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Sample records for immunologically distinct strains

  1. The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima, GS and M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badri, Riadh; Barta, John Robert

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation of two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima (GS and M6) were compared. Both strains had a prepatent period of approximately 120 h followed by peak oocyst shedding at 144-150 h post inoculation. Mean total oocyst output determined for each strain demonstrated that the fecundity of the M6 strain (12.8 × 10(3) ± 1.95) of E. maxima was roughly twice that of the GS strain (6.9 × 10(3) ± 3.33) when inoculated at the rate of 1,000 infective oocysts per bird. The process of oocyst sporulation was followed by repetitive sampling of sporulating oocysts at 26 °C with aeration over a 138 hour period. Sporulation was divided into five morphologically distinguishable stages whose abundance peaked at the following times during sporulation: unsporulated oocysts at 0 h; sporoblast anlagen at 18 h; sporoblasts without sporocyst walls at 22 h; and sporocysts without mature sporozoites at 38 h. The time to 50 % sporulation of E. maxima oocysts observed in the present study was approximately 53 h for both strains and all viable oocysts had completed sporulation by 60 h. In the present study, the prepatent periods, duration of oocyst shedding, and the relative kinetics of sporulation of the GS and M6 strains of E. maxima were found to be virtually identical despite the immunological distinctiveness of these two parasite strains.

  2. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph).

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    El-Ashram, Saeed; Yin, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3-10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima.

  3. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  4. Distinct structural and catalytic roles for Zap70 in formation of the immunological synapse in CTL

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    Jenkins, Misty R; Stinchcombe, Jane C; Au-Yeung, Byron B; Asano, Yukako; Ritter, Alex T; Weiss, Arthur; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) activation leads to a dramatic reorganisation of both membranes and receptors as the immunological synapse forms. Using a genetic model to rapidly inhibit Zap70 catalytic activity we examined synapse formation between cytotoxic T lymphocytes and their targets. In the absence of Zap70 catalytic activity Vav-1 activation occurs and synapse formation is arrested at a stage with actin and integrin rich interdigitations forming the interface between the two cells. The membranes at the synapse are unable to flatten to provide extended contact, and Lck does not cluster to form the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). Centrosome polarisation is initiated but aborts before reaching the synapse and the granules do not polarise. Our findings reveal distinct roles for Zap70 as a structural protein regulating integrin-mediated control of actin vs its catalytic activity that regulates TCR-mediated control of actin and membrane remodelling during formation of the immunological synapse. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01310.001 PMID:24596147

  5. In vitro evaluation of immunological properties of extracellular polysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Mana; Nomoto, Ryohei; Osawa, Ro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in immunological properties of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by different Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains as well as that of their monosaccharide composition. The monosaccharide composition of each EPS produced by L. delbrueckii strains, as determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), showed an appreciable variation in a strain-dependent manner, which could be broadly assigned to 4 TLC groups. Meanwhile, the immunological properties of the EPSs produced by 10 L. delbrueckii strains were evaluated in a semi-intestinal model using a Transwell co-culture system, which employed human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells on the apical side and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells on the basolateral side. Each EPS was added to the apical side to allow direct contact with Caco-2 cells and incubated for 6 hr. After incubation, the amounts of TNF-α and several cytokines that had been released by either RAW264.7 or Caco-2 cells were then quantified by cytotoxic activity on L929 cells or the RT-PCR method. It was found that the EPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells express different profiles of cytokine production via Caco-2 cells but that the profile difference could not be related to the above TLC grouping. The evidence suggests that the EPSs of L. delbrueckii strains are diverse not only in their biochemical structure but also in their immunological properties.

  6. Immunological response of the Sub-Antarctic Notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus injected with two strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, D; Díaz-Ibarrola, D; Vargas-Lagos, C; Oyarzún, R; Pontigo, J P; Muñoz, J L P; Yáñez, A J; Vargas-Chacoff, L

    2018-04-01

    Eleginops maclovinus is an endemic fish to Chile that lives in proximity to salmonid culture centers, feeding off of uneaten pellet and salmonid feces. Occurring in the natural environment, this interaction between native and farmed fish could result in the horizontal transmission of pathogens affecting the aquaculture industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innate and adaptive immune responses of E. maclovinus challenged with P. salmonis. Treatment injections (in duplicate) were as follows: control (100 μL of culture medium), wild type LF-89 strain (100 μL, 1 × 10 8 live bacteria), and antibiotic resistant strain Austral-005 (100 μL, 1 × 10 8 live bacteria). The fish were sampled at various time-points during the 35-day experimental period. The gene expression of TLRs (1, 5, and 8), NLRCs (3 and 5), C3, IL-1β, MHCII, and IgMs were significantly modulated during the experimental period in both the spleen and gut (excepting TLR1 and TLR8 spleen expressions), with tissue-specific expression profiles and punctual differences between the injected strains. Anti-P. salmonis antibodies increased in E. maclovinus serum from day 14-28 for the LF-89 strain and from day 14-35 for the Austral-005 strain. These results suggest temporal activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses in E. maclovinus tissues when injected by distinct P. salmonis strains. The Austral-005 strain did not always cause the greatest increases/decreases in the number of transcripts, so the magnitude of the observed immune response (mRNA) may not be related to antibiotic resistance. This is the first immunological study to relate a pathogen widely studied in salmonids with a native fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SV40 large T-p53 complex: evidence for the presence of two immunologically distinct forms of p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, J.; Gamble, J.

    1985-01-01

    The transforming protein of SV40 is the large T antigen. Large T binds a cellular protein, p53, which is potentially oncogenic by virtue of its functional involvement in the control of cell proliferation. This raises the possibility that p53 may mediate, in part, the transforming function of SV40 large T. Two immunologically distinct forms of p53 have been identified in normal cells: the forms are cell-cycle dependent, one being restricted to nondividing cells (p53-Go) and the second to dividing cells (p53-G divided by). The authors have now dissociated and probed the multimeric complex of SV40 large T-p53 for the presence of immunologically distinct forms of p53. Here they present evidence for the presence of p53-Go and p53-G divided by complexed with SV40 large T

  8. An immunological analysis of natural resistance to moise hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) infection in C3H mice

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    Pereira, C A; Pickel, K [Wurzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Virologie und Immunbiologie

    1987-01-01

    Since the development of resistance against mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) coincides with the maturation of the immune system, we studied the possible role of distinct immunological components in the resistance of adult mice during JHMV infection. Adult C3H mice naturally resistant to JHMV were rendered susceptible to infection by lethal {sup 60}Co-irradiation and were subsequently reconstituted with limiting numbers of syngeneic bone marrow cells or spleen cells. Resistance or susceptibility dependend on the number of cells used for reconstitution and the interval between reconsitution and infection. Spleen cells from suckling mice affected neither resistance nor susceptibility and peritoneal cells from adult mice and thymus cells reduced resistance. Persistence of JHMV was demonstrated by virus reactivation. Animals infected with JHMV only once before being rendered immunoincompetent showed a different pattern of resistance. One to four months after infection, 15 to 35% of the animals died after reconstitution without having been reinfected, and persisting JHMV was found in their liver, spleen and peritoneal exudate. The survivors (47 to 87%) were resistant to further JHMV infection during immunodeficiency. Animals immunized 3 times with JHMV before irradiation did not show virus reactivation and were fully resistant to JHMV reinfection after reconstitution. The level of neutralizing anti JHMV serum antibodies in the group of mice immunized only once was comparable with the level of those immunized 3 times. The role of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity in this model are discused as an explanation for the resistance to, and persistence of, JHMV. (author).

  9. An immunological analysis of natural resistance to moise hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) infection in C3H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.A.; Pickel, K.

    1987-01-01

    Since the development of resistance against mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV strain) coincides with the maturation of the immune system, we studied the possible role of distinct immunological components in the resistance of adult mice during JHMV infection. Adult C3H mice naturally resistant to JHMV were rendered susceptible to infection by lethal 60 Co-irradiation and were subsequently reconstituted with limiting numbers of syngeneic bone marrow cells or spleen cells. Resistance or susceptibility dependend on the number of cells used for reconstitution and the interval between reconsitution and infection. Spleen cells from suckling mice affected neither resistance nor susceptibility and peritoneal cells from adult mice and thymus cells reduced resistance. Persistence of JHMV was demonstrated by virus reactivation. Animals infected with JHMV only once before being rendered immunoincompetent showed a different pattern of resistance. One to four months after infection, 15 to 35% of the animals died after reconstitution without having been reinfected, and persisting JHMV was found in their liver, spleen and peritoneal exudate. The survivors (47 to 87%) were resistant to further JHMV infection during immunodeficiency. Animals immunized 3 times with JHMV before irradiation did not show virus reactivation and were fully resistant to JHMV reinfection after reconstitution. The level of neutralizing anti JHMV serum antibodies in the group of mice immunized only once was comparable with the level of those immunized 3 times. The role of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity in this model are discused as an explanation for the resistance to, and persistence of, JHMV. (author) [pt

  10. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

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    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  11. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences.

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    Cope, Emily K; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Lynch, Susan V

    2017-05-12

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n = 59) and healthy individuals (n = 10) collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, predicted metagenomics, and RNA profiling of the mucosal immune response. We show that CRS patients cluster into distinct sub-groups (DSI-III), each defined by specific pattern of bacterial co-colonization (permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA); p = 0.001, r 2  = 0.318). Each sub-group was typically dominated by a pathogenic family: Streptococcaceae (DSI), Pseudomonadaceae (DSII), Corynebacteriaceae [DSIII(a)], or Staphylococcaceae [DSIII(b)]. Each pathogenic microbiota was predicted to be functionally distinct (PERMANOVA; p = 0.005, r 2  = 0.217) and encode uniquely enriched gene pathways including ansamycin biosynthesis (DSI), tryptophan metabolism (DSII), two-component response [DSIII(b)], and the PPAR-γ signaling pathway [DSIII(a)]. Each is also associated with significantly distinct host immune responses; DSI, II, and III(b) invoked a variety of pro-inflammatory, T H 1 responses, while DSIII(a), which exhibited significantly increased incidence of nasal polyps (Fisher's exact; p = 0.034, relative risk = 2.16), primarily induced IL-5 expression (Kruskal Wallis; q = 0.045). A large proportion of CRS patient heterogeneity may be explained by the composition of their sinus bacterial microbiota and related host immune response-features which may inform strategies for tailored therapy in this patient population.

  12. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Cope, Emily K.; Goldberg, Andrew N.; Pletcher, Steven D.; Lynch, Susan V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Results Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n?=?59) and healthy individ...

  13. Distinct Effects of the Cervicovaginal Microbiota and Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infection on Female Genital Tract Immunology.

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    Shannon, B; Gajer, P; Yi, T J; Ma, B; Humphrys, M S; Thomas-Pavanel, J; Chieza, L; Janakiram, P; Saunders, M; Tharao, W; Huibner, S; Shahabi, K; Ravel, J; Kaul, R

    2017-05-01

    Genital inflammation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, and may increase HIV-susceptible target cells and alter epithelial integrity. Several genital conditions that increase HIV risk are more prevalent in African, Caribbean, and other black (ACB) women, including bacterial vaginosis and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. Therefore, we assessed the impact of the genital microbiota on mucosal immunology in ACB women and microbiome-HSV-2 interactions. Cervicovaginal secretions and endocervical cells were collected by cytobrush and Instead Softcup, respectively. T cells and dendritic cells were assessed by flow cytometry, cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the microbiota by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. The cervicovaginal microbiota of 51 participants were composed of community state types (CSTs) showing diversity (20/51; 39%) or predominated by Lactobacillus iners (22/51; 42%), L. crispatus (7/51; 14%), or L. gasseri (2/51; 4%). High-diversity CSTs and specific bacterial phyla (Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia) were strongly associated with cervicovaginal inflammatory cytokines, but not with altered endocervical immune cells. However, cervical CD4+ T-cell number was associated with HSV-2 infection and a distinct cytokine profile. This suggests that the genital microbiota and HSV-2 infection may influence HIV susceptibility through independent biological mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Ziegler, Maren; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  15. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2017-05-02

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  16. Distinct virulence of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus strains from different genetic lineages in a mouse model.

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    Tetsuro Ikegami

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV causes high rates of abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral transmission occurs via mosquito vectors in endemic areas, which necessitates regular vaccination of susceptible livestock animals to prevent the RVF outbreaks. Although ZH501 strain has been used as a challenge strain for past vaccine efficacy studies, further characterization of other RVFV strains is important to optimize ruminant and nonhuman primate RVFV challenge models. This study aimed to characterize the virulence of wild-type RVFV strains belonging to different genetic lineages in outbred CD1 mice. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1x103 PFU of wild-type ZH501, Kenya 9800523, Kenya 90058, Saudi Arabia 200010911, OS1, OS7, SA75, Entebbe, or SA51 strains. Among them, mice infected with SA51, Entebbe, or OS7 strain showed rapid dissemination of virus in livers and peracute necrotic hepatitis at 2-3 dpi. Recombinant SA51 (rSA51 and Zinga (rZinga strains were recovered by reverse genetics, and their virulence was also tested in CD1 mice. The rSA51 strain reproduced peracute RVF disease in mice, whereas the rZinga strain showed a similar virulence with that of rZH501 strain. This study showed that RVFV strains in different genetic lineages display distinct virulence in outbred mice. Importantly, since wild-type RVFV strains contain defective-interfering RNA or various genetic subpopulations during passage from original viral isolations, recombinant RVFV strains generated by reverse genetics will be better suitable for reproducible challenge studies for vaccine development as well as pathological studies.

  17. Myenteric plexus is differentially affected by infection with distinct Trypanosoma cruzi strains in Beagle dogs

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    Nívia Carolina Nogueira-Paiva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78 T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model.

  18. Distinct prion-like strains of amyloid beta implicated in phenotypic diversity of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Cohen, Mark; Appleby, Brian; Safar, Jiri G

    2016-01-01

    Vast evidence on human prions demonstrates that variable disease phenotypes, rates of propagation, and targeting of distinct brain structures are determined by unique conformers (strains) of pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Recent progress in the development of advanced biophysical tools that inventory structural characteristics of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain cortex of phenotypically diverse Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, revealed unique spectrum of oligomeric particles in the cortex of rapidly progressive cases, implicating these structures in variable rates of propagation in the brain, and in distict disease manifestation. Since only ∼30% of phenotypic diversity of AD can be explained by polymorphisms in risk genes, these and transgenic bioassay data argue that structurally distinct Aβ particles play a major role in the diverse pathogenesis of AD, and may behave as distinct prion-like strains encoding diverse phenotypes. From these observations and our growing understanding of prions, there is a critical need for new strain-specific diagnostic strategies for misfolded proteins causing these elusive disorders. Since targeted drug therapy can induce mutation and evolution of prions into new strains, effective treatments of AD will require drugs that enhance clearance of pathogenic conformers, reduce the precursor protein, or inhibit the conversion of precursors into prion-like states.

  19. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

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    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.

  20. Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines.

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    Zheng, Song-yue; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Min; Hua, Yan-Hong; Yuan, Shuofeng; Watt, Rory M; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2012-09-26

    Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. To compare vaccine strains encoded with different antigen delivery and expression strategies, a series of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were constructed that expressed either the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the H5N1 influenza virus, as model antigens. The antigens were expressed from the chromosome, from high or low-copy plasmids, or encoded on a eukaryotic expression plasmid. Antigens were targeted for expression in either the cytoplasm or the outer membrane. Combinations of strategies were employed to evaluate the efficacy of combined delivery/expression approaches. After investigating in vitro and in vivo antigen expression, growth and infection abilities; the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains was evaluated in mice. Using the soluble model antigen EGFP, our results indicated that vaccine strains with high and stable antigen expression exhibited high B cell responses, whilst eukaryotic expression or colonization with good construct stability was critical for T cell responses. For the insoluble model antigen HA, an outer membrane expression strategy induced better B cell and T cell responses than a cytoplasmic strategy. Most notably, the combination of two different expression strategies did not increase the immune response elicited. Through systematically evaluating and comparing the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains in mice, we identified their respective advantages and deleterious or synergistic effects. Different construction strategies were optimally-required for soluble versus

  1. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

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    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  2. Immunological evaluation of Lactobacillus casei Zhang: a newly isolated strain from koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China

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    Du Ruiting

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence to suggest an immunomodulation function both within the intestines and systemically upon consuming probiotic species. We recently isolated a novel LAB, Lactobacillus caseiZhang (LcZhang from koumiss. LcZhang exhibited favorable probiotic properties, such as acid resistance, bile resistance, gastrointestinal (GI colonization ability, etc. In order to examine the immunomodulatory qualities of LcZhang, we administered LcZhang to healthy mice with varying doses of either live or heat-killed LcZhang and measured various parameters of the host immune response. Results The study was performed in four separate experiments via oral administration of live and heat-killed LcZhang to BALB/c mice for several consecutive days. We investigated the immunomodulating capacity of LcZhang in vivo by analyzing the profile of cytokines, T cell subpopulations, and immunoglobulin concentrations induced in blood serum and intestinal fluid in BALB/c mice. Only live bacteria elicited a wide range of immune responses, which include the increased production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and depression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels. In addition, interleukin-2 (IL-2 and IL-2 receptor gene transcription increased significantly, but the proportion of T cell subsets appeared to be unaffected. We also observed that LcZhang was capable of inducing gut mucosal responses by enhancing the production of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA as well influencing the systemic immunity via the cytokines released to the circulating blood. Conclusion The present work shows that the dose-dependent administration of LcZhang is capable of influencing immune responses, implying that it may be a valuable strain for probiotic use in humans.

  3. Immune evasion and recognition of the syphilis spirochete in blood and skin of secondary syphilis patients: two immunologically distinct compartments.

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    Adriana R Cruz

    systemic innate and adaptive immunologic abnormalities that define the secondary stage of the disease, which in the skin of patients trends towards a T-cell cytolytic response.

  4. Immune Evasion and Recognition of the Syphilis Spirochete in Blood and Skin of Secondary Syphilis Patients: Two Immunologically Distinct Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Adriana R.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Pillay, Allan; Abreu, Christine; Valencia, Carlos A.; La Vake, Carson; Cervantes, Jorge L.; Dunham-Ems, Star; Cartun, Richard; Mavilio, Domenico; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    bring to light the extent of the systemic innate and adaptive immunologic abnormalities that define the secondary stage of the disease, which in the skin of patients trends towards a T-cell cytolytic response. PMID:22816000

  5. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weili; Olm, Matthew R.; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context. PMID:29636439

  6. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Brown

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context.

  7. Identification of the distinctive type i/XhoI+ strain of Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinoma in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Paula; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ding, Shan; Yoshiwara, Elena; Corvalan, Alejandro H; Takano, Juan; Chirinos, Jesus L; Watanabe, Jose; Miyagui, Juan; Hidalgo, Heriberto; Chacon, Pedro; Linares, Victor; Eizuru, Yoshito; Akiba, Suminori

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the reason for the low frequency of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) in Peru, despite the high frequency reported in neighboring countries, the distribution of the distinctive EBV (type i/XhoI+) strain in EBVaGC and a healthy population was examined. EBV polymorphisms in BamHI W1/I1 and XhoI restriction site of the latent membrane protein 1 gene (LMP1) were examined among 11 EBVaGCs and 172 healthy controls from Peru, and these frequencies were compared with those in a previous study of Chile and Colombia (n=303). The frequency of the distinctive EBV strain in EBVaGCs (55%) was significantly higher than that in controls (7%). Furthermore, the frequency of this EBV type in Peruvian controls was significantly lower than that in controls from Chile and Colombia (27%, pPeru, as compared with neighboring countries.

  8. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host-plant variants: two host strains or two distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Legeai, Fabrice; Lemaitre, Claire; Scaon, Erwan; Orsucci, Marion; Labadie, Karine; Gimenez, Sylvie; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Henri, Hélène; Vavre, Fabrice; Aury, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Philippe; Kergoat, Gael J; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    The moth Spodoptera frugiperda is a well-known pest of crops throughout the Americas, which consists of two strains adapted to different host-plants: the first feeds preferentially on corn, cotton and sorghum whereas the second is more associated with rice and several pasture grasses. Though morphologically indistinguishable, they exhibit differences in their mating behavior, pheromone compositions, and show development variability according to the host-plant. Though the latter suggest that both strains are different species, this issue is still highly controversial because hybrids naturally occur in the wild, not to mention the discrepancies among published results concerning mating success between the two strains. In order to clarify the status of the two host-plant strains of S. frugiperda, we analyze features that possibly reflect the level of post-zygotic isolation: (1) first generation (F1) hybrid lethality and sterility; (2) patterns of meiotic segregation of hybrids in reciprocal second generation (F2), as compared to the meiosis of the two parental strains. We found a significant reduction of mating success in F1 in one direction of the cross and a high level of microsatellite markers showing transmission ratio distortion in the F2 progeny. Our results support the existence of post-zygotic reproductive isolation between the two laboratory strains and are in accordance with the marked level of genetic differentiation that was recovered between individuals of the two strains collected from the field. Altogether these results provide additional evidence in favor of a sibling species status for the two strains.

