only organic compounds (BOD5, COD and general suspensions but also highly effective removal of nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus. Effectiveness of removal of biogenic compounds interferes with temperature fluctuations, effluent quality, problems of active sediment. The aim of this study was to show changes in concentrations of organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus in the municipal wastewater after subsequent stages of mechanical-biological treatment. During researches samples were taken down by the wastewater treatment line: raw wastewater, after mechanical treatment, pre-denitrification, dephosphatation, denitrification, nitrification and treated wastewater. Another aspect of this study was determination of COD fractions, and their changes in the municipal wastewater, after the successive stages of mechanical-biological treatment. It allows separation of dissolved and non-dissolved organic substances, taking into account also their biodegradability and the lack of susceptibility to biological decomposition. It can also be a very important method of the processes control during wastewater treatment.

  12. Treatment of Arctic Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation, UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency...... of physico-chemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli...... of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 kWh/m3 and 2.10 kWh/m3 for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physico-chemical treatment of raw wastewater followed...

  13. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  14. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  15. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  16. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  17. Decision making tools for selecting sustainable wastewater treatment technologies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongburi, Praewa; Park, Jae K.

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater consists of valuable resources that could be recovered or reused. Still it is under threat because of ineffective wastewater management and systems. In Thailand, less than 25% of wastewater generated may be treated while then rest is inadequately treated and sent back directly into waterbodies or the environment. Furthermore, the technologies that have been applied may be inefficient and unsustainable. Efficiency, sustainability, and simplicity are important concepts when designing an appropriate wastewater treatment system in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to review and evaluate wastewater treatment technologies and propose a method to improve or select an appropriate technology. An expert system in Excel® program was developed to determine the best solution. Sensitivity analysis was applied to compare and assess uncertainty factors. Due to the different conditions of each area, the key factor of interest was varied. Furthermore, Robust Decision Making tool was applied to determine the best way to improve existing wastewater treatment facility and to choose the most appropriate wastewater treatment technology.

  18. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the right concept and a prototype for a particular processing plant, plastic processing plant. It is possible to determine the parameters that will increase the efficiency of sewage treatment while minimizing the financial effort on the part of the Company. Selection methods of wastewater treatment is also associated with the environmental strategy of the country at the enterprise level specified in the Environmental Policy. This is an additional argument for the use of biological methods in the treatment of industrial waste water.

  19. Micropollutant removal during biological wastewater treatment and a subsequent ozonation step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaar, Heidemarie, E-mail: hschaar@iwag.tuwien.ac.a [Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Clara, Manfred; Gans, Oliver [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Lande 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kreuzinger, Norbert [Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    The design criteria for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the sludge retention time, respectively, have a significant impact on micropollutant removal. The upgrade of an Austrian municipal WWTP to nitrogen removal (best available technology, BAT) resulted in increased elimination of most of the analyzed micropollutants. Substances, such as bisphenol-A, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and the antibiotics erythromycin and roxithromycin were only removed after the upgrade of the WWTP. Nevertheless, the BAT was not sufficient to completely eliminate these compounds. Thus, a pilot scale ozonation plant was installed for additional treatment of the effluent. The application of 0.6 g O{sub 3} g DOC{sup -1} increased the removal of most of the micropollutants, especially for compounds that were not degraded in the previous biological process, as for example carbamazepine and diclofenac. These results indicated that the ozonation of WWTP effluent is a promising technology to further decrease emissions of micropollutants from the treatment process. - SRT is an important criterion for micropollutant removal in wastewater treatment and the application of ozone is suitable for further removal of micropollutants.

  20. Micropollutant removal during biological wastewater treatment and a subsequent ozonation step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaar, Heidemarie; Clara, Manfred; Gans, Oliver; Kreuzinger, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The design criteria for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the sludge retention time, respectively, have a significant impact on micropollutant removal. The upgrade of an Austrian municipal WWTP to nitrogen removal (best available technology, BAT) resulted in increased elimination of most of the analyzed micropollutants. Substances, such as bisphenol-A, 17α-ethinylestradiol and the antibiotics erythromycin and roxithromycin were only removed after the upgrade of the WWTP. Nevertheless, the BAT was not sufficient to completely eliminate these compounds. Thus, a pilot scale ozonation plant was installed for additional treatment of the effluent. The application of 0.6 g O 3 g DOC -1 increased the removal of most of the micropollutants, especially for compounds that were not degraded in the previous biological process, as for example carbamazepine and diclofenac. These results indicated that the ozonation of WWTP effluent is a promising technology to further decrease emissions of micropollutants from the treatment process. - SRT is an important criterion for micropollutant removal in wastewater treatment and the application of ozone is suitable for further removal of micropollutants.

  1. Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerpri...

  2. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment...... is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies...... briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication....

  3. Tertiary treatment of pulp mill wastewater by solar photo-Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Marco S., E-mail: mlucas@utad.pt [Centro de Quimica de Vila Real, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Peres, Jose A.; Amor, Carlos [Centro de Quimica de Vila Real, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Prieto-Rodriguez, Lucia; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT), Carretera de Senes, Km 4, 04200, Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We firstly report a real pulp mill wastewater treatment by solar photo-Fenton in a CPC reactor. Fenton reagent experiments were tested firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solar photo-Fenton presents excellent ability to treat the pulp mill wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions were optimised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradability and toxicity tests (respirometry assays and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio) were performed during the wastewater treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A way to reduce the economic and environmental impact was evaluated. - Abstract: This work reports on pulp mill wastewater (PMW) tertiary treatment by Fenton (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and solar photo-Fenton (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) processes in a pilot plant based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). Solar photo-Fenton reaction is much more efficient than the respective dark reaction under identical experimental conditions. It leads to DOC mineralisation, COD and total polyphenols (TP) removal higher than 90%. The solar photo-Fenton experiment with 5 mg Fe L{sup -1} reaches 90% of DOC mineralisation with 31 kJ L{sup -1} of UV energy and 50 mM of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The initial non-biodegradability of PMW, as shown by respirometry assays and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio, can be changed after a solar photo-Fenton treatment. Experiments with 20 and 50 mg Fe L{sup -1} revealed that solar photo-Fenton can reach the same DOC degradation (90%), however, consuming less H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and time. Diluting the initial organic load to 50% also diminishes the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the necessary reaction time to achieve high DOC removals. Accordingly, solar photo-Fenton can be considered an alternative or complementary process to improve the performance of a biologic treatment and, subsequently, achieve legal limits on discharge into natural waters.

  4. Wastewater treatment and pollution control in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2006-01-01

    Present status of radiation facilities for Co-60 gamma ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation in Indonesia is first presented. Wastewater treatment is explained: kinds of waste, industrial, agricultural, municipal and nuclear. Each liquid wastewater containing various kinds of contaminants, radioactive or non-radioactive is differently treated by waste treatment industries. On-going project is use of electron beams in which combination with ozone to reduce chlorinated solvent, disinfected sludge from sewage treatment containing organic and inorganic components for soil fertilizer, and high color river water for water supplying. The cost factor and the effect of combined treatment are being examined. Other on-going projects are applications of electron beams for vulcanization of natural rubber latex and flue gas treatment by BATAN. (S. Ohno)

  5. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  6. Treatment of Wastewater From Car Washes Using Natural Coagulation and Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Johari, M. R.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater generated from carwash is one of the main wastewater resources, which contribute effectively in the increasing of environmental contamination due to the chemical characteristics of the car wastes. The present work aimed to develop an integrated treatment system for carwash wastewater based on coagulation and flocculation using Moringa oleifera and Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as well as natural filtration system. The carwash wastewater samples were collected from carwash station located at Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia. The treatment system of car wash wastewater was designed in the lab scale in four stages included, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. The coagulation and flocculation unit was carried out using different dosage (35, 70, 105 and 140 mg L-1) of M. oleifera and FeSO4.7H2O, respectively. The efficiency of the integrated treatment system to treat carwash wastewater and to meet Environmental Quality Act (EQA 1974) was evaluated based on the analysis of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity (NTU). The integrated treatment system was efficient for treatment of raw carwash wastewater. The treated carwash wastewaters meet EQA 1974 regulation 2009 (Standards A) in the term of pH and DO while, turbidity and COD reduced in the wastewater to meet Standards B. The integrated treatment system designed here with natural coagulant (M. oleifera) and filtration unit were effective for primary treatment of carwash wastewater before the final disposal or to be reused again for carwash process.

  7. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  8. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrades - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many municipalities are facing the call to increase nutrient removal performance of their wastewater treatment plants in order to limit the impacts of eutrophication on the receiving waterbodies. The associated upgrades often demand investment in new technologies and increases in...

  9. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  10. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe 2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H 2 O 2 /COD molar ratio 2, H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  11. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  12. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le-Clech, Pierre [New South Wales Univ., Sydney (Australia). UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology

    2010-12-15

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field. (orig.)

  13. Application of molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymers for removal of emerging contaminants in water and wastewater treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Audrey; Ormeci, Banu

    2012-11-01

    Over the past decade, several studies have reported trace levels of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in surface waters, drinking water, and wastewater effluents. There has also been an increased concern about the ecological and human health impact of these contaminants, and their removal from water and wastewater has become a priority. Traditional treatment processes are limited in their ability to remove emerging contaminants from water, and there is a need for new technologies that are effective and feasible. This paper presents a review on recent research results on molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) polymers and evaluates their potential as a treatment method for the removal of emerging contaminants from water and wastewater. It also discusses the relative benefits and limitations of using MIP or NIP for water and wastewater treatment. MIP, and in particular NIP, offer promising applications for wastewater treatment, but their toxicity and possible health effects should be carefully studied before they are considered for drinking water treatment. More research is also required to determine how best to incorporate MIP and NIP in treatment plants.

  14. Tracking acidic pharmaceuticals, caffeine, and triclosan through the wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul M; Foster, Gregory D

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging contaminants whose fate in the wastewater treatment process has received increasing attention in past years. Acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, mefenamic acid, ketoprofen, and diclofenac), caffeine, and the antibacterial triclosan were quantified at four different steps of wastewater treatment from three urban wastewater treatment plants. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples on Waters Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction columns, silylated, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For the chemicals studied, it was found that the majority of the influent load was removed during secondary treatment (51-99%), yielding expected surface water concentrations of 13 to 56 ng/L.

  15. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  16. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  17. Treatment of wastewater by lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, S.; Zahra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the performance of bio-treatment ponds after one year of functioning at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. The physical parameters (colour, pH, EC, TDS, turbidity) and chemical parameters (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe and Pb) are with in the limits which are not sub-lethal for fish rearing. Lemna accumulates higher concentration of heavy metals as compared to wastewater and best for phyto remediation purpose. The treated wastewater is currently used for rearing of fish and irrigation of crops and plants. The plants around the bio-treatment ponds are healthy, green and showing enough production. The present investigation indicates that in future it would be possible to construct bio-treatment ponds in polluted areas of Pakistan. (author)

  18. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  19. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  20. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  1. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  2. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, Shane [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick [Department of Applied Sciences, Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Dundalk (Ireland); Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100 m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  3. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100 m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  4. RESOURCE RECOVERY BY OSMOTIC BIOELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS  TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Recovering valuable resources from wastewater will transform wastewater management from a treatment focused to sustainability focused strategy, and creates the need for new technology development. An innovative treatment concept - osmotic bioelectrochemical system (OsBES), which is based on cooperation between bioelectrochemical systems (BES) and forward osmosis (FO), has been introduced and studied in the past few years. An OsBES can accomplish simultaneous treatment of wastewater and recove...

  5. Advanced oxidation-based treatment of furniture industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichonovas, Martynas; Krugly, Edvinas; Grybauskas, Arturas; Jankūnaitė, Dalia; Račys, Viktoras; Martuzevičius, Dainius

    2017-07-16

    The paper presents a study on the treatment of the furniture industry wastewater in a bench scale advanced oxidation reactor. The researched technology utilized a simultaneous application of ozone, ultraviolet radiation and surface-immobilized TiO 2 nanoparticle catalyst. Various combinations of processes were tested, including photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photolytic ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation were tested against the efficiency of degradation. The efficiency of the processes was primarily characterized by the total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, indicating the remaining organic material in the wastewater after the treatment, while the toxicity changes in wastewater were researched by Daphnia magna toxicity tests. Photocatalytic ozonation was confirmed as the most effective combination of processes (99.3% of TOC reduction during 180 min of treatment), also being the most energy efficient (4.49-7.83 MJ/g). Photocatalytic ozonation and photolytic ozonation remained efficient across a wide range of pH (3-9), but the pH was an important factor in photocatalysis. The toxicity of wastewater depended on the duration of the treatment: half treated water was highly toxic, while fully treated water did not possess any toxicity. Our results indicate that photocatalytic ozonation has a high potential for the upscaling and application in industrial settings.

  6. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  7. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  8. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  9. Tracking antibiotic resistome during wastewater treatment using high throughput quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin-Li; Su, Jian-Qiang; Li, Bing; Ouyang, Wei-Ying; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Qing-Lin; Cui, Li; Chen, Hong; Gillings, Michael R; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-05-08

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and thus are considered as a major pathway for the dissemination of these genes into the environments. However, comprehensive evaluations of ARGs dynamic during wastewater treatment process lack extensive investigations on a broad spectrum of ARGs. Here, we investigated the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial community structures in 114 samples from eleven Chinese WWTPs using high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing analysis. Significant shift of ARGs profiles was observed and wastewater treatment process could significantly reduce the abundance and diversity of ARGs, with the removal of ARGs concentration by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Whereas, a considerable number of ARGs were detected and enriched in effluents compared with influents. In particular, seven ARGs mainly conferring resistance to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides and three mobile genetic elements persisted in all WWTPs samples after wastewater treatment. ARGs profiles varied with wastewater treatment processes, seasons and regions. This study tracked the footprint of ARGs during wastewater treatment process, which would support the assessment on the spread of ARGs from WWTPs and provide data for identifying management options to improve ARG mitigation in WWTPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial community functional structure in response to antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xie, Jianping; Liu, Miaomiao; Tian, Zhe; He, Zhili; van Nostrand, Joy D; Ren, Liren; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Min

    2013-10-15

    It is widely demonstrated that antibiotics in the environment affect microbial community structure. However, direct evidence regarding the impacts of antibiotics on microbial functional structures in wastewater treatment systems is limited. Herein, a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) in combination with quantitative PCR and clone libraries were used to evaluate the microbial functional structures in two biological wastewater treatment systems, which treat antibiotic production wastewater mainly containing oxytetracycline. Despite the bacteriostatic effects of antibiotics, the GeoChip detected almost all key functional gene categories, including carbon cycling, nitrogen cycling, etc., suggesting that these microbial communities were functionally diverse. Totally 749 carbon-degrading genes belonging to 40 groups (24 from bacteria and 16 from fungi) were detected. The abundance of several fungal carbon-degrading genes (e.g., glyoxal oxidase (glx), lignin peroxidase or ligninase (lip), manganese peroxidase (mnp), endochitinase, exoglucanase_genes) was significantly correlated with antibiotic concentrations (Mantel test; P functional genes have been enhanced by the presence of antibiotics. However, from the fact that the majority of carbon-degrading genes were derived from bacteria and diverse antibiotic resistance genes were detected in bacteria, it was assumed that many bacteria could survive in the environment by acquiring antibiotic resistance and may have maintained the position as a main player in nutrient removal. Variance partitioning analysis showed that antibiotics could explain 24.4% of variations in microbial functional structure of the treatment systems. This study provides insights into the impacts of antibiotics on microbial functional structure of a unique system receiving antibiotic production wastewater, and reveals the potential importance of the cooperation between fungi and bacteria with antibiotic resistance in maintaining the

  11. Using a life cycle assessment methodology for the analysis of two treatment systems of food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Baun, Anders

    2007-01-01

    criteria involve sludge disposal strategies and electrical energy consumption. However, there is a need to develop a systematic methodology to quantify relevant environmental indicators; comprising information of the wastewater treatment system in a life cycle perspective. Also, to identify which...... are the parameters that have the greatest influence on the potential environmental impacts of the systems analyzed. In this study, we present a systematic methodology for the analysis of the operation of two modern wastewater treatment technologies: Biological removal of nitrogen and organic matter by activated...... sludge (Scenario 1), and anaerobic removal of organic matter by a continuous stirred tank reactor (Scenario 2). Both technologies were applied to wastewater coming from a fish meals industry and a pet food industry discharging about 250 to 260 thousand cubic meters of wastewater per year. The methodology...

  12. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  13. Wastewater treatment facilities: Energy efficient improvements and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkle, R.; Gray, R.; Delzel, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has worked with both the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance to local governments. Based on a recent study conducted by Ecotope for WSEO, local governments spend an estimated $45 million on utility bills statewide. Water and wastewater facilities account for almost a third of this cost. As a result, WSEO decided to focus its efforts on the energy intensive water and wastewater sector. The ultimate goal of this project was to develop mechanisms to incorporate energy efficiency improvements into wastewater treatment facilities in retrofits and during upgrades, remodels, and new construction. Project activities included the following: The review of the existing regulatory environment for treatment system construction, A summary of financing options for efficiency improvements in treatment facilities, A literature review of energy efficiency opportunities in treatment plants, Survey and site visits to characterize existing facilities in Washington State, Estimates of the energy efficiency and cogeneration potential in the sector, and A case study to illustrate the implementation of an efficiency improvement in a treatment facility

  14. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The effect of public or private structures in wastewater treatment on the conditions for the design, construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, T; Bode, H

    2004-01-01

    Organised in public or private structures, wastewater services have to cope with different framework conditions as regards planning, construction, financing and operation. This leads quite often to different modes of management. In recent years there has been a push for privatisation on the water sector in general, the reasons for which are manifold, ranging from access to external know-how and capital to synergistic effects through integration of wastewater treatment into other tasks of similar or equal nature. Discussed are various models of public/private partnership (PPP) in wastewater treatment, encompassing for example the delegation of partial tasks or even the proportional or entire transfer of ownership of treatment facilities to private third parties. Decisive for high performance and efficiency is not the legal or organisational form, but rather the clear and unmistakable definition of tasks which are to be assigned to the different parties, customers and all other partners involved, as well as of clear-cut interfaces. On account of the (of course legitimate) profit-oriented perspective of the private sector, some decision-making processes in relation to project implementation (design and construction) and to operational aspects will differ from those typically found on the public sector. This does apply to decisions on investments, financing and on technical solutions too. On the other hand, core competencies in wastewater treatment should not be outsourced, but remain the public bodies' responsibility, even with 'far-reaching' privatisation models. Such core competencies are all efforts geared to sustainable wastewater treatment as life-supporting provision for the future or as contribution to the protection of health and the environment and to the development of infrastructure. Major areas of wastewater treatment and other related tasks are reviewed. The paper concludes with a list of questions on the issue of outsourcing.