  9. Immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Materials on comparative characteristics of state of some immunological parameters under the effect of toxic radioactive and non-radioactive chemical substances on organism of experimental animas as well as data on possible role of disclosed immunological changes are presented. Data on the possible role of immunological mechanisms in shortening life span and distortions of reproduction function are given

  10. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Trefz

    Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to

  11. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Koehler, Heike; Klepik, Klaus; Moebius, Petra; Reinhold, Petra; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0), 10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6). Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to diagnose MAP

  12. Distinct features of C/N balance regulation in Prochlorococcus sp. strain MIT9313.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; López-Lozano, Antonio; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol Alberto; Díez, Jesús; García-Fernández, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    The abundance and significant contribution to global primary production of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus have made it one of the main models in marine ecology. Several conditions known to cause strong effects on the regulation of N-related enzymes in other cyanobacteria lacked such effect in Prochlorococcus. Prochlorococcus sp. strain MIT9313 is one of the most early-branching strains among the members of this genus. In order to further understand the C/N control system in this cyanobacterium, we studied the effect of the absence of three key elements in the ocean, namely N, P and Fe, as well as the effect of inhibitors of the N assimilation or photosynthesis on the N metabolism of this strain. Furthermore, we focused our work in the effect of ageing, as the age of cultures has clear effects on the regulation of some enzymes in Prochlorococcus. To reach this goal, expression of the main three regulators involved in N assimilation in cyanobacteria, namely ntcA, glnB and pipX, as well as that of icd (encoding for isocitrate dehydrogenase) were analysed. Our results show that the control of the main proteins involved in the C/N balance in strain MIT9313 differs from other model Prochlorococcus strains. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Mycobacterium marinum strains can be divided into two distinct types based on genetic diversity and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sar, Astrid M.; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; Sparrius, Marion; Reinders, Erik; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum causes a systemic tuberculosis-like disease in a large number of poikilothermic animals and is used as a model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we infected zebra fish (Danio rerio) with different strains of M. marinum to determine the variation in

  14. Citric acid production and citrate synthase genes in distinct strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citric acid is an important organic acid, multifunctional with a wide array of uses. The objectives of this study were the isolation and selection strains of the genus Aspergillus, investigating the solubilization of phosphate of these isolates, verifying the expression rate of genes involved in the identification of isolates, and ...

  15. Distinct Bacterial Composition Associated with Different Laboratory-cultured Aiptasia Strains Across Two Thermal Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Hanin

    2018-01-01

    laboratory model system to study the role of the coral microbiome. Analyses of the bacterial compositions associated with different Aiptasia strains across two temperatures (25 °C and 32 °C), based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study aims also to identify

  16. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  17. Immunological aspects of Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris infections in inbred and outbred strains of laboratory mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, S J; Cox, F E

    1982-08-01

    The intestinal flagellates, Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris, cause similar infections in CBA mice as determined by trophozoite and cyst counts. Both parasites occur all along the small intestine with G. muris, being mainly present in the anterior part and S. muris towards the posterior. The early stages of infection are similar in all strains of mice examined and peak levels of both trophozoites and cysts occur 1-2 weeks after infection. All strains of mice overcome the infection but the rate of recovery varies considerably between strains, being most rapid in BALB/c and slowest in A and C57BL.B10. Outbred mice are more variable in their recovery than inbred mice. After recovery, mice are partially resistant to reinfection with the homologous but not the heterologous parasite. Resistance to reinfection with S. muris is greatest in those strains that eliminate the primary infection most rapidly. Giardia muris and S. muris cause similar changes in the mucosa of the small intestine of BALB/c mice with increased intra-epithelial lymphocyte counts from 3 weeks onwards corresponding with the start of the elimination of the parasites from the gut. A reduction in villus height and increase in crypt depth is also characteristic of these infections.

  18. Distinct Bacterial Composition Associated with Different Laboratory-cultured Aiptasia Strains Across Two Thermal Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Hanin

    2018-05-01

    Coral reefs are crucial for the ecological sustainability of the oceans, yet, increasing sea surface temperature is threatening these ecosystems globally. Microbial communities associated with corals have become a recent research focus, as the associated microbiome may contribute to coral resilience to environmental stressors, e.g., heat stress. However, research in this area is hampered by the difficulty of working with corals. This study aims to use Aiptasia, a sea anemone, as a tractable laboratory model system to study the role of the coral microbiome. Analyses of the bacterial compositions associated with different Aiptasia strains across two temperatures (25 °C and 32 °C), based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study aims also to identify a “core” microbiome associated with heat stress acclimation, as well as host-specific differences. In general, results showed that bacterial composition associated with Aiptasia strains differs significantly with temperature. Higher bacterial diversity and richness were observed when all Aiptasia strains were placed under heat stress. Moreover, results showed an increase in beta diversity and dispersion of bacterial communities in response to heat stress. These changes in the bacterial composition are in line with the recently described “Anna Karenina principle” for animal microbiomes, which suggests that the microbiomes of unhealthy individuals vary more than healthy and stable individuals. This study further shows that while temperature had the greatest effect on structuring the bacterial compositions, there were some variations better attributed to batch and host effects. This suggests that technical aspects have to be carefully addressed in the framework of microbiome studies. Members of a putative “core” microbiome associated with 32 °C Aiptasia have been identified as indicator species of heat stress (i.e., Francisella sp.,). Previous reports have shown that these indicator taxa are associated with

  19. The immunological synapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Geisler, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    . A distinct 3-dimensional supramolecular structure at the T cell/APC interface has been suggested to be involved in the information transfer. Due to its functional analogy to the neuronal synapse, the structure has been termed the "immunological synapse" (IS). Here, we review molecular aspects concerning...

  20. Brain transcriptome variation among behaviorally distinct strains of zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domesticated animal populations often show profound reductions in predator avoidance and fear-related behavior compared to wild populations. These reductions are remarkably consistent and have been observed in a diverse array of taxa including fish, birds, and mammals. Experiments conducted in common environments indicate that these behavioral differences have a genetic basis. In this study, we quantified differences in fear-related behavior between wild and domesticated zebrafish strains and used microarray analysis to identify genes that may be associated with this variation. Results Compared to wild zebrafish, domesticated zebrafish spent more time near the water surface and were more likely to occupy the front of the aquarium nearest a human observer. Microarray analysis of the brain transcriptome identified high levels of population variation in gene expression, with 1,749 genes significantly differentially expressed among populations. Genes that varied among populations belonged to functional categories that included DNA repair, DNA photolyase activity, response to light stimulus, neuron development and axon guidance, cell death, iron-binding, chromatin reorganization, and homeobox genes. Comparatively fewer genes (112 differed between domesticated and wild strains with notable genes including gpr177 (wntless, selenoprotein P1a, synaptophysin and synaptoporin, and acyl-CoA binding domain containing proteins (acbd3 and acbd4. Conclusions Microarray analysis identified a large number of genes that differed among zebrafish populations and may underlie behavioral domestication. Comparisons with similar microarray studies of domestication in rainbow trout and canids identified sixteen evolutionarily or functionally related genes that may represent components of shared molecular mechanisms underlying convergent behavioral evolution during vertebrate domestication. However, this conclusion must be tempered by limitations

  1. Host gene expression profiles in ferrets infected with genetically distinct henipavirus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Leon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur. The host gene expression profiles of the lung tissue showed early activation of interferon responses and subsequent expression of inflammation-related genes that coincided with the clinical deterioration. Additionally, the lung tissue showed unchanged levels of lymphocyte markers and progressive downregulation of cell cycle genes and extracellular matrix components. Infection in the brain resulted in a limited breadth of the host responses, which is in accordance with the immunoprivileged status of this organ. Finally, we propose a model of the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection that integrates multiple components of the host responses.

  2. High-Resolution Typing Reveals Distinct Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in an At-Risk Population in Nanjing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This

  3. Immunological response to Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccination of cattle in a communal area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Gregory J G; Marcotty, Tanguy; Rouille, Elodie; Chilundo, Abel; Letteson, Jean-Jacques; Godfroid, Jacques

    2018-03-29

    Brucellosis is of worldwide economic and public health importance. Heifer vaccination with live attenuated Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) is the cornerstone of control in low- and middle-income countries. Antibody persistence induced by S19 is directly correlated with the number of colony-forming units (CFU) per dose. There are two vaccination methods: a 'high' dose (5-8 × 1010 CFU) subcutaneously injected or one or two 'low' doses (5 × 109 CFU) through the conjunctival route. This study aimed to evaluate serological reactions to the 'high' dose and possible implications of the serological findings on disease control. This study included 58 female cases, vaccinated at Day 0, and 29 male controls. Serum was drawn repeatedly and tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The cases showed a rapid antibody response with peak RBT positivity (98%) at 2 weeks and iELISA (95%) at 8 weeks, then decreased in an inverse logistic curve to 14% RBT and 32% iELISA positive at 59 weeks and at 4.5 years 57% (4/7 cases) demonstrated a persistent immune response (RBT, iELISA or Brucellin skin test) to Brucella spp. Our study is the first of its kind documenting the persistence of antibodies in an African communal farming setting for over a year to years after 'high' dose S19 vaccination, which can be difficult to differentiate from a response to infection with wild-type B. abortus. A recommendation could be using a 'low' dose or different route of vaccination.

  4. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to Spondweni Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Haddow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has extended its known geographic distribution to the New World and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. While substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for ZIKV, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, Spondweni virus (SPONV. Both ZIKV and SPONV have been known to circulate in Africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. Furthermore, the susceptibility of peridomestic mosquito species incriminated or suspected in the transmission of ZIKV to SPONV was unknown.In this study, two geographically distinct strains of SPONV were genetically characterized and compared to nine genetically and geographically distinct ZIKV strains. Additionally, the susceptibility of both SPONV strains was determined in three mosquito species. The open reading frame (ORF of the SPONV 1952 Nigerian Chuku strain, exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity of 97.8% and 99.2%, respectively, when compared to the SPONV 1954 prototype South African SA Ar 94 strain. The ORF of the SPONV Chuku strain exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity that ranged from 68.3% to 69.0% and 74.6% to 75.0%, respectively, when compared to nine geographically and genetically distinct strains of ZIKV. The ORF of the nine African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains exhibited limited nucleotide divergence. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus susceptibility and dissemination was low or non-existent following artificial infectious blood feeding of moderate doses of both SPONV strains.SPONV and ZIKV nucleotide and amino acid divergence coupled with differences in geographic distribution, ecology and vector species support previous reports that these viruses are separate species. Furthermore, the low degree of SPONV infection or dissemination in Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to two

  5. Comparison of clinical and immunological findings in gnotobiotic piglets infected with Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain and EHEC O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöchtl, Bettina; Gunzer, Florian; Gerner, Wilhelm; Gasse, Hagen; Koch, Michaela; Bagó, Zoltán; Ganter, Martin; Weissenböck, Herbert; Dinhopl, Nora; Coldewey, Sina M; von Altrock, Alexandra; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Saalmüller, Armin; Zimmermann, Kurt; Steinmann, Jörg; Kehrmann, Jan; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Blom, Jochen; Ehricht, Ralf; Engelmann, Ines; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) (STEC) is the most frequent cause of diarrhoea-positive haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D + HUS) in humans. In 2011, a huge outbreak with an STEC O104:H4 strain in Germany highlighted the limited possibilities for causative treatment of this syndrome. The responsible STEC strain was found to combine Stx production with adherence mechanisms normally found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Pathotypes of E. coli evolve and can exhibit different adhesion mechanisms. It has been shown previously that neonatal gnotobiotic piglets are susceptible for infection with STEC, such as STEC O157:H7 as well as for EAEC, which are considered to be the phylogenetic origin of E. coli O104:H4. This study was designed to characterise the host response to infection with the STEC O104:H4 outbreak strain in comparison to an STEC O157:H7 isolate by evaluating clinical parameters (scoring) and markers of organ dysfunction (biochemistry), as well as immunological (flow cytometry, assessment of cytokines/chemokines and acute phase proteins) and histological alterations (light- and electron microscopy) in a gnotobiotic piglet model of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. We observed severe clinical symptoms, such as diarrhoea, dehydration and neurological disorders as well as attaching-and-effacing lesions (A/E) in the colon in STEC O157:H7 infected piglets. In contrast, STEC O104:H4 challenged animals exhibited only mild clinical symptoms including diarrhoea and dehydration and HUS-specific/severe histopathological, haematological and biochemical alterations were only inconsistently presented by individual piglets. A specific adherence phenotype of STEC O104:H4 could not be observed. Flow cytometric analyses of lymphocytes derived from infected animals revealed an increase of natural killer cells (NK cells) during the course of infection revealing a potential role of this subset in the anti-bacterial activity in STEC disease. Unexpectedly, E

  6. Draft genome and sequence variant data of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum strain Pi45 from the phylogenetically-distinct Clade-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerayuth Kittichotirat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is a unique oomycete microorganism, capable of infecting humans and animals. The organism can be phylogenetically categorized into three distinct clades: Clade-I (strains from the Americas; Clade-II (strains from Asia and Australia, and Clade–III (strains from Thailand and the United States. Two draft genomes of the P. insidiosum Clade-I strain CDC-B5653 and Clade-II strain Pi-S are available in the public domain. The genome of P. insidiosum from the distinct Clade-III, which is distantly-related to the other two clades, is lacking. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the P. insidiosum strain Pi45 (also known as MCC13; isolated from a Thai patient with pythiosis; accession numbers BCFM01000001-BCFM01017277 as a representative strain of the phylogenetically-distinct Clade-III. We also report a genome-scale data set of sequence variants (i.e., SNPs and INDELs found in P. insidiosum (accessible online at the Mendeley database: http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r75799jy6c.1. Keywords: Pythium insidiosum, Pythiosis, Draft genome, Sequence variant

  7. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  8. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Meertens, Laurent; Chazal, Maxime; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Zamborlini, Alessia; Despres, Philippe; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Jouvenet, Nolwenn; Amara, Ali

    2016-02-09

    The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D stands as a "gold standard" for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E) protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation. The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D is one of the safest and most effective live virus vaccines ever developed. The molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of 17D are poorly understood. 17D was generated by serially passaging the virulent Asibi strain in vertebrate tissues. Here we examined the entry mechanisms engaged by YFV Asibi and the 17D vaccine. We found the two viruses use different entry

  9. MM2-thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: neuropathological, biochemical and transmission studies identify a distinctive prion strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Suardi, Silvia; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Indaco, Antonio; Limido, Lucia; Vimercati, Chiara; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Langeveld, Jan; Terruzzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Antonio; Zerbi, Pietro; Fociani, Paolo; Bishop, Matthew T; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  10. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  11. Immunology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Baron, P.A.; Drake, G.A.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Wilson, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The following studies were conducted in the field of immunology; a model system to determine toxic effects on the immune system using 3 H-uridine uptake by Feells of rats; and survival in lethally irradiatd mice receiving allogenic fetal liver and thymus

  12. Reproductive immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2012-01-01

    pathological pregnancy are suggested to predispose to adaptive immunological processes against alloantigens on the trophoblast that may further increase the risk of pathological pregnancy outcome. The best documented adaptive immune reaction against fetal alloantigens is directed against male-specific minor...

  13. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation.

  14. Solving Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yoram; Xia, Ashley; Read, Elizabeth L; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hafler, David A; Sontag, Eduardo; Wang, Jin; Tsang, John S; Day, Judy D; Kleinstein, Steven H; Butte, Atul J; Altman, Matthew C; Hammond, Ross; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2017-02-01

    Emergent responses of the immune system result from the integration of molecular and cellular networks over time and across multiple organs. High-content and high-throughput analysis technologies, concomitantly with data-driven and mechanistic modeling, hold promise for the systematic interrogation of these complex pathways. However, connecting genetic variation and molecular mechanisms to individual phenotypes and health outcomes has proven elusive. Gaps remain in data, and disagreements persist about the value of mechanistic modeling for immunology. Here, we present the perspectives that emerged from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) workshop 'Complex Systems Science, Modeling and Immunity' and subsequent discussions regarding the potential synergy of high-throughput data acquisition, data-driven modeling, and mechanistic modeling to define new mechanisms of immunological disease and to accelerate the translation of these insights into therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wild immunology assessed by multidimensional mass cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japp, Alberto Sada; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Glauben, Rainer; Nikolaou, Christos; Maecker, Holden T; Braun, Julian; Matzmohr, Nadine; Sawitzki, Birgit; Siegmund, Britta; Radbruch, Andreas; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Frentsch, Marco; Kunkel, Desiree; Thiel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A great part of our knowledge on mammalian immunology has been established in laboratory settings. The use of inbred mouse strains enabled controlled studies of immune cell and molecule functions in defined settings. These studies were usually performed in specific-pathogen free (SPF) environments providing standardized conditions. In contrast, mammalians including humans living in their natural habitat are continuously facing pathogen encounters throughout their life. The influences of environmental conditions on the signatures of the immune system and on experimental outcomes are yet not well defined. Thus, the transferability of results obtained in current experimental systems to the physiological human situation has always been a matter of debate. Studies elucidating the diversity of "wild immunology" imprintings in detail and comparing it with those of "clean" lab mice are sparse. Here, we applied multidimensional mass cytometry to dissect phenotypic and functional differences between distinct groups of laboratory and pet shop mice as a source for "wild mice". For this purpose, we developed a 31-antibody panel for murine leukocyte subsets identification and a 35-antibody panel assessing various cytokines. Established murine leukocyte populations were easily identified and diverse immune signatures indicative of numerous pathogen encounters were classified particularly in pet shop mice and to a lesser extent in quarantine and non-SPF mice as compared to SPF mice. In addition, unsupervised analysis identified distinct clusters that associated strongly with the degree of pathogenic priming, including increased frequencies of activated NK cells and antigen-experienced B- and T-cell subsets. Our study unravels the complexity of immune signatures altered under physiological pathogen challenges and highlights the importance of carefully adapting laboratory settings for immunological studies in mice, including drug and therapy testing. © 2016 International Society

  16. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Čejková

    Full Text Available Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14, 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc, 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN strain (Bosnia A and one strain (Cuniculi A of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites.The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5, DAL-1 (n = 4, and SS14 (n = 7, TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1, and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5. Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K, in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY, in genes involved in cell structure (murC, translation (prfA, general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA, and in seven hypothetical genes.Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  17. A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čejková, Darina; Strouhal, Michal; Norris, Steven J; Weinstock, George M; Šmajs, David

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes comprise human and animal pathogens including agents of syphilis, yaws, bejel, pinta, and venereal spirochetosis in rabbits and hares. A set of 10 treponemal genome sequences including those of 4 Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) strains (Nichols, DAL-1, Mexico A, SS14), 4 T. p. ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains (CDC-2, Gauthier, Samoa D, Fribourg-Blanc), 1 T. p. ssp. endemicum (TEN) strain (Bosnia A) and one strain (Cuniculi A) of Treponema paraluisleporidarum ecovar Cuniculus (TPLC) were examined with respect to the presence of nucleotide intrastrain heterogeneous sites. The number of identified intrastrain heterogeneous sites in individual genomes ranged between 0 and 7. Altogether, 23 intrastrain heterogeneous sites (in 17 genes) were found in 5 out of 10 investigated treponemal genomes including TPA strains Nichols (n = 5), DAL-1 (n = 4), and SS14 (n = 7), TPE strain Samoa D (n = 1), and TEN strain Bosnia A (n = 5). Although only one heterogeneous site was identified among 4 tested TPE strains, 16 such sites were identified among 4 TPA strains. Heterogeneous sites were mostly strain-specific and were identified in four tpr genes (tprC, GI, I, K), in genes involved in bacterial motility and chemotaxis (fliI, cheC-fliY), in genes involved in cell structure (murC), translation (prfA), general and DNA metabolism (putative SAM dependent methyltransferase, topA), and in seven hypothetical genes. Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process.

  18. Comparative Genomic Analyses of Multiple Pseudomonas Strains Infecting Corylus avellana Trees Reveal the Occurrence of Two Genetic Clusters with Both Common and Distinctive Virulence and Fitness Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) is threatened in Europe by several pseudomonads which cause symptoms ranging from twig dieback to tree death. A comparison of the draft genomes of nine Pseudomonas strains isolated from symptomatic C. avellana trees was performed to identify common and distinctive genomic traits. The thorough assessment of genetic relationships among the strains revealed two clearly distinct clusters: P. avellanae and P. syringae. The latter including the pathovars avellanae, coryli and syringae. Between these two clusters, no recombination event was found. A genomic island of approximately 20 kb, containing the hrp/hrc type III secretion system gene cluster, was found to be present without any genomic difference in all nine pseudomonads. The type III secretion system effector repertoires were remarkably different in the two groups, with P. avellanae showing a higher number of effectors. Homologue genes of the antimetabolite mangotoxin and ice nucleation activity clusters were found solely in all P. syringae pathovar strains, whereas the siderophore yersiniabactin was only present in P. avellanae. All nine strains have genes coding for pectic enzymes and sucrose metabolism. By contrast, they do not have genes coding for indolacetic acid and anti-insect toxin. Collectively, this study reveals that genomically different Pseudomonas can converge on the same host plant by suppressing the host defence mechanisms with the use of different virulence weapons. The integration into their genomes of a horizontally acquired genomic island could play a fundamental role in their evolution, perhaps giving them the ability to exploit new ecological niches. PMID:26147218

  19. Unwanted Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnytskyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the role of antigenic imprin­ting phenomena and antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in epidemic, infectious and postvaccinal processes. Based on published experimental data, it is shown that both phenomena are directly related to the laws of development and course of epide­mics, the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and safe use of vaccines. Their ignoring by researchers has led to failures in the design of vaccines against HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, influenza, malaria, hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. These data show that, without taking into account the two phenomena, the further development of immunology and epidemiology in the direction of breakthrough discoveries in there areas of science are impossible.

  20. Microcystin Biosynthesis and mcyA Expression in Geographically Distinct Microcystis Strains under Different Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Boron Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Roles of nutrients and other environmental variables in development of cyanobacterial bloom and its toxicity are complex and not well understood. We have monitored the photoautotrophic growth, total microcystin concentration, and microcystins synthetase gene (mcyA expression in lab-grown strains of Microcystis NIES 843 (reference strain, KW (Wangsong Reservoir, South Korea, and Durgakund (Varanasi, India under different nutrient regimes (nitrogen, phosphorus, and boron. Higher level of nitrogen and boron resulted in increased growth (avg. 5 and 6.5 Chl a mg/L, resp., total microcystin concentrations (avg. 1.185 and 7.153 mg/L, resp., and mcyA transcript but its expression was not directly correlated with total microcystin concentrations in the target strains. Interestingly, Durgakund strain had much lower microcystin content and lacked microcystin-YR variant over NIES 843 and KW. It is inferred that microcystin concentration and its variants are strain specific. We have also examined the heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacterial bloom in Durgakund Pond and Wangsong Reservoir which were found to be enriched in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria and that could influence the bloom dynamics.

  1. Covalent surface modification of prions: a mass spectrometry-based means of detecting distinctive structural features of prion strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prions (PrPSc) are molecular pathogens that are able to convert the isosequential normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a prion. The only demonstrated differences between PrPC and PrPSc is conformational, they are isoforms. A given host can be infected by more than one kind or strain of prion. F...

  2. Haloalkane-utilizing Rhodococcus strains isolated from geographically distinct locations possess a highly conserved gene cluster encoding haloalkane catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, GJ; Bosma, T; Kulakov, LA; Larkin, MJ; Marchesi, [No Value; Weightman, AJ; Janssen, DB; Kulakov, Leonid A.; Larkin, Michael J.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Weightman, Andrew J.

    The sequences of the 16S rRNA and haloalkane dehalogenase (dhaA) genes of five gram-positive haloalkane-utilizing bacteria isolated from contaminated sites in Europe, Japan, and the United States and of the archetypal haloalkane-degrading bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain NCIMB13064 were compared.

  3. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  4. Distinctly different behavioral responses of a copepod, Temora longicornis, to different strains of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Lasse Tor

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton responses to toxic algae are highly variable, even towards taxonomically closely related species or different strains of the same species. Here, the individual level feeding behavior of a copepod, Temora longicornis, was examined which offered 4 similarly sized strains of toxic...... of the copepod during 4 h incubations: (i) the ‘normal’ feeding behavior, in which the feeding appendages were beating almost constantly to produce a feeding current and most (90%) of the captured algae were ingested; (ii) the beating activity of the feeding appendages was reduced by ca. 80% during the initial...... may be equally beneficial to the prey and its competitors. These behaviors were not related to lytic activity or overall paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) content and composition and suggest that other cues are responsible for the responses....

  5. Friends or foes: can we make a distinction between beneficial and harmful strains of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Martinez, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multi-drug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen of environmental, mainly plant-associated origin. It is also used as a biocontrol or stress protecting agent for crops in sustainable agricultural as well as in bioremediation strategies. In order to establish effective protocols to distinguish harmless from harmful strains, our discussion must take into consideration the current data available surrounding the ecology, evolution and pathogenicity of the species complex. The mutation rate was identified as one of several possible criteria for strain plasticity, but it is currently impossible to distinguish beneficial from harmful S. maltophilia strains. This may compromise the possibility of the release and application for environmental biotechnology of this bacterial species. The close relative S. rhizophila, which can be clearly differentiated from S. maltophilia, provides a harmless alternative for biotechnological applications without human health risks. This is mainly because it is unable to growth at the human body temperature, 37(∘)C due to the absence of heat shock genes and a potentially temperature-regulated suicide mechanism.

  6. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendte, J M; Miller, M A; Nandra, A K; Peat, S M; Crosbie, P R; Conrad, P A; Grigg, M E

    2010-04-19

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite identified as a cause of fatal neurological disease in the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In an effort to characterize virulent S. neurona strains circulating in the marine ecosystem, this study developed a range of markers relevant for molecular genotyping. Highly conserved sequences within the 18S ribosomal gene array, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (RPOb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (CO1) were assessed for their ability to distinguish isolates at the genus and species level. For within-species comparisons, five surface antigens (SnSAG1-SnSAG5) and one high resolution microsatellite marker (Sn9) were developed as genotyping markers to evaluate intra-strain diversity. Molecular analysis at multiple loci revealed insufficient genetic diversity to distinguish terrestrial isolates from strains infecting marine mammals. Furthermore, SnSAG specific primers applied against DNA from the closely related species, Sarcocystis falcatula, lead to the discovery of highly similar orthologs to SnSAG2, 3, and 4, calling into question the specificity of diagnostic tests based on these antigens. The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Hanna; Segerman, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum (group III), Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  8. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Skarin

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum (group III, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  9. Proteome analysis reveals distinct uranium stress response in two strains of Cyanobacteria native to Indian paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Bandita; Basu, Bhakti; Acharya, Celin; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Uranium present in phosphate fertilizer contaminates agricultural land. Uranium exerts chemical toxicity to the resident biota as it induces oxidative stress by generating free radicals. Two strains of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria viz., Anabaena PCC 7120 and L-31 native to Indian paddy, regularly experience oxidative stress induced by different stresses and heavy metals. The present study investigated their response to uranium exposure at proteomic level. LD_5_0 dose for Anabaena 7120 and Anabaena L-31 was determined to be 75 μM and 200 μM uranyl carbonate exposure for 3 h. A total of 79 proteins from Anabaena 7120 and 64 proteins from Anabaena L-31 were identified by MALDI mass spectrometry, of which levels of 45 and 27 proteins respectively were found to be differentially modulated in the two strains in response to uranium exposure. The differentially expressed proteins belonged to the major functional categories of photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and oxidative stress alleviation, commensurate with their uranium tolerance. Better oxidative stress management, and maintenance of metabolic and energy homeostasis lead to superior uranium tolerance in Anabaena L-31 as compared to Anabaena PCC 7120

  10. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  11. Distinct signatures of host–microbial meta-metabolome and gut microbiome in two C57BL/6 strains under high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alesia; Pfitzner, Barbara; Neschen, Susanne; Kahle, Melanie; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Moritz, Franco; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Witting, Michael; Rothballer, Michael; Engel, Marion; Schmid, Michael; Endesfelder, David; Klingenspor, Martin; Rattei, Thomas; Castell, Wolfgang zu; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Hartmann, Anton; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A combinatory approach using metabolomics and gut microbiome analysis techniques was performed to unravel the nature and specificity of metabolic profiles related to gut ecology in obesity. This study focused on gut and liver metabolomics of two different mouse strains, the C57BL/6J (C57J) and the C57BL/6N (C57N) fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks, causing diet-induced obesity in C57N, but not in C57J mice. Furthermore, a 16S-ribosomal RNA comparative sequence analysis using 454 pyrosequencing detected significant differences between the microbiome of the two strains on phylum level for Firmicutes, Deferribacteres and Proteobacteria that propose an essential role of the microbiome in obesity susceptibility. Gut microbial and liver metabolomics were followed by a combinatory approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography time of tlight MS/MS with subsequent multivariate statistical analysis, revealing distinctive host and microbial metabolome patterns between the C57J and the C57N strain. Many taurine-conjugated bile acids (TBAs) were significantly elevated in the cecum and decreased in liver samples from the C57J phenotype likely displaying different energy utilization behavior by the bacterial community and the host. Furthermore, several metabolite groups could specifically be associated with the C57N phenotype involving fatty acids, eicosanoids and urobilinoids. The mass differences based metabolite network approach enabled to extend the range of known metabolites to important bile acids (BAs) and novel taurine conjugates specific for both strains. In summary, our study showed clear alterations of the metabolome in the gastrointestinal tract and liver within a HFD-induced obesity mouse model in relation to the host–microbial nutritional adaptation. PMID:24906017

  12. Genetic diversity and distribution of a distinct strain of Chili leaf curl virus and associated betasatellite infecting tomato and pepper in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Zaidi, Amal M; Singh, Achuit K; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-10-01

    Tomato and pepper are widely grown in Oman for local consumption. A countrywide survey was conducted during 2010-2011 to collect samples and assess the diversity of begomoviruses associated with leaf curl disease of tomato and pepper. A virus previously only identified on the Indian subcontinent, chili leaf curl virus (ChLCV), was found associated with tomato and pepper diseases in all vegetable grown areas of Oman. Some of the infected plant samples were also found to contain a betasatellite. A total of 19 potentially full-length begomovirus and eight betasatellite clones were sequenced. The begomovirus clones showed >96% nucleotide sequence identity, showing them to represent a single species. Comparisons to sequences available in the databases showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (88.0-91.1%) to isolates of the "Pakistan" strain of ChLCV (ChLCV-PK), indicating the virus from Oman to be a distinct strain, for which the name Oman strain (ChLCV-OM) is proposed. An analysis for recombination showed ChLCV-OM likely to have originated by recombination between ChLCV-PK (the major parent), pepper leaf curl Lahore virus and a third strain of ChLCV. The betasatellite sequences obtained were shown to have high levels of identity to isolates of tomato leaf curl betasatellite (ToLCB) previous shown to be present in Oman. For the disease in tomato Koch's postulates were satisfied by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of virus and betasatellites clones. This showed the symptoms induced by the virus in the presence of the betasatellite to be enhanced, although viral DNA levels were not affected. ChLCV-OM is the fourth begomovirus identified in tomato in Oman and the first in Capsicum. The significance of these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Co-circulation of genetically distinct human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus strains in young children with respiratory tract infections in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Alessandra; Canuti, Marta; Frati, Elena; Pariani, Elena; Perin, Silvana; Ruzza, Maria Lorena; Farina, Claudio; Podestà, Alberto; Zanetti, Alessandro; Amendola, Antonella; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human Bocavirus (hBoV) identified the etiological causes of several cases of acute respiratory tract infections in children. This report describes the molecular epidemiology of hMPV and hBoV infections observed following viral surveillance of children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infections in Milan, Italy. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 240 children ≤3 years of age (130 males, 110 females; median age, 5.0 months; IQR, 2.0-12.5 months) and tested for respiratory viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, by molecular methods. hMPV-RNA and hBoV-DNA positive samples were characterized molecularly and a phylogenetical analysis was performed. PCR analysis identified 131/240 (54.6%) samples positive for at least one virus. The frequency of hMPV and hBoV infections was similar (8.3% and 12.1%, respectively). Both infections were associated with lower respiratory tract infections: hMPV was present as a single infectious agent in 7.2% of children with bronchiolitis, hBoV was associated with 18.5% of pediatric pneumonias and identified frequently as a single etiological agent. Genetically distinct hMPV and hBoV strains were identified in children examined with respiratory tract infections. Phylogenetic analysis showed an increased prevalence of hMPV genotype A (A2b sublineage) compared to genotype B (80% vs. 20%, respectively) and of the hBoV genotype St2 compared to genotype St1 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, respectively). Interestingly, a shift in hMPV infections resulting from A2 strains has been observed in recent years. In addition, the occurrence of recombination events between two hBoV strains with a breakpoint located in the VP1/VP2 region was identified. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Virtual immunology: software for teaching basic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available free of charge in Portuguese and English, which can be used by teachers and students in physiology, immunology, and cellular biology classes. We discuss the development of the initial two modules: "Organs and Lymphoid Tissues" and "Inflammation" and the use of interactive activities to provide microscopic and macroscopic understanding in immunology. Students, both graduate and undergraduate, were questioned along with university level professors about the quality of the software and intuitiveness of use, facility of navigation, and aesthetic organization using a Likert scale. An overwhelmingly satisfactory result was obtained with both students and immunology teachers. Programs such as "Virtual Immunology" are offering more interactive, multimedia approaches to complex scientific principles that increase student motivation, interest, and comprehension. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  16. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Santanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.

  17. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  19. Development of radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi; Dang Bingrong; Bing Tao; Zhang Hong; Li Wenjian; Liu Bing

    2005-01-01

    Radiation immunology as a new subject has made a great progress in recent years, especially in the radiation hormesis. At the same time, the research of radiobiological effect on heavy ions has played an important role in the cancer therapy, especially on the radiation immunology of heavy ions in the outer space. In this review, the authors summarized the status and development of radiation-immunology, and try to find out some better ways which can increase efficient killing on tumours, but reduce the damages on normal tissues. (authors)

  20. Multi-gene phylogenetic analysis reveals that shochu-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains form a distinct sub-clade of the Japanese sake cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Taiki; Kadooka, Chihiro; Ando, Yoshinori; Okutsu, Kayu; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Setoguchi, Shinji; Takamine, Kazunori; Kawai, Mikihiko; Tamaki, Hisanori

    2017-10-01

    Shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled spirit. The formation of the distinguishing flavour of shochu produced in individual distilleries is attributed to putative indigenous yeast strains. In this study, we performed the first (to our knowledge) phylogenetic classification of shochu strains based on nucleotide gene sequences. We performed phylogenetic classification of 21 putative indigenous shochu yeast strains isolated from 11 distilleries. All of these strains were shown or confirmed to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sharing species identification with 34 known S. cerevisiae strains (including commonly used shochu, sake, ale, whisky, bakery, bioethanol and laboratory yeast strains and clinical isolate) that were tested in parallel. Our analysis used five genes that reflect genome-level phylogeny for the strain-level classification. In a first step, we demonstrated that partial regions of the ZAP1, THI7, PXL1, YRR1 and GLG1 genes were sufficient to reproduce previous sub-species classifications. In a second step, these five analysed regions from each of 25 strains (four commonly used shochu strains and the 21 putative indigenous shochu strains) were concatenated and used to generate a phylogenetic tree. Further analysis revealed that the putative indigenous shochu yeast strains form a monophyletic group that includes both the shochu yeasts and a subset of the sake group strains; this cluster is a sister group to other sake yeast strains, together comprising a sake-shochu group. Differences among shochu strains were small, suggesting that it may be possible to correlate subtle phenotypic differences among shochu flavours with specific differences in genome sequences. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Roitt's essential immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delves, Peter J; Roitt, Ivan M

    2011-01-01

    ... of the immune system, the hallmark easy-reading style of Roitt's Essential Immunology clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of immunity to clinical applications...

  2. Immunologic manifestations of autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deretic, Vojo; Kimura, Tomonori; Timmins, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The broad immunologic roles of autophagy span innate and adaptive immunity and are often manifested in inflammatory diseases. The immune effects of autophagy partially overlap with its roles in metabolism and cytoplasmic quality control but typically expand further afield to encompass unique...... immunologic adaptations. One of the best-appreciated manifestations of autophagy is protection against microbial invasion, but this is by no means limited to direct elimination of intracellular pathogens and includes a stratified array of nearly all principal immunologic processes. This Review summarizes...... the broad immunologic roles of autophagy. Furthermore, it uses the autophagic control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a paradigm to illustrate the breadth and complexity of the immune effects of autophagy....

  3. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  4. Sequencing of emerging canine distemper virus strain reveals new distinct genetic lineage in the United States associated with disease in wildlife and domestic canine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Matthew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2015-12-18

    Recent outbreaks of canine distemper have prompted examination of strains from clinical samples submitted to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) Clinical Virology Lab. We previously described a new strain of CDV that significantly diverged from all genotypes reported to date including America 2, the genotype proposed to be the main lineage currently circulating in the US. The aim of this study was to determine when this new strain appeared and how widespread it is in animal populations, given that it has also been detected in fully vaccinated adult dogs. Additionally, we sequenced complete viral genomes to characterize the strain and determine if variation is confined to known variable regions of the genome or if the changes are also present in more conserved regions. Archived clinical samples were genotyped using real-time RT-PCR amplification and sequencing. The genomes of two unrelated viruses from a dog and fox each from a different state were sequenced and aligned with previously published genomes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using coding, non-coding and genome-length sequences. Virus neutralization assays were used to evaluate potential antigenic differences between this strain and a vaccine strain and mixed ANOVA test was used to compare the titers. Genotyping revealed this strain first appeared in 2011 and was detected in dogs from multiple states in the Southeast region of the United States. It was the main strain detected among the clinical samples that were typed from 2011-2013, including wildlife submissions. Genome sequencing demonstrated that it is highly conserved within a new lineage and preliminary serologic testing showed significant differences in neutralizing antibody titers between this strain and the strain commonly used in vaccines. This new strain represents an emerging CDV in domestic dogs in the US, may be associated with a stable reservoir in the wildlife population, and could facilitate vaccine

  5. Different Transcriptional Profiles of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected with Distinct Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.

  6. Systems Theory in Immunology

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under­ standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...

  7. Immunologic mechanism at infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, İlknur; Erci, Behice

    2006-01-01

    Infertility has been serious problem for couples that want to have a child. It is estimated that %10-15 of marriages are involuntary childless; that is, there is the serious problem of infertility. In more than 40% of infertility couples that is the reason of their infertility was unknown. In those couples, probably immunological factors were found to be responsible for the infertility. In the article, it was aimed to review the immunologic causes of male and female infertility in the light o...

  8. Immunologic lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references

  9. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  10. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  11. Immunology & Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    This monograph was designed for the high school biology curriculum. The first section reviews the major areas of importance in immunology. Section three contains six instructional activities for the high school classroom and the second section contains teacher's materials for those activities. The activities address for students some of the major…

  12. Regenerative immunology: the immunological reaction to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravedi, Paolo; Farouk, Samira; Angeletti, Andrea; Edgar, Lauren; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Duisit, Jerome; Perin, Laura; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Regenerative medicine promises to meet two of the most urgent needs of modern organ transplantation, namely immunosuppression-free transplantation and an inexhaustible source of organs. Ideally, bioengineered organs would be manufactured from a patient's own biomaterials-both cells and the supporting scaffolding materials in which cells would be embedded and allowed to mature to eventually regenerate the organ in question. While some groups are focusing on the feasibility of this approach, few are focusing on the immunogenicity of the scaffolds that are being developed for organ bioengineering purposes. This review will succinctly discuss progress in the understanding of immunological characteristics and behavior of different scaffolds currently under development, with emphasis on the extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained decellularized animal or human organs which seem to provide the ideal template for bioengineering purposes. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  13. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  14. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Damiens

    Full Text Available The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  15. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  16. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  17. Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus Strains Provoke Heterogeneous IFN-α/β Responses That Distinctively Affect Viral Propagation in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Budt, Matthias; Wolff, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV) of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to overcome the human IFN

  18. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus strains provoke heterogeneous IFN-α/β responses that distinctively affect viral propagation in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Matthaei

    Full Text Available The fatal transmissions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAV of the H5N1 subtype to humans and high titer replication in the respiratory tract indicate that these pathogens can overcome the bird-to-human species barrier. While type I interferons (IFN-α/β are well described to contribute to the species barrier of many zoonotic viruses, current data to the role of these antiviral cytokines during human H5N1 IAV infections is limited and contradictory. We hypothesized an important role for the IFN system in limiting productive infection of avian H5N1 strains in human cells. Hence, we examined IFN-α/β gene activation by different avian and human H5N1 isolates, if the IFN-α/β response restricts H5N1 growth and whether the different strains were equally capable to regulate the IFN-α/β system via their IFN-antagonistic NS1 proteins. Two human H5N1 isolates and a seasonal H3N2 strain propagated efficiently in human respiratory cells and induced little IFN-β, whereas three purely avian H5N1 strains were attenuated for replication and provoked higher IFN secretion. Replication of avian viruses was significantly enhanced on interferon-deficient cells, and exogenous IFN potently limited the growth of all strains in human cells. Moreover, IFN-α/β activation by all strains depended on retinoic acid-inducible gene I excluding principal differences in receptor activation between the different viruses. Interestingly, all H5N1 NS1 proteins suppressed IFN-α/β induction comparably well to the NS1 of seasonal IAV. Thus, our study shows that H5N1 strains are heterogeneous in their capacity to activate human cells in an NS1-independent manner. Our findings also suggest that H5N1 viruses need to acquire adaptive changes to circumvent strong IFN-α/β activation in human host cells. Since no single amino acid polymorphism could be associated with a respective high- or low induction phenotype we propose that the necessary adaptations to

  19. Some notes on radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    1977-01-01

    Immunological movement related to radiation immunology were reviewed. Basic items about cell mechanism of immunological reaction were explained, and then, relationship between immunity and radiation was given an outline. As to radiation effects on immunological lymphatic system, radiosensitivity of lymphocytes and immunological reaction, radiation effects on T and B cells, and radiosensitivity of lymphatic system, especially thymus were mentioned, and furthermore, delayed effects of radiation on immunological system were described. Radiation effects on relationship between bone marrow transplantation and genesis of reticulum cell tumor and delayed effects of radiation on them were mentioned, and genetic resistance against hematopoietic cell transplantation and its radiosensitivity were also described. Relationship between carcinogenesis due to radiation and immunity, and a state of specific immunological in an individual non-responsiveness having cancer, were also referred to. (Kanao, N.)

  20. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  1. Immunology in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J; Salter, Russell D

    2006-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine has a long tradition of excellence in immunology research and training. Faculty, students, and postdoctoral fellows walk through hallways that are pictorial reminders of the days when Dr. Jonas Salk worked here to develop the polio vaccine, or when Dr. Niels Jerne chaired the Microbiology Department and worked on perfecting the Jerne Plaque Assay for antibody-producing cells. Colleagues and postdoctoral fellows of Professor Salk are still on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh Medical School as are graduate students of Professor Jerne. A modern research building, the 17 story high Biomedical Science Tower, is a vivid reminder of the day when Dr. Thomas Starzl arrived in Pittsburgh and started building the most prominent solid-organ-transplant program in the world. The immunology research that developed around the problem of graft rejection and tolerance induction trained numerous outstanding students and fellows. Almost 20 yr ago, the University of Pittsburgh founded the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) with the renowned immunologist Dr. Ronald Herberman at its helm. This started a number of new research initiatives in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. A large number of outstanding young investigators, as well as several well-established tumor immunologists, were recruited to Pittsburgh at that time.

  2. Immunology of Bee Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, Daniel; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Zwiener, Ricardo D

    2017-01-20

    Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung. Specific IgE for bee venom is a double-edged sword as it is a powerful mediator in triggering allergic events but is also applied successfully in diagnosis of the venom allergic patient. The healing capacity of bee venom has been rediscovered under laboratory-controlled conditions using animal models and cell cultures. The potential role of enzymatic fraction of bee venom including phospholipase A2 in the initiation and development of immune responses also has been studied in numerous research settings. Undoubtedly, having insights into immunologic interactions between bee venom components and innate/specific immune cells both locally and systematically will contribute to the development of immunologic strategies in specific and epitope-based immunotherapy especially in individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

  3. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  4. Immunology and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hraba, Tomáš

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci­ ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys­ tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...

  5. The immunological mechanisms that control pneumococcal carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Jochems

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human nasopharynx by pneumococcus is extremely common and is both the primary reservoir for transmission and a prerequisite for disease. Current vaccines targeting the polysaccharide capsule effectively prevent colonization, conferring herd protection within vaccinated communities. However, these vaccines cover only a subset of all circulating pneumococcal strains, and serotype replacement has been observed. Given the success of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV in preventing colonization in unvaccinated adults within vaccinated communities, reducing nasopharyngeal colonization has become an outcome of interest for novel vaccines. Here, we discuss the immunological mechanisms that control nasopharyngeal colonization, with an emphasis on findings from human studies. Increased understanding of these immunological mechanisms is required to identify correlates of protection against colonization that will facilitate the early testing and design of novel vaccines.