  16. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  18. Progress in Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Inorganic Porous Ceramic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and complexity of oily wastewater contains many solid particles, free oil, emulsified oil and so on.It brought about a series of environmental pollution problems when oily wastewater was directly discharged into rivers, lakes and other water bodies. Therefore, researchers are committed to study how to deal with oily wastewater to deal with oily wastewater to apply it to meet the requirements of water injection.Inorganic porous ceramic membrane has excellent properties among many filtering methods. For example, high temperature and high pressure resistance, resistance to acid and alkali, low energy consumption, no pollution to the environment and has a good prospect in the field of oily wastewater treatment, which has attracted the attention of many scholars not only at home but also on abroad. This article describes the present situation of the research on the treatment of oily wastewater by ceramic membrane in recent years, and expounded the significance of the treatment of oily wastewater to people’s lives and makes an expectation for the development of inorganic porous ceramic membrane in the future.

  19. Current technologies for biological treatment of textile wastewater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Sandhya, S

    2012-06-01

    The release of colored wastewater represents a serious environmental problem and public health concern. Color removal from textile wastewater has become a big challenge over the last decades, and up to now, there is no single and economically attractive treatment method that can effectively decolorize the wastewater. Effluents from textile manufacturing, dyeing, and finishing processes contain high concentrations of biologically difficult-to-degrade or even inert auxiliaries, chemicals like acids, waxes, fats, salts, binders, thickeners, urea, surfactants, reducing agents, etc. The various chemicals such as biocides and stain repellents used for brightening, sequestering, anticreasing, sizing, softening, and wetting of the yarn or fabric are also present in wastewater. Therefore, the textile wastewater needs environmental friendly, effective treatment process. This paper provides a critical review on the current technology available for decolorization and degradation of textile wastewater and also suggests effective and economically attractive alternatives.

  20. A proposed strategy for upgrade of the ORNL Process Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, T.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Scott, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    An approach to the upgrade of the radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed that, if adopted, will result in significant cost reductions and improved water quality. The strategy described in this report satisfies the short-term upgrade needs of the PWTP and ultimately results in replacement of existing PWTP softening/ion- exchange technology with a zeolite molecular sieve treatment system for removal of radioactive contaminants from process wastewater. Use of zeolites will improve wastewater quality while reducing operating and disposal costs. The zeolite system would be constructed adjacent to the site now occupied by the Non-Radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), thereby consolidating all process wastewater treatment systems at one location. 4 refs., 4 figs

  1. A proposed strategy for upgrade of the ORNL process wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, T.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Scott, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to the upgrade of the radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which has been developed and that, if adopted, will result in significant cost reductions and improved water quality. The strategy described in this report satisfies the short-term upgrade needs of the PWTP and ultimately results in replacement of existing PWTP softening/ion-exchange technology with a zeolite molecular sieve treatment system for removal of radioactive contaminants from process wastewater. Use of zeolites will improve wastewater quality while reducing operating and disposal costs. The zeolite system would be constructed adjacent to the site now occupied by the Non-Radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), thereby consolidating all process wastewater treatment systems at one location

  2. A study on the treatment process of industrial wastewater related to heavy metal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Son, J. S.; Park, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    The supernatant from metal wastewater by using magnesium hydroxide and dolomite was used to treat dyeing wastewater. In the case of magnesium hydroxide. In the case of magnesium hydroxide, the optimum dosage was 10 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3 % (v/v) for separation B. Color turbidity and COD removal was 99 to 100 % , 85 to 97 % and 43 to 53 %, respectively. In the case of dolomite, the optimum dosage was 30 % (v/v) for supernatant A and 3% for supernatant B. Color, turbidity and COD removal was 96 to 99 %, 62 to 91 % and 52 to 53 %, respectively. In dyeing wastewater treatment by using supernatant from metal wastewater, the cost of chemicals was reduced by about 80 %

  3. Kinetic studies on purification capability of channel flow type wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, S [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan); Furukawa, K; Kim, J [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1990-10-01

    In order to develop a wastewater treatment process of secondary effluent and a wastewater treatment process of a farm village, some experiments have been carried out using bench scale and full scale hydroponic type wastewater treatment plant. This wastewater treatment system mainly consists of water channels and hydroponic water tanks. The authors carried out of a kinetic study for purification capability of the water channels while assuring the growth of microorganism in the treatment scheme. It was shown experimentally that the channel flow type wastewater treatment plant had a high TOC removal capability regardless of the kind of contact material and treatment time. Activated sludge microorganism concentration in water channels was obtained by kinetic estimation from the measured effluent suspended solid concentration. Estimated amount of activated sludge in water channels comprised only 11.5-37.4 percent of the measured amounts of withdrawn sludge, indicating high photosynthesis production of algae in water channels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  5. Do Contaminants Originating from State-of-the-Art Treated Wastewater Impact the Ecological Quality of Surface Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0–100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this

  6. Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stalter

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0-100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in

  7. Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0-100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this

  8. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS, Volume 2 of 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level. This report contains appendices A and B. Appendix A contains notices of preparation/notices of intent and EIR/EIS scoping comments. Appendix B contains GeothermEx, Inc., analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Effects and Induced Seismicity

  9. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  10. Improvement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.G.; Jung, J.; Choi, J.S.; Park, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents. (author)

  11. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  12. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the...

  13. Inter-Municipal Cooperation For Wastewater Treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce

  14. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Carla Regina; Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G.; Olivi, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity

  15. Electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater using DSA electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carla Regina [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Botta, Clarice M.R.; Espindola, Evaldo L.G. [Nucleo de Estudos em Ecossistemas Aquaticos, Centro de Recursos Hidricos e Ecologia Aplicada, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 292, CEP 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, Paulo [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 14049-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: olivip@ffclrp.usp.br

    2008-05-01

    In this work we studied the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater using dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) containing tin, iridium, ruthenium, and titanium. The electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition of the polymeric precursors. The electrolyses were performed under galvanostatic conditions, at room temperature. Effects of the oxide composition, current density, and effluent conductivity were investigated, and the current efficiency was calculated as a function of the time for the performed electrolyses. Results showed that all the studied electrodes led to a decrease in the content of both total phenolic compounds and total organic carbon (TOC), as well as lower absorbance in the UV-vis region. Toxicity tests using Daphnia similis demonstrated that the electrochemical treatment reduced the wastewater toxicity. The use of DSA type electrodes in the electrochemical treatment of tannery wastewater proved to be useful since it can promote a decrease in total phenolic compounds, TOC, absorbance, and toxicity.

  16. Electrocatalysis in wastewater treatment: recent mechanism advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years, several scientists and industries have developed new alternatives for wastewater treatment and remediation. Recently, electrochemical technology has been largely developed mainly because of its versatility and environmental compatibility. Scientific contributions about role of the electrode material have allowed determining that the influence of material in the selectivity is an important parameter. However, to interpret this behavior, comprehensive physical chemistry models for organics destruction, related to electrochemical phenomena and material surfaces, were proposed in the last decades. So, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review about the principles and recent mechanism advances in electrocatalysis for wastewater treatment.

  17. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  18. Addressing social aspects associated with wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rivera, Alejandro; Morgan-Sagastume, Juan Manuel; Noyola, Adalberto; Güereca, Leonor Patricia, E-mail: lguerecah@iingen.unam.mx

    2016-02-15

    In wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF), technical and financial aspects have been considered a priority, while other issues, such as social aspects, have not been evaluated seriously and there is not an accepted methodology for assessing it. In this work, a methodology focused on social concerns related to WWTF is presented. The methodology proposes the use of 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance to evaluate the progress in moving towards sustainability. The methodology was applied to test its applicability and effectiveness in two WWTF in Mexico (urban and rural). This evaluation helped define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the facilities. In this context, the urban facility showed a better overall performance, a result that may be explained mainly by the better socioeconomic context of the urban municipality. Finally, the evaluation of social aspects using the semi-qualitative approach proposed in this work allows for a comparison between different facilities and for the identification of strengths and weakness, and it provides an alternative tool for achieving and improving wastewater management. - Highlights: • The methodology proposes 25 indicators as a framework for measuring social performance in wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation helped to define the key elements, stakeholders and barriers in the wastewater treatment facilities. • The evaluation of social aspects allows the identification of strengths and weakness for improving wastewater management. • It provides a social profile of the facility that highlights the best and worst performances.

  19. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  20. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  1. Fit-for-purpose wastewater treatment: Testing to implementation of decision support tool (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-12-31

    This paper is the second in a series of two papers. In Paper I, a decision support tool (DST), FitWater, was developed for evaluating the potential of wastewater treatment (WWT) trains for various water reuse applications. In the present paper, the proposed DST has been tested and implemented. FitWater has been tested with several existing WWT plants in Canada and the USA, demonstrating FitWater's effectiveness in estimating life cycle cost (LCC), health risk, and energy use. FitWater has also been implemented in a newly planned neighbourhood in the Okanagan Valley (BC, Canada) by developing 12 alternative WWT trains for water reuse in lawn and public parks irrigation. The results show that FitWater can effectively rank WWT train alternatives based on LCC, health risk, amount of reclaimed water, energy use, and carbon emissions. Moreover, functions have been developed for the variation of unit annualized LCC and energy intensity per unit log removal of microorganisms in different treatment technologies with varying plant capacities. The functions have power relations, showing the economies of scale. FitWater can be applied to identify a cost-effective, risk-acceptable, and energy efficient wastewater treatment train with a plant capacity of 500m 3 /day or more. Furthermore, FitWater can be used to assess potential economic impacts of developing microbiologically stringent effluent standards. The capability of FitWater can be enhanced by including physio-chemical quality of wastewater, additional treatment technologies, and carbon emissions from wastewater decomposition processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management: applicability in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A; Tarhini, Akram; Nasr, Joumana A

    2009-01-01

    Providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment in rural areas is a challenge in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. The problems and limitations of the centralized approaches for wastewater treatment are progressively surfacing. Centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are costly to build and operate, especially in areas with low population densities and dispersed households. Developing countries lack both the funding to construct centralized facilities and the technical expertise to manage and operate them. Alternatively, the decentralized approach for wastewater treatment which employs a combination of onsite and/or cluster systems is gaining more attention. Such an approach allows for flexibility in management, and simple as well as complex technologies are available. The decentralized system is not only a long-term solution for small communities but is more reliable and cost effective. This paper presents a review of the various decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management. A discussion as to their applicability in developing countries, primarily in rural areas, and challenges faced is emphasized all through the paper. While there are many impediments and challenges towards wastewater management in developing countries, these can be overcome by suitable planning and policy implementation. Understanding the receiving environment is crucial for technology selection and should be accomplished by conducting a comprehensive site evaluation process. Centralized management of the decentralized wastewater treatment systems is essential to ensure they are inspected and maintained regularly. Management strategies should be site specific accounting for social, cultural, environmental and economic conditions in the target area.

  3. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  5. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  6. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs.

  7. Potential of combined fungal and bacterial treatment for color removal in textile wastewater

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Čeněk; Svobodová, Kateřina; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Heissenberger, A.; Fuchs, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2011), s. 879-888 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00200901; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Textile wastewater treatment * Fungal trickling filter * Mixed bacterial community Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.980, year: 2011

  8. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Maruyama, A. [Gunma Prefectural Sewerage Manegement General Office (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D{sub 1ng}, were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg{sup -1}), respectively. Since the D{sub 1ng} of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m{sup -3}. (author)

  9. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  10. Energy Data Management Manual for the Wastewater Treatment Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); De Fontaine, Andre [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Energy efficiency has become a higher priority within the wastewater treatment sector, with facility operators and state and local governments ramping up efforts to reduce energy costs and improve environmental performance. Across the country, municipal wastewater treatment plants are estimated to consume more than 30 terawatt hours per year of electricity, which equates to about $2 billion in annual electric costs. Electricity alone can constitute 25% to 40% of a wastewater treatment plant’s annual operating budget and make up a significant portion of a given municipality’s total energy bill. These energy needs are expected to grow over time, driven by population growth and increasingly stringent water quality requirements. The purpose of this document is to describe the benefits of energy data management, explain how it can help drive savings when linked to a strong energy management program, and provide clear, step-by-step guidance to wastewater treatment plants on how to appropriately track energy performance. It covers the basics of energy data management and related concepts and describes different options for key steps, recognizing that a single approach may not work for all agencies. Wherever possible, the document calls out simpler, less time-intensive approaches to help smaller plants with more limited resources measure and track energy performance. Reviews of key, publicly available energy-tracking tools are provided to help organizations select a tool that makes the most sense for them. Finally, this document describes additional steps wastewater treatment plant operators can take to build on their energy data management systems and further accelerate energy savings.

  11. Influence of salinity on fungal communities in a submerged fixed bed bioreactor for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés-Lorenzo, C.; González-Martínez, A.; Smidt, H.; González-López, J.; Rodelas, B.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is known to influence the performance of biological wastewater treatment plants. While its impact on bacterial communities has been thoroughly studied, its influence on fungal communities has been largely overlooked. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the effect of saline

  12. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  13. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  14. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in WWTP. Information is given on extracellular polymeric substances production as factor that is key for formation of spatial structures of microorganisms. Additionally, we discuss data on microbial groups including nitrifiers, denitrifiers, Anammox bacteria, and phosphate- and glycogen-accumulating bacteria in full-scale aerobic systems that was obtained with the use of molecular techniques, including high-throughput sequencing, to shed light on dependencies between the microbial ecology of biomass and the overall efficiency and functional stability of wastewater treatment systems. Sludge bulking in WWTPs is addressed, as well as the microbial composition of consortia involved in antibiotic and micropollutant removal.

  15. Characterization of the potential impact of retention tank emptying on wastewater primary treatment: a new element for CSO management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruejouls, T; Lessard, P; Wipliez, B; Pelletier, G; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies have shown that discharges from retention tanks could have a negative impact on the WWTP's (Wastewater Treatment Plant) effluent. Characterization of such discharges is necessary to better understand these impacts. This study aims at: (1) characterizing water quality during emptying of a tank; and (2) characterizing the temporal variation of settling velocities of the waters released to the WWTP. Two full-scale sampling campaigns (18 rain events) have been realized in Quebec City and laboratory analyses have shown a wide variability of total suspended solids (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations in the water released from the tank. Suspended solids seem to settle quickly because they are only found in large amounts during the first 15 min of pumping to the WWTP. These solids are hypothesized to come from the pumping in which solids remained after a previous event. When these solids are evacuated, low TSS containing waters are pumped from the retention tank. A second concentration peak occurs at the end of the emptying period when the tank is cleaned with wash water. Finally, settling velocity studies allowed characterizing combined sewer wastewaters by separating three main fractions of pollutants which correspond to the beginning, middle and end of emptying. In most cases, it is noticed that particle settling velocities increase as the pollutant load increases.

  16. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  17. A mathematical programming framework for early stage design of wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment technologies and stricter effluent requirements make the optimal treatment process selection for wastewater treatment plant design a complicated problem. This task, defined as wastewater treatment process synthesis, is currently based on e...... the design problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (Non)linear Programming problem e MI(N)LP e and solved. A case study is formulated and solved to highlight the application of the framework. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... on expert decisions and previous experiences. This paper proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem. The approach generates/identifies novel and optimal wastewater treatment process selection, and the interconnection between unit operations to create...