  6. Rabbit macrophages secrete two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P A; Cebula, T A; Levin, J; Windle, B E

    1981-10-01

    Rabbit endogenous pyrogens occurred in two forms. One was an apparently single protein with a pI of 7.3; the other was a family of proteins with pI values of 4.5 to 5.0. We selected two of the latter, with pI values of 4.6 and 4.72, as representative of the group and compared them with the pI 7.3 pyrogen. Antisera raised in three goats completely neutralized the pyrogenic activity of the pI 7.3 pyrogen. Larger doses of these antisera did not block the pyrogenic activity of either of the pI 4.5 to 5.0 pyrogens. The pI 7.3 pyrogen contained a free --SH group which was essential to its biological activity. It was inactivated by 100 mM N-ethylmaleimide or 200 mM iodoacetamide, bound to Thiol-Sepharose columns, and could be eluted from them with mercaptoethanol. Neither of the pI 4.5 to 5.0 pyrogens was inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetamide, and neither bound to Thiol-Sepharose. Both endogenous pyrogens gave negative results in the Limulus lysate test for bacterial endotoxins. These results suggest that the pI 7.3 and pI 4.5 to 5.0 endogenous pyrogens are not closely related to each other and are consistent with the idea that they may not be related at all. Alternative hypotheses are discussed.

  7. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  8. Hematology and immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated series of experiments were conducted to evaluate immunologic and hemotologic system responses of Skylab crewmen to prolonged space flights. A reduced PHA responsiveness was observed on recovery, together with a reduced number of T-cells, with both values returning to normal 3 to 5 days postflight. Subnormal red cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit values also returned gradually to preflight limits. Most pronounced changes were found in the shape of red blood cells during extended space missions with a rapid reversal of these changes upon reentry into a normal gravitational environment.

  9. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  10. Repeated Administration of D-Amphetamine Induces Distinct Alterations in Behavior and Metabolite Levels in 129Sv and Bl6 Mouse Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taavi Vanaveski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to characterize the behavioral and metabolomic profiles of repeated administration (for 11 days of d-amphetamine (AMPH, 3 mg/kg i. p., indirect agonist of dopamine (DA, in widely used 129S6/SvEvTac (129Sv and C57BL/6NTac (Bl6 mouse strains. Acute administration of AMPH (acute AMPH induced significantly stronger motor stimulation in Bl6. However, repeated administration of AMPH (repeated AMPH caused stronger motor sensitization in 129Sv compared acute AMPH. Body weight of 129Sv was reduced after repeated saline and AMPH, whereas no change occurred in Bl6. In the metabolomic study, acute AMPH induced an elevation of isoleucine and leucine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA, whereas the level of hexoses was reduced in Bl6. Both BCAAs and hexoses remained on level of acute AMPH after repeated AMPH in Bl6. Three biogenic amines [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-AAA, kynurenine] were significantly reduced after repeated AMPH. Acute AMPH caused in 129Sv a significant reduction of valine, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C16:0, lysoPC a C18:2, lysoPC a C20:4, phosphatidylcholine (PC diacyls (PC aa C34:2, PC aa C36:2, PC aa C36:3, PC aa C36:4 and alkyl-acyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4. However, repeated AMPH increased the levels of valine and isoleucine, long-chain acylcarnitines (C14, C14:1-OH, C16, C18:1, PC diacyls (PC aa C38:4, PC aa C38:6, PC aa C42:6, PC acyl-alkyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4, PC ae C40:5, PC ae C40:6, PC ae C42:1, PC ae C42:3 and sphingolipids [SM(OHC22:1, SM C24:0] compared to acute AMPH in 129Sv. Hexoses and kynurenine were reduced after repeated AMPH compared to saline in 129Sv. The established changes probably reflect a shift in energy metabolism toward lipid molecules in 129Sv because of reduced level of hexoses. Pooled data from both strains showed that the elevation of isoleucine and leucine was a prominent biomarker of AMPH-induced behavioral sensitization

  11. Immunology of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Patricia; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2016-09-01

    In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk's immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant's ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant's secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  12. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  13. Immunology of the Uterine and Vaginal Mucosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jordan Z; Way, Sing Sing; Chen, Kang

    2018-04-01

    Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy. Outstanding areas for future research to obtain new functional insights on this enigmatic mucosal barrier are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  15. Lessons from reproductive immunology for other fields of immunology and clinical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Udo R; Fitzgerald, Justine S; Seyfarth, Lydia; Heinzelmann, Joana; Varosi, Frauke; Voigt, Sandra; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Seewald, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction is indispensable to evolution and, thus, life. Nonetheless, it overcomes common rules known to established life. Immunology of reproduction, and especially the tolerance of two genetically distinct organisms and their fruitful symbiosis, is one of the most imposing paradox of life. Mechanisms, which are physiologically used for induction of said tolerance, are frequently abused by pathogens or tumors intending to escape the host's immune response. Understanding the regulation of immune responses in pregnancy and the invasion of allogeneic fetus-derived trophoblast cells into the decidua may lead to new therapeutic concepts. In transplantation, knowledge concerning local physiological immunotolerance may be useful for the development of new therapies, which do not require a general immune suppression of the patient. In immunological disorders, such as autoimmune diseases or allergies, immune deviations occur which are either prevented during pregnancy or have parallels to pregnancy. Vice versa, lessons from other fields of immunology may also offer new notions for the comprehension of reproductive immunology and may lead to new therapies for the treatment of pregnancy-related problems.

  16. Potato virus Y (PVY) Isolates from Physalis peruviana are Unable to Systemically Infect Potato or Pepper and Form a Distinct New Lineage Within the PVYC Strain Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelsie J; Chikh-Ali, Mohamad; Hamasaki, Randall T; Melzer, Michael J; Karasev, Alexander V

    2017-11-01

    Poha, or cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), is a plant species cultivated in Hawaii for fresh fruit production. In 2015, an outbreak of virus symptoms occurred on poha farms in the South Kohala District of the island of Hawaii. The plants displayed mosaic, stunting, and leaf deformation, and produced poor fruit. Initial testing found the problem associated with Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Six individual PVY isolates, named Poha1 to Poha6, were collected from field-grown poha plants and subjected to biological and molecular characterization. All six isolates induced mosaic and vein clearing in tobacco, and three of them exhibited O-serotype while the other three reacted only with polyclonal antibodies and had no identifiable serotype. Until now, PVY isolates have been broadly divided into pepper or potato adapted; however, these six PVY isolates from poha were unable to establish systemic infection in pepper and in four tested potato cultivars. Whole-genome sequences for the six isolates were determined, and no evidence of recombination was found in any of them. Phylogenetic analysis placed poha PVY isolates in a distinct, monophyletic "Poha" clade within the PVY C lineage, suggesting that they represented a novel, biologically and evolutionarily unique group. The genetic diversity within this poha PVY C clade was unusually high, suggesting a long association of PVY C with this solanaceous host or a prolonged geographical separation of PVY C in poha in Hawaii.

  17. Ideernes epidemiologi og kulturens immunologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    , suggested by Sperber, is extended by an ‘immunology of cultural systems’. In addition to the selective forces described by Sperber and Boyer, the immunological approach argues that the relative success of new representations is largely dependent on how well they fit already existing cultural models...

  18. [Immunological theory of senescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drela, Nadzieja

    2014-01-01

    Senescence can result from decreased potential of the immune system to respond to foreign and self antigens. The most common effect is the inhibition to destroy dying and cancer cells and the decrease of the immune response to pathogens. Aging is closely related to inflammatory phenotype, which facilitate the development of age-related diseases. The mammal immune system is highly organized and adapted to react to a wide range of antigens. According to the immunological theory, the causative agents of senescence are multilevel changes of development and functions of immune cells. Some of changes can be beneficial for the maintenance of homeostasis and lifespan in continuously changing endogenous environment and immune history of the organism.

  19. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  20. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be properly fabricated to deliver the cargo into the targeted cells through effective endocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the selective penetration of gold nanoparticles into immune cells. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cell receptors is discussed. As distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. This review also summarizes what is known about the application of gold nanoparticles as an antigen carrier and adjuvant in immunization for the preparation of antibodies in vivo . For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. Thus, this review presents a detailed analysis of data on interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cells. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over production of antibodies by using gold nanoparticles and adjuvant properties of gold nanoparticles. Specifically, we start our discussion with current data on interaction of various gold nanoparticles with immune cells. The next section describes existing technologies to improve production of antibodies in vivo by using gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands. Finally, we describe what is known about adjuvant properties of bare gold or functionalized nanoparticles. In the Conclusion section, we present a short summary of reported data and some challenges and perspectives.

  1. Immunological methods for gentamicin determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugers Dagneauz, P.G.L.C.; Olthuis, F.M.F.G.

    1979-01-01

    For immunoassay, an antibody against the substance to the determined, the pure substance itself, and a labelled form or derivative of the substance are required. The principles and problems of the preparation of antibodies are discussed, some methods for the preparation of derivatives labelled with radioactive tracers or enzymes are reviewed, and homologous enzyme-immunological determination of gentamicin is discussed in detail. A comparison is mae of three radio-immunological determination methods, and the most suitable radio-immunological method is compared with two microbiological techniques. The results are found to be comparable. (Auth.)

  2. Systems immunology: just getting started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark M; Tato, Cristina M; Furman, David

    2017-06-20

    Systems-biology approaches in immunology take various forms, but here we review strategies for measuring a broad swath of immunological functions as a means of discovering previously unknown relationships and phenomena and as a powerful way of understanding the immune system as a whole. This approach has rejuvenated the field of vaccine development and has fostered hope that new ways will be found to combat infectious diseases that have proven refractory to classical approaches. Systems immunology also presents an important new strategy for understanding human immunity directly, taking advantage of the many ways the immune system of humans can be manipulated.

  3. Essential Neuroscience in Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sangeeta S; Tracey, Kevin J

    2017-05-01

    The field of immunology is principally focused on the molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic cells initiate and maintain innate and adaptive immunity. That cornerstone of attention has been expanded by recent discoveries that neuronal signals occupy a critical regulatory niche in immunity. The discovery is that neuronal circuits operating reflexively regulate innate and adaptive immunity. One particularly well-characterized circuit regulating innate immunity, the inflammatory reflex, is dependent upon action potentials transmitted to the reticuloendothelial system via the vagus and splenic nerves. This field has grown significantly with the identification of several other reflexes regulating discrete immune functions. As outlined in this review, the delineation of these mechanisms revealed a new understanding of immunity, enabled a first-in-class clinical trial using bioelectronic devices to inhibit cytokines and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients, and provided a mosaic view of immunity as the integration of hematopoietic and neural responses to infection and injury. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Genetic characterization of L-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Jelena; Gulija, Tanja Kosutic; Forcic, Dubravko; Baricevic, Marijana; Jug, Renata; Mesko-Prejac, Majda; Mazuran, Renata

    2005-04-01

    Eleven mumps vaccine strains, all containing live attenuated virus, have been used throughout the world. Although L-Zagreb mumps vaccine has been licensed since 1972, only its partial nucleotide sequence was previously determined (accession numbers , and ). Therefore, we sequenced the entire genome of L-Zagreb vaccine strain (Institute of Immunology Inc., Zagreb, Croatia). In order to investigate the genetic stability of the vaccine, sequences of both L-Zagreb master seed and currently produced vaccine batch were determined and no difference between them was observed. A phylogenetic analysis based on SH gene sequence has shown that L-Zagreb strain does not belong to any of established mumps genotypes and that it is most similar to old, laboratory preserved European strains (1950s-1970s). L-Zagreb nucleotide and deduced protein sequences were compared with other mumps virus sequences obtained from the GenBank. Emphasis was put on functionally important protein regions and known antigenic epitopes. The extensive comparisons of nucleotide and deduced protein sequences between L-Zagreb vaccine strain and other previously determined mumps virus sequences have shown that while the functional regions of HN, V, and L proteins are well conserved among various mumps strains, there can be a substantial amino acid difference in antigenic epitopes of all proteins and in functional regions of F protein. No molecular pattern was identified that can be used as a distinction marker between virulent and attenuated strains.

  5. Systems immunology: just getting started

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark M; Tato, Cristina M; Furman, David

    2017-01-01

    Systems-biology approaches in immunology take various forms, but here we review strategies for measuring a broad swath of immunological functions as a means of discovering previously unknown relationships and phenomena and as a powerful way of understanding the immune system as a whole. This approach has rejuvenated the field of vaccine development and has fostered hope that new ways will be found to combat infectious diseases that have proven refractory to classical approaches. Systems immun...

  6. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  7. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides strains isolated from ANUG patients, chronic periodontitis patients, non-oral abscesses and healthy gingival sulci...34 Odd ii 4n....00p IdaOdifir 0’ block flumber) Periodontal Disease Spirochetes Microbiology Fusobacteria immunology Bacteroides 20. AN3T7RAC~r C4.tft...and serological etudies with ’We 7. nucleatum isolates from patients with ANUG, chronic periodontitis , Juvenile periodontitis , and adults and children

  9. Citizens unite for computational immunology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Orrin S; Baker, Sarah Catherine; Baker, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    Recruiting volunteers who can provide computational time, programming expertise, or puzzle-solving talent has emerged as a powerful tool for biomedical research. Recent projects demonstrate the potential for such 'crowdsourcing' efforts in immunology. Tools for developing applications, new funding opportunities, and an eager public make crowdsourcing a serious option for creative solutions for computationally-challenging problems. Expanded uses of crowdsourcing in immunology will allow for more efficient large-scale data collection and analysis. It will also involve, inspire, educate, and engage the public in a variety of meaningful ways. The benefits are real - it is time to jump in! Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunology update: topics in basic and clinically applied reproductive immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J S

    1996-05-01

    A postgraduate course covering basic and clinical reproductive immunology was held in Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A., on March 19, 1996, in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Society for Gynecological Investigation. The course was organized and chaired by Joseph A. Hill.

  11. Updating the immunology curriculum in clinical laboratory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C D

    2000-01-01

    To determine essential content areas of immunology/serology courses at the clinical laboratory technician (CLT) and clinical laboratory scientist (CLS) levels. A questionnaire was designed which listed all major topics in immunology and serology. Participants were asked to place a check beside each topic covered. For an additional list of serological and immunological laboratory testing, participants were asked to indicate if each test was performed in either the didactic or clinical setting, or not performed at all. A national survey of 593 NAACLS approved CLT and CLS programs was conducted by mail under the auspices of ASCLS. Responses were obtained from 158 programs. Respondents from all across the United States included 60 CLT programs, 48 hospital-based CLS programs, 45 university-based CLS programs, and 5 university-based combined CLT and CLS programs. The survey was designed to enumerate major topics included in immunology and serology courses by a majority of participants at two distinct educational levels, CLT and CLS. Laboratory testing routinely performed in student laboratories as well as in the clinical setting was also determined for these two levels of practitioners. Certain key topics were common to most immunology and serology courses. There were some notable differences in the depth of courses at the CLT and CLS levels. Laboratory testing associated with these courses also differed at the two levels. Testing requiring more detailed interpretation, such as antinuclear antibody patterns (ANAs), was mainly performed by CLS students only. There are certain key topics as well as specific laboratory tests that should be included in immunology/serology courses at each of the two different educational levels to best prepare students for the workplace. Educators can use this information as a guide to plan a curriculum for such courses.

  12. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  13. CCL8 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of CCL8.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  14. Quality in radio-immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegesippe, Michel

    1982-01-01

    The author outlines the technique of radio-immunological analysis (RIA) which is now widely used for neo-natal detection of congenital hyperthyroidism. He describes the methods and controls that are called for - as regards the specificity of doses, the sensitivity and reliability of the separation technique - to guarantee the quality of RIA and the validity of its results [fr

  15. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL SHIFTS IN ADULTS AFTER IMMUNIZATION AGAINST INFLUENZA WITH A SUBUNIT-BASED, ABSORBED MONOVALENT VACCINE STRAIN A/CALIFORNIA/7/2009/(H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Kostinov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.    Seventy    healthy    volunteers  were    immunized    with    influenza    subunit    vaccine    strain    A/California/7/2009  /  (H1N1,  in  order  to  test  possible  changes  in  auto-reactivity.  It  was  shown  that  the  vaccine  is  safe  and  immunogenic.  In  addition,  it  was  revealed  that  a  double  injection  of  the  vaccine  was  not  accompanied  by  development  of  autoantibody  response,  both  to  tissue  antigens    (specifically,    to    lung    tissue,    or    basic    myelin  protein,    and    to    those    against    non-tissue    antigens  (native  or  denatured  DNA.  In  some  cases,  application  of    the    vaccine    was    accompanied    by    a    significant  reduction  in  levels  of  autoantibodies.  It  was  also  noted  that  injection  of  the  vaccine  is  accompanied  by  a  reduction  in  total  IgE  levels  in  patients  with  increased  baseline  IgE  levels.  Following  double  injection  of  the  vaccine  at  a  single  dose  of  0.5  ml,  the  frequencies  of  seroconversion  was  71.4%,  seroprotection  levels  were  achieved  in  59,2%,  whereas  seroconversion  factor  proved  to  be  4.92,  thus  meeting  the  CPMP  criteria.  (Med.  Immunol.,  2011,  vol.  13,  N  1,  pp  35-40

  17. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  18. 42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921... Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are syphilis...

  19. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General immunology. 493.927 Section 493.927 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.927 General immunology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for immunology, the annual program...

  20. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  1. Role of immunological surveillance in radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    2003-01-01

    The immune system is known to be highly susceptible to various physical, chemical, and biological insults. The studies on the immediate and long-term effects of radiation on immune system of mice indicated very clearly that there was a dose-dependent reduction in the number of T and B cells, depression of antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses as well as proliferative responses of spleen cells to T and B cell mitogens shortly after irradiation, but they all recovered to the control level within a few months. Immunosuppression observed shortly after irradiation had little influence on the development of radiogenic tumors. The effects of radiation on the incidence of Friend leukemia virus (FLV)-induced leukemias are examined by using young adult B6C3F 1 male mice which are normally resistant to FLV-induced leukemogenesis. There was a clear threshold dose of 2 Gy below which the development of FLV induced leukemias was not observed but after exposure to >3 Gy high incidence of leukemias was observed. Fractionated, weekly exposure of young C57BL strain mice to 1.6 Gy of X-rays for four successive weeks causes most of the exposed mice to develop thymic lymphomas between 3 and 10 months. However, when the exposed mice are grafted with bone marrow cells from normal donors, the development of thymic lymphomas on the exposed mice is greatly inhibited. There was a clear dose response relationship between the number of bone marrow cells injected and the inhibition of the development of thymic lymphomas. It now appears clear that T cell-mediated immunological surveillance against newly arising neoplasms conceived by Thomas and Burnet does not hold true anymore in the original form, although virus-infected host cells and other host cells expressing altered-self' markers on their cell surfaces are constantly monitored by the immunological surveillance mechanism. A surveillance function against newly arising neoplasms may be a property of surrounding normal tissue cells rather

  2. IMMUNOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF LOCAL INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chereshnev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.  The  lecture  presents  current  data,  as  well  as  authors’  view  to  the  issue  of  immune  system involvement into inflammation. General physiological principles of immune system functioning are considered in details. Immunological mechanisms of local inflammation and participation of immune system components are analyzed with regard of protective/adaptive reactions in inflammatory foci. Original formulations of basic concepts are presented from the viewpoint of pathophysiology, immunopathology and clinical immunology, as being applied to the issues discussed. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 6, pp 557-568

  3. Historical overview of immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ronald H

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as "autoimmunity."

  4. A roadmap towards personalized immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delhalle, Sylvie; Bode, Sebastian F N; Balling, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative to tu......-communicable inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. We provide a roadmap and highlight experimental, clinical, computational analysis, data management, ethical and regulatory issues to accelerate the implementation of personalized immunology....

  5. Cancer immunotherapy and immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  7. IMMUNOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF LOCAL INFLAMMATION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Chereshnev; M. V. Chereshneva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract.  The  lecture  presents  current  data,  as  well  as  authors’  view  to  the  issue  of  immune  system involvement into inflammation. General physiological principles of immune system functioning are considered in details. Immunological mechanisms of local inflammation and participation of immune system components are analyzed with regard of protective/adaptive reactions in inflammatory foci. Original formulations of basic concepts are presented from the viewpoint of pathophysiol...

  8. The immunology of smallpox vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and through natural outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases such as monkeypox. The eradication effort was largely made possible by the availability of an effective vaccine based on the immunologically cross-protective vaccinia virus. Although the concept of vaccination dates back to the late 1800s with Edward Jenner, it is only in the past decade that modern immunologic tools have been applied toward deciphering poxvirus immunity. Smallpox vaccines containing vaccinia virus elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses that confer cross-protective immunity against variola virus for decades after immunization. Recent studies have focused on: establishing the longevity of poxvirus-specific immunity, defining key immune epitopes targeted by T and B cells, developing subunit-based vaccines, and developing genotypic and phenotypic immune response profiles that predict either vaccine response or adverse events following immunization. PMID:19524427

  9. Some advances in radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng

    1985-01-01

    This paper is an overview of some of the recent advances in the study of radiation effects on immunity with special emphasis on the relation between radiation immunology and radiation carcinogenesis. The first part of the paper discusses the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, emphasizing the heterogeneity of the lymphocyte population, the relative radiosensitivity of different lymphocyte subpopulations and their subsets, and the effect of the state of activation on lymphocyte radiosensitivity. The second part deals with the essentials of the theory of immunological surveillance, the specific and nonspecific components of anti-tumor immunity, and the effects of radiation on them. The last part of the paper is concerned with the phenomenon of radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response and the expression of radiation hormesis in the immune system with brief descriptions of some of the data from the author's laboratory. The need for a more sophisticated study of the possible hormetic effects of low level radiation on the immune system and other defense and adaptive functions of the body is stressed

  10. Diversity in immunological synapse structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauland, Timothy J; Parker, David C

    2010-01-01

    Immunological synapses (ISs) are formed at the T cell–antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface during antigen recognition, and play a central role in T-cell activation and in the delivery of effector functions. ISs were originally described as a peripheral ring of adhesion molecules surrounding a central accumulation of T-cell receptor (TCR)–peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) interactions. Although the structure of these ‘classical’ ISs has been the subject of intense study, non-classical ISs have also been observed under a variety of conditions. Multifocal ISs, characterized by adhesion molecules dispersed among numerous small accumulations of TCR–pMHC, and motile ‘immunological kinapses’ have both been described. In this review, we discuss the conditions under which non-classical ISs are formed. Specifically, we explore the profound effect that the phenotypes of both T cells and APCs have on IS structure. We also comment on the role that IS structure may play in T-cell function. PMID:21039474

  11. The Basel Institute for Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    At the Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prize, the Nobel Foundation called it one of the ten cradles of creativity. The journal Nature likened its ideals to those of the French revolution--Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité--and called it a paradise devoted to the science of immune systems: the Basel Institute for Immunology (BII). Founded by Roche in 1968, inaugurated in 1971, and closed in 2000, it was home to almost 450 scientific members, over 1,000 scientific visitors, and nearly 100 scientific advisors from more than 30 countries who worked in complete academic freedom and without commercial motives on over 3,500 projects, publishing more than 3,200 scientific papers, almost all of them on the structure and functions of immune systems of different species. This review contains a first collection of historical facts and dates that describe the background of the exceptionally successful performance and the strong scientific impact of the institute on the field of immunology.

  12. [Immunological Markers in Organ Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, J H; Heits, N; Braun, F; Becker, T

    2017-04-01

    The immunological monitoring in organ transplantation is based mainly on the determination of laboratory parameters as surrogate markers of organ dysfunction. Structural damage, caused by alloreactivity, can only be detected by invasive biopsy of the graft, which is why inevitably rejection episodes are diagnosed at a rather progressive stage. New non-invasive specific markers that enable transplant clinicians to identify rejection episodes at an earlier stage, on the molecular level, are needed. The accurate identification of rejection episodes and the establishment of operational tolerance permit early treatment or, respectively, a controlled cessation of immunosuppression. In addition, new prognostic biological markers are expected to allow a pre-transplant risk stratification thus having an impact on organ allocation and immunosuppressive regimen. New high-throughput screening methods allow simultaneous examination of hundreds of characteristics and the generation of specific biological signatures, which might give concrete information about acute rejection, chronic dysfunction as well as operational tolerance. Even though multiple studies and a variety of publications report about important advances on this subject, almost no new biological marker has been implemented in clinical practice as yet. Nevertheless, new technologies, in particular analysis of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome will make personalised transplantation medicine possible and will further improve the long-term results and graft survival rates. This article gives a survey of the limitations and possibilities of new immunological markers in organ transplantation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040 Albumin immunological test system. (a) Identification. An albumin immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  14. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus clinical isolates, their comparison with strain GG and their recognition by complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissilä, Eija; Douillard, François P; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Järvinen, Hanna M; Rasinkangas, Pia; Haapasalo, Karita; Meri, Seppo; Jarva, Hanna; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains are ubiquitous in fermented foods, and in the human body where they are commensals naturally present in the normal microbiota composition of gut, vagina and skin. However, in some cases, Lactobacillus spp. have been implicated in bacteremia. The aim of the study was to examine the genomic and immunological properties of 16 clinical blood isolates of L. rhamnosus and to compare them to the well-studied L. rhamnosus probiotic strain GG. Blood cultures from bacteremic patients were collected at the Helsinki University Hospital laboratory in 2005-2011 and L. rhamnosus strains were isolated and characterized by genomic sequencing. The capacity of the L. rhamnosus strains to activate serum complement was studied using immunological assays for complement factor C3a and the terminal pathway complement complex (TCC). Binding of complement regulators factor H and C4bp was also determined using radioligand assays. Furthermore, the isolated strains were evaluated for their ability to aggregate platelets and to form biofilms in vitro. Genomic comparison between the clinical L. rhamnosus strains showed them to be clearly different from L. rhamnosus GG and to cluster in two distinct lineages. All L. rhamnosus strains activated complement in serum and none of them bound complement regulators. Four out of 16 clinical blood isolates induced platelet aggregation and/or formed more biofilms than L. rhamnosus GG, which did not display platelet aggregation activity nor showed strong biofilm formation. These findings suggest that clinical L. rhamnosus isolates show considerable heterogeneity but are clearly different from L. rhamnosus GG at the genomic level. All L. rhamnosus strains are still normally recognized by the human complement system.

  15. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  16. Immunological consideration for some aspects of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makidono, Atsushi; Makidono, Tohoru; Yoshimoto, Kiichiro.

    1978-01-01

    What immunology should be in radiology was considered from the modern immunological and radioimmunological point of view. In order to evaluate an immunological response to radiation at a cellular level, radiosensitivities of macrophage, T-cell, and B-cell were selectively described from a modern immunological stand point. On the basis of this knowledge, radioimmunology was explained; and in clinical field, diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumor, radiotherapy for suppressing immuno-lymphatic system, and reactivators for making the treatment effective were described. Immunoreaction in homo-transplantation of organs, relationship between radiation and auto-immunization, and relationship between carcinogenesis of radiation and immunity were explained so that the way of considering immunology in radiology will be summarized. (Ueda, J.)

  17. A roadmap towards personalized immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, Sylvie; Bode, Sebastian F N; Balling, Rudi; Ollert, Markus; He, Feng Q

    2018-01-01

    Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative to tumor cells show a much higher degree of complexity in heterogeneity, dynamics, memory-capability, plasticity and "social" interactions. There is still a long way ahead on translating our capability to identify potentially targetable personalized biomarkers into effective personalized therapy in immune-centralized diseases. Here, we discuss the recent advances and successful applications in "Omics" data utilization and network analysis on patients' samples of clinical trials and studies, as well as the major challenges and strategies towards personalized stratification and treatment for infectious or non-communicable inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. We provide a roadmap and highlight experimental, clinical, computational analysis, data management, ethical and regulatory issues to accelerate the implementation of personalized immunology.

  18. Immunologic parameters of ultraviolet carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripke, M.L.; Fisher, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by uv light are usually immunologically rejected by normal syngeneic recipients. We evaluated, the immune status of primary hosts against these highly antigenic tumors immediately after surgical removal of the primary tumor. All primary hosts were susceptible to challenge with their autochthonous tumors, though most of these were rejected by untreated control mice. Primary hosts were also susceptible to challenge with isografts of antigenically dissimilar uv-induced neoplasms. The susceptibility of the primary hosts to tumor challenge was probably induced by chronic exposure to uv light, since uv-irradiated non-tumor-bearing mice were also susceptible to challenge with these tumors. Although uv-treated mice were unable to reject these syngeneic tumors, they could reject skin and tumor allografts. Further, uv irradiation did not interfere with the second-set rejection of syngeneic uv-induced tumors in mice that were specifically immunized before uv treatment

  19. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Haematological and immunological indicators for radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehos, A.

    1990-01-01

    It is examined if haematological and immunological parameters can be used as biological indicators for radiation exposure. Additional criteria for biological indicators, apart from the dose dependence of the effect, are listed here. The state of the art concerning the development of haematological and immunological indicators is discussed. Several haematological indicators are currently used in diagnosis when excess radiation exposure has occurred (e.g., after the Chernobyl accident). However, further research work has to be done in the field of immunological indicators. (orig.) [de

  1. IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ENDOMETRIAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Slobodyanyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological processes involving peritoneal macrophages could play a critical role in pathophysiology of external genital endometriosis.Aim: To assess levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and C-reactive protein and to identify their correlations with endometriosis.Materials and methods: Seventy two patients were evaluated: 26 healthy controls and 46 with endometriosis. Patients were divided into groups as follows: 17 with superficial endometriosis, 18 with endometriomas and 11 with deep infiltrative endometriosis. All patients underwent a laparoscopy during the proliferative phase of the cycle; levels of peritoneal and serum MCP-1, RANTES and C-reactive protein were measured using standard ELISA assays.Results: There were positive correlations between serum MCP-1 (p = 0.03 and C-reactive protein(p = 0.045 and severity of endometriosis, that could indicate malfunctioning of peritoneal macrophages in advanced stages of endometriosis. Conclusion: MCP-1 and C-reactive protein levels in peripheral blood can be used as markers of endometriosis activity.

  2. Immunology of Yersinia pestis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase. In contrast, the host also utilizes its immune system to eliminate the invading bacteria. Neutrophil and macrophage are the first defense against Yersinia pestis invading through phagocytosis and killing. Other innate immune cells also play different roles, such as dendritic cells which help to generate more T helper cells. After several days post infection, the adaptive immune response begins to provide organism-specific protection and has a long-lasting immunological memory. Thus, with the cooperation and collaboration of innate and acquired immunity, the bacterium may be eliminated from the host. The research of Yersinia pestis and host immune systems provides an important topic to understand pathogen-host interaction and consequently develop effective countermeasures.

  3. Immunological responses to parasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R W; Weintraub, J

    1987-03-01

    Parasitic arthropods are responsible for enormous economic losses to livestock producers throughout the world. These production losses may range from simple irritation caused by biting and non-biting flies to deaths and/or damage to carcass, fleece, or skin resulting from attack by myiasis flies. The estimated costs of these losses are colossal but even these usually include only direct losses and ignore those associated with pesticide application. In the USA alone (in 1976), these losses were conservatively estimated at more than 650 million US dollars. The long term use of chemical control measures for these pests has resulted in many serious problems including residues in meat and milk products, rapid development of insecticide resistance, the destruction of non-target organisms, environmental pollution, and mortality and morbidity of livestock. These concerns have prompted researchers to seek alternative methods of arthropod control, including the artificial induction of immunity. In this review, R. W. Baron and J. Weintraub discuss several examples of ectoparasites that can induce immunological resistance in the host, including Sarcoptes and Demodex mites, the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus), Anopluran lice and myiasis-causing flies such as Hypoderma.

  4. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  5. Multiscale modelling in immunology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Antonio; Tieri, Paolo; Castiglione, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to get a unified view of observations made from the molecular up to the organism scale. Towards this goal, multiscale models have been highly instrumental in contexts such as the cardiovascular field, angiogenesis, neurosciences and tumour biology. More recently, such models are becoming an increasingly important resource to address immunological questions as well. Systematic mining of the literature in multiscale modelling led us to identify three main fields of immunological applications: host-virus interactions, inflammatory diseases and their treatment and development of multiscale simulation platforms for immunological research and for educational purposes. Here, we review the current developments in these directions, which illustrate that multiscale models can consistently integrate immunological data generated at several scales, and can be used to describe and optimize therapeutic treatments of complex immune diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Meghna; Hontecillas, Raquel; Abedi, Vida; Leber, Andrew; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Philipson, Casandra; Carbo, Adria; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response, and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition, and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to apply complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery, and development through “use cases” centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, which include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism. PMID:26909350

  7. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  8. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  10. Biosensors in immunology: the story so far

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathak, S.S.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Optical biosensors are finding a range of applications in immunology. They enable biomolecular interactions to be characterized in real time without the need to label reactants, and, because individual binding steps can be visualized, are particularly suited to complex assays

  11. The pluripotent history of immunology. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Sankaran

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of immunology since 1999 is reviewed, in part as a response to claims by historians such as Thomas Söderqvist the field was still immature at the time (Söderqvist & Stillwell 1999. First addressed are the difficulties, past and present, surrounding the disciplinary definition of immunology, which is followed by a commentary on the recent scholarship devoted to the concept of the immune self. The new literature on broad immunological topics is examined and assessed, and specific charges leveled against the paucity of certain types of histories, e.g. biographical and institutional histories, are evaluated. In conclusion, there are compelling indications that the history of immunology has moved past the initial tentative stages identified in the earlier reviews to become a bustling, pluripotent discipline, much like the subject of its scrutiny, and that it continues to develop in many new and exciting directions.

  12. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca

    -, č. 3 (2011), s. 1421-1431 ISSN 1945-0524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : colorectal cancer * inflammation * tumor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  13. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Let it snow, but don’t ...

  14. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons to celebrate its journals. Learn More about the American Academy Of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This central resource focuses on ...

  15. Distinct changing profiles of hepatitis A and E virus infection among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia: The first report of the full genome sequence of a novel genotype 1 hepatitis E virus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Primadharsini, Putu Prathiwi; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Masaharu; Jirintai, Suljid; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2018-01-01

    In January 2012, Mongolia started a hepatitis A vaccination program, which has not yet been evaluated. The first occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in 2013, caused by genotype 4 hepatitis E virus (HEV), suggests the need for a routine study to monitor its prevalence. One hundred fifty-four consecutive patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute hepatitis between 2014 and 2015 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia were studied. By serological and molecular testing followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, only one patient (0.6%) was diagnosed with acute hepatitis A, caused by genotype IA hepatitis A virus (HAV), and 32 (20.8%) patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis E, caused by genotype 1 HEV. The 32 HEV isolates obtained in this study shared 99.5-100% nucleotide identity and were grouped into a cluster separated from those of subtypes 1a to 1f. Upon comparison of p-distances over the entire genome, the distances between one representative HEV isolate (MNE15-072) and 1a-1f strains were 0.071-0.137, while those between 1b and 1c were 0.062-0.070. In conclusion, the prevalence of acute hepatitis A has decreased in Mongolia since the start of the vaccination program, while the monophyletic genotype 1 HEV strain of a probably novel subtype has been prevalent. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  17. Communication, the centrosome and the immunological synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Jane C; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2014-09-05

    Recent findings on the behaviour of the centrosome at the immunological synapse suggest a critical role for centrosome polarization in controlling the communication between immune cells required to generate an effective immune response. The features observed at the immunological synapse show parallels to centrosome (basal body) polarization seen in cilia and flagella, and the cellular communication that is now known to occur at all of these sites.

  18. Consortium biology in immunology: the perspective from the Immunological Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, Christophe; Lanier, Lewis; Merad, Miriam; Mathis, Diane

    2012-10-01

    Although the field has a long collaborative tradition, immunology has made less use than genetics of 'consortium biology', wherein groups of investigators together tackle large integrated questions or problems. However, immunology is naturally suited to large-scale integrative and systems-level approaches, owing to the multicellular and adaptive nature of the cells it encompasses. Here, we discuss the value and drawbacks of this organization of research, in the context of the long-running 'big science' debate, and consider the opportunities that may exist for the immunology community. We position this analysis in light of our own experience, both positive and negative, as participants of the Immunological Genome Project.

  19. Effect of Yikangning on immunological function in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Fangyu; Xu Xiaoyi; Shi Yulu; Sheng Xuecheng; Zhao Liyan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Yikangning oral liquid on immunological function in mice. Methods: 3 H-TdR incorporation was used to detect the lymphocyte transformation rate for Con A and LPS. Results: The drug increased the lymphocyte transformation rate in mice with lowed immunological function. Conclusion: Yikangning enhances immunological function in mice with lowered immunological function

  20. Experimental immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in H-2k identical, Mls (M) locus different mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knospe, W.H.; Steinberg, D.; Speck, B.

    1983-07-01

    Immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) was experimentally induced in mice by injecting 10(7) lymph node cells (LNC) from donor mice of one inbred strain to another H-2k identical but Mls mismatched strain previously given 600 rad total body gamma irradiation (TBI). AA developed after 2 weeks to 6 months in selected strain combinations used and usually 60 to 90% of the mice died. Clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease did not occur and splenic atrophy rather than splenomegaly was the rule. Histologically these mice had a lesion of the hematopoietic microenvironment characterized by sinusoidal injury and stromal necrosis. Others have demonstrated injury to hematopoietic stem cells. C3H/He LNC induced AA whereas C3H/HeJ LNC failed to induce AA. The C3H/HeJ strain carries a macrophage defect and these results suggest that a macrophage-like cell may be a mediator of immunological injury in this experimental model. Although all strain combinations evaluated were H-2k identical and Mls mismatched, certain Mls combinations resulted in AA and identical Mls mismatched but different strains did not. Both strong (Mlsd) and weak (Mlsc) stimulating LNC induce AA but simple Mls differences do not explain the AA as similar Mls combinations but different strain combinations fail to induce AA.

  1. An immunologic portrait of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroncek David F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advent of high-throughput technology challenges the traditional histopathological classification of cancer, and proposes new taxonomies derived from global transcriptional patterns. Although most of these molecular re-classifications did not endure the test of time, they provided bulk of new information that can reframe our understanding of human cancer biology. Here, we focus on an immunologic interpretation of cancer that segregates oncogenic processes independent from their tissue derivation into at least two categories of which one bears the footprints of immune activation. Several observations describe a cancer phenotype where the expression of interferon stimulated genes and immune effector mechanisms reflect patterns commonly observed during the inflammatory response against pathogens, which leads to elimination of infected cells. As these signatures are observed in growing cancers, they are not sufficient to entirely clear the organism of neoplastic cells but they sustain, as in chronic infections, a self-perpetuating inflammatory process. Yet, several studies determined an association between this inflammatory status and a favorable natural history of the disease or a better responsiveness to cancer immune therapy. Moreover, these signatures overlap with those observed during immune-mediated cancer rejection and, more broadly, immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction in other immune pathologies. Thus, a discussion concerning this cancer phenotype is warranted as it remains unknown why it occurs in immune competent hosts. It also remains uncertain whether a genetically determined response of the host to its own cancer, the genetic makeup of the neoplastic process or a combination of both drives the inflammatory process. Here we reflect on commonalities and discrepancies among studies and on the genetic or somatic conditions that may cause this schism in cancer behavior.

  2. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER : X. COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDIES ON LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROIDES AND LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROHAEMOORRHAGIAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1920-01-31

    was mixed with one of the icteroides strains. The question naturally arises whether or not this apparent specificity is due to the homology of the serum and not altogether to a difference in genus of the strains. In other words, it is justifiable to question whether all these variations in the degree of intensity of the reaction are not due to strain variations of the same genus. This question is not finally settled by the present investigation, in which only four icteroides and nine icterohaemorrhagiae strains have been carefully studied. Nevertheless, on the basis of the findings with these thirteen strains, it seems probable that Leptospira icteroides and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae are closely allied but are nevertheless distinct in their immunological reactions. Perhaps the difference between the two may amount to that between subspecies or races. It has been pointed out earlier that the pathogenicity of the two is also distinct, inasmuch as icteroides produces chiefly icterus and nephritis and icterohaemorrhagiae hemorrhage and nephritis, the icterus being less and the hemorrhage more prominent in the evolution of the latter infection. In the study of active immunity-exclusive of vaccination-difficulty has been experienced in the evaluation of the results, owing to the existence of natural resistance to infection among guinea pigs. A guinea pig may recover from the inoculation of Leptospira icteroides and then resist a subsequent inoculation with a virulent strain of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, a condition simulating that brought about by the identity of the two organisms. However, the refractoriness of such an animal to icterohaemorrhagiae may be due to its natural immunity to it. In the present study, therefore, only those guinea pigs were selected which had reacted typically-though in mild degree -to the icteroides infection, in order to determine whether they were subsequently immune to the inoculation of icterohaemorrhagiae. Indeed, by this mode of

  3. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  4. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Local immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2011-12-01

    To summarize novel insights into the immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Within the recent decades, several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), of which intra-oral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be well tolerated and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative option to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Although detailed immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated, much scientific effort has been made to shed some light on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Only a few studies focused on the detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network. Within this network, the pro-tolerogenic properties of local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells - which are able to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms and to induce T-cell immune responses - play a central role. Further on, basic research focused not only on the immune response in nasal and bronchial mucosa but also on the systemic T-cell immune response. Thus, much exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more investigations are necessary to uncover further exciting details on the key mechanisms of SLIT.

  7. Models and the mosaic of scientific knowledge. The case of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetu, Tudor M

    2014-03-01

    A survey of models in immunology is conducted and distinct kinds of models are characterized based on whether models are material or conceptual, the distinctiveness of their epistemic purpose, and the criteria for evaluating the goodness of a model relative to its intended purpose. I argue that the diversity of models in interdisciplinary fields such as immunology reflects the fact that information about the phenomena of interest is gathered from different sources using multiple methods of investigation. To each model is attached a description specifying how information about a phenomenon of interest has been acquired, highlighting points of commonality and difference between the methodological and epistemic histories of the information encapsulated in different models. These points of commonality and difference allow investigators to integrate findings from different models into more comprehensive explanatory accounts, as well as to troubleshoot anomalies and faulty accounts by going back to the original building blocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytomonas serpens: immunological similarities with the human trypanosomatid pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André L S; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Elias, Camila G R; Vermelho, Alane B; Branquinha, Marta H

    2007-07-01

    The present review provides an overview of recent discoveries concerning the immunological similarities between Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, and human trypanosomatid pathogens, with special emphasis on peptidases. Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi express peptidases that are well-known virulence factors, named leishmanolysin and cruzipain. P. serpens synthesizes two distinct classes of proteolytic enzymes, metallo- and cysteine-type peptidases, that share common epitopes with leishmanolysin and cruzipain, respectively. The leishmanolysin-like and cruzipain-like molecules from P. serpens participate in several biological processes including cellular growth and adhesion to the salivary glands of Oncopeltus fasciatus, a phytophagous insect experimental model. Since previous reports demonstrated that immunization of mice with P. serpens induced a partial protective immune response against T. cruzi, this plant trypanosomatid may be a suitable candidate for vaccine studies. Moreover, comparative approaches in the Trypanosomatidae family may be useful to understand kinetoplastid biology, biochemistry and evolution.

  9. 10 workshops on Immunology of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Chaouat

    2017-09-01

    For the 10th issue of the « island workshops », now the Reunion Workshops, organised by Pierre Yves Robillard since the first one in Tahiti challenging the "vascular disease only" theory of pre eclampsia and introducing the primipaternity concept, we examined the reasons for considering an Immunological approach to the disease. This (brief) overview thus examines several important topics in an Immunological framework. I have chosen to present here the evolution of the main themes rather than a purely chronological vision. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  11. On immunological polymorphism of autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Yu.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    The study involved 46 persons. In the majority of patients the exposure dose was 0.155±0.01 Gy. Clinical, ultrasound, immunological, statistical and non-parametric methods were used. Considerable immunological polymorphism of autoimmune thyroiditis in the liquidators has been established; 1) with disturbances in the cellular immunity and low antithyroid antibody index, 2) without disturbances in the cellular immunity with positive indices of antithyroid antibodies, 3) with disturbances in cellular immunity and high indices of TH and MA antibodies

  12. POST-EXPOSURE IMMUNOLOGICAL PREVENTION AGAINST VARICELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Tatochenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on immunological prevention of varicella, particularly efficacy and advisability of vaccinating contact individuals in a pocket (post-exposure vaccination: its role in reducing the epidemiological process and economic burden of the infection, in achieving control over outbreak disease incidence. It features data obtained by foreign researchers and own research results. It demonstrates that vaccination of children and adults immediately after contact with the individual suffering from varicella allows significant reduction in disease incidence. Key words: varicella, vaccination, post-exposure immunological prevention, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:30-33

  13. Immunological Risk of Injectable Drug Delivery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiskoot, W.; van Schie, R.M.F.; Carstens, M.G.; Schellekens, H.