  18. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  19. Wastewater treatment technologies to satisfy 1990's energy conservation/pollution prevention goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, L.W.; Beers, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Anheuser-Busch, like most other companies, relied through the mid-1970's on end-of-pipe, energy-intensive aerobic treatment systems for its wastewater. Little if any attention was placed on source reduction. There are several factors that help explain why industry had adopted this approach. Energy was relatively cheap, sludge disposal was not a major problem and many municipalities provided wastewater treatment capacity to industry as an inducement for industry to locate there. The saying for A-B was open-quotes We know how to make beer - municipalities know how to treat our wastewater - let's not mix the two.close quotes The 1973 oil embargo and the resulting mid-1970's energy crisis changed Anheuser-Busch's wastewater treatment philosophy. The days of cheap energy and wastewater treatment were gone. This was only exaggerated by the more stringent treatment requirements resulting from the passage of PL92-500 (Clean Water Act). Increasing sludge disposal problems with associated increased disposal costs also occurred. From the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's Anheuser-Busch performed significant developmental work on land application of wastewater. This technology, which requires only about 10% of the energy of aerobic activated sludge treatment systems and produces no sludge for disposal, was installed at six Anheuser-Busch locations. During this time period considerable improvement was made in the area of waste load reduction. However, the main driving force was economics; that is, it was done if cheaper than wastewater treatment. Anheuser-Busch still had a basic end-of-pipe treatment philosophy

  20. Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in developing countries--a review of recent developments (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Jinadasa, K B S N; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-08-01

    Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation has become one of the most pervasive problems afflicting people throughout the developing world. Replication of centralized water-, energy- and cost-intensive technologies has proved ineffective in resolving the complex water-related problems resulting from rapid urbanization in the developing countries. Instead constructed wetlands (CWs) have emerged and become a viable option for wastewater treatment, and are currently being recognized as attractive alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment methods. The primary objective of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of practice, applications and researches of CW systems for removing various contaminants from wastewater in developing countries, placing them in the overall context of the need for low-cost and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. Emphasis of this review is placed on the treatment performance of various types of CWs including: (i) free water surface flow CW; (ii) subsurface flow CW; (iii) hybrid systems; and, (iv) floating treatment wetland. The impacts of different wetland design and pertinent operational variables (e.g., hydraulic loading rate, vegetation species, physical configurations, and seasonal variation) on contaminant removal in CW systems are also summarized and highlighted. Finally, the cost and land requirements for CW systems are critically evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Jacobsen, Geraldine E; Smith, Andrew M; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

    2013-09-15

    This study reports the presence of fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in wastewater treatment plants. The findings pinpoint the inaccuracy of current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines which defines all organic carbon in wastewater to be of biogenic origin. Stable and radiocarbon isotopes ((13)C and (14)C) were measured throughout the process train in four municipal wastewater treatment plants equipped with secondary activated sludge treatment. Isotopic mass balance analyses indicate that 4-14% of influent total organic carbon (TOC) is of fossil origin with concentrations between 6 and 35 mg/L; 88-98% of this is removed from the wastewater. The TOC mass balance analysis suggests that 39-65% of the fossil organic carbon from the influent is incorporated into the activated sludge through adsorption or from cell assimilation while 29-50% is likely transformed to carbon dioxide (CO2) during secondary treatment. The fossil organic carbon fraction in the sludge undergoes further biodegradation during anaerobic digestion with a 12% decrease in mass. 1.4-6.3% of the influent TOC consists of both biogenic and fossil carbon is estimated to be emitted as fossil CO2 from activated sludge treatment alone. The results suggest that current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines, which assume that all CO2 emission from wastewater is biogenic may lead to underestimation of emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Progress in TiO2-Mediated Solar Photocatalysis for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the application of TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment, starting with a brief introduction on the background of industrial wastewater and the development of wastewater treatment processes, especially advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. We, then, discuss the application of solar TiO2 photocatalysis in treating different kinds of industrial wastewater, such as paper mill wastewater, textile wastewater, and olive mill wastewater. In the end, we compare solar TiO2 photocatalysis with other AOPs in terms of effectiveness, energy, and chemical consumption. Personal perspectives are also given, which may provide new insights to the future development of TiO2 photocatalysis for industrial wastewater.

  3. Analysis of energy consumption at the Rzeszów Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masłoń Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants can be classified as energy-intensive facilities, as they account for up to 35 percent of municipal energy consumption. Pumps and aeration systems consume a significant portion of energy within the wastewater plants in particular. The cost of energy consumption for wastewater treatment processes reaches up to 40% of the total operating cost. In case of the WWTPs with the activated sludge systems, about 50% of energy is used for aeration and mixing purposes. At WWTPs, energy consumption is often correlated with the magnitude and type of pollutant load, which can influence the treatment methods and technologies used in the WWTP. In many cases wastewater treatment plants are operated without optimized measures for process optimization. A detailed study of the energy consumption should be executed in order to determine the optimization potential. This paper presents the energy consumption in municipal wastewater treatment plant in Rzeszów (Poland. In the year 2016, parameters of raw and treated wastewater were tested. The data related to energy consumption in plants allowed us to determine the energy intensity coefficients. Total consumption was measured. Indicators of energy consumption per cubic meter and removed load were calculated.

  4. Application of electron beam to industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Boo, J.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.; Chung, W.; Choi, J.S.; Kang, H.J.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the Central Research Institute of Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with EB irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an EB pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has been constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for S-paper Co. in Cheongwon City, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. (author)

  5. Diagnosis and Prognostic of Wastewater Treatment System Based on Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yang, Haizhen; Liang, XiaoFeng

    2010-11-01

    Wastewater treatment is a complicated and dynamic process. The treatment effect can be influenced by many variables in microbial, chemical and physical aspects. These variables are always uncertain. Due to the complex biological reaction mechanisms, the highly time-varying and multivariable aspects, the diagnosis and prognostic of wastewater treatment system are still difficult in practice. Bayesian network (BN) is one of the best methods for dealing with uncertainty in the artificial intelligence field. Because of the powerful inference ability and convenient decision mechanism, BN can be employed into the model description and influencing factor analysis of wastewater treatment system with great flexibility and applicability.In this paper, taking modified sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) as an analysis object, BN model was constructed according to the influent water quality, operational condition and effluent effect data of MSBR, and then a novel approach based on BN is proposed to analyze the influencing factors of the wastewater treatment system. The approach presented gives an effective tool for diagnosing and predicting analysis of the wastewater treatment system. On the basis of the influent water quality and operational condition, effluent effect can be predicted. Moreover, according to the effluent effect, the influent water quality and operational condition also can be deduced.

  6. Impact of Combined Sewer Overflow on Wastewater Treatment and Microbiological Quality of Rivers for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Mascher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli (EC and intestinal enterococci (IE were 2.84, 2.90 and 2.93. In the investigated period of time, the tested treatment plant released 4.3% of the total annual load flow volume as combined sewer overflow (CSO, that is, when the influent into the combined sewer exceeds the capacity of the treatment plant and coarsely cleaned wastewater arrives at the recipient. This CSO discharge increased the number of FIB significantly by 1.2 × 102 MPN/100 mL for EC, and by 1.8 × 101 MPN/100 mL for IE. For the Styrian part of the Mur River (1.6 million inhabitants, a calculation of FIB of all sewage treatment plants estimating the same ratio of CSO (4.3% and a given mean flow rate (QM results in a significant increase of the FIB load in the recipient: 3.8 × 103 MPN/100 mL for EC and 5.8 × 102 MPN/100 mL for IE. On the basis of these values the standards of water quality for recreational purposes cannot be met.

  7. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  8. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  9. Behavior of natural radionuclides in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, A.; Montaña, M.; Vallés, I.; Devesa, R.; Céspedes-Sánchez, R.; Serrano, I.; Blázquez, S.; Barjola, V.

    2012-01-01

    56 samples, including influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent and final effluent wastewater from two Spanish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess both the occurrence and behavior of natural radioactivity during 12 sampling campaigns carried out over the period 2007–2010. Influent and final effluent wastewaters were sampled by taking into account the hydraulic residence time within the WWTP. A wide range of gross alpha activities (15–129 mBq/L) and gross beta activities (477–983 mBq/L) in liquid samples were obtained. A correlation analysis between radioactivity in liquid samples and the performance characteristics of the WWTPs was performed. The results in liquid samples showed that gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. However, gross alpha activities behave differently and an increase was detected in the effluent values compared with influent wastewater. This behavior was due to the increase in the total dissolved uranium produced during secondary treatment. The results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the effluents do not present a significant radiological risk and make them suitable for future applications. - Highlights: ► Liquids from WWTPs were analyzed to know the behavior of natural radionuclides. ► Gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. ► Increase in gross alpha activity was observed due to uranium desorption/solubilisation. ► Correlation between gross alpha activity and the chemical oxygen demand was found

  10. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, Maha A; Purcell, Patrick J; Zhao, Yaqian

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a 'synthetic' hydrocarbon wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water. The AOPs investigated were Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton's reagent), Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (Photo-Fenton's reagent) which may be used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional treatment techniques. Laboratory-scale batch and continuous-flow experiments were undertaken. The photo-Fenton parametric concentrations to maximize COD removal were optimized: pH = 3, H(2)O(2) = 400 mg/L, and Fe(2+) = 40 mg/L. In the case of the oil-refinery wastewater, photo-Fenton treatment achieved approximately 50% COD removal and, when preceded by physicochemical treatment, the percentage removal increased to approximately 75%.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL's current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL's existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility

  12. The Distribution of Microalgae in a Stabilization Pond System of a Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Tropical Environment (Case Study: Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herto Dwi Ariesyady

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP serves to treat domestic wastewater originating from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. An abundant amount of nutrients as a result of waste decomposition increases the number of microalgae populations present in the pond of the wastewater treatment plant, thereby causing a population explosion of microalgae, also called algal blooming. In a stabilization pond system, the presence of algal blooming is not desirable because it can decrease wastewater treatment performance. More knowledge about the relationship between the nutrients concentration and algae blooming conditions, such as microalgae diversity, is needed to control and maintain the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Therefore this study was conducted, in order to reveal the diversity of microalgae in the stabilization pond system and its relationship with the water characteristics of the comprising ponds. The results showed that the water quality in the stabilization pond system of Bojongsoang WWTP supported rapid growth of microalgae, where most rapid microbial growth occurred in the anaerobic pond. The microalgae diversity in the stabilization ponds was very high, with various morphologies, probably affiliated with blue-green algae, green algae, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms. This study has successfully produced information on microalgae diversity and abundance profiles in a stabilization pond system.

  13. The use of constructed wetlands for the treatment of industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypiecbcef Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands are characterized by specific conditions enabling simultaneous various physical and biochemical processes. This is the result of specific environment for the growth of microorganisms and hydrophytes (aquatic and semiaquatic plants which are capable of living in aerobic, anaerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions. Their interaction contributes to the intensification of oxidation and reduction responsible for the removal and retention of pollutants. These processes are supported by sorption, sedimentation and assimilation. Thanks to these advantages, treatment wetland systems have been used in communal management for over 50 years. In recent years, thanks to its advantages, low operational costs and high removal efficiency, there is growing interest in the use of constructed wetlands for the treatment or pre-treatment of various types of industrial wastewater. The study analyzes current use of these facilities for the treatment of industrial wastewater in the world. The conditions of use and efficiency of pollutants removal from readily and slowly biodegradable wastewater, with special emphasis on specific and characteristic pollutants of particular industries were presented. The use of subsurface horizontal flow beds for the treatment of industrial wastewater, among others from crude oil processing, paper production, food industry including wineries and distillery, olive oil production and coffee processing was described. In Poland constructed wetlands are used for the treatment of sewage and sludge from milk processing in pilot scale or for dewatering of sewage sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plant treating domestic sewage with approximately 40% share of wastewater from dairy and fish industry. In all cases, constructed wetlands provided an appropriate level of treatment and in addition the so-called ecosystem service.

  14. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  15. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration...... for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment....... permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO...

  16. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  18. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  19. A Tool to Support Optimal Industrial Wastewater Treatment Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Pennati, Alessandra; Bozkurt, Hande

    2013-01-01

    may be suboptimal or disregard opportunities for water recycle or resource recovery and reuse. In this contribution, we propose a model-based toolbox developed to help wastewater professionals to screen among a large number of alternatives in order to identify the optimal treatment configuration from......Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWWTP) design is often based on in-house expert knowledge and experience. Because of time and resources constraints, only a small number of alternative treatment configurations and ideas are evaluated while designing an IWWTP. Consequently, the selected design...... an economic cost-benefit perspective. The toolbox is demonstrated through a case study, dealing with oil refinery wastewater treatment and water recycle....

  20. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  1. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  2. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  3. Incentives in the water chain: wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The proper management of wastewater and its reuse is crucial in order to reduce hazards and maintain a variety of benefits. The merits of improvements in wastewater management are particularly high where effective wastewater treatment is not in place and completely untreated wastewater is reused.

  4. Phosphorus removal using a microalgal biofilm in a new biofilm photobioreactor for tertiary wastewater treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sukačová, Kateřina; Trtílek, M.; Rataj, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 75, mar (2015), s. 55-63 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : microalgal biofilm * phosphorus removal * wastewater treatment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.991, year: 2015

  5. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  6. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  7. Catalytic Wastewater Treatment Using Pillared Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    After introduction on the use of solid catalysts in wastewater treatment technologies, particularly advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), this review discussed the use of pillared clay (PILC) materials in three applications: (i) wet air catalytic oxidation (WACO), (ii) wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) on Cu-PILC and Fe-PILC, and (iii) behavior of Ti-PILC and Fe-PILC in the photocatalytic or photo-Fenton conversion of pollutants. Literature data are critically analyzed to evidence the main direction to further investigate, in particularly with reference to the possible practical application of these technologies to treat industrial, municipal, or agro-food production wastewater.

  8. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  10. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  11. Adsorption, sedimentation, and inactivation of E. coli within wastewater treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, L; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Lake, C; Hart, W

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria fate and transport within constructed wetlands must be understood if engineered wetlands are to become a reliable form of wastewater treatment. This study investigated the relative importance of microbial treatment mechanisms in constructed wetlands treating both domestic and agricultural wastewater. Escherichia coli (E. coli) inactivation, adsorption, and settling rates were measured in the lab within two types of wastewater (dairy wastewater lagoon effluent and domestic septic tank effluent). In situ E. coli inactivation was also measured within a domestic wastewater treatment wetland and the adsorption of E. coli was also measured within the wetland effluent. Inactivation of E. coli appears to be the most significant contributor to E. coli removal within the wastewaters and wetland environments examined in this study. E. coli survived longer within the dairy wastewater (DW) compared to the domestic wastewater treatment wetland water (WW). First order rate constants for E. coli inactivation within the WW in the lab ranged from 0.09 day(-1) (d(-1)) at 7.6 degrees C to 0.18d(-1) at 22.8 degrees C. The average in situ rate constant observed within the domestic wetland ranged from 0.02 d(-1) to 0.03 d(-1) at an average water temperature of 17 degrees C. First order rate constants for E. coli inactivation within the DW ranged from 0.01 d(-1) at 7.7 degrees C to 0.04 d(-1) at 24.6 degrees C. Calculated distribution coefficients (K(d)) were 19,000 mL g(-1), 324,000 mL g(-1), and 293 mL g(-1) for E. coli with domestic septic tank effluent (STE), treated wetland effluent (WLE), and DW, respectively. Approximately 50%, 20%, and 90% of E. coli were "free floating" or associated with particles 5 microm within both the STE and DW, settling did not appear to contribute to E. coli removal within sedimentation experiments, indicating that the particles the bacteria were associated with had very small settling velocities. The results of this study highlight the

  12. Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia-Jia; Pan, Liang-Ming; Chen, De-Qi; Dong, Yu-Quan; Wang, Cheng-Mu; Liu, Hang; Kang, Mei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of nozzles, the spray droplet size and flue gas temperature limitation have been obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation results show that a longer duct, smaller diameter and higher flue gas temperature could help to increase the evaporation rate. The optimal DWETS design of Shangdu plant is 100 μm droplet sprayed by two nozzles located at the long duct when the flue gas temperature is 130 °C. Field tests were carried out based on the simulation results. The effects of running DWETS on the downstream devices have been studied. The results show that DWETS has a positive impact on ash removal efficiency and does not have any negative impact on the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), flue gas heat exchanger and WFGD. The pH values of the slurry of WFGD slightly increase when the DWETS is running. The simulation and field test of the DWETS show that it is a feasible future technology for desulfurization wastewater treatment.

  13. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  14. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  15. The use of moving bed bio-reactor to laundry wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Sławomira; Mazur, Jacek; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Janus, Magdalena; Mozia, Sylwia; Waldemar Morawski, Antoni

    2017-11-01

    Large laboratory scale biological treatment test of industrial real wastewater, generated in industrial big laundry, has been conducted in the period of May 2016-August 2016. The research aimed at selection of laundry wastewater treatment technology included tests of two-stage Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR), with two reactors filled with carriers Kaldnes K5 (specific area - 800 m2/m3), have been realized in aerobic condition. Operating on site, in the laundry, reactors have been fed real wastewater from laundry retention tank. To the laundry wastewater, contained mainly surfactants and impurities originating from washed fabrics, a solution of urea to supplement nitrogen content and a solution of acid to correct pH have been added. Daily flow of raw wastewater Qd was equal to 0.6-0.8 m3/d. The values of determined wastewater quality indicators showed that substantial decrease of pollutants content have been reached: BOD5 by 94.7-98.1%, COD by 86.9-93.5%, the sum of anionic and nonionic surfactants by 98.7-99.8%. The quality of the purified wastewater, after star-up period, meets the legal requirements regarding the standards for wastewater discharged to the environment.

  16. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  17. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  18. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    Residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals find their way into the environment mainly through incomplete removal in the conventional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and appear as micro-pollutants at pg L-1 to μg L-1 concentrations. WWTPs were designed...

  19. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m 2 /h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  20. Survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Vorberg, Lisa; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Ternes, Thomas; Coors, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. In the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. Assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor chronically exposed in on-site flow-through tests based on standard guidelines. The treatment combinations were activated sludge treatment followed by ozonation with subsequent filtration by granular activated carbon or biofilters and membrane bioreactor treatment of raw wastewater followed by ozonation. Additionally, the impact of treated wastewater on the immune response of invertebrates was investigated by challenging D. magna with a bacterial endoparasite. Conventionally treated wastewater reduced reproduction of L. variegatus by up to 46%, but did not affect D. magna and L. minor with regard to survival, growth, reproduction and parasite resistance. Instead, parasite susceptibility was significantly reduced in D. magna exposed to conventionally treated as well as ozonated wastewater in comparison to D. magna exposed to the medium control. None of the three test organisms provided clear evidence that wastewater ozonation leads to increased aquatic toxicity. Rather than to the presence of toxic transformation products, the affected performance of L. variegatus could be linked to elevated concentrations of ammonium and nitrite that likely resulted from treatment failures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  2. SEM analysis of particle size during conventional treatment of CMP process wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Gary A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Brenner, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently employed by many industries and have different physical and chemical properties from their bulk counterparts that may confer different toxicity. Nanoparticles used or generated in semiconductor manufacturing have the potential to enter the municipal waste stream via wastewater and their ultimate fate in the ecosystem is currently unknown. This study investigates the fate of ENMs used in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a polishing process repeatedly utilized in semiconductor manufacturing. Wastewater sampling was conducted throughout the wastewater treatment (WWT) process at the fabrication plant's on-site wastewater treatment facility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the WWT processes resulted in size-dependent filtration of particles in the nanoscale regime by analyzing samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in particle size between sampling points, indicating low or no selectivity of WWT methods for nanoparticles based on size. All nanoparticles appeared to be of similar morphology (near-spherical), with a high variability in particle size. EDX verified nanoparticles composition of silicon- and/or aluminum-oxide. Nanoparticle sizing data compared between sampling points, including the final sampling point before discharge from the facility, suggested that nanoparticles could be released to the municipal waste stream from industrial sources. - Highlights: • The discrete treatments of a semiconductor wastewater treatment system were examined. • A sampling scheme and method for analyzing nanoparticles in wastewater was devised. • The wastewater treatment process studied is not size-selective for nanoparticles

  3. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  4. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  5. Investigation of Environmental-friendly Technology for a Paint Industry Wastewater Plant in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin YAPICIOĞLU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paint manufacturing process has several unfavorable aspects to the environment in Turkey. One of these impacts is wastewater treatment. Paint wastewater contains huge amounts of toxic chemical substances, bio refractory compounds, pigments and microorganisms. So, advanced treatment requirement is available to dispose of colour, microorganisms and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The high organic content of wastewater causes serious environmental challenges and contamination for the living organisms and the ecosystem in the receiver media unless it is treated adequately. In this context, the treatment process to be implemented should be preferred in such a way as to give the least damage to the environment. In this study, three treatment scenarios that contain electrocoagulation (Scenario-1, Fenton process (Scenario-2 and membrane distillation (Scenario-3 have been created for wastewater treatment facility of a paint industry in Turkey. For three scenarios, environmental impact assessment has been carried out with Fine-Kinney method. It is aimed to choose best environmental technology before investment. The evaluation results revealed that Scenario-2 has the less environmental impacts that total impact value is 556. Scenario-1 has the highest total impact value as 756, relatively. Total impact value related to Scenario-3 is 637. According to the evaluation results, Fenton process is the best environmental-friendly treatment technology for wastewater treatment of a paint industry in Turkey.

  6. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

  7. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  8. Case study: centralized wastewater treatment plant at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2006-01-01

    Survey has been conducted at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park (RIIP) to investigate the possibility of setting up centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant. Rawang integrated industrial park is selected based on suggestion from department of environment. RIIP consists of about 150 industries with various type of activities operated in the area. Only 9 out of estimated 150 industries have individual wastewater treatment plant. The business activities of the 9 industries include food processing, textile, welding rods manufacturing, steel galvanizing and battery manufacturing. Wastewater generated by the industries are characterized by high oil and grease, cod, bod, organic matter, metal hydroxide and acidic. Besides that most of industries do the monitoring only once a month. This paper will also discuss the advantages of setting up of centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant to the government authorities, industries, people and environment. (Author)

  9. Wastewater treatment modelling: dealing with uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belia, E.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves as a problem statement of the issues surrounding uncertainty in wastewater treatment modelling. The paper proposes a structure for identifying the sources of uncertainty introduced during each step of an engineering project concerned with model-based design or optimisation...

  10. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  11. Development of an Integrated Wastewater Treatment System/water reuse/agriculture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C. H.; Schuler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Factors like increasing population, urbanization, and climate change have made the management of water resources a challenge for municipalities. By understanding wastewater recycling for agriculture in arid regions, we can expand the supply of water to agriculture and reduce energy use at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This can improve management decisions between WWTPs and water managers. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype integrated model of the wastewater treatment system and nearby agricultural areas linked by water and nutrients, using the Albuquerque Southeast Eastern Reclamation Facility (SWRF) and downstream agricultural system as a case study. Little work has been done to understand how such treatment technology decisions affect the potential for water ruse, nutrient recovery in agriculture, overall energy consumption and agriculture production and water quality. A holistic approach to understanding synergies and tradeoffs between treatment, reuse, and agriculture is needed. For example, critical wastewater treatment process decisions include options to nitrify (oxidize ammonia), which requires large amounts of energy, to operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations, which requires much less energy, whether to recover nitrogen and phosphorus, chemically in biosolids, or in reuse water for agriculture, whether to generate energy from anaerobic digestion, and whether to develop infrastructure for agricultural reuse. The research first includes quantifying existing and feasible agricultural sites suitable for irrigation by reuse wastewater as well as existing infrastructure such as irrigation canals and piping by using GIS databases. Second, a nutrient and water requirement for common New Mexico crop is being determined. Third, a wastewater treatment model will be utilized to quantify energy usage and nutrient removal under various scenarios. Different agricultural reuse sensors and treatment technologies will be explored. The

  12. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  13. Treatment of textile wastewater by a hybrid electrocoagulation/nanofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouni, Anissa; Fersi, Cheïma; Ben Sik Ali, Mourad; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2009-09-15

    Untreated effluents from textile industries are usually highly coloured and contain a considerable amount of contaminants and pollutants. Stringent environmental regulation for the control of textile effluents is enforced in several countries. Previous studies showed that many techniques have been used for the treatment of textile wastewater, such as adsorption, biological treatment, oxidation, coagulation and/or flocculation, among them coagulation is one of the most commonly used techniques. Electrocoagulation is a process consisting in creating metallic hydroxide flocks within the wastewater by the electrodissolution of soluble anodes, usually made of iron or aluminium. This method has been practiced for most of the 20th century with limited success. In recent years, however, it started to regain importance with the progress of the electrochemical processes and the increase in environmental restrictions in effluent wastewater. This paper examines the use of electrocoagulation treatment process followed by nanofiltration process of a textile effluent sample. The electrocoagulation process was studied under several conditions such as various current densities and effect of experimental tense. Efficiencies of COD and turbidity reductions and colour removal were studied for each experiment. The electrochemical treatment was indented primarily to remove colour and COD of wastewater while nanofiltration was used to further improve the removal efficiency of the colour, COD, conductivity, alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS). The experimental results, throughout the present study, have indicated that electrocoagulation treatment followed by nanofiltration processes were very effective and were capable of elevating quality of the treated textile wastewater effluent.

  14. The use of mathematical models in teaching wastewater treatment engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....

  15. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  16. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wastewater treatment of chemical laboratory using electro assisted-phytoremediation (EAPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Rudy Syah; Trahadinata, Gilang Ahmad; Latif, Arif; Solehudin, Mochamad

    2017-03-01

    The EAPR process using water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) on the wastewater treatment of chemical laboratory had been evaluated. The purpose of the EAPR process was to decrease the BOD, COD and heavy metal concentration in the wastewater. The effectiveness of the process on the wastewater treatment was evaluated using COD, BOD, and heavy metal (Pb, Cu) concentration, respectively. The result showed that the EAPR process decrease the COD, BOD, Pb and Cu in the 4 h of EAPR process. Those concentrations were met the water quality standard of class IV according to government regulation No. 82/2001 regarding the water quality management and water pollution control of the Republic of Indonesia.

  18. Present status on the use of electron accelerator for wastewater treatment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Han, Bum Soo; Choi, Jang Seung; Kang, Ho

    2006-01-01

    In the part 1, four major irradiation R and D works studied in field of wastewater treatment in Korea were introduced. Disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent, removal of color in dyeing wastewater and feasibility test to control algal bloom used the electron beam as a radiation source. Treatment of groundwater polluted by TCE and PCE used gamma rays as a radiation source. Backgrounds and experimental results on each research topic were introduced. In the part 2, national on-going projects related to wastewater treatment using irradiation technology in Korea were introduced. With regarding these projects, EB treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater was described based on the construction and evaluation of ecological stability. (author)

  19. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Rintoul, Llew; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. We applied a high-volume sampling device that fractionated microplastics in situ and an efficient sample processing procedure to improve the sampling of microplastics in wastewater and to minimize the false detection of non-plastic particles. The sampling device captured between 92% and 99% of polystyrene microplastics using 25 μm-500 μm mesh screens in laboratory tests. Microplastic type, size and suspected origin in all studied WWTPs, along with the removal efficiency during the secondary and tertiary treatment stages, was investigated. Suspected microplastics were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, with between 22 and 90% of the suspected microplastics found to be non-plastic particles. An average of 0.28, 0.48 and 1.54 microplastics per litre of final effluent was found in tertiary, secondary and primary treated effluent, respectively. This study suggests that although low concentrations of microplastics are detected in wastewater effluent, WWTPs still have the potential to act as a pathway to release microplastics given the large volumes of effluent discharged to the aquatic environment. This study focused on a single sampling campaign, with

  20. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  1. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform.

  2. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The first experiments on the use of wetland plants to treat wastewaters were carried out in the early 1950s by Dr. Käthe Seidel in Germany and the first full-scale systems were put into operation during the late 1960s. Since then, the subsurface systems have been commonly used in Europe while free water surface systems have been more popular in North America and Australia. During the 1970s and 1980s, the information on constructed wetland technology spread slowly. But since the 1990 s the technology has become international, facilitated by exchange among scientists and researchers around the world. Because of the need for more effective removal of ammonia and total nitrogen, during the 1990 s and 2000s vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands were combined to complement each other to achieve higher treatment efficiency. Today, constructed wetlands are recognized as a reliable wastewater treatment technology and they represent a suitable solution for the treatment of many types of wastewater.

  3. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  4. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  5. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  6. Synthesis of adsorbent from Tamarix hispida and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater: Adsorbent characteristics and real wastewater treatment data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Habibi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes a facile method for production of an adsorbent from Tamarix hispida wasted wood and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater. The main characteristics of the adsorbent consist of BET surface area, functional groups, and elemental analysis is presented. The data for attenuating the pollutants from a real wastewater treatment which was provided from a glass factory is also represented. More than 90% of fluoride content of the real wastewater was treated by the adsorbent. Generally, these data would be informative for extend research aim to industrial wastewater treatment and those who work in the wastewater treatment plants.

  7. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  8. Sequential solar photo-fenton-biological system for the treatment of winery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, R; Sarasa, J; Ormad, Maria P; Ovelleiro, J L

    2008-08-27

    In this study, winery wastewaters are considered for degradation using heterogeneous photo-Fenton as a preliminary step before biotreatment. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process assisted by solar light is able to partially degrade the organic matter present in winery wastewaters. When an initial hydrogen peroxide concentration of 0.1 M is used over 24 h of treatment, a degradation yield of organic matter (measured as TOC) of around 50% is reached. The later treatment (activated sludge process) allows the elimination of 90% of the initial TOC present in pretreated winery wastewaters without producing nondesired side-effects, such as the bulking phenomenon, which is usually detected when this treatment is used alone. The final effluent contains a concentration of organic matter (measured as COD) of 128 mg O2/L. The coupled system comprising the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process and biological treatment based on activated sludge in simple stage is a real alternative for the treatment of winery wastewater.

  9. Removal Efficiency of Microbial Contaminants from Hospital Wastewaters

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants from two hospitals on-site Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. Hospital wastewaters often go untreated in Saudi Arabia as in many devolving countries, where no specific regulations are imposed regarding hospital wastewater treatment. The current guidelines are placed to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however, they do not regulate for pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Results from this study have detected pathogenic bacterial genera and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the sampled hospitals wastewater. And although the treatment process of one of the hospitals was able to meet current quality guidelines, the other hospital treatment process failed to meet these guidelines and disgorge of its wastewater might be cause for concern. In order to estimate the risk to the public health and the impact of discharging the treated effluent to the public sewage, a comprehensive investigation is needed that will facilitate and guide suggestions for more detailed guidelines and monitoring.

  10. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  11. Evaluation of on-site wastewater treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a program designed to conduct a third-party group evaluation of wastewater denitrification technologies appropriate for low-flow systems, partially funded by a grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). The objective of this program is to verify the performance of products that provide nutrient reduction in wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater, agricultural runoff, or other waste streams. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the potential energy savings of using nutrient reducing technologies scaled to treat low flows - larger than an individual septic tank but smaller than that of a conventional wastewater treatment plant - will be assessed. The energy savings realized by reduced construction and equipment transport costs alone could make low-flow nutrient reduction technologies viable options for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow settings. The evaluation is being funded in part by PADEP, which is sponsoring this evaluation due to its interest in developing low-cost wastewater treatment technologies for Pennsylvania's rural communities. However, the evaluation is national in scope, and participants will come from all areas of the country. The presentation will include a description of the process for establishing the testing protocol, testing results from various nutrient reducing technologies, and obstacles encountered and lessons learned during the process. (author)

  12. Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS)/Final Environmental Impact Report (FEIR). Otis Air National Guard Base, Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    and G.E. Ness, 1982, Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli in Estuarine Water and Sediments, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 43...and publications in areas of water and wastewater treatment. David Tomasko, Ph.D., 1985. University of New Mexico . Staff Hydrogeologist. Research...Reserve in California. We are working on EIS’s for the U.S. Air Force Base Closings in realignment in California, New Mexico and Washington, and a very

  13. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater using white-rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, Jonas; Vargas, Micaela; Contijoch, Andreu; Barry, David Andrew; Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides in municipal wastewater is challenging due to their very low concentrations (ng/l to µg/l), their relatively low biodegradability, and their different physico-chemical characteristics. One potential way to improve micropollutant biodegradation in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is by using microorganisms such as white-rot fungi that produce powerful unspecific oxidative exo-enzymes (laccase, peroxidase) that are ab...

  14. Challege and Opportunities of Membrane Bioelctrochemical Reactors for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are potentially advantageous as an energy-efficient approach for wastewater treatment. Integrating membrane filtration with MFCs could be a viable option for advanced wastewater treatment with a low energy input. Such an integration is termed as membrane bioelectrochemical reactors (MBERs). Comparing to the conventional membrane bioreactors or anaerobic membrane bioreactors, MBER could be a competitive technology, due to the its advantages on energy consumption and...

  15. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  16. Cell-based metabolomics approach for assessing the impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent on downstream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are a known source of various types of chemicals including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), naturally occurring hormones, and pesticides. There is great concern regarding their adverse effects on human and ecological health th...

  17. Wastewater treatment and reuse. Indian power plant turns sewage into process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S.; Schroedter, F.; Demmerle, C. [ERM Lahmeyer International, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Lahmeyer International provided consulting services for a private Indian investor of a 200 MW diesel engine power plant, in reviewing and controlling the EPC Contractor from Korea with regard to the treatment plant for dosmestic wastewater and the reverse osmosis plant for desalination. The wastewater treatment and subsequent water treatment for cooling water production comprised: mechanical treatment, biological treatment of domestic wastewater, lime softening, sand filtration, disinfection, micro-filtration, reverse osmosis. The services as Owner's Engineer included: (1) the review of the EPC Contractor's treatment concept, (2) the selection of internationally renowned manufacturer, (3) the review of the detailed design (including civil, mechanical, electrical and I and C work), and (4) onsite technical assistance to the Client during construction and commissioning phase. (orig.)

  18. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Treatment of wastewater from service areas at motorways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with wastewater treatment systems placed in motorway service areas (MSAs. In the years 2008-2009 eight of such facilities installed on the stretch of the A2 motorway between Poznań and Nowy Tomyśl were examined and analyzed. The system consists of a septic tank, a submerged aerated biofilter and an outflow filter. The volume of traffic on the highway was analyzed, the amount of water use was measured and peak factors were calculated. On this basis it was concluded that the inflows to the wastewater treatment systems in many cases exceeded the nominal design values.

  1. Thermoeconomic analysis applied to an alternative wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Silveira, Jose Luz; Mattos dos Reis, Luiz Octavio [Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Oscare Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work develops a methodology for the determination of costs associated to products generated in a small wastewater treatment station. The methodology begins with plant units identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics features to each point indicated in its process diagram. Following, a functional diagram and a formulation are developed in exergetic basis, describing all equations for these points, which are the constraints for optimisation and are used to determine costs associated to products generated in a Small Wastewater Treatment Station - SWTS. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical system based on SWTS plants and presents consistent results when compared to values based on previous experiments and evaluations. (author)

  2. Forward Osmosis in Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Basu, Subhankar; Balakrishnan, Malini; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Petrinic, Irena

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, membrane technology has been widely used in wastewater treatment and water purification. Membrane technology is simple to operate and produces very high quality water for human consumption and industrial purposes. One of the promising technologies for water and wastewater treatment is the application of forward osmosis. Essentially, forward osmosis is a process in which water is driven through a semipermeable membrane from a feed solution to a draw solution due to the osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane. The immediate advantage over existing pressure driven membrane technologies is that the forward osmosis process per se eliminates the need for operation with high hydraulic pressure and forward osmosis has low fouling tendency. Hence, it provides an opportunity for saving energy and membrane replacement cost. However, there are many limitations that still need to be addressed. Here we briefly review some of the applications within water purification and new developments in forward osmosis membrane fabrication.

  3. Wastewater Sludge Stabilization Using Lime A Case Study of West Ahwaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Farzadkia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization is a chemical method used for wastewater sludge stabilization. It is capable of decreasing large quantities of pathogens and of preventing microbial degradation of sludge organic materials. The main objective of the present experimental research was to investigate stabilization of the sludge from west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant by lime addition and to control if the microbial quality of this sludge conforms to the USEPA standards for sludge reuse and safe disposal. The study was carried out on a pilot scale in 5 stages over a period of 12 months (July 2005 to June 2006 at west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant laboratory using raw sludge. For the purposes of this study, a 30-liter reactor was commissioned and loaded with sludge and appropriate quantities of hydrated lime were added based on the solid waste percent. The parameters used to determine stabilization efficiency were pH, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and parasite eggs. The results showed that lime addition at a ratio of 265g Ca(OH2/kg. ds was the optimum level for sludge stabilization in westAhwazwastewater treatment plant, which is acceptable from both economic and technical viewpoints. The method is capable of achieving class B but never satisfied class A of USEPA standards.