    2009-01-01

    Injectable drug delivery systems (DDS) such as particulate carriers and water-soluble polymers are being used and developed for a wide variety of therapeutic applications. However, a number of immunological risks with serious clinical implications are associated with administration of DDS. These

  14. Immunological targeting of cytomegalovirus for glioblastoma therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Smita K; Sampson, John H; Mitchell, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is purportedly present in glioblastoma (GBM) while absent from the normal brain, making CMV antigens potentially ideal immunological anti-GBM targets. We recently demonstrated that patient-derived CMV pp65-specific T cells are capable of recognizing and killing autologous GBM tumor cells. This data supports CMV antigen-directed immunotherapies against GBM.

  15. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  16. Immunological memory: What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Du Pasquier, Louis

    2018-05-01

    Immunological memory is one of the core topics of contemporary immunology. Yet there are many discussions about what this concept precisely means, which components of the immune system display it, and in which phyla it exists. Recent years have seen the multiplication of claims that immunological memory can be found in "innate" immune cells and in many phyla beyond vertebrates (including invertebrates, plants, but also bacteria and archaea), as well as the multiplication of concepts to account for these phenomena, such as "innate immune memory" or "trained immunity". The aim of this critical review is to analyze these recent claims and concepts, and to distinguish ideas that have often been misleadingly associated, such as memory, adaptive immunity, and specificity. We argue that immunological memory is a gradual and multidimensional phenomenon, irreducible to any simple dichotomy, and we show why adopting this new view matters from an experimental and therapeutic point of view. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Haematological and immunological effect of coadministration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the normal control, ...

  18. Immunology of Paratuberculosis Infection and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of host immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is complicated by a number of factors, including the protracted nature of the disease and the stealthy nature of the pathogen. Improved tools for the measurement of immunologic responses in ruminant species, par...

  19. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  20. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  1. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  2. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably

  3. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230... colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of...

  5. A controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effect of GanedenBC(30) on immunological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, M; Keller, D; Farmer, S; Warrino, D E

    2010-03-01

    GanedenBC(30), a probiotic, has been shown to significantly increase T-cell production of TNF-alpha after ex vivo exposure to a strain of adenovirus (AdenoVI) or influenza A (H3N2 Texas strain [FluTex]). The current controlled study was designed to further evaluate the effect of GanedenBC(30) on immunological marker levels following viral exposure. Ten healthy subjects' baseline immunological marker levels were analyzed. Subjects consumed 1 capsule/day of GanedenBC(30) for 28 days and returned for post-treatment immunological marker evaluation. Subjects' baseline measurements served as their own control. All subjects completed the study with no adverse events; however, one subject was excluded from the final analysis based on a reasonable consideration as an outlier. CD3+CD69+ cells, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and TNF-alpha levels were increased after exposure to AdenoVI and FluTex. IL-1beta levels also increased after exposure to AdenoVI but were decreased after ex vivo exposure to FluTex. CD3+CD69+ cells increased significantly (P = 0.023) after exposure to both viral strains. Differences in IL-8 levels after FluTex exposure achieved statistical significance (P = 0.039) as did IFN-gamma levels after AdenoVI exposure (P = 0.039). A regimen of one capsule per day containing 500 million CFU of GanedenBC30 may be a safe and effective option for enhancing the immunological response to common viral respiratory tract infections. 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  6. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consortium biology in immunology: the perspective from the Immunological Genome Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, C; Lanier, L; Merad, M; Mathis, D; Immunological Genome Project,

    2012-01-01

    Although the field has a long collaborative tradition, immunology has made less use than genetics of 'consortium biology', wherein groups of investigators together tackle large integrated questions or problems. However, immunology is naturally suited to large-scale integrative and systems-level approaches, owing to the multicellular and adaptive nature of the cells it encompasses. Here, we discuss the value and drawbacks of this organization of research, in the context of the long-running 'bi...

  8. Graduate Students' Interest in Immunology as a Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Alexander; Frimpong, Michael; Sylverken, Augustina Angelina; Arthur, Yarhands D.; Ahuno, Samuel T.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Interest and motivation significantly influence achievement; however, interest in immunology remains to be determined. Using a structured questionnaire, the current study assessed for the first time interest in immunology among biomedical graduate students in Ghana after a one-week introduction to immunology course. Our results revealed that…

  9. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious mononucleosis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  10. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, ...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  12. 42 CFR 493.833 - Condition: Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Diagnostic immunology. 493.833 Section..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.833 Condition: Diagnostic immunology. The specialty of diagnostic immunology includes for purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of syphilis serology...

  13. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, for maintaining ...

  14. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  16. A behavioural test battery to investigate tic-like symptoms, stereotypies, attentional capabilities, and spontaneous locomotion in different mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Onori, Martina; Ceci, Chiara; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2014-07-01

    The preclinical study of human disorders associated with comorbidities and for which the aetiology is still unclear may substantially benefit from multi-strain studies conducted in mice. The latter can help isolating experimental populations (strains) exhibiting distinct facets in the parameters isomorphic to the symptoms of a given disorder. Through a reverse-translation approach, multi-strain studies can inform both natural predisposing factors and environmental modulators. Thus, mouse strains selected for a particular trait may be leveraged to generate hypothesis-driven studies aimed at clarifying the potential role played by the environment in modulating the exhibition of the symptoms of interest. Tourette's syndrome (TS) constitutes a paradigmatic example whereby: it is characterized by a core symptom (tics) often associated with comorbidities (attention-deficit-hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms); it has a clear genetic origin though specific genes are, as yet, unidentified; its course (exacerbations and remissions) is under the influence of environmental factors. Based on these considerations, we tested four mouse strains (ABH, C57, CD1, and SJL) - varying along a plethora of behavioural, neurochemical, and immunological parameters - on a test battery tailored to address the following domains: tics (through the i.p. administration of the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI, 5mg/kg); locomotion (spontaneous locomotion in the home-cage); perseverative responding in an attentional set shifting task; and behavioural stereotypies in response to a single amphetamine (10mg/kg, i.p.) injection. Present data demonstrate that while ABH and SJL mice respectively exhibit selective increments in amphetamine-induced sniffing behaviour and DOI-induced tic-like behaviours, C57 and CD1 mice show a distinct phenotype, compared to other strains, in several parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  18. What Can Vampires Teach Us about Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David S

    2016-04-01

    Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Immunological effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca administered in the laboratory or ritually consumed in religious contexts, little is known about the immunological impact of ayahuasca on humans. Since ayahuasca is used by an increasing number of consumers, and considering its therapeutic potential, more information is needed regarding ayahuasca potential risks. This article presents a brief overview of the available data regarding the immunological impact of ayahuasca in humans.

  20. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail.

  2. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  3. Advances in clinical immunology in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Shearer, William T

    2016-12-01

    Advances in clinical immunology in the past year included the report of practice parameters for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiencies to guide the clinician in the approach to these relatively uncommon disorders. We have learned of new gene defects causing immunodeficiency and of new phenotypes expanding the spectrum of conditions caused by genetic mutations such as a specific regulator of telomere elongation (RTEL1) mutation causing isolated natural killer cell deficiency and mutations in ras-associated RAB (RAB27) resulting in immunodeficiency without albinism. Advances in diagnosis included the increasing use of whole-exome sequencing to identify gene defects and the measurement of serum free light chains to identify secondary hypogammaglobulinemias. For several primary immunodeficiencies, improved outcomes have been reported after definitive therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vibrio cholerae Classical Biotype Strains Reveal Distinct Signatures in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M. Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 199...

  5. Immunology of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Jayakrishna; Atkinson, John P.; Gelfand, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population. PMID:23702979

  6. Immunological studies relating to the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, J.M.; Cruz, C.; Inclan, G.; Maclas, C.; Suarez, L.; Rivero, R.; Borres, I.M.; Ustariz, C.; Del Valle, L.; Villegas, R.; Martinez, E.; Rorrajero, I.; Guevara, V.; Leon, A.; Paz, L.; Pelaez, J.C.; Roque, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to know the effects of ultra-violet radiations on the integrity of their immunological system, a hematologic and immunological study was carried out in 30 clinically healthy children aged between 10 and 15; 15 of each sex, who come from a region in Bielorussia that was affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, and who received medical and recreational services at the 'Jose Marti' Pioneers'City, located Tarara Beach (Havana, Cuba) from July 9,1990 to August 27,1990. Data from the initial evaluations upon their arrival in Cuba were compared whit the final results before their return to Bielorussia, in the following variables: haemoglobin, leucocytes, platelets, absolute counts of lymphocytes and neutrophylous polymorphonuclears, levels of sericeus of Igs G, A, M, and E sericas and (CH50), as well as the presence of circulating immuno complexes; besides spot-forming cellular clusters (spontaneous, active, and medial by the receptor Fc in neutrophylous) and the cells identified with monoclonal antibodies against CD2, CD3, CD8 and CD4/CD8 quotient. Cutaneous response to antigen and lymphoblastic transformation in the presence of PHA and PwN were also assessed. Results of this research allow to infer that the adequate and monitored position against ultra-violet rays from the solar radiation in children exposed to low doses of ionizing irradiation does not deteriorate the human immunological system, and do favor its regulation and normal performance

  7. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  8. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of vibrio cholerae 01 strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 7 July 2000. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01 STRAINS DURING TWO CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN DAR ES SALAAM,. TANZANIA. W.K. Urassa, MD, MSc, MMed, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University ...

  11. Immunological Responses to Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kenny; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Foster, Richard; Yang, Xuebin B

    2017-08-01

    The use of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has been continuously rising to meet the demands of the increasingly ageing population. To date, this procedure has been highly successful in relieving pain and restoring the functionality of patients' joints, and has significantly improved their quality of life. However, these implants are expected to eventually fail after 15-25 years in situ due to slow progressive inflammatory responses at the bone-implant interface. Such inflammatory responses are primarily mediated by immune cells such as macrophages, triggered by implant wear particles. As a result, aseptic loosening is the main cause for revision surgery over the mid and long-term and is responsible for more than 70% of hip revisions. In some patients with a metal-on-metal (MoM) implant, metallic implant wear particles can give rise to metal sensitivity. Therefore, engineering biomaterials, which are immunologically inert or support the healing process, require an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound-healing response to implanted materials. This review discusses the immunological response initiated by biomaterials extensively used in THA, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), cobalt chromium (CoCr), and alumina ceramics. The biological responses of these biomaterials in bulk and particulate forms are also discussed. In conclusion, the immunological responses to bulk and particulate biomaterials vary greatly depending on the implant material types, the size of particulate and its volume, and where the response to bulk forms of differing biomaterials are relatively acute and similar, while wear particles can initiate a variety of responses such as osteolysis, metal sensitivity, and so on.

  12. KEYBOARD MONITORING BASED UPON THE IMMUNOLOGIC CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Bryukhomitsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Biometric Keyboard Monitoring System is represented. It’s intended for permanent textindependent control and analysis of automated information data systems users’ keyboard script. It’s suggested a keyboard monitoring method, which is combined the idea and advantages of threaded method of keyboard parameters representation and immunological approach to its realization, based upon the detectors cloning model. Suggested method potentially possesses a pinpoint accuracy, higher convergence rate of classification problems solving, ability to learn on only “own” class exemplars.

  13. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Osada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis. Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  14. Immunological Deregulation in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Vetro, Calogero; Caocci, Giovanni; Greco, Marianna; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Di Raimondo, Francesco; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) has a unique histology since only a few neoplastic cells are surrounded by inflammatory accessory cells that in the last years have emerged as crucial players in sustaining the course of disease. In addition, recent studies suggest that the abnormal activity of these inflammatory cells (such as deregulation in regulatory T cells signaling, expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells, HLA-G signaling and natural killer cells dysfunction) may have prognostic significance. This review is focused on summarizing recent advanced in immunological defects in cHL with translational implications. PMID:24959336

  15. Parasitic helminths: new weapons against immunological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis). Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  16. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  17. Present-day problems of nuclear medicine in immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranat, V.Z.; Rossel's, A.N.; Balyura, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe in a systemic order the potentialities of the use of nuclear medicine methods in immunology. Two fields of their application were singled out: experimental and clinical immunology, each one including in vivo and in vitro methods. The authors cited examples of their use, emphasizing the importance and prospects of radioimmunoassays for determination of the level of hormones in patients with various immunological pathology

  18. Coupled Immunological and Biomechanical Model of Emphysema Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ceresa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a disabling respiratory pathology, with a high prevalence and a significant economic and social cost. It is characterized by different clinical phenotypes with different risk profiles. Detecting the correct phenotype, especially for the emphysema subtype, and predicting the risk of major exacerbations are key elements in order to deliver more effective treatments. However, emphysema onset and progression are influenced by a complex interaction between the immune system and the mechanical properties of biological tissue. The former causes chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling. The latter influences the effective resistance or appropriate mechanical response of the lung tissue to repeated breathing cycles. In this work we present a multi-scale model of both aspects, coupling Finite Element (FE and Agent Based (AB techniques that we would like to use to predict the onset and progression of emphysema in patients. The AB part is based on existing biological models of inflammation and immunological response as a set of coupled non-linear differential equations. The FE part simulates the biomechanical effects of repeated strain on the biological tissue. We devise a strategy to couple the discrete biological model at the molecular /cellular level and the biomechanical finite element simulations at the tissue level. We tested our implementation on a public emphysema image database and found that it can indeed simulate the evolution of clinical image biomarkers during disease progression.

  19. Genomic Circuitry Underlying Immunological Response to Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John

    2018-01-09

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaccines for the future: learning from human immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Ennio; Rappuoli, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Summary Conventional vaccines have been extremely successful in preventing infections by pathogens expressing relatively conserved antigens through antibody‐mediated effector mechanisms. Thanks to vaccination some diseases have been eradicated and mortality due to infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. However, there are still many infections that are not preventable with vaccination, which represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. Some of these infections are caused by pathogens with a high degree of antigen variability that cannot be controlled only by antibodies, but require a mix of humoral and cellular immune responses. Novel technologies for antigen discovery, expression and formulation allow now for the development of vaccines that can better cope with pathogen diversity and trigger multifunctional immune responses. In addition, the application of new genomic assays and systems biology approaches in human immunology can help to better identify vaccine correlates of protection. The availability of novel vaccine technologies, together with the knowledge of the distinct human immune responses that are required to prevent different types of infection, should help to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:21880117

  1. Ability of spleen cells from tumor bearing mice to transfer immunologic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plavsic, B.; Jurin, M. (Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia)); Ugarkovic, B. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1983-01-01

    The ability of splenocytes from tumorous mice to transfer immunologic memory was tested. Three syngeneic experimental tumors from highly inbred strains were used; fibrosarcoma, lymphoma and Lewis lung carcinoma. Splenocytes from tumorous mice were collected after rejection of allogeneic skin which had been grafted at different stages of the tumor disease, and injected into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. These secondary hosts were grafted with the same allogeneic skin graft as their donors and the ability of cells transplanted from tumorous donors to transfer memory to allograft was tested. Tumorous mice seemed to have more memory cells (T lymphocytes) in their spleens than the controls.

  2. From immunology to MRI data anlysis: Problems in mathematical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Ryan Samuel

    This thesis represents a collection of four distinct biological projects rising from immunology and metabolomics that required unique and creative mathematical approaches. One project focuses on understanding the role IL-2 plays in immune response regulation and exploring how these effects can be altered. We developed several dynamic models of the receptor signaling network which we analyze analytically and numerically. In a second project focused also on MS, we sought to create a system for grading magnetic resonance images (MRI) with good correlation with disability. The goal is for these MRI scores to provide a better standard for large-scale clinical drug trials, which limits the bias associated with differences in available MRI technology and general grader/participant variability. The third project involves the study of the CRISPR adaptive immune system in bacteria. Bacterial cells recognize and acquire snippets of exogenous genetic material, which they incorporate into their DNA. In this project we explore the optimal design for the CRISPR system given a viral distribution to maximize its probability of survival. The final project involves the study of the benefits for colocalization of coupled enzymes in metabolic pathways. The hypothesized kinetic advantage, known as `channeling', of putting coupled enzymes closer together has been used as justification for the colocalization of coupled enzymes in biological systems. We developed and analyzed a simple partial differential equation of the diffusion of the intermediate substrate between coupled enzymes to explore the phenomena of channeling. The four projects of my thesis represent very distinct biological problems that required a variety of techniques from diverse areas of mathematics ranging from dynamical modeling to statistics, Fourier series and calculus of variations. In each case, quantitative techniques were used to address biological questions from a mathematical perspective ultimately providing

  3. Evidence Suggesting That Francisella tularensis O-Antigen Capsule Contains a Lipid A-Like Molecule That Is Structurally Distinct from the More Abundant Free Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Barker

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, produces a high molecular weight capsule that is immunologically distinct from Francisella lipopolysaccharide but contains the same O-antigen tetrasaccharide. To pursue the possibility that the capsule of Francisella live vaccine strain (LVS has a structurally unique lipid anchor, we have metabolically labeled Francisella with [14C]acetate to facilitate highly sensitive compositional analysis of capsule-associated lipids. Capsule was purified by two independent methods and yielded similar results. Autoradiographic and immunologic analysis confirmed that this purified material was largely devoid of low molecular weight LPS and of the copious amounts of free lipid A that the Francisellae accumulate. Chemical hydrolysis yielded [14C]-labeled free fatty acids characteristic of Francisella lipid A but with a different molar ratio of 3-OH C18:0 to 3-OH C16:0 and different composition of non-hydroxylated fatty acids (mainly C14:0 rather than C16:0 than that of free Francisella lipid A. Mild acid hydrolysis to induce selective cleavage of KDO-lipid A linkage yielded a [14C]-labeled product that partitioned during Bligh/Dyer extraction and migrated during thin-layer chromatography like lipid A. These findings suggest that the O-antigen capsule of Francisella contains a covalently linked and structurally distinct lipid A species. The presence of a discrete lipid A-like molecule associated with capsule raises the possibility that Francisella selectively exploits lipid A structural heterogeneity to regulate synthesis, transport, and stable bacterial surface association of the O-antigen capsular layer.

  4. Importance of exercise immunology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, J C Rosa; Lira, F S; de Mello, M T; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T

    2011-11-01

    Chronic physical exercise with adequate intensity and volume associated with sufficient recovery promotes adaptations in several physiological systems. While intense and exhaustive exercise is considered an important immunosuppressor agent and increases the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), moderate regular exercise has been associated with significant disease protection and is a complementary treatment of many chronic diseases. The effects of chronic exercise occur because physical training can induce several physiological, biochemical and psychological adaptations. More recently, the effect of acute exercise and training on the immunological system has been discussed, and many studies suggest the importance of the immune system in prevention and partial recovery in pathophysiological situations. Currently, there are two important hypotheses that may explain the effects of exercise and training on the immune system. These hypotheses including (1) the effect of exercise upon hormones and cytokines (2) because exercise can modulate glutamine concentration. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that exercise may modulate immune functions and the importance of exercise immunology in respect to chronic illnesses, chronic heart failure, malnutrition and inflammation.

  5. Immunologic contact urticaria--the human touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina Y; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-06-01

    To review immunologic contact urticaria (ICU) in the occupational and environmental context, and describe its continued relevance in light of the ever-increasing onslaught of new chemicals and products, as well as new technology placing novel interactions, such as nanoparticles, within reach of the population at home and work. Publications were searched via PubMed, using key words: Occupational, immunologic, contact urticaria, nanoparticle. ICU remains an important diagnosis to make and treat because it has widespread health and social morbidity, including job and income loss, persistent life-long allergies, and progression from self-limiting skin eruptions to multi-systemic, sometimes life-threatening, illnesses. There is no short supply of known ICU causing allergens, but it is equally important to be ever vigilant in recognizing, and even adding to, items in the constantly expanding list of novel allergenic agents provided to us by the advances of modern chemistry and technology, and by the changing social structure and lifestyle dynamics.

  6. Effect of 137Cs on immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    An important role of 137 Cs as a new ecological factor was shown by analyzing 31 different studies. The radioisotope may at present be detected in the organisms of all inhabitants of this planet. The migration of 137 Cs along the chain lichen-deer-man leads to its accumulation in the organism of humans living in the Extreme North and taking venison in their food. Although the high sensitivity of immunological reactions to various unfavourable environmental factors is well known, data on the effect of incorporated 137 Cs on immunity are scanty. Experiments on animals showed changes in factors of nonspecific immunity (phagocytic reaction of blood neutrophils, bactericidal activity, lysozyme and complement titres of blood serum) and specific immunity (formation of antiviral antibodies). The blood of animals injured by the isotope displays complete and incomplete autoantibodies. The dependence of immunobiological changes on the dose absorbed by the organism is shown. The 137 Cs intake of inhabitants of the Extreme North who eat venison did not, with the absorbed dose equalling up to 50 Mrem per year, lead to changes in their immunological reactivity. (author)

  7. Novel immunological strategies for islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezza, Sara; Ben Nasr, Moufida; Vergani, Andrea; Valderrama Vasquez, Alessandro; Maestroni, Anna; Abdi, Reza; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Islet transplantation has been demonstrated to improve glycometabolic control, to reduce hypoglycemic episodes and to halt the progression of diabetic complications. However, the exhaustion of islet function and the side effects related to chronic immunosuppression limit the spread of this technique. Consequently, new immunoregulatory protocols have been developed, with the aim to avoid the use of a life-time immunosuppression. Several approaches have been tested in preclinical models, and some are now under clinical evaluation. The development of new small molecules and new monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies is continuous and raises the possibility of targeting new costimulatory pathways or depleting particular cell types. The use of stem cells and regulatory T cells is underway to take advantage of their immunological properties and to induce tolerance. Xenograft islet transplantation, although having severe problems in terms of immunological compatibility, could theoretically provide an unlimited source of donors; using pigs carrying human immune antigens has showed indeed promising results. A completely different approach, the use of encapsulated islets, has been developed; synthetic structures are used to hide islet alloantigen from the immune system, thus preserving islet endocrine function. Once one of these strategies is demonstrated safe and effective, it will be possible to establish clinical islet transplantation as a treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes long before the onset of diabetic-related complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunologically active biomaterials for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar A; Mooney, David J

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of immunological regulation has progressed tremendously alongside the development of materials science, and at their intersection emerges the possibility to employ immunologically active biomaterials for cancer immunotherapy. Strong and sustained anticancer, immune responses are required to clear large tumor burdens in patients, but current approaches for immunotherapy are formulated as products for delivery in bolus, which may be indiscriminate and/or shortlived. Multifunctional biomaterial particles are now being developed to target and sustain antigen and adjuvant delivery to dendritic cells in vivo, and these have the potential to direct and prolong antigen-specific T cell responses. Three-dimensional immune cell niches are also being developed to regulate the recruitment, activation and deployment of immune cells in situ to promote potent antitumor responses. Recent studies demonstrate that materials with immune targeting and stimulatory capabilities can enhance the magnitude and duration of immune responses to cancer antigens, and preclinical results utilizing material-based immunotherapy in tumor models show a strong therapeutic benefit, justifying translation to and future testing in the clinic.

  9. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Mechanical compliance and immunological compatibility of fixative-free decellularized/cryopreserved human pericardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Vinci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pericardial tissue is commonly used to produce bio-prosthetic cardiac valves and patches in cardiac surgery. The procedures adopted to prepare this tissue consist in treatment with aldehydes, which do not prevent post-graft tissue calcification due to incomplete xeno-antigens removal. The adoption of fixative-free decellularization protocols has been therefore suggested to overcome this limitation. Although promising, the decellularized pericardium has not yet used in clinics, due to the absence of proofs indicating that the decellularization and cryopreservation procedures can effectively preserve the mechanical properties and the immunologic compatibility of the tissue. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present work was to validate a procedure to prepare decellularized/cryopreserved human pericardium which may be implemented into cardiovascular homograft tissue Banks. The method employed to decellularize the tissue completely removed the cells without affecting ECM structure; furthermore, uniaxial tensile loading tests revealed an equivalent resistance of the decellularized tissue to strain, before and after the cryopreservation, in comparison with the fresh tissue. Finally, immunological compatibility, showed a minimized host immune cells invasion and low levels of systemic inflammation, as assessed by tissue transplantation into immune-competent mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate, for the first time, that fixative-free decellularized pericardium from cadaveric tissue donors can be banked according to Tissue Repository-approved procedures without compromising its mechanical properties and immunological tolerance. This tissue can be therefore treated as a safe homograft for cardiac surgery.

  11. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  12. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular nuclear...

  13. Veterinary Immunology Committee Toolkit Workshop 2010: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...

  14. 42 CFR 493.837 - Standard; General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; General immunology. 493.837 Section 493.837 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.837 Standard; General immunology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  15. Immunological status of patients with uterine ceroix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, I.V.; Dekster, L.I.; Letskij, V.B.

    1979-01-01

    Comparative data on the immunological status of 60 patients with uterine cervix carcinoma 27 of whom were exposed to combined radiotherapy are given. The evaluation of the immunological parameters makes it possible to note a marked affection of the T system by radiant energy. Taking into consideration a significant immunodepressive effect of irradiation it is advisable that immunotherapy by included into the therapeutic regimen

  16. Effect of surgical and immunological castration on haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PCV and HB of dogs surgically castrated increased progressively up to16th week after castration but only up to10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Both PCV and HB decreased progressively after 10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Similarly, the WBC of dogs surgically castrated steadily increased ...

  17. Immunology and Pathology of Arena Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    the 15 guinea pigs infected with the attenuated strain (PIC3739) had measurable TNF at any time during the course. Mean serum TNF levels for adPIC...inherent replication advantage in adPIC or increased efficiency of natural immunity against the attenuated strain PIC3739. Significant changes in...Direct infection of T cells may cause frank cytolysis with induction of lymphopenia, as in parvovirus or HIV-l infections; alternatively, in non

  18. Medical immunology: two-way bridge connecting bench and bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, Ger T; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Hooijkaas, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    Medical immunology in The Netherlands is a laboratory specialism dealing with immunological analyses as well as pre- and post-analytical consultation to clinicians (clinical immunologists and other specialists) involved in patients with immune mediated diseases. The scope of medical immunology includes immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, allergy, transfusion and transplantation immunology, and lymphoproliferative disorders plus the monitoring of these patients. The training, professional criteria, quality control of procedures and laboratories is well organized. As examples of the bridge function of medical immunology between laboratory (bench) and patient (bedside) the contribution of medical immunologists to diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases (in particular: humoral immunodeficiencies) as well as autoantibodies (anti-citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis) are given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Overcoming immunological barriers in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    Regenerative therapies that use allogeneic cells are likely to encounter immunological barriers similar to those that occur with transplantation of solid organs and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Decades of experience in clinical transplantation hold valuable lessons for regenerative medicine, offering approaches for developing tolerance-induction treatments relevant to cell therapies. Outside the field of solid-organ and allogeneic HSC transplantation, new strategies are emerging for controlling the immune response, such as methods based on biomaterials or mimicry of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Novel biomaterials can alter the behavior of cells in tissue-engineered constructs and can blunt host immune responses to cells and biomaterial scaffolds. Approaches to suppress autoreactive immune cells may also be useful in regenerative medicine. The most innovative solutions will be developed through closer collaboration among stem cell biologists, transplantation immunologists and materials scientists.

  20. HIV As Trojan Exosome: Immunological Paradox Explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, James E K

    2017-01-01

    The HIV pandemic is still a major global challenge, despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs. An effective vaccine would be the ideal approach to bringing the pandemic to an end. However, developing an effective HIV vaccine has proven to be an elusive goal. Three major human HIV vaccine trials revealed a strong trend toward greater risk of infection among vaccine recipients versus controls. A similar observation was made in a macaque SIV vaccine study. The mechanism explaining this phenomenon is not known. Here, a model is presented that may explain the troubling results of vaccine studies and an immunological paradox of HIV pathogenesis: preferential infection of HIV-specific T cells. The central hypothesis of this perspective is that as "Trojan exosomes" HIV particles can directly activate HIV-specific T cells enhancing their susceptibility to infection. Understanding the biology of HIV as an exosome may provide insights that enable novel approaches to vaccine development.

  1. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  2. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  3. Immunological comparison of ovarian and colonic CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, P.; Gendron, M.C.; Maunoury, M.T.; Lamerz, R.; Schnabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian and colonic CEA were compared immunologically by means of antisera prepared against each of them. CEAs of both origins were found identical by immunodiffusion methods. In radioimmunological experiments, slight differences were observed between some but not all ovarian CEAs and colonic CEAs and also between different preparations of colonic CEA: no organ specificity of ovarian CEA could be demonstrated. Finally, CEA level was measured in 41 sera of patients with ovarian carcinoma by two radioimmunoassays, one using colonic CEA as tracer and standard and anti-colonic CEA serum, the other using ovarian CEA and anti-ovarian CEA serum: the values given by the two assays were highly correlated (rsub(s) = 0.8107), meaning that an organ specific assay for ovarian CEA is not needed. (Auth.)

  4. Desensitization: Overcoming the Immunologic Barriers to Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jua; Vo, Ashley; Peng, Alice; Jordan, Stanley C.

    2017-01-01

    HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigen) sensitization is a significant barrier to successful kidney transplantation. It often translates into difficult crossmatch before transplant and increased risk of acute and chronic antibody mediated rejection after transplant. Over the last decade, several immunomodulatory therapies have emerged allowing for increased access to kidney transplantation for the immunologically disadvantaged group of HLA sensitized end stage kidney disease patients. These include IgG inactivating agents, anti-cytokine antibodies, costimulatory molecule blockers, complement inhibitors, and agents targeting plasma cells. In this review, we discuss currently available agents for desensitization and provide a brief analysis of data on novel biologics, which will likely improve desensitization outcomes, and have potential implications in treatment of antibody mediated rejection. PMID:28127571

  5. IMMUNOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF APOPTOSIS IN PLACENTAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Sokolov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In present review, the data are considered that concern a role of immunological mechanisms controlling the events of apoptosis at different stages of development of placenta. Intensity of apoptotic process in human placenta is progressively increasing in the course of pregnancy, until delivery act. The processes of apoptosis induction and its prevention in placental cells are inseparably linked to development of placenta and formation of vascular system, as controlled by trophoblast cells, as well as by maternal fetal immune cells. T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, NKT-cells and macrophages that perform surveillance over the processes of angiogenesis and apoptosis in placental tissue, thus providing its normal development and functioning.

  6. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  7. Advances in asthma, allergy and immunology series 2004: basic and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2004-08-01

    This review highlights some of the most significant advances in basic and clinical immunology that were published from August 2002 to December 2003, focusing on manuscripts that appeared in the Journal. Articles selected were those considered most relevant to Journal readers. With regard to basic immunology, this report includes articles describing FcepsilonRI expression in mucosal Langerhans cells and type II dendritic cells, mechanisms of TH1 and TH2 regulation, the role of Foxp3 in the development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, and the increasing importance of Toll receptors in immunity. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected include the first report of lymphocyte subsets values from a large cohort of normal children; the description of new genetic defects in primary immunodeficiencies; a description of the complications of gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency; a report of 79 patients with hyper-IgM syndrome; a report of the mechanism of action and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; a report of new approaches for immunotherapy; and an article on advances in HIV infection and management, including a report of defensins, small molecules with anti-HIV properties. Also summarized is an article that studied the immune system during a prolonged stay in the Antarctic, a model for human studies on the effect of environmental conditions similar to space expeditions.

  8. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test... studies, and clinical assessment. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is...

  9. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis establishes Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a distinct species.

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    Vikram Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP, popularly known as Mw, is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which, based on its growth and metabolic properties, is classified in Runyon Group IV along with M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. vaccae. The novelty of this bacterium was accredited to its immunological ability to undergo antigen driven blast transformation of leukocytes and delayed hypersensitivity skin test in leprosy patients, a disease endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, MIP has been extensively evaluated for its biochemical and immunological properties leading to its usage as an immunomodulator in leprosy and tuberculosis patients. However, owing to advances in sequencing and culture techniques, the citing of new strains with almost 100% similarity in the sequences of marker genes like 16S rRNA, has compromised the identity of MIP as a novel species. Hence, to define its precise taxonomic position, we have carried out polyphasic taxonomic studies on MIP that integrate its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic attributes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequence of MIP by using BLAST algorithm at NCBI (nr database revealed a similarity of > or =99% with M. intracellulare, M. arosiense, M. chimaera, M. seoulense, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. bohemicum. Further analysis with other widely used markers like rpoB and hsp65 could resolve the phylogenetic relationship between MIP and other closely related mycobacteria apart from M. intracellulare and M. chimaera, which shares > or =99% similarity with corresponding MIP orthologues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the concatenation of candidate orthologues of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB, also substantiated its distinctiveness from all the related organisms used in the analysis excluding M. intracellulare and M. chimaera with which it exhibited a close proximity. This

  10. IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIVITY IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

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    R. O. Beglarov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose is to study the state of immunological reactivity in children with chronic glomerulonephritis.Patients and methods. 288 children with chronic glomerulonephritis were examined, of which boys accounted for 64.6%, girls — 35.4%. The mean age was 10.63 ± 3.88 years. Children are divided into 3 groups: Group I — 104 children with nephrotic form, Group II — 96 children with hematuric form, Group III — 88 children with mixed form. In the serum are identifi ed: CD3 +, CD4 +, CD8 +, CD16/56 +, CD19 +, CD95 + -subpopulations of lymphocytes; IgA, M, G; cytokines — IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-4 and IL-10; the level of circulating immune complexes, the test for the reduction of nitrous tetrazolium (HST test, the phagocytic index and the phagocytic activity of neutrophils.Results. Immunological reactivity in children with chronic glomerulonephritis is characterized by a statistically significant increase in T-helpers (by 36.2% and 41.9% in nephrotic and mixed forms, apoptosis marker (by 50.5%, 51.7% and 65.4% respectively, in children with nephrotic, hematuric and mixed forms, parameters of humoral immunity, the level of circulating immune complexes (2.4, 2.2 and 2.6 times, respectively, in nephrotic, hematuric and mixed forms, p < 0.05, pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased T-killers, B cells and phagocytic activity. At the same time, the degree of expression of immunoglobulin changes was higher with nephrotic (IgA 2.1 times, IgM 2.2 times, IgG 1.7 times, p < 0.05 and mixed forms (IgA 2.0 times, IgM 1.8 times, IgG 1.6 times, p < 0.05 with chronic glomerulonephritis. The level of TNF-α in children with a hematuric form exceeded the control ones by 3.9 times (p < 0.01, with the nephrotic and mixed form in 4.2 (p < 0.01 and 4.3 times (p < 0.01 respectively. The level of IL-1β and IL-8 was higher in nephrotic form in 2.0 and 1.5 times (p < 0.05, with hematuric — in 1.8 and 1.4 times (p < 0.05, at mixed — in 2

  11. Immunological parameters and residual feed intake of Nellore heifers

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    Cleisy Ferreira Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The residual feed intake (RFI is a parameter used in the identification of animals with respect to more efficient feed utilization. However, physiological basis are still unknown, however, the interrelationships between nutrition an immunity of the animal can contribute to the investigation of biological phenomena relevant to the RFI, since the defense system to oxidative effects caused by free radicals, is formed by acid polyunsaturated fatty acids, water soluble substances and enzymes, which derive mainly from the use of nutrients in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunological parameters of Nellore heifers classified according to RFI. It were evaluated 176 heifers (born between 2008 and 2010, Traditional Nellore herd from Instituto de Zootecnia - Sertãozinho/SP, forming three groups of evaluation, submitted to test post weaning feed efficiency and classified into high (> mean + 0.5 SD, n= 55, medium (± 0.5 SD, n= 65 and low RFI (< mean – 0.5 SD, n= 56. The diet was formulated based on Brachiaria decumbens hay, corn, cottonseed meal and mineral mixture (45:55, forage: concentrate. The weight of the animals were performed in fasting blood samples collected by venipuncture vein, using tubes of 10 ml type vacuntainer with EDTA anticoagulant. In the clinical laboratory, we measured the values of leukocytes (LEU; Targeted (SEG and lymphocytes (LIN. The experimental design was a randomized block design using PROC GLM of SAS, considering the fixed effects of year and the age covariate in the statistical model and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no significant difference (P>0,005 between variables leukocyte (LEU, SEG and LIN and class of RFI (table 1, indicating that there is no distinction between animals more efficient (low RFI and less efficient (high RFI, for inflammatory and immune responses to oxidative effects. Therefore the variables measured leukocytes not explain the differences

  12. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  13. Single Cell Genomics: Approaches and Utility in Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Karlynn E; Tang, Qingming; Wilson, Patrick C; Khan, Aly A

    2017-01-01

    Single cell genomics offers powerful tools for studying lymphocytes, which make it possible to observe rare and intermediate cell states that cannot be resolved at the population-level. Advances in computer science and single cell sequencing technology have created a data-driven revolution in immunology. The challenge for immunologists is to harness computing and turn an avalanche of quantitative data into meaningful discovery of immunological principles, predictive models, and strategies for therapeutics. Here, we review the current literature on computational analysis of single cell RNA-seq data and discuss underlying assumptions, methods, and applications in immunology, and highlight important directions for future research. PMID:28094102

  14. Update on Gender Equity in Immunology, 2001 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Virginia Smith; Kovats, Susan; Parent, Michelle A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hedrick, Catherine C; Jain, Pooja; Denzin, Lisa K; Raghavan, Malini; Stephens, Robin

    2016-11-15

    In 2001, The American Association of Immunologists Committee on the Status of Women conducted a survey examining the percentage of women faculty members within immunology departments or women in immunology graduate programs across 27 institutions in the United States, comparing it to the percentage of women receiving a Ph.D. Here, we examine the representation of women across these same 27 immunology departments and programs to examine changes in gender equity over the last 15 years. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Recent advances in the field of nutritional immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Hou, Tim Y; Chapkin, Robert S

    2011-11-01

    Every 4 years, researchers in the cross-disciplinary field of nutritional immunology convene for a FASEB-sponsored meeting entitled, "Nutritional Immunology: Role in Health and Disease", which was held this summer in Carefree, AZ, USA. The scope of the conference encompassed a diverse list of research topics, including, but not restricted to, obesity and immune dysfunction, nutrient-gene interactions, mucosal immunity and a discussion of future directions for the field. Here, we summarize some of the findings shared at the conference, specifically focusing on obesity, immunological function of dietary components (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and flavanoids), gut immunity and the microbiota, and relevant emerging technologies and databases.

  16. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  17. 50 years of Dutch immunology--founders, institutions, highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H J; Meyaard, Linde; Mebius, Reina E

    2014-12-01

    At the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology (DSI, de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Immunologie), this contribution deals with some highlights of 50 years of Immunology in the Netherlands. It narrates about the founders and first board members of the DSI, their institutes, progeny and patrimony, describes major centers of immunological activities, mentions key persons in the field, and touches upon some events dear to the Society and its members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunological problems of radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusztai-Markos, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The possible importance of the immune system in early development and progression of breast cancer is being discussed. The different laboratory methods in controlling the specific and non-specific immune reactivity are summarized. The modification of the immunological parameters by radio- resp. chemotherapy is critically presented on the basis of published data and on own results. An analysis of the data obtained by various immunological methods in respect to their consequences in diagnosis and prognosis is done. An immunological monitoring in the control of radio-, chemo- and immunotherapy in breast cancer patients is proposed. (orig.) [de

  19. Enzymatic, immunological and phylogenetic characterization of Brucella suis urease

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    Sriranganathan Nammalwar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification and the enzymatic and phylogenomic characterization of urease from Brucella suis strain 1330. Additionally, the urease reactivity of sera from patients diagnosed with brucellosis was examined. Results Urease encoded by the ure-1 operon of Brucella suis strain 1330 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The urease was purified 51-fold with a recovery of 12% of the enzyme activity and 0.24% of the total protein. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5, and showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 28–35°C. The purified enzyme exhibited a Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with a Km of 5.60 ± 0.69 mM. Hydroxyurea and thiourea are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki of 1.04 ± 0.31 mM and 26.12 ± 2.30 mM, respectively. Acetohydroxamic acid also inhibits the enzyme in a competitive way. The molecular weight estimated for the native enzyme was between 130–135 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 157 ± 7 kDa using 5–10% polyacrylamide gradient non-denaturing gel. Only three subunits in SDS-PAGE were identified: two small subunits of 14,000 Da and 15,500 Da, and a major subunit of 66,000 Da. The amino terminal sequence of the purified large subunit corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by ureC1. The UreC1 subunit was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. By phylogenetic and cluster structure analyses, ureC1 was related to the ureC typically present in the Rhizobiales; in contrast, the ureC2 encoded in the ure-2 operon is more related to distant species. Conclusion We have for the first time purified and characterized an active urease from B. suis. The enzyme was characterized at the kinetic

  20. Molecular and immunological characterization of mycobacteria associated with bovine farcy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwajok, Victor Loku

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to: i.isolate and identify Mycobacterium farcinogenese from the clinical samples (lymph nodes and serum), ii.charcterization of these species including mycobacterium senegalense and the related taxa using molecular biology methods (DNA extraction, PCR amplification, restriction fragment length plymorphism determination using restriction enzymes and DNA sequencing) and iii.immunological analysis of the species (animal pathogenicity tests, ELISA using sera samples from the clinical cases, protein antigen bands determination using SDS-PAGE method, and antigen-antibodies immunoassay using Western blotting and immunodiffusion tests). Seventeen clinical isolates identified as Mycobacterium farcinogenese were obtained from 578 lymph nodes and 36 positive sera samples of the 269 which were tested. Molecular characterization of the test strains was carried out using independent taxonomic criteria derived from the application of morphological, enzymatic and chemotaxonomic methods. DNA extraction method gave clearly resolved bands on agarose gel electrophoresis with clear common bands of 1500 base pairs. The extracted DNA was used as template for pcr amplification with universal primer 27f (5'AGAGTTTGATCCGGCTAG-3') and primer 1525r' (5'AAGGAGGTATCGAGCC-3') with appended restriction sites being ideal primers for amplification. No significant difference in the DNA fingerprints of the farcy agents were reproducible over successive generations and were in line with their placement in the genus Mycobacterium. PCR-DNA fingerprinting using BamHI restriction enzymes for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis as a means for differentiating between Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense. The 16SrDNA sequencing of Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense the farcy sole agents, gave data of variable signals with 1482 nucleotides with 65 corresponding almost complete nucleotide sequences in 1404 positions. Manual

  1. Molecular and immunological characterization of mycobacteria associated with bovine farcy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwajok, Victor Loku [Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the study was to: i.isolate and identify Mycobacterium farcinogenese from the clinical samples (lymph nodes and serum), ii.charcterization of these species including mycobacterium senegalense and the related taxa using molecular biology methods (DNA extraction, PCR amplification, restriction fragment length plymorphism determination using restriction enzymes and DNA sequencing) and iii.immunological analysis of the species (animal pathogenicity tests, ELISA using sera samples from the clinical cases, protein antigen bands determination using SDS-PAGE method, and antigen-antibodies immunoassay using Western blotting and immunodiffusion tests). Seventeen clinical isolates identified as Mycobacterium farcinogenese were obtained from 578 lymph nodes and 36 positive sera samples of the 269 which were tested. Molecular characterization of the test strains was carried out using independent taxonomic criteria derived from the application of morphological, enzymatic and chemotaxonomic methods. DNA extraction method gave clearly resolved bands on agarose gel electrophoresis with clear common bands of 1500 base pairs. The extracted DNA was used as template for pcr amplification with universal primer 27f (5'AGAGTTTGATCCGGCTAG-3') and primer 1525r' (5'AAGGAGGTATCGAGCC-3') with appended restriction sites being ideal primers for amplification. No significant difference in the DNA fingerprints of the farcy agents were reproducible over successive generations and were in line with their placement in the genus Mycobacterium. PCR-DNA fingerprinting using BamHI restriction enzymes for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis as a means for differentiating between Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense. The 16SrDNA sequencing of Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense the farcy sole agents, gave data of variable signals with 1482 nucleotides with 65 corresponding almost complete nucleotide sequences in 1404 positions. Manual

  2. Immunological detection of Fusarium species in cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, M S; Cousin, M A

    2003-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect Fusarium species in foods. Antibodies to proteins extracted from the mycelia of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme (verticillioides) were produced in New Zealand white rabbits. These antibodies detected 13 Fusarium species in addition to the producer strains. Levels of Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium tricinctum strains were below the detection threshold. The specificity of the assay was tested against 70 molds and yeasts belonging to 23 genera. One strain of Monascus species and one strain of Phoma exigua were detected; however, these two molds are not common contaminants of cereal grains or foods and should not interfere with the assay. The indirect ELISA's detection limits for F. graminearum and F. moniliforme were 0.1 and 1 microg of mold mycelium per ml of a cornmeal mixture, respectively. When spores of each mold were added individually to cornmeal mixtures (at ca. 10 spores per g) and incubated at 25 degrees C, these spores were detected by the indirect ELISA when they reached levels of 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml after 24 to 36 h. The indirect ELISA developed here shows promise for the detection of Fusarium species in grains or foods.