  4. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  5. Effect of Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process-Anaerobic digestion treatment on concentrations on phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of the recently implemented Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process™-Anaerobic Digestion (TH-AD) solids treatment method on concentrations of 4 phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge samples was explored in this study. Samples were analysed for diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthal...

  6. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, G.T.; Johnson, C.J.; Jacobson, K.H.; Bartholomay, C.; Mcmahon, K.D.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, prion diseases) are a class of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting a variety of mammalian species including humans. A misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP TSE) is the major, if not sole, component of the infectious agent. Prions are highly resistant to degradation and to many disinfection procedures suggesting that, if prions enter wastewater treatment systems through sewers and/or septic systems (e.g., from slaughterhouses, necropsy laboratories, rural meat processors, private game dressing) or through leachate from landfills that have received TSE-contaminated material, prions could survive conventional wastewater treatment Here, we report the results of experiments examining the partitioning and persistence of PrPTSE during simulated wastewater treatment processes including activated and mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Incubation with activated sludge did not result in significant PrPTSE degradation. PrPTSE and prion infectivity partitioned strongly to activated sludge solids and are expected to enter biosolids treatment processes. A large fraction of PrPTSE survived simulated mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. The small reduction in recoverable PrPTSE after 20-d anaerobic sludge digestion appeared attributable to a combination of declining extractability with time and microbial degradation. Our results suggest that if prions were to enter municipal wastewater treatment systems, most would partition to activated sludge solids, survive mesophilic anaerobic digestion, and be present in treated biosolids. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  7. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Gheethi AA; Mohamed RMSR; Wurochekke AA; Nurulainee NR; Mas Rahayu J; Amir Hashim MK

    2017-01-01

    Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compou...

  8. Watershed-Scale Impacts from Surface Water Disposal of Oil and Gas Wastewater in Western Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, William D; Castillo-Meza, Luis; Tasker, Travis L; Geeza, Thomas J; Drohan, Patrick J; Liu, Xiaofeng; Landis, Joshua D; Blotevogel, Jens; McLaughlin, Molly; Borch, Thomas; Warner, Nathaniel R

    2017-08-01

    Combining horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing has increased extraction of hydrocarbons from low-permeability oil and gas (O&G) formations across the United States; accompanied by increased wastewater production. Surface water discharges of O&G wastewater by centralized waste treatment (CWT) plants pose risks to aquatic and human health. We evaluated the impact of surface water disposal of O&G wastewater from CWT plants upstream of the Conemaugh River Lake (dam controlled reservoir) in western Pennsylvania. Regulatory compliance data were collected to calculate annual contaminant loads (Ba, Cl, total dissolved solids (TDS)) to document historical industrial activity. In this study, two CWT plants 10 and 19 km upstream of a reservoir left geochemical signatures in sediments and porewaters corresponding to peak industrial activity that occurred 5 to 10 years earlier. Sediment cores were sectioned for the collection of paired samples of sediment and porewater, and analyzed for analytes to identify unconventional O&G wastewater disposal. Sediment layers corresponding to the years of maximum O&G wastewater disposal contained higher concentrations of salts, alkaline earth metals, and organic chemicals. Isotopic ratios of 226 Ra /228 Ra and 87 Sr /86 Sr identified that peak concentrations of Ra and Sr were likely sourced from wastewaters that originated from the Marcellus Shale formation.

  9. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles in the oxygen uptake during aerobic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Avilés, Pabel; Brito, Elcia M. S. [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico); Duran, Robert [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Equipe Environment et Microbiologie (France); Martínez, Arodí Bernal; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán, E-mail: german28@ugto.mx [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    The increased use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in everyday products indicates the importance of studying NPs release to the wastewater and its possible effect on biological process for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the presence of ZnO NPs in aerobic wastewater treatment. The results indicated that the oxygen uptake rate of microorganisms is inhibited for concentrations higher than 473 mg L{sup −1} of ZnO NPs. The diversity of microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment was reduced in presence of ZnO NPs. Related to morphological interaction between ZnO NPs and suspended biomass, physical damage in flocs structure were observed in presence of ZnO NPs. However, the internalization of Zn compounds in microorganisms not presented mechanical damage in the membrane cell. These findings suggest that inhibition in oxygen uptake was caused for negative effect that ZnO NPs induces in aerobic microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment.

  10. Impact assessment wastewater discharge on water quality DTD canal Bečej-Bogojevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vesna Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure and impact analysis requires information on the main drivers and changes in conditions. In order to analyze such pressures and impacts, each river basin requires: an analysis of its characteristics, a review of the impact of human activity on the status of the surface water and an economic analysis of water use. Pressure and impact analysis plays a central role in the planning of river basin management. The quality of the stream at any point depends on several major factors: lithology of the basin, weather conditions, climate, and human impacts. Most of the polluters are located in the big cities next to canal DTD Bečej-Bogojevo canal (Odzaci,Vrbas, Srbobran, Becej. Per year, 2900000 m3 of wastewater was discharged into the Bečej-Bogojevo section of the DTD canal: 1,4 tCOD, 0,8 0tBOD, 260 kg of nitrogen, 19 kg of phosphorus and 282 kg of suspended solids. Of the total volume of wastewater, 20% comes from industry and 80% from municipal wastewater. Most of the wastewaters from the studied polluters is discharged untreated or insufficiently treated (only primary treatment. This poor quality wastewater threatens the receipients into which its is discharged. Comparison of the wastewater quality results to the Decree on emission limits and deadlines for their achievement, shows that many polluters exceed the limits for all parameters (COD, BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended solids. On the basis of the physico-chemical analysis of the water from the DTD Bečej-Bogojevo canal it can be concluded that the water quality is unsatisfactory. According to the national legislation, the water quality exceeds the values for good potential streams for most parameters at all sampling locatio dissolved oxygen, organic matter and nutrients. Thus, we can conclude that the water in the studied section of the DTD Bečej-Bogojevo canal does not meet the criteria for "good ecological potential". The most vulnerable locations are downstream of the Vrbas and

  11. Analysis of energy consumption at the Rzeszów Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Masłoń Adam

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants can be classified as energy-intensive facilities, as they account for up to 35 percent of municipal energy consumption. Pumps and aeration systems consume a significant portion of energy within the wastewater plants in particular. The cost of energy consumption for wastewater treatment processes reaches up to 40% of the total operating cost. In case of the WWTPs with the activated sludge systems, about 50% of energy is used for aeration and mixing purposes. At WWTP...

  12. Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control | Nzabuheraheza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of a Dynamic Roughing Filter (DRF) coupled with a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) in the treatment of a wastewater was studied in tropical conditions. The results show that in HSSFCW planted with Cyperus papyrus and Phragmites mauritianus in series, the removal rates of TDS, ...

  13. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  14. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without...... that plants with return sludge Side-Stream Hydrolysis (SSH) instead of the normal anaerobic process tank tended to have significantly fewer unwanted GAOs in contrast to many plants with traditional mainstream anaerobic tank and thus it was proposed that this system might be an effective strategy of control...

  15. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  16. Treatment of winery wastewater in a conventional municipal activated sludge process: five years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Zanette, M; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale wastewater treatment plant where municipal and winery wastewaters were co-treated was studied for five years. The experimental results showed that suspended solids, COD, nitrogen and phosphorous were effectively removed both during the treatment of municipal wastewater and the cotreatment of municipal and winery wastewater. The sludge production increase from 4 tons to 5.5 tons per day during the harvesting and wine making period. In any case the specific sludge production was 0.2 kgMLVSS per kgCOD(removed) despite the organic loading increasing. About 70% of the COD was removed through respiration. Also the energy demand increased from 6,000 to 7,000 kWh per day. The estimated costs for the treatment of the winery wastewater was 0.2-0.3 Euros per m3 of treated wastewater. With reference to the process efficiency, the nitrogen removal was just 20%. The co-treatment of municipal and winery wastewater in conventional activated sludge processes can be a feasible solution for the treatment of these streams at relatively low costs.

  17. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  18. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  19. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  20. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside TM FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.

  1. Polymeric polyelectrolytes obtained from renewable sources for biodiesel wastewater treatment by dual-flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. M. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel wastewater generally contains high levels of oils, soaps and glycerol residues. This needs wastewater treatment. In this study, the biodiesel wastewater treatment was tested (industrial wastewater (EFID and laboratory wastewater (EFLB from biodiesel by performing flocculation and dual-flocculation with renewable polymers. Tannin and cationic hemicellulose (CH were used as cationic flocculant, and cellulose acetate sulfate (CAS was used as an anionic flocculant. Polyacrylamide (PAM was used as a reference anionic flocculant for result efficiencies analysis obtained with CAS (renewable source flocculant. The treatment efficacy in wastewater was evaluated by: turbidity removal, sludge volume formed, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS. The obtained sludge was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The dual-flocculation application condition of the 25% proportion of tannin (T and 75% proportion of cationic hemicelluloses (i.e., T25/CH75 showed EFLB turbidity removal of 89.1% and 89.5% for CAS and PAM additions respectively, and for EFID of 67% and 41% for CAS and PAM additions respectively. The dual-flocculation performance suggested that the polyelectrolytes obtained from renewable sources can be used for treating biodiesel wastewater.

  2. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  3. Occurrence and fate of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Ruepert, C.; Ibáñez, M.; Emke, E.; Hernández, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central

  4. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    the more energy is spent in secondary treatment trying to remove it. Exploring more effective screening and pre-precipitation methods could also prove to save a significant amount in energy spent in the secondary treatment step, reducing the organic load prior to aeration. Coupling this with aeration blower and diffuser improvements can offer significant energy savings. Further water quality data and energy use data needs to be collected and analyzed on the individual wastewater treatment processes, especially regarding the impact and effectiveness of the preliminary and primary treatment steps on secondary treatment.

  5. Computer-aided Framework for Synthesis, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande

    Water is used for several purposes in houses and industrial applications, which results in the generation of considerable amounts of wastewater. Wastewater should be handled appropriately which is required from legal, environmental as well as economic and societal perspectives. Wastewater treatment...... be formulated as a process synthesis challenge in the sense that a new taskcan be added to the existing treatment line or one or several existing processes can be changed as a result of the emerging needs. Existing plants need retrofitting due to a number of reasons such as: change in the wastewater flow...... plant (WWTP) design is a formidable challenge. One of the key steps involved is the process synthesis - defined as the selection of treatment processes as a combination of unit operations and processes to create the process flow diagram.As a consequence of the emerging technological developments...

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  7. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P. M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J. P.; Botelho, M. L. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Sacavém (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  8. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P.M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J.P.; Botelho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  9. Utilization of Paper Sludge Wastes for Treatment of Wastewater from Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industries usually produced large amount of wastewater containing fine and small particles. It takes long time for complete settlement of the fine and small particles in the wastewater. The coagulation method appears to become one of the useful treatments. New inorganic coagulant named “Agoclean‒P” has been developed from paper sludge ash. The treatment by coagulation and flocculation were carried out for the wastewater from three different food processing industries namely soup, tofu, and natto. “Hi‒Biah‒System”, which is an in‒situ solidification system, was used for the continuous treatment of wastewater. The parameters for the water quality were pH, five‒day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. These parameters after the treatment became much lower values relative to those obtained before the treatment.

  10. Toxicity Evaluation of Through Fish Bioassay Raw Bulk Drug Industry Wastewater After Electrochemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Satyanarayan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC50 values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal.

  11. Kinetic coefficients for the biological treatment of tannery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of kinetic coefficients for a particular wastewater is imperative for the rational design of biological treatment-facilities. The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out kinetic coefficients for tannery wastewater. A bench-scale model of aerated lagoon, consisting of an aeration tank and final clarifier, was use to conduct the studies. The model was operated continuously for 96 days, by varying the detention times from 3 to 9 days. Influent for the aerated lagoon was settled tannery wastewater. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the influent and effluent and the mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of aeration tank were determined at various detention-times so as to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The kinetic coefficients k, Ks, Y and Ed were found to be 3.125 day/sup -1/, 488 mg/L, 0.64 and 0.035 day/sup -1/ respectively. Overall rate-constant of BOD, removal 'K' was also determined and was found to be 1.43 day/sup -1/. Kinetic coefficients were determined, at mean reactor-temperature of 30.2 degree C. These coefficients may be utilized for the design of biological-treatment facilities for tannery wastewater. (author)

  12. Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuptawat, Hitendra; Folkard, G K; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-04-02

    Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100mg/l M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100mg/l seed doses were applied in combination with 10mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting 'new materials' for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water.

  13. Innovative biological systems for anaerobic treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P M

    1986-09-01

    The application of two innovative fixed film and suspended growth anaerobic biological systems to the treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters is discussed. A fluidized bed fixed film system and a suspended growth membrane system are described. The technical and economic factors dictating which system is selected for treatment of a specific industrial wastewater are discussed. Case history results from successful operation of full-scale, demonstration, and pilot-scale systems treating respectively, soy whey, cheese whey, and wheat flour processing wastewaters are presented.

  14. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  15. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  16. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  17. Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor Applications for Biological Wastewater Treatment: A Review of Research and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is a process that is vital to protecting both the environment and human health. At present, the most cost-effective way of treating wastewater is with biological treatment processes such as the activated sludge process, despite their long operating times. However, population increases have created a demand for more efficient means of wastewater treatment. Fluidization has been demonstrated to increase the efficiency of many processes in chemical and biochemical engineering, but it has not been widely used in large-scale wastewater treatment. At the University of Western Ontario, the circulating fluidized-bed bioreactor (CFBBR was developed for treating wastewater. In this process, carrier particles develop a biofilm composed of bacteria and other microbes. The excellent mixing and mass transfer characteristics inherent to fluidization make this process very effective at treating both municipal and industrial wastewater. Studies of lab- and pilot-scale systems showed that the CFBBR can remove over 90% of the influent organic matter and 80% of the nitrogen, and produces less than one-third as much biological sludge as the activated sludge process. Due to its high efficiency, the CFBBR can also be used to treat wastewaters with high organic solid concentrations, which are more difficult to treat with conventional methods because they require longer residence times; the CFBBR can also be used to reduce the system size and footprint. In addition, it is much better at handling and recovering from dynamic loadings (i.e., varying influent volume and concentrations than current systems. Overall, the CFBBR has been shown to be a very effective means of treating wastewater, and to be capable of treating larger volumes of wastewater using a smaller reactor volume and a shorter residence time. In addition, its compact design holds potential for more geographically localized and isolated wastewater treatment systems.

  18. Define of internal recirculation coefficient for biological wastewater treatment in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossinskyi, Volodymyr

    2018-02-01

    The biological wastewater treatment technologies in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors with recycle of sludge mixture are used for the effective removal of organic compounds from wastewater. The change rate of sludge mixture recirculation between bioreactors leads to a change and redistribution of concentrations of organic compounds in sludge mixture in bioreactors and change hydrodynamic regimes in bioreactors. Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture between bioreactors is important for the choice of technological parameters of biological treatment (wastewater treatment duration in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, flow capacity of recirculation pumps). Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture requires integrated consideration of hydrodynamic parameter (flow rate), kinetic parameter (rate of oxidation of organic compounds) and physical-chemical parameter of wastewater (concentration of organic compounds). The conducted numerical experiment from the proposed mathematical equations allowed to obtain analytical dependences of the coefficient of internal recirculation sludge mixture between bioreactors on the concentration of organic compounds in wastewater, the duration of wastewater treatment in bioreactors.

  19. Set organic pollution as an impact category to achieve more comprehensive evaluation of life cycle assessment in wastewater-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2018-02-01

    For wastewater-related issues (WRI), life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to evaluate environmental impacts and derive optimization strategies. To promote the application of LCA for WRI, it is critical to incorporate local impact of water pollutants. Organic pollution, a main type of water pollution, has not been given much consideration in current LCA systems. This paper investigates the necessity of setting a regionalized impact category to reflect the local impact of organic pollution. A case study is conducted concerning an upgraded wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in China, which is assumed to meet different sewage control strategies. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is selected to represent the organic pollution and treated as an individual impact category. CML 2002 is used to quantify the environmental impacts of different strategies. Results show that abnormal LCA results are generated with the traditional eutrophication impact category, and after the introduction of COD, more reasonable LCA results are obtained, making the entire comparison of different control strategies more meaningful and compelling. Moreover, BEES, Ecovalue 08, and Chinese factors are adopted here as different weighting methods. Different weighting results exhibited various trade-offs for the increasingly strict control strategies; the results of BEES and Ecovalue08 underlined the potential environmental burden, but the results of Chinese factors only emphasized the local environmental improvement. It is concluded that setting regionalized impact category for organic pollution can make LCA results more reasonable in wastewater treatment, especially in evaluating Chinese cases because of the serious water pollution caused by large quantities of COD emission.

  20. Natural treatment system models for wastewater management: a study from Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Wajihuddin, Md; Jampani, Mahesh; Sarah, S; Somvanshi, V K; Ahmed, Shakeel; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Boisson, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater generated on a global scale has become a significant source of water resources which necessitates appropriate management strategies. However, the complexities associated with wastewater are lack of economically viable treatment systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries. While many types of treatment systems are needed to serve the various local issues, we propose natural treatment systems (NTS) such as natural wetlands that are eco-friendly, cost-effective, and can be jointly driven by public bodies and communities. In order for it to be part of wastewater management, this study explores the NTS potential for removal of pollutants, cost-effectiveness, and reuse options for the 1.20 million m 3 /day of wastewater generated in Hyderabad, India. The pilot study includes hydro-geophysical characterization of natural wetland to determine pollutant removal efficiency and its effective utilization for treated wastewater in the peri-urban habitat. The results show the removal of organic content (76-78%), nutrients (77-97%), and microbes (99.5-99.9%) from the wetland-treated wastewater and its suitability for agriculture applications. Furthermore, the wetland efficiency integrated with engineered interventions led to the development of NTS models with different application scenarios: (i) constructed wetlands, (ii) minimized community wetlands, and (iii) single outlet system, suitable for urban, peri-urban and rural areas, respectively.