  3. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

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    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  4. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

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    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  5. Learning from a contemporary history of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melvin

    2017-06-01

    This essay is a selected aspect of the history of contemporary immunology seen from a "what can we learn" point of view. It is limited to the ideas and experiments from which we might draw a take-home message. The emphasis is on the convoluted pathway that was actually used by immunologists to arrive at understanding compared to the direct pathway that could have been used given the knowledge at that time. It takes the reader through the instructionist era of the 1940s to the present by stressing the elements of thinking most conducive to the arrival at a default understanding of the intact immune system. It is a personalized account because the author participated directly in the debates that led eventually to agreed-upon or default conceptualizations. Given this, a peek at the future is attempted as a test of the validity of a Cartesian or reductionist approach to arriving at simplification of complexity and at the maximizing of generalization. A reasoned guess (i.e., a theory) is the only way we have to understand the world around us.

  6. Historical links between toxinology and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaillon, Jean-Marc

    2018-04-01

    Research on bacterial toxins is closely linked to the birth of immunology. Our understanding of the interaction of bacterial protein toxins with immune cells has helped to decipher immunopathology, develop preventive and curative treatments for infections, and propose anti-cancer immunotherapies. The link started when Behring and Kitasato demonstrated that serotherapy was effective against 'the strangling angel', namely diphtheria, and its dreadful toxin discovered by Roux and Yersin. The antitoxin treatment helped to save thousands of children. Glenny demonstrated the efficacy of the secondary immune response compared to the primary one. Ramon described anatoxins that allowed the elaboration of effective vaccines and discovered the use of adjuvant to boost the antibody response. Similar approaches were later made for the tetanus toxin. Studying antitoxin antibodies Ehrlich demonstrated, for the first time, the transfer of immunity from mother to newborns. In 1989 Marrack and Kappler coined the concept of 'superantigens' to characterize protein toxins that induce T-lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine release by both T-lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells. More recently, immunotoxins have been designed to kill cancer cells targeted by either specific antibodies or cytokines. Finally, the action of IgE antibodies against toxins may explain their persistence through evolution despite their side effect in allergy.

  7. Immunological pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear. Thus, IBD treatment is far from optimal, and patient outcomes can be unsatisfactory. As result of massive studying on IBD, T helper 17 (Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are investigated on their effects on IBD. A recent study of the plasticity of Th17 cells focused primarily on colitis. ILCs also emerging as novel cell family, which play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD immunopathogenesis is key to understanding the causes of IBD and can lead to the development of IBD therapies. The aim of this review is to explain the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on immunological factors and therapies.

  8. Immunological aspects of light radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, K.B.; Schuller, G.B.

    1981-01-01

    The immune system comprises one aspect of the host's defense mechanism against potentially harmful agents. It has become recognized as an important factor in light radiation sensitivity and light-mediated disease. The interaction of light radiation with the immune system has formed the basis for the evolving discipline of photoimmunology. A description of the multicomponent immune system, its modification by light radiation, and a discussion of how photoimmunological studies may provide data important for understanding the mechanisms involved in photosensitivity are presented in this review. Photosensitivity may be either acquired or may be genetic in nature. Acquired photosensitivity involves an individual's reaction to either light alone or light in conjunction with topically or systemically administered photosenitizing agents. The outcome of such a reaction can be benign or severe, depending on a number of factors. Genetic photosensitivity includes the reactions to light radiation of individuals carrying the genetic information for inherited diseases such as Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Factors associated with these conditions can lead to enhanced sensitivity to radiation-related diseases, such as cancer. In addition, there are conditions which cannot be readily placed in either of the categories just described but, nevertheless, have been correlated with immune system dysfunction. These include photoallergy, photosensitivity associated with autoimmunity, and light-induced skin cancer. Immunological studies have provided information which may aid in elucidating the problem of photosensitivity and in the development of suitable radioprotective measures

  9. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  10. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) between recipients (n = 11) of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P aromatherapy and carrier massage, no difference between the aromatherapy and control massage was observed for STAI and SDS. Aromatherapy, in contrast to control massage, did not significantly reduce RBC count or hematocrit. However, aromatherapy massage showed a significant (P > 0.05) increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:15937558

  11. Towards integrating extracellular matrix and immunological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David F; Thomas, Paul G

    2017-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex and dynamic structure made up of an estimated 300 different proteins. The ECM is also a rich source of cytokines and growth factors in addition to numerous bioactive ECM degradation products that influence cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The ECM is constantly being remodeled during homeostasis and in a wide range of pathological contexts. Changes in the ECM modulate immune responses, which in turn regulate repair and regeneration of tissues. Here, we review the many components of the ECM, enzymes involved in ECM remodeling, and the signals that feed into immunological pathways in the context of a dynamic ECM. We highlight studies that have taken an integrative approach to studying immune responses in the context of the ECM and studies that use novel proteomic strategies. Finally, we discuss research challenges relevant to the integration of immune and ECM networks and propose experimental and translational approaches to resolve these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  13. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.

  14. Pediatric allergy and immunology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary W K; Li, Jing; Bao, Yi-Xiao; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Leung, Ting Fan; Li, Luan-Luan; Shao, Jie; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Liu, En-Mei; Shen, Kun-Ling; Chen, Yu-Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has enjoyed rapid economic development along with urbanization at a massive scale that the world has not experienced before. Such development has also been associated with a rapid rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. Because of the large childhood population in the country, the burden of childhood allergic disorders has become one of the major challenges in the healthcare system. Among the Chinese centers participating in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, the data clearly showed a continuing rise in the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. However, the discipline of pediatric allergy in mainland China is still in its infancy due to the lack of formal training program and subspecialty certification. Clinicians and researchers are increasingly interested in providing better care for patients with allergies by establishing pediatric allergy centers in different regions of the country. Many of them have also participated in national or international collaborative projects hoping to answer the various research questions related to the discipline of pediatric allergy and immunology. It is our hope that the research findings from China will not only improve the quality of care of affected children within this country but also the millions of patients with allergies worldwide. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  15. Tumor Biology and Immunology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor Biology and Immunology The Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium is collaborating with National Center for Advanced Translational Sciences to complete whole exome sequencing on canine meningioma samples. Results will be published and made publicly available.

  16. FOCIS goes south: advances in translational and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Anegon, Ignacio; González, Pablo A

    2017-09-01

    FOCIS goes South: Advances in Translational and Clinical Immunology was the first Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) ( www.focisnet.org ) meeting held in Latin America (May 15-17, 2017, Santiago de Chile, Chile). The meeting was organized as a 3-day workshop and was fostered by the Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, a recently nominated FOCIS Center of Excellence. The workshop brought together FOCIS associates, such as members of the FOCIS Board of Directors, Directors of different Centers of Excellence, regional speakers and 350 attendees. The Meeting covered aspects of immune regulation and modulation, as well as immunotherapy in areas of autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer and infectious diseases, among others. The activity also had a full-day immunology course and a day-long flow cytometry course.

  17. The Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ImmPort system serves as a long-term, sustainable archive of immunology research data generated by investigators mainly funded through the NIAID/DAIT. The core...

  18. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RA PATIENTS WITH ANAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sizikov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the investigation was to study the immunological characteristics of RA patients with anaemia. Clinical and laboratory data including the percentage of the main lymphocyte subclasses, phagocyte and DTH-effector activity, serum concentration of immunoglobulins, the percentage of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4 and percent of monocytes producing TNF. We revealed some significant clinical, laboratory and immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia. Our data demonstrate RA anemic patients to have more severe disorders than patients without anaemia. We also revealed some significant immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia, including percent of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4. Our data permit to conclude that RA patients have many different immunological disturbances, more severe in anaemic patients.

  19. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  20. Remembrance of immunology past: conversations with Herman Eisen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Herman N; Schlesinger, Sondra

    2015-01-01

    Herman Eisen and Sondra Schlesinger spent several days together in September 2007 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, talking about immunology, focusing on his remembrances of the field over the more than 60 years of his involvement. This article is an abridged version of those discussions (the full version is available on the Annual Reviews website). It is both an oral history and a written memory of some important but selected areas of immunology.

  1. Immunological half-life of porcine proinsulin C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, H; Horino, M; Matsumura, S [Kawasaki Medical Coll., Kurashiki (Japan). Div. of Endocrinology; Kobayshi, K; Suetsugu, N [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-11-01

    Immunological half-lifes of injected porcine C-peptide and insulin with RIA were studied and calculated as 9.8 and 8.0 minutes. Higher circulating levels of C-peptide as compared to insulin in normal young swines lead to speculation about a longer half-life of C-peptide. This hypothesis was verified in this study. Immunological half-lifes of porcine proinsulin and insulin in the pig were 20 and 6 minutes, respectively.

  2. Immunological systematics of the extinct quagga (Equidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, J M; Ryder, O A

    1985-09-15

    It has been debated whether the extinct quagga was a distinct fourth species of African zebra or whether it was merely the southern variant of the Plains zebra (Equus burchelli). Using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique, we have shown that proteins remaining in quagga skins from museums are much more similar to serum proteins of the Plains zebra than to those of the other two extant zebras.

  3. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful I; Chowdhury, Fahima; Leung, Daniel T; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and immunological features of cholera in pregnancy. Women of reproductive age presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka hospital with cholera, and enrolled as part of a larger cohort study, were tested for pregnancy on admission. We compared initial clinical features and immune responses of pregnant patients with non-pregnant female patients at days 2, 7 and 21 after infection. Among reproductive age women enrolled between January 2001 and May 2006, 9.7% (14/144) were pregnant. The duration of diarrhoea prior to admission tended to be higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant patients (p=0.08), but other clinical characteristics did not differ. Antibody responses to cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB), toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA), Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum vibriocidal antibody responses, were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. There were no deaths among the pregnant cases or non-pregnant controls, and no adverse foetal outcomes, including stillbirths, during 21 days of follow up of pregnant cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunological study in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Nobutaka

    1994-01-01

    This study examined peripheral T and B lymphocytes using monoclonal antibodies in twin A-bomb survivors and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients in the exposed and non-exposed groups. The subjects were 10 persons (9 exposed ones and 1 non-exposed one), collected from 6 pairs of twins (in the twin group); 8 MDS patients in the exposed group; and 4 MDS patients in the non-exposed group. In the twin group, an increase in CD4-positive helper/inducer T cells and a decrease in CD8-positive suppressor/cytotoxic T cells were definitely observed. This tended to be noticeable in persons exposed nearer the hypocenter. Furthermore, the twin group had a higher ratio of CD4 to CD8. Immunological findings reflecting B cell abnormalities were not found in this group. In all MDS patients in both the exposed and non-exposed groups, refractory anemia (Hb of 10.0 g/dl or less) were observed. Some of the patients in the exposed group had an increase of T4 (CD4) + T cells, a decrease of T8(CD8) + T cells, a decrease of B-1(CD20) + B cells, and an increase of TQ-1 + cells. Double-fluorescence staining revealed an increase in T4(CD4) + 2H4(CD45RA) + cells in patients with primary acquired refractory anemia. The ratio of CD4 to CD8 in all MDS patients, except for one patient, was normal or increased. Furthermore, neither RAS nor p53 oncogenes were observed in the MDS group. (N.K.)

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Immunological Failure among HIV Patients on HAART in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yirdaw, Kesetebirhan Delele; Hattingh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Immunological monitoring is part of the standard of care for patients on antiretroviral treatment. Yet, little is known about the routine implementation of immunological laboratory monitoring and utilization in clinical care in Ethiopia. This study assessed the pattern of immunological monitoring, immunological response, level of immunological treatment failure and factors related to it among patients on antiretroviral therapy in selected hospitals in southern Ethiopia. A retrospective longit...

  6. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  7. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown.We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree.CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  8. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  9. Performance of immunological response in predicting virological failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Nayana; Mehta, Preeti; Pazare, Amar; Paranjpe, Supriya; Sarkate, Purva

    2013-03-01

    In HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), the decision on when to switch from first-line to second-line therapy is dictated by treatment failure, and this can be measured in three ways: clinically, immunologically, and virologically. While viral load (VL) decreases and CD4 cell increases typically occur together after starting ART, discordant responses may be seen. Hence the current study was designed to determine the immunological and virological response to ART and to evaluate the utility of immunological response to predict virological failure. All treatment-naive HIV-positive individuals aged >18 years who were eligible for ART were enrolled and assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months clinically and by CD4 cell count and viral load estimations. The patients were categorized as showing concordant favorable (CF), immunological only (IO), virological only (VO), and concordant unfavorable responses (CU). The efficiency of immunological failure to predict virological failure was analyzed across various levels of virological failure (VL>50, >500, and >5,000 copies/ml). At 6 months, 87(79.81%), 7(5.5%), 13 (11.92%), and 2 (1.83%) patients and at 12 months 61(69.3%), 9(10.2%), 16 (18.2%), and 2 (2.3%) patients had CF, IO, VO, and CU responses, respectively. Immunological failure criteria had a very low sensitivity (11.1-40%) and positive predictive value (8.3-25%) to predict virological failure. Immunological criteria do not accurately predict virological failure resulting in significant misclassification of therapeutic responses. There is an urgent need for inclusion of viral load testing in the initiation and monitoring of ART.

  10. Immunological response and protection of mice immunized with plasmid encoding Toxoplasma gondii glycolytic enzyme malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A; Wang, S; Xu, L; Yan, R; Song, X; XiangRui, L

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) plays an important role as part of the energy production cycle. In this investigation, immunological changes and protection efficiency of this protein delivered as a DNA vaccine have been evaluated. Mice were intramuscularly immunized with pTgMDH, followed by challenge with virulent T. gondii RH strain, 2 weeks after the booster immunization. Compared to the control groups, the results showed that pTgMDH has stimulated specific humoral response as demonstrated by significant high titers of total IgG and subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a , beside IgA and IgM, but not IgE. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17, while no significant changes were detected in TGF-β1. In cell-mediated response, both T lymphocytes subpopulations CD4(+) and CD8(+) were positively recruited as significant percentages were recorded in response to immunization with TgMDH. Significant long survival rate, 17 days, has been observed in the TgMDH vaccinated group, in contrast with control groups which died within 8-9 days after challenge. These results demonstrated that TgMDH could induce significant immunological responses leading to a considerable level of protection against acute toxoplasmosis infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Maintaining Intestinal Health: The Genetics and Immunology of Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R. Kelsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD younger than 5 years of age represent a unique form of disease, termed very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD, which is phenotypically and genetically distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression, and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal inflammation and promote tissue repair. Here, we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation. Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Whole Exome Sequencing, Mucosal Immunology

  12. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  13. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-10-05

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity.

  14. Immunological profile of HTLV-1-infected patients associated with infectious or autoimmune dermatological disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Grazziela Alves Coelho-dos-Reis

    Full Text Available In the present study, the frequency, the activation and the cytokine and chemokine profile of HTLV-1 carriers with or without dermatological lesions were thoroughly described and compared. The results indicated that HTLV-1-infected patients with dermatological lesions have distinct frequency and activation status when compared to asymptomatic carriers. Alterations in the CD4(+HLA-DR(+, CD8(+ T cell, macrophage-like and NKT subsets as well as in the serum chemokines CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were observed in the HTLV-1-infected group with skin lesions. Additionally, HTLV-1 carriers with dermatological skin lesions showed more frequently high proviral load as compared to asymptomatic carriers. The elevated proviral load in HTLV-1 patients with infectious skin lesions correlated significantly with TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, while the same significant correlation was found for the IL-12/IL-10 ratio and the high proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with autoimmune skin lesions. All in all, these results suggest a distinct and unique immunological profile in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1-infected patients with skin disorders, and the different nature of skin lesion observed in these patients may be an outcome of a distinct unbalance of the systemic inflammatory response upon HTLV-1 infection.

  15. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.L.; Murua, M.G.; García, M.G.; Ontivero, M.; Vera, M.T.; Vilardi, J.C.; Groot, A.T.; Castagnaro, A.P.; Gastaminza, G.; Willink, E.

    2012-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference

  16. Single-Cell Genomics: Approaches and Utility in Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Karlynn E; Tang, Qingming; Wilson, Patrick C; Khan, Aly A

    2017-02-01

    Single-cell genomics offers powerful tools for studying immune cells, which make it possible to observe rare and intermediate cell states that cannot be resolved at the population level. Advances in computer science and single-cell sequencing technology have created a data-driven revolution in immunology. The challenge for immunologists is to harness computing and turn an avalanche of quantitative data into meaningful discovery of immunological principles, predictive models, and strategies for therapeutics. Here, we review the current literature on computational analysis of single-cell RNA-sequencing data and discuss underlying assumptions, methods, and applications in immunology, and highlight important directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunological condition in population living near Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ueda, Masafumi.

    1992-01-01

    This is the brief introduction of the immunological survey at Pavlodar, Kazakhstan SSR, a 300 km away from the Semipalatinsk test site, originally reported by Beysembaev E.A.,Valivach M.N. (Course of Clinical Immunology in Pavlodar Dzerzhynsky str., 166), Molochanov N.E. (Pavlodar Regional Hospital), Kazakav, V.M. (Radiologist Lab. of Regional Sanitary and Epidemiology Station), Ounusov B.A. and Osorodnikova O.P. (Clinical Immunology Centre in Pavlodar). The comparative investigations on (1) 150 preschool age children in Pavlodar before and 6 months after the cessation of nuclear tests, (2) 25 children suffering from frequent respiratory infections before the cessation and 25 analogous children after the cessation, and (3) 69 children (age 1 - 7) and 70 adults (age 28 - 58) inhabitants of Maysky district, where radioactivity is especially high, and 50 children and 50 adults of Pavlodar inhabitants, are reported. Erythrocyte rosette-forming cells, immunoglobulins G, A, and M, etc. are tested. (A.Y.)

  18. Breaking Immunological Tolerance through OX40 (CD134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Bansal-Pakala

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological tolerance represents a mechanism by which cells of the host remain protected from the immune system. Breaking of immunological tolerance can result in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. The reasons for tolerance breaking down and autoimmune processes arising are largely unknown but of obvious interest for therapeutic intervention of these diseases. Although reversal of the tolerant state is generally unwanted, there are instances where this may be of benefit to the host. In particular, one way a cancerous cell escapes being targeted by the immune system is through tolerance mechanisms that in effect turn off the reactivity of T lymphocytes that can respond to tumor-associated peptides. Thus tolerance represents a major obstacle in developing effective immunotherapy against tumors. The molecules that are involved in regulating immunological tolerance are then of interest as they may be great targets for positively or negatively manipulating the tolerance process.

  19. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  20. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  1. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-01-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

  2. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-07-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  3. [Immunological status of patients with amebic hepatic abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto Solís, A; Miranda Feria, A J; Medina Martinez, J; Teran Ortíz, L A; Suárez Sánchez, F

    1975-01-01

    The authors studied 10 cases of amoebic hepatic abscess documented by clinical evidence and confirmed by laboratory tests, liver scan and a good response to treatment. The immunological state of the patients was determined by protein electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, counter-immunoelectrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and roset formation for T and B lymphocytes. It is concluded that the alterations of cellular and humoral immunity is evident in cases of amoebic hepatic abscess; this alterations are more clear in the acute form of the illness and the immunological deficiency is more significant in the celular immunity.

  4. The immunological synapse: a focal point for endocytosis and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gillian M; Tsun, Andy; Stinchcombe, Jane C

    2010-05-03

    There are many different cells in the immune system. To mount an effective immune response, they need to communicate with each other. One way in which this is done is by the formation of immunological synapses between cells. Recent developments show that the immune synapse serves as a focal point for exocytosis and endocytosis, directed by centrosomal docking at the plasma membrane. In this respect, formation of the immunological synapse bears striking similarities to cilia formation and cytokinesis. These intriguing observations suggest that the centrosome may play a conserved role in designating a specialized area of membrane for localized endocytosis and exocytosis.

  5. German Society for Immunology and Australasian Society for Immunology joint Workshop 3(rd) -4(th) December 2015 - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. [Value of immunologic phenotyping of acute leukemias in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, J P; Bene, M C

    1989-10-01

    Immunologic typing has demonstrated considerable heterogeneity among the acute leukemias. The most significant recent advance has been development of monoclonal antibody techniques. Some markers identified using these techniques seem to be specific for a given stage of maturation of one lymphoid or myeloid cell line. Most acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) are malignant proliferations whose differentiation appears to have become 'stuck' at one stage of maturation. Results of immunologic typing correlate well with the other clinical and biological data. For prognostic purposes, several patterns can be identified. Among B line ALLs, four varieties have been differentiated, i.e., CD10 negative ALLs, common ALLs