  1. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols associated with wastewater treatment processes may represent an occupational health risk for workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A high frequency of acute symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract among the wastewater workers at a Danish WWTP has been reported. Th...

  2. Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes.

  3. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  4. A study on the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Myoung Hwan; Jang, In Soon; Park, Jang Jin; Choi, Chang Shik; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Shin, Jin Myoung

    1993-06-01

    It is essential to treat heavy metals contained in industrial wastewater safely and economically for the protection of the environment. An effective method of separating heavy metals using acornic acid for the first time in the world must be utilized for wastewater treatment. One of the merits of this method lies in its cheap treatment cost. Furthermore, the secondary contamination, which occurs often when chemical purifiers are used, could be minimized. Another advantage of utilizing the acornic acid is that various kinds of heavy metals contained in industrial wastewater can be purified at once. The final purpose of this project is to commercialize the method by 1994. (Auther)

  5. Capacity of textile filters for wastewater Treatment at changeable wastewater level – a hydraulic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Spychała

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe in a mathematical manner the hydraulic capacity of textile filters for wastewater treatment at changeable wastewater levels during a period between consecutive doses, taking into consideration the decisive factors for flow-conditions of filtering media. Highly changeable and slightly changeable flow-conditions tests were performed on reactors equipped with non-woven geo-textile filters. Hydraulic conductivity of filter material coupons was determined. The dry mass covering the surface and contained in internal space of filtering material was then indicated and a mathematical model was elaborated. Flow characteristics during the highly changeable flow-condition test were sensitivity to differentiated values of hydraulic conductivity in horizontal zones of filtering layer. During the slightly changeable flow-conditions experiment the differences in permeability and hydraulic conductivity of different filter (horizontal zones height regions were much smaller. The proposed modelling approach in spite of its simplicity provides a satisfactory agreement with empirical data and therefore enables to simulate the hydraulic capacity of vertically oriented textile filters. The mathematical model reflects the significant impact of the filter characteristics (textile permeability at different filter height and operational conditions (dosing frequency on the textile filters hydraulic capacity.

  6. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Moving Bed Bio Film Reactor in Saline Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor is an aerobic attached growth with better biofilm thickness control, lack of plugging and lower head loss. Consequently, this system is greatly used by different wastewater treatment plants. High TDS wastewater produced petrochemical, leather tanning, sea food processing, cannery, pickling and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of MBBR in saline wastewater treatment. Materials and methods: In this study, 50 percent of a cylindrical reactor with 9.5 liter occupied media with 650 m2.m-3. In the first step, hydraulic regime was evaluated and startup reactor was done by sanitary sludge. Bio film was generated with glucose as the sole carbon source in synthetic wastewater. MBBR performance evaluation was performed in 6:30 and 8:45 with saline wastewater after bio film produced on media. Results: After 83 days of passing MBBR operation with saline wastewater containing 3000-12000 mg.L-1 TDS, organic loading rate of 2.2-3.5 kg/m3.d COD removal efficiency reached 80-92%. Conclusion: Moving bed biofilm reactor is effective in organic load elimination from saline wastewater.

  8. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Thi Quynh Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L. Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L. A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01 and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001.

  9. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  10. Occurrence of antibiotics in pharmaceutical industrial wastewater, wastewater treatment plant and sea waters in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Van Loco, Joris; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Reyns, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used group of pharmaceuticals in human medicine. They can therefore reach surface and groundwater bodies through different routes, such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface runoff, or infiltration of water used for agricultural purposes. It is well known that antibiotics pose a significant risk to environmental and human health, even at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of aminoglycosides and phenicol antibiotics in municipal wastewaters, sea water and pharmaceutical effluents in Tunisia. All analysed water samples contained detectable levels of aminoglycoside and phenicol antibiotics. The highest concentrations in wastewater influents were observed for neomycin and kanamycin B (16.4 ng mL(-1) and 7.5 ng mL(-1), respectively). Chloramphenicol was found in wastewater influents up to 3 ng mL(-1). It was observed that the waste water treatment plants were not efficient in completely removing these antibiotics. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were found in sea water samples near aquaculture sites at levels up to, respectively, 15.6 ng mL(-1) and 18.4 ng mL(-1). Also aminoglycoside antibiotics were found near aquaculture sites with the highest concentration of 3.4 ng mL(-1) for streptomycin. In pharmaceutical effluents, only gentamycin was found at concentrations up to 19 ng mL(-1) over a sampling period of four months.

  11. Quality Evaluation of Household Wastewater for Irrigation MUSA, J J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    waste-water discharge and disposal practices that may ... impacts from sewage contamination in urban areas are well documented ... tanks, aerated wastewater treatment systems (AWTS) ..... water sources in selected rural communities of the.

  12. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  13. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with flocculent biomass. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of using flocculent sludge in UASB reactors applied to the treatment of dairy ...

  14. Treatment and disposal of saline wastewater from coal mines in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, B.; Hallmans, B.

    1994-01-01

    Some Polish coal mines are reviewed with respect to the disposal of saline wastewater into rivers and its environmental impact. The drainage water from mines has a daily contribution of, in the order of magnitude, 6,500 tons chlorides (Cl - ) and 0.5 tons sulphates (SO 4 2- ) to the rivers Wisla and Odra. The river Wisla contributes to about 55% of the water resources in Poland. This report is based on a part of a commission for the Ministry of Environmental Protection, National Resources and Forestry of Poland by COWI-VBB VIAK joint venture. Different treatment and disposal schemes are described and compared from a technical-economical point of view, out of which methods for desalination with zero discharge as well as deep well injection are the most promising ones. The desalination methods include reverse osmosis (RO) plant, thermal powered desalination and crystallization plant as well as facilities for dewatering and drying of sodium chloride (NaCl) to be sold in Poland and/or on the export market. The valuable main products are potable water, boiler feed water and sodium chloride. A special problem in this connection may be the radioactivity in the wastewater from some of the mines. Special treatment methods for radioactivity removal in the selected treatment and disposal scheme for the mine wastewater are discussed with respect to the effects of radioactivity on the saleability of the recovered salt. In addition methods for recovery of the by-products magnesium hydroxide, iodine and bromine are considered from the point of view of economy and environmental protection. Finally, the desalination project in Katowice for the coal mines Debiensko and Budryk is now in the end of the construction phase. Some modifications of the original design are shown. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  16. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for the Californian wastewater industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Wastewater treatment is of vital importance for protecting human health and minimizing the environmental impact of polluted water. Since the beginning of the 20th century public facilities have been installed globally which treat wastewater at a

  17. Study on the Development of Household Wastewater Treatment Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadi Ghawi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Iraq in general and the city of Al Diwaniyah in particular are characterized by the fact that the majority of households use septic tank to dispose of sewage, leading to contamination of ground and surface water and a disturbance to the environment. The objective of this study is to protect the water and soil sources from the risk of pollution, eliminate the process of perfusion and thus, reduce costs, maintain public health, as well as design and implement the proposed purification unit for domestic wastewater treatment. A domestic wastewater treatment unit has been improved to meet the standard specifications for the quality of the effluent wastewater. In this study, a compact non-electric sewage treatment unit was improved and implemented. Treatment is based on an effective modern biological purification process. Experimental verification and analysis of results were performed to demonstrate the improvement of physical and chemical parameters. The performance of the septic tanks-bioreactor gave satisfactory results. The removal efficiencies of Total Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, NH4-N, Total Nitrogen and Total Suspended Solid (TSS were 96.9%, 84.6%, 78.8%, 79.9% and 95.3%, respectively.

  18. Treatment of variable and intermittently flowing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1993-11-01

    The biological treatment of wastewaters originating from hotels and residential areas of seasonal use, flowing intermittently, is difficult due to the fact that bacteria cannot survive during periods of no-flow. An investigation has been conducted in order to develop a system which will be able to overcome the difficulties encountered. After a long investigation the following system has given satisfactory results. The wastewater was taken initially into an aeration tank operating as a sequential batch reactor. Waste was taken after the sedimentation phase of the reactor into a coagulation-flocculation tank where it was treated by chemical means, and then settled in order to separate the floes. When the population of bacteria in the aeration tank reached the required level, the physico-chemical treatment was terminated and the tank used for chemical treatment has been started to be used as an equalization tank while the aeration and sedimentation tanks have been used as an activated sludge unit. This system has been proved to be a satisfactory method for the above mentioned wastes.

  19. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I.; El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Kalliny, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H 2 O 2 dose, Fe +2 , COD:H 2 O 2 ratio and Fe +2 :H 2 O 2 ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l -1 for ρ-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l -1 for cinnamic acid

  20. Pilot-scale removal of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater: Comparison of granular and powdered activated carbon treatment at three wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårelid, Victor; Larsson, Gen; Björlenius, Berndt

    2017-05-15

    Adsorption with activated carbon is widely suggested as an option for the removal of organic micropollutants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in wastewater. In this study adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) was analyzed and compared in parallel operation at three Swedish wastewater treatment plants with the goal to achieve a 95% PhAC removal. Initially, mapping of the prevalence of over 100 substances was performed at each plant and due to low concentrations a final 22 were selected for further evaluation. These include carbamazepine, clarithromycin and diclofenac, which currently are discussed for regulation internationally. A number of commercially available activated carbon products were initially screened using effluent wastewater. Of these, a reduced set was selected based on adsorption characteristics and cost. Experiments designed with the selected carbons in pilot-scale showed that most products could indeed remove PhACs to the target level, both on total and individual basis. In a setup using internal recirculation the PAC system achieved a 95% removal applying a fresh dose of 15-20 mg/L, while carbon usage rates for the GAC application were much broader and ranged from carbon product. The performance of the PAC products generally gave better results for individual PhACs in regards to carbon availability. All carbon products showed a specific adsorption for a specific PhAC meaning that knowledge of the target pollutants must be acquired before successful design of a treatment system. In spite of different configurations and operating conditions of the different wastewater treatment plants no considerable differences regarding pharmaceutical removal were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wastewater Treatment from Batik Industries Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifan, Fahmi; Nugraheni, FS; Rama Devara, Hafiz; Lianandya, Niken Elsa

    2018-02-01

    Batik is cultural patterned fabric, and the this industries produce wastewater that can pollute the aquatic environment. Besides dyes, batik wastewater also contains synthetic compounds that are hard degraded, such as heavy metals, suspended solids, or organic compounds. In this study, photocatalitic membrane TiO2 coated plastic sheets have been used to degrade batik wastewater under solar exposure. A total of 8 pieces of catalyst sheets are added on 1000 ml of the waste, and managed to degrade 50.41% of the initial concentration during 5-days irradiation. In this study, several parameters of the water quality such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspensed solids (TSS) of the wastewater were observed to be decreasing during photodegradation process. The catalyst sheet also is stable to be used repeatedly in wastewater treatment.

  2. Pulsed reactor modelling for catalytic micropollutant treatment in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Juarros Bertolín, Helena Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This study stems from the problem of the presence of micropollutants (including phenolic compounds such as Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Triclosan) in urban and industrial wastewaters. Systems used in the wastewater treatment plants are inefficient in removing these micropollutants that are harmful for the environment. In an ongoing project, laccases, a group of enzymes, are used to efficiently catalyse the degradation of phenolic micropollutants. In this master thesis, it is proposed...

  3. Method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Minato, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    A method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants is characterized by the fact that concentration and volume reduction are performed after Ca and Mg as components for the formation of an adhering scale is converted to an 8-oxyquinoline complex, which is hardly soluble in water, and does not precipitate out as an adhering scale, by the addition of 8-oxyquinoline into nuclear power plant wastewater

  4. Progress report: Use of water hyacinth in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof, Abdullah bin

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that water hyacinth shows remarkable ability to remove, besides heavy metals, BOD and COD load from wastewaters which contain mainly organic pollutants. A survey was conducted to select suitable industrial effluents for pilot field studies, in particular wastewaters which were organic in nature such as those from food industries. A proposal to set up a pilot treatment system for field studies m addition to laboratory investigations was consistent with the recommendation put forward at the First Interim Project Review Meeting held in 1980 . It has been reported that introduction of water hyacinth into digested sugar waste would significantly enhance the efficiency of purification of the waste. Brief trials with a sugar refinery effluent in the laboratory showed the possibility of subjecting the wastewater to the water hyacinth treatment system in a pilot field study and arrangements were then made for the study to be carried out at site

  5. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  6. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Sadegh; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabavi, Samira; Faridi, Sasan; Dehghani, Asghar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Mokamel, Adel; Kashani, Homa; Yarali, Navid; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-10-01

    Bioaerosol concentration was measured in wastewater treatment units in south of Tehran, the largest wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Active sampling was carried out around four operational units and a point as background. The results showed that the aeration tank with an average of 1016 CFU/m(3) in winter and 1973 CFU/m(3) in summer had the greatest effect on emission of bacterial bioaerosols. In addition, primary treatment had the highest impact on fungal emission. Among the bacteria, Micrococcus spp. showed the widest emission in the winter, and Bacillus spp. was dominant in summer. Furthermore, fungi such as Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant types in the seasons. Overall, significant relationship was observed between meteorological parameters and the concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosols.

  7. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  8. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Klančnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  9. ENHANCEMENT OF PHENOL REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN DORA REFINERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah F. Sharif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the sanctions imposed on Iraq by the United Nations, programmed maintenance and wearing parts replacement has not been performed according to schedules in DORA Refinery Wastewater Unit, which resulted in higher phenol content and BOD5 in effluents disposed to river. The investigations showed that two main reasons were behind this problem: Firstly, increased emissions of hydrocarbons in the complexity of refinery equipment and Secondly, the decreased efficiency of the aerators in the biological. During the last few months, phenol average concentration in the effluent, after biological treatment was found to be between 0.06-0.13 mg/L, while COD was exceeding 110 mg/L after treatment in the same period. Considerable enhancement, has been indicated recently, after the following performances: First: Recycling wastewater from some heat exchangers, and the segregation of low and high strength of wastewaters, Second: Minimizing emissions of hydrocarbons from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking, Third: Replacement of driving motors of the aerators in the biological treatment unit. After replacement of these units, a significant decrease in phenol concentration was obtained in purified water (0.03-0.05 mg/L and COD of 60 mg/L before the tertiary treatment. It is concluded that a better quality of effluents has been obtained after a series of emissions control and wastewater treatment unit equipment maintenance performances.

  10. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  11. Turbidity-based monitoring of particle concentrations and flocculant requirement in wastewater pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Spanjers, H.; Klapwijk, A.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of particulate organic material in the first step of wastewater treatment may result in significant savings of reactor volume and energy at wastewater treatment plants, because the organic loading to pursuing unit operations can be reduced. This article describes experiments into the

  12. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies

  13. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  14. Design and operation of UASB—A/O process for treatment starch and VB12 wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan CHEN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and VB12 wastewater with higher COD and ammonia nitrogen concentration, contains a large number of difficult biodegradable material, complex composition, is difficult to deal with. In recent years, with the increasingly stringent wastewater discharge standards, require the use of a stable and efficient wastewater treatment process for purification treatment of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater and the refractory organic pollutants, to achieve discharge standards. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB—Anoxic/Oxic(A/O process was employed in a wastewater treatment of starch and Vitamin B12 wastewater, which was 5 000 m3/d with highly concentrated organic pollutants and ammonia. The efficiency and reliability of the process has been proven. The results of the system operation show that the concentration of the effluent COD, ammonia and total nitrogen (TN were at 78.4 mg/L, 18.7 mg/L and 41.1 mg/L, and the treatment efficiencies of COD, ammonia and TN reached over 99%, 92.1%, 82.7%, respectively, when the influent COD and TN concentration were in the ranges of 8 544~9 720 mg/L and 240~250 mg/L. The quality of the treated wastewater met the first-class discharge standards in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978—1996.

  15. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and TSS increased with increasing the applied voltage and the reaction time. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is efficient and able to achieve 98.84% COD removal, 97.95% BOD5 removal, 97.75% TSS removal, and >99.9% bacterial indicators at 60 V during 60 min. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation techniques for the treatment of dairy wastewaters. Finally, the results demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes as a reliable technique for removal of pollutants from dairy wastewaters.

  16. Potential exposure and treatment efficiency of nanoparticles in water supplies based on wastewater reclamation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Peter; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity brings an increased focus on wastewater reclamation for drinking water supply. Meanwhile, the production volume of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing, but to date there has been little attention given to the fate of NPs in water systems based on wastewater reclamation. We have...... investigated the possible concentrations of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in tap water for water supplies based on reclaimed wastewater. Tap water concentrations of the NPs were assessed by mass flow analyses of two typical wastewater reclamation concepts: 1) advanced...... studies are available on the removal efficiencies of NPs by advanced water treatment processes with a majority of the identified studies focusing on removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants and fate in surface waters. The NP removal efficiency of several treatment processes is unknown...

  17. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  18. Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gaurav; Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.

  19. Chemical treatment of wastewaters produced during separation of iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Marcaillou, J.; Amavis, R.

    1959-01-01

    The authors report the development and assessment of a chemical treatment of radioactive wastewaters by co-precipitation. This treatment is aimed at replacing a treatment based on the use of calcium phosphate which proved to be insufficient for wastewaters resulting from the production of iodine 131. After a presentation of the characteristics of the effluents to be processed, the authors report co-precipitation tests performed on effluents before release in the storage vessel (by using barium hydroxide, lead acetate or lead sulfate) and on effluents diluted on the storage vessel. They show that a co-precipitation method based on the use of lead sulfate in alkaline medium gives the best results

  20. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant; Analisis de Ciclo de Vida de una Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales Municipales. Caso: PTARM de Yautepec (Morelos, Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J s; Herrera, I; Rodriguez, A

    2011-05-13

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  1. Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2018-02-06

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the U.S. and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.63 billion USD in 2012, with 85% of these damages attributed to the estimated consumption of 19 500 GWh of electricity by treatment processes annually, or 0.53% of the US electricity demand. An additional 11.8 million tons of biogenic CO 2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.9% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $254 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

  2. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  3. Treatment of wastewaters containing anilines using enzymes: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantha, R.; Biswas, N.; Taylor, K.E.; Bewtra, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic amines are manufactured in a large scale for use in industries dealing with resins, dyes, plastics and rubber, pesticides and explosives. The majority of the production-related waste is either incinerated or released into the environment. The majority of them are highly toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic and impose serious health hazards to mankind. Available conventional physical-chemical processes including activated carbon adsorption processes, solvent extraction processes, microbial degradation and various chemical-oxidation processes developed over the years are not selective in terms of the range of the aromatic pollutant removed during treatment. Thus, such treatment strategies are more economically suitable for treatment of dilute wastewaters and are invariably used as polishing steps. Enzymes such as peroxidases, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and laccases, in the presence of oxygen, catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of phenols, biphenyls, anilines, benzidines and other related aromatic compounds. Various peroxidases and laccases have been used to treat wastewaters. With respect to anilines, the potential, scope and cost of enzymatic treatment is reviewed here and compared with conventional technology, e.g., the cost of enzymatic treatment using a crude enzyme preparation of soybean peroxidase was reported to be about $0.36/m 3 for synthetic wastewater containing 1 mM of aniline, compared to an activated sludge process of $1.05/m 3 and $1.31/m 3 for activated carbon process, while for p-toluidine, it was about $0.17/m 3 . Thus, through choice of enzyme and its mode of operation, treatment costs less than the conventional treatment strategies can be achieved. (author)

  4. Comparison of Fenton process and adsorption method for treatment of industrial container and drum cleaning industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Elçin; Çifçi, Deniz İzlen; Çelik, Suna Özden

    2018-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the characterization of industrial container and drum cleaning (ICDC) industry wastewater and treatment alternatives of this wastewater using Fenton and adsorption processes. Wastewater derived from ICDC industry is usually treated by chemical coagulation and biological treatment in Turkey and then discharged in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. It is required that the wastewater COD is below 1500 mg/L to treat in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. The wastewater samples were characterized for parameters of pH, conductivity, COD, BOD 5 , TSS, NH 3 -N, TN, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg. Initial COD values were in the range of 11,300-14,200 mg/L. The optimum conditions for Fenton treatment were 35-40 g/L for H 2 O 2 , 2-5 g/L for Fe 2+ , and 13-36 for H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio. The optimum conditions of PAC doses and contact times in adsorption studies were 20-30 g/L and 5-12 h, respectively. Removal efficiencies of characterized parameters for the three samples were compared for both Fenton and adsorption processes under optimum conditions. The results suggest that these wastewaters are suitable for discharge to a centralized wastewater treatment plant.

  5. Fungal treatment: a prospective process for eco-friendly bioremediation of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, A. H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2009-01-01

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewaters/sludge disposal. A sustainable, safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentially for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  6. Alternative Treatment Technologies for Low-Cost Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    Roughly the same volume of water that rushes over the Niagara Falls is produced as wastewater in North America. This wastewater is treated through a variety of means to ensure that it can be safely returned to the natural ecosystem. This thesis examines two novel means for this treatment, one biological and one physical-chemical in nature, namely, Rotating Algae Biofilm Reactor treatment and expanded shale augmented coagulation-flocculation. Rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) support ...

  7. Wastewater treatment and reuse in urban agriculture: exploring the food, energy, water, and health nexus in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Robbie, Leslie; Ramaswami, Anu; Amerasinghe, Priyanie

    2017-07-01

    Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared. The results are counter-intuitive, and illustrate potential synergies and key constraints relating to the food-energy-water-health (FEW-health) nexus in developing cities. First, when the impact of GHG emissions from untreated wastewater diluted in surface streams is compared with the life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment with reuse in agriculture, the treatment-plus-reuse case yields a 33% reduction in life cycle system-wide GHG emissions. Second, despite water cycling benefits in urban agriculture, only contamination and farmer behavior and harvesting practices. The study uncovers key physical, environmental, and behavioral factors that constrain benefits achievable at the FEW-health nexus in urban areas.

  8. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mok Young; Jin-Oh, Jo; Heon-Ju, Lee

    2008-01-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  9. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  10. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  11. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  12. A microbial fuel cell–membrane bioreactor integrated system for cost-effective wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Liu, Xian-Wei; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Feng; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J.; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An MFC–MBR integrated system for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. ► Stable electricity generation during 1000-h continuous operation. ► Low-cost electrode, separator and filter materials were adopted. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) are both promising technologies for wastewater treatment, but both with limitations. In this study, a novel MFC–MBR integrated system, which combines the advantages of the individual systems, was proposed for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The system favored a better utilization of the oxygen in the aeration tank of MBR by the MFC biocathode, and enabled a high effluent quality. Continuous and stable electricity generation, with the average current of 1.9 ± 0.4 mA, was achieved over a long period of about 40 days. The maximum power density reached 6.0 W m −3 . Moreover, low-cost materials were used for the reactor construction. This integrated system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  13. Effect of wastewater treatment on bio-kinetics of dissolved oxygen in Ravi river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, H.; Ali, W.

    2010-01-01

    Waste management studies are usually done using calibrated and verified water quality models. Ravi River located in Lahore, Pakistan is receiving untreated wastewater from number of out falls and . Surfaced rains and thus model calibration and verification are done using the data under the prevailing conditions. The water quality objectives can only be met with wastewater treatment wherein the model rate coefficients may change. The objective of this paper is to study the changes that may occur in these coefficients as a result of wastewater treatment. For this purpose, long-term BOD analyses have been carried out using river water and wastewater after different degrees of treatment. A laboratory scale biological reactor was used to study the effect of biological treatment on rate coefficients at 3, 6 and 10 days detention times. The study results show that CBOD biokinetic rate coefficient (K) reduces significantly from 0.25 day/sup -1/ for raw waste water to 0.1 day for the wastewater treatment for 3 days detention time in the biological reactor. Further reductions in the value of K to 0.07 day/sup -1 and 0.05 day/sup -1/ occurred for a treatment level corresponding to 6 and 10 days detention times, respectively. The NBOD rate coefficient (K/sub n/ was found to be 0.08 day/sup -1/ for 3 days detention time and 0.06 day/sup -1/ after treatment in the biological reactor at 6 and 10 days detention times. (author)

  14. Alpine infrastructure in Central Europe: integral evaluation of wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, N; Mayr, E; Niederberger, T; Aschauer, C; Lebersorger, S; Steinbacher, G; Haberl, R

    2008-01-01

    Planning, construction and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges is a challenge. Energy supply, costly transport, limited water resources, unfavourable climate and load variations are only some of the problems that have to be faced. Additionally, legal regulations are different between and even within countries of the Alps. To ensure sustainability, integrated management of the alpine infrastructure management is needed. The energy and water supply and the wastewater and waste disposal systems and the cross-relations between them were analysed for 100 mountain refuges. Wastewater treatment is a main part of the overall 'mountain refuge' system. The data survey and first analyses showed the complex interaction of the wastewater treatment with the other infrastructure. Main criteria for reliable and efficient operation are training, technical support, user friendly control and a relatively simple system set up. Wastewater temperature, alkalinity consumption and high peak loads have to be considered in the planning process. The availability of power in terms of duration and connexion is decisive for the choice of the system. Further, frequency fluctuations may lead to damages to the installed aerators. The type of water source and the type of sanitary equipment influence the wastewater quantity and quality. Biosolids are treated and disposed separately or together with primary or secondary sludge from wastewater treatment dependent on the legal requirements. IWA Publishing 2008.

  15. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  16. Impacts on sewer performance due to changes to inputs in domestic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of changes in domestic wastewater inputs on sewer performance have been debated since the dawn of the great sewer construction movement in the 1850s. Nowadays, typical household wastewater that enters sewers can generally be divided into streams from the WC, shower and/or bathtub, kitchen sink, washing machine and dishwasher. Changes in thecomposition of domestic wastewater entering a sewer will depend on inter alia the properties of the appliances used in the households and house...

  17. Industrial wastewater treatment network based on recycling and rerouting strategies for retrofit design schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueviriyapan, Natthapong; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2015-01-01

    a generic model-based synthesis and design framework for retrofit wastewater treatment networks (WWTN) of an existing industrial process. The developed approach is suitable for grassroots and retrofit systems and adaptable to a wide range of wastewater treatment problems. A sequential solution procedure...... is employed to solve a network superstructure-based optimization problem formulated as Mixed Integer Linear and/or Non-Linear Programming (MILP/MINLP). Data from a petroleum refinery effluent treatment plant together with special design constraints are employed to formulate different design schemes based...... for the future development of the existing wastewater treatment process....

  18. New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, L.; Rieger, L.; Takacs, I.

    2010-01-01

    Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new...... is a framework that can be used in whole plant modelling, which consists of different fields such as activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, sidestream treatment, membrane bioreactors, metabolic approaches, fate of micropollutants and biofilm processes. The main objective of this consensus building paper...... notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide...

  19. A Performance Measurement Tool Leading Wastewater Treatment Plants toward Economic Efficiency and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is an important link in the water cycle that allows for water sanitation and reuse, facilitates energy generation, and allows for the recovery of products from waste. The scientific community has paid significant attention to wastewater treatment, especially from a technical point of view. Extensive literature is available on new technologies, processes, and materials to improve wastewater treatment. However, scant studies have been conducted in the management field focusing on the development of a performance measurement tool that supports plant managers. The current article addresses this literature gap, developing a reporting tool that integrates technical and cost measures and implements it in a large wastewater utility. The tool successfully identifies cause and effect linkages among key plant performance drivers and supports management in finding activities with poor performance and allows them to delay non-relevant measures of control.

  20. Case studies in residual use and energy conservation at wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a study to document energy conservation activities and their effects on operation costs, regulatory compliance, and process optimization at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS). The purpose of this report is to review the efforts of wastewater treatment Facilities that use residuals as fuels. Case histories are presented for facilities that have taken measures to reduce energy consumption during wastewater treatment. Most of the WWTPs discussed in this report have retrofitted existing facilities to achieve energy conservation. The case studies of energy conservation measures found no effects on the facilities` ability to comply with NPDES permits. Indeed, energy conservation activities enhance environmental compliance in several ways.

  1. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  2. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area

  3. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  4. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin...

  6. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Their Associated Resistance Genes in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2013-12-01

    With water scarcity as a pressing issue in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries, the treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is increasingly being used as an alternative water source to supplement country water needs. Standards are in place to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however they do not regulate pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Information is lacking on the levels of risk to public health associated with these factors, the efficiency of conventional treatment strategies in removing them, and on wastewater treatment in Saudi Arabia in general. In this study, a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia is investigated to assess the efficiency of conventional treatment in meeting regulations and removing pathogens and emerging contaminants. The study found pathogenic bacterial genera, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, many of which were multi-resistant in plant discharges. It was found that although the treatments are able to meet traditional quality guidelines, there remains a risk from the discussed contaminants with wastewater reuse. A deeper understanding of this risk, and suggestions for more thorough guidelines and monitoring are needed.

  7. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 7 ) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD 7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  8. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of wastewater from food waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Gu [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Korean food wastes have high moisture content (more than 85 wt%) and their major treatment processes such as drying or biological fermentations generate concentrated organic wastewater (CODs of about 100,000 mgO{sub 2}/L). For obtaining both wastewater treatment and hydrogen production from renewable resources, supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the organic wastewater was carried out in this work. The effect of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reactor residence time on COD destruction and composition of gas products was examined. As a result, a SCWG of the wastewater over Ni- Y/activated charcoal at 700 C, 28 MPa yielded 99 % COD destruction and hydrogen-rich gas production (45 vol% H{sub 2}). A liquid-phase thermal pretreatment to destroy solid particles from the wastewater was proposed for more effective operation of the SCWG system. (orig.)

  9. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  10. Removal of indicator organisms by chemical treatment of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zutter, L; van Hoof, J

    1981-01-01

    Recently a new chemical wastewater treatment process based upon precipitation of proteins by sodium lignosulphonate under acid conditions is used to purify the wastewater from slaughterhouses and poultry processing plants. In order to determine the reduction of indicator organisms due to this treatment process, influent and effluent samples from two of such plants (plant A in a pig slaughterhouse and plant B in a poultry processing plant) were examined. The results demonstrated that the pH used in the process, has a considerable influence on the reduction of the indicator organisms. On the first sampling day in plant A the initial working-pH was 4 and the corresponding reduction of the different microorganisms varied from 0.7 to 1.5 log. According to the decrease of the pH to 2.3, the reduction increased to a minimum of at least 1.9 and a maximum of at least 4.5 log. In the other samples from this plant (working-pH 2.4) the elimination ranged from 1.8 to 4.0 log. In plant B, the removal of the indicator organisms brought about by a working-pH of 3.0 ranged from 2.1 to 3.1 log. The results showed that in comparison with the biological treatment processes this chemical wastewater treatment process realized a significant greater removal of indicator organisms.

  11. Trace Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and fate of trace-level contamination of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. The effluents of wastewater treatment plants, usually directly emitted to the environment, often contain the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Diclofenac was chosen because it is of high consumption; by background literature indicate toxic effects on biota and the lack of profile in sewage removal provided by the city. For this purpose, a survey on the presence of diclofenac in urban wastewater of Rio de Janeiro was carried out. It were evaluated diclofenac concentration in the affluent and effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP Penha and Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the line of treatment of each WWTP, and for clean up the samples were solid phase extraction (SPE, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, assisted by diode array detector (DAD techniques. The removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater treatment plants was roughly evaluated. Diclofenac was detected in all samples analysed wastewater (treated and raw, which confirms the low removal efficiency of conventional treatment systems, aerobes and anaerobes.

  12. Performance of Microbial Fuel Cell for Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yavari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy will have an important role as a resource of energy in the future. Microbial fuel cell (MFC is a promising method to obtain electricity from organic matter andwastewater treatment simultaneously. In a pilot study, use of microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment and electricity generation investigated. The bacteria of ruminant used as inoculums. Synthetic wastewater used at different organic loading rate. Hydraulic retention time was aneffective factor in removal of soluble COD and more than 49% removed. Optimized HRT to achieve the maximum removal efficiency and sustainable operation could be regarded 1.5 and 2.5 hours. Columbic efficiency (CE affected by organic loading rate (OLR and by increasing OLR, CE reduced from 71% to 8%. Maximum voltage was 700mV. Since the microbial fuel cell reactor considered as an anaerobic process, it may be an appropriate alternative for wastewater treatment

  13. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: mpetrovic@icra.cat [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  14. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification–denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  15. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  16. Study on evaluation index system of operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxin, Zhang; Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Yan, Li

    2018-05-01

    According to the undeveloped evaluation method for the operational performance of the municipal wastewater treatment plants, this paper analyzes the policies related to sewage treatment industry based on the investigation of the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The applicable evaluation method for the operational performance was proposed from environmental protection performance, resources and energy consumption, technical and economic performance, production management and main equipment, providing a reliable basis for scientific evaluation of the operation as well as improving the operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

  17. Positive examples of wastewater treatment effectiveness in ‘Natron-Hayat’ Maglaj factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bušatlić Ilhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are described the basic characteristics of wastewaters in the cellulose and paper factory ‘Natron-Hayat’ Maglaj. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of the technological process of wastewater treatment at the ‘Natron-Hayat’ Maglaj factory which is represented in the paper by a technological scheme and represents one of the more complex systems for wastewater treatment. In the experimental part, the results of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment system at the ‘Natron-Hayat’ Maglaj factory were given. It can be said that the basic raw materials for paper production are cellulose fibers and water. The role that water has in the cellulose and paper industry as the solvent, agent for cooking and washing of the produced pulp, indicates the presence of water in almost all stages of cellulose fiber production (Žarković et al., 2004. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, cellulose and paper industry must face strict regulations on the protection of the environment which includes rationalization of raw material consumption, water, energy and chemicals, with ‘Natron-Hayat’ Maglaj are subjected to the purification before discharging into surface water recipient. The wastewaters from ‘Natron-Hayat’ Maglaj factory are discharged into river Bosna.

  18. Post treatment of antibiotic wastewater by adsorption on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullai, P.; Rajesh, V.

    2018-02-01

    The most common method of treating industrial wastewater involves biomethanation in anaerobic digesters. This biological treatment process is ineffective in color removal and it requires post-treatment methods. The color is the first contaminant in wastewater which affects the water bodies in several ways. As the anaerobically digested antibiotic wastewater was found with color, an attempt was made to remove color using granulated activated carbon as an adsorbent. Experiments were carried out in batch reactors to find out the color removal efficiency of the wastewater at four different dosages such as 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of adsorbent material at each of the four different initial concentrations of effluent like 1956, 1450, 1251 and 1040 mg COD/L. The steady state values of color removal efficiencies were 96.6, 97.64, 98.64 and 99.63%, respectively, using 100 mg of activated carbon under shaking condition at the end of the 120th min. The effect of contact time on the percentage of color removal was also studied. It was observed that the adsorption of effluent obtained equilibrium at 120 minutes. The equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms.

  19. Nutrient recovery from airplane wastewater: composition, treatment and ecotoxicological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Jorge Luiz da Paixão; Tonetti, Adriano Luiz; Guimarães, Martha Tavanielli; Silva, Dailto

    2017-04-01

    For the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, Brazil has expanded its airport infrastructure. This will lead to an increase in wastewater generation from aircrafts. This wastewater is traditionally taken from the aircrafts and disposed in the public sewage collection system. However, this residual water may have a different composition than the usual sanitary sewage. Therefore, it is important to study an alternative to treat this kind of wastewater. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and analyze the treatment of wastewater from airplane toilets through chemical precipitation for the removal of ammonia in the form of struvite. The airplanes' effluent showed a composition similar to human urine with pH 8.9, ammonia nitrogen 4,215 mg L -1 , phosphorus 430 mg L -1 and a very high acute toxicity (Vibrio fischeri). The best treatment for struvite formation was with pH 9.0 and molar ratio Mg:NH 4 :PO 4 equal to 1.5:1.0:1.0. In this case, the removal of ammonia and phosphorus achieved 97.0% and 95.3%, respectively. After this procedure, the toxicity by Vibrio fischeri decreased.

  20. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    The results of the feasibility study for utilizing low temperature geothermal heat in the City of San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant are summarized. The study is presented in terms of preliminary engineering design, economic analysis, institutional issues, environmental impacts, resource development, and system implementation.

  1. Evaluation and improvement of wastewater treatment plant performance using BioWin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Cao, Jiashun; Feng, Qian; Wang, Gan; Xue, Zhaoxia; Fang, Fang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the activated sludge model implemented in the BioWin® software was validated against full-scale wastewater treatment plant data. Only two stoichiometric parameters ( Y p/acetic and the heterotrophic yield ( Y H)) required calibration. The value 0.42 was used for Y p/acetic in this study, while the default value of the BioWin® software is 0.49, making it comparable with the default values of the corresponding parameter (yield of phosphorus release to substrate uptake ) used in ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3P, respectively. Three scenarios were evaluated to improve the performance of the wastewater treatment plant, the possibility of wasting sludge from either the aeration tank or the secondary clarifier, the construction of a new oxidation ditch, and the construction of an equalization tank. The results suggest that construction of a new oxidation ditch or an equalization tank for the wastewater treatment plant is not necessary. However, sludge should be wasted from the aeration tank during wet weather to reduce the solids loading of the clarifiers and avoid effluent violations. Therefore, it is recommended that the design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should include flexibility to operate the plants in various modes. This is helpful in selection of the appropriate operating mode when necessary, resulting in substantial reductions in operating costs.

  2. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Micallef, Shirley A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid...

  4. Performance assessment of aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mumtaz; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Ali, Arshad; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three different aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater collected from Taxila (Pakistan). A physical model of treatment plant was constructed and was operated for six experimental runs with each species of macrophyte. Every experimental run consist of thirty days period. Regular monitoring of influent and effluent concentrations were made during each experimental run. For the treatment locally available macrophyte species i.e. water hyacinth, duckweed & water lettuce were selected to use. To evaluate the treatment performance of each macrophyte, BOD5, COD, and Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) were monitored in effluent from model at different detention time of every experimental run after ensuring steady state conditions. The average reduction of effluent value of each parameter using water hyacinth were 50.61% for BOD5, 46.38% for COD, 40.34% for Nitrogen and 18.76% for Phosphorus. For duckweed the average removal efficiency for selected parameters were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus and for Water Lettuce the average removal efficiency were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus. The mechanisms of pollutant removal in this system include both aerobic and anaerobic microbiological conversions, sorption, sedimentation, volatilization and chemical transformations. The rapid growth of the biomass was measured within first ten days detention time. It was also observed that performance of macrophytes is influenced by variation of pH and Temperature. A pH of 6-9 and Temperature of 15-38°C is most favorable for treatment of wastewater by macrophytes. The option of macrophytes for treatment of Municipal sewage under local environmental conditions can be explored by further verifying the removal efficiency under variation of different environmental conditions. Also this is need of time that macrophyte

  5. Performance of Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant in the Removal of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nahid Navijouy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Listeria and in particular Listeria monocytogenes is considered a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen which can lead listeriosis in human and animals. Listeriosis can be serious and may cause meningitis, septicemia and abortion in pregnant women. Although wastewater or sludge may contaminate foods of plant origin, there are no data on occurrence of Listeria spp. in wastewater and sludge in Iran. The purpose of current investigation was to study the occurrence of Listeria spp. in various samples of wastewater and sludge in Isfahan North wastewater treatment plant. Influent, effluent, raw sludge and dried sludge samples were collected from Isfahan North municipal wastewater treatment plant. L. monocytogenes were enumerated by a three–tube most probable number (MPN assay using enrichment Fraser broth. A total of 65 various samples from five step in 13 visits were collected. The presence of Listeria spp. also was determined using USDA procedure. Then, phenotypically identified L. monocytogenes were further confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification. L. monocytogenes isolated from 76.9%, 38.5%, 84.6%, 69.2% and 46.2% of influent, effluent, raw sludge, stabilized sludge and dried sludge respectively. The efficiency of wastewater treatment processes, digester tank and drying bed in removal L. monocytogenes were 69.6%, 64.7% and 73.4% respectively. All phenotypically identified L. monocytogenes were further confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction. The results of present study have shown that Listeriaspp. and L. monocytogenes in particular, were present in wastewater treatment plant effluents and sludge at high level. The bacteria may spread on agriculture land and contaminate foods of plant origin. This may cause a risk of spreading disease to human and animals.

  6. Treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Luan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the most economical and environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. In wet air oxidation aqueous waste is oxidized in the liquid phase at high temperatures (125–320 °C and pressures (0.5–20 MPa in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas (usually air. The advantages of the process include low operating costs and minimal air pollution discharges. The present review is concerned about the literature published in the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters, such as dyes. Phenolics were taken as model pollutants in most cases. Reports on effect of treatment for the WAO of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters are reviewed, such as emulsified wastewater, TNT red water, etc. Discussions are also made on the mechanism and kinetics of WAO and main technical parameters influencing WAO. Finally, development direction of WAO is summed up.

  7. Application of Statistical Model in Wastewater Treatment Process Modeling Using Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Raygan Shirazinezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wastewater treatment includes very complex and interrelated physical, chemical and biological processes which using data analysis techniques can be rigorously modeled by a non-complex mathematical calculation models. Materials and Methods: In this study, data on wastewater treatment processes from water and wastewater company of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad were used. A total of 3306 data for COD, TSS, PH and turbidity were collected, then analyzed by SPSS-16 software (descriptive statistics and data analysis IBM SPSS Modeler 14.2, through 9 algorithm. Results: According to the results on logistic regression algorithms, neural networks, Bayesian networks, discriminant analysis, decision tree C5, tree C & R, CHAID, QUEST and SVM had accuracy precision of 90.16, 94.17, 81.37, 70.48, 97.89, 96.56, 96.46, 96.84 and 88.92, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The C5 algorithm as the best and most applicable algorithms for modeling of wastewater treatment processes were chosen carefully with accuracy of 97.899 and the most influential variables in this model were PH, COD, TSS and turbidity.

  8. Removal of micro-organisms in a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoson, J; Norström, A; Dalhammar, G

    2005-01-01

    To measure the microbial removal capacity of a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment plant. Paired samples were taken from untreated, partly-treated and treated wastewater and analysed for faecal microbial indicators, i.e. coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens spores and somatic coliphages, by culture based methods. Escherichia coli was never detected in effluent water after >5.8-log removal. Enterococci, coliforms, spores and coliphages were removed by 4.5, 4.1, 2.3 and 2.5 log respectively. Most of the removal (60-87%) took place in the latter part of the system because of settling, normal inactivation (retention time 12.7 d) and sand filtration. Time-dependent log-linear removal was shown for spores (k = -0.17 log d(-1), r(2) = 0.99). Hydroponics wastewater treatment removed micro-organisms satisfactorily. Investigations on the microbial removal capacity of hydroponics have only been performed for bacterial indicators. In this study it has been shown that virus and (oo)cyst process indicators were removed and that hydroponics can be an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment.

  9. The first year of management of the 'Nocera Superiore' wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, G.; De Gisi, S.; Ferrante, A.; Galasso, M.; De Rosa, R.; Giuliani, A.; Guadagnolo, S.; Pucci, L.

    2009-01-01

    The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Nocera Superiore, in the province of Salerno, in Southern Italy, was realized for the treatment of urban wastewater on behalf of the Special Project called 'CASMEZ per il Disinquinamento del Golfo di Napoli' (PS3). The WWTP was designed for 300,000 Equivalent Inhabitants during the summer period and it is based on the classic activated sludge process for the biological treatment of wastewater. Moreover, it has the anaerobic digestion of sludge but it does not use the primary sedimentation: this is the principal peculiarity of the plant. In this paper, after an accurate description of water and sludge lines, parameters related to the first year of functioning of the plant (2007) are deeply presented and discussed. Moreover, inlet and outlet wastewater are characterised with regard to the principal parameters (BOD5, COD, TSS, etc.). Finally, the removal efficacy for the parameters considered are represented in terms of applied and removed loads, showing a linear relationship. The performed analysis pointed out that the plant has functioned under its potentiality, but respecting the compliance limits. [it

  10. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  11. Bio aerosol Generation at wastewater treatment plants: Identification of main bio aerosols sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Monedero, M. A.; Aguilar, M. I.; Fenoll, R.; Roig, A.

    2009-01-01

    Typical operations taking place at wastewater treatment plants, especially those involving aeration and mechanical agitation of raw wastewater, represent one of the main sources of bio aerosols that, if inhaled, could pose a biologic hazard to site workers and local residents. Six different wastewater treatment plants from southeast Spain were monitories in order to identify the main bio aerosol sources and to evaluate the airborne microorganisms levels to which workers may be exposed to. Air samples were taken from selected locations by using a single stage impactor. (Author)

  12. The supply and demand for pollution control: Evidence from wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, V.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determination of pollution control from wastewater treatment plants as an economic decision facing local or regional regulators. Pollution control is measured by plant design effluent concentration levels and is fully endogenous in a supply- and-demand model of treatment choice. On the supply side, plant costs are a function of the design treatment level of the plant, and on the demand side, treatment level is a function of both the costs of control and the regional or regulatory preferences for control. We find evidence that the economic model of effluent choice by local regulators has a good deal of explanatory power. We find evidence that wastewater treatment plant removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is sensitive to many local factors including the size of the treatment plant, the flow rate of the receiving water, the population density of the surrounding area, regional growth, state sensitivity to environmental issues, state income, and the extent to which the damages from pollution fall on other states. We find strong evidence that regulators are sensitive to capital costs in determining the design level of BOD effluent reduction at a plant. Thus, proposed reductions in federal subsidies for wastewater treatment plant construction are likely to have significant adverse effects on water quality. ?? 1992.

  13. Wastewater treatment processes for the removal of emerging organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Rubio Clemente

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic pollutants form a very heterogeneous group of substances that have negative effects on aquatic organisms, so they should be removed from the environment. Unfortunately, conventional processes in wastewater treatment plants, especially biological ones, are inefficient in the degradation of these substances. It is therefore necessary to evaluate and optimize the effectiveness of the treatments, including advanced oxidation and membrane filtration processes. However, both techniques have drawbacks that may limit their stand-alone application, so it is proposed that the best solution may be to combine these technologies with biological processes to treat wastewater contaminated with emerging organic pollutants.

  14. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vincenza; Krovacek, Karel; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella; Dumontet, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile in nine wastewater treatment plants in the Ticino Canton (southern Switzerland) was investigated. The samples were collected from raw sewage influents and from treated effluents. Forty-seven out of 55 characterized C. difficile strains belonged to 13 different reference PCR ribotypes (009, 010, 014, 015, 039, 052, 053, 066, 070, 078, 101, 106, and 117), whereas 8 strains did not match any of those available in our libraries. The most frequently isolated ribotype (40%) was 078, isolated from six wastewater treatment plants, whereas ribotype 066, a toxigenic emerging ribotype isolated from patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and Switzerland, was isolated from the outgoing effluent of one plant. The majority of the isolates (85%) were toxigenic. Forty-nine percent of them produced toxin A, toxin B, and the binary toxin (toxigenic profile A+ B+ CDT+), whereas 51% showed the profile A+ B+ CDT−. Interestingly, eight ribotypes (010, 014, 015, 039, 066, 078, 101, and 106) were among the riboprofiles isolated from symptomatic patients admitted to the hospitals of the Ticino Canton in 2010. Despite the limitation of sampling, this study highlights that toxigenic ribotypes of C. difficile involved in human infections may occur in both incoming and outgoing biological wastewater treatment plants. Such a finding raises concern about the possible contamination of water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents and about the safe reuse of treated wastewater. PMID:22798376

  15. The assessment of the coke wastewater treatment efficacy in rotating biological contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cema, G; Żabczyński, S; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    Coke wastewater is known to be relatively difficult for biological treatment. Nonetheless, biofilm-based systems seem to be promising tool for such treatment. That is why a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system focused on the Anammox process was used in this study. The experiment was divided into two parts with synthetic and then real wastewater. It was proven that it is possible to treat coke wastewater with RBC but such a procedure requires a very long start-up period for the nitritation (190 days), as well as for the Anammox process, where stable nitrogen removal over 70% was achieved after 400 days of experiment. Interestingly, it was possible at a relatively low (20.2 ± 2.2 °C) temperature. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) based monitoring of the bacterial community showed that its biodiversity decreased when the real wastewater was treated and it was composed mainly of GC-rich genotypes, probably because of the modeling influence of this wastewater and the genotypes specialization.

  16. Anaerobic fluidized bed treatment of a tannery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.J.; Li, C.T.; Shieh, W.K.

    1988-11-01

    The anaerobic fluidized bed system, in conjunction with neutralization and chemical coagulation/flocculation, was evaluated for treatment of a tannery wastewater produced from a chrome tanning operation. Neutralization with 1 N sulphuric acid was effective for removal of chromate, with complete removal achieved at pH=8.0. Chemical coagulation/flocculation with alum at a dosage of 200 mg/L was able to remove 97% of feed SS and 65% of feed grease. Evaluation of the performance of the anaerobic fluidized bed system indicated more than 75% of feed COD could be removed up to an F/M ratio of approximately 0.4 g COD/g TVS center dot day. The observed methane production rate was 0.221 of CH/sub 4/ produced per gram COD removed. The anaerobic fluidized bed system could provide an effective treatment of a pretreated tannery wastewater.

  17. Application of a multivariate analysis method for non-target screening detection of persistent transformation products during the cork boiling wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Robles, L; Oller, I; Agüera, A; Trinidad-Lozano, M J; Yuste, F J; Malato, S; Perez-Estrada, L A

    2018-08-15

    Cork boiling wastewater is a very complex mixture of naturally occurring compounds leached and partially oxidized during the boiling cycles. The effluent generated is recalcitrant and could cause a significant environmental impact. Moreover, if this untreated industrial wastewater enters a municipal wastewater treatment plant it could hamper or reduce the efficiency of most activated sludge degradation processes. Despite the efforts to treat the cork boiling wastewater for reusing purposes, is still not well-known how safe these compounds (original compounds and oxidation by-products) will be. The purpose of this work was to apply an HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry method and subsequent non-target screening using a multivariate analysis method (PCA), to explore relationships between samples (treatments) and spectral features (masses or compounds) that could indicate changes in formation, degradation or polarity, during coagulation/flocculation (C/F) and photo-Fenton (PhF). Although, most of the signal intensities were reduced after the treatment line, 16 and 4 new peaks were detected to be formed after C/F and PhF processes respectively. The use of this non-target approach showed to be an effective strategy to explore, classify and detect transformation products during the treatment of an unknown complex mixture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Supported graphene oxide hollow fibre membrane for oily wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nur Hidayati; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Shahruddin, Munawar Zaman; Hussein, Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed; Dollah, Aqilah

    2017-12-01

    Oil and gas industry deals with a large amount of undesirable discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes and the amounts can considerably change during the production phases. Oilfield wastewater or produced water is known to constitute various organic and inorganic components. Discharging the produced water can pollute surface and underground water and therefore the necessity to treat this oily wastewater is an inevitable challenge. The current technologies for the treatment of this metastable oil-in-water are not really effective and very pricey. As a result, there is a great interest from many parties around the world in finding cost-effective technologies. In recent years, membrane processes have been utilized for oily wastewater treatment. In these work, a graphene oxide membrane supported on a highly porous Al2O3 hollow fibre was prepared using vacuum assisted technique and its performance in treating oily wastewater was investigated. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared using a modified Hummer's method and further characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. The results showed that the GO was successfully synthesized. The GO membrane was deposited on alumina hollow fibre substrates. The membrane performance was then investigated using dead-end filtration setup with synthetic oily wastewater as a feed. The effects of operating times on rejection rate and permeate flux were investigated. The experimental results showed that the oil rejections were over 90%. It was concluded that the supported GO membrane developed in this study may be considered feasible in treating oily wastewater. Detail study on the effects of transmembrane pressure, oil concentration, pH and fouling should be carried out in the future

  19. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  20. Evaluation of tertiary treatments for the reduction of refractory micropollutants in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Besnault, S.; Martin Ruel, S.; Baig, S.; Heiniger, B.; Esperanza, M.; Budzinski, H.; Miege, C.; Coquery, M.; Dauthuille, P.

    2012-01-01

    Some refractory micropollutants remain in treated wastewater after secondary treatments. In order to reduce their concentration in treated water, tertiary treatments can be used such as advanced oxidation processes and activated carbon. The efficiency of granular activated carbon in a long term is not well known and advanced oxidation processes have mostly been studied at laboratory scale. Advanced oxidation processes and granular activated carbon pilots were studied in two different wastewat...

  1. Reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicators by Bardenpho Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Moriyama, Hitoha; Haramoto, Eiji; Kitajima, Masaaki; Sherchan, Samendra; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2018-06-19

    Increased demand for water reuse and reclamation accentuates the importance for optimal wastewater treatment to limit protozoa in effluents. Two wastewater treatment plants utilizing advanced Bardenpho were investigated over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and fecal indicators. Results were compared to facilities that previously operated in the same geographical area. Protozoa (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter and subsequently detected by fluorescent microscopy and/or PCR methods. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently detected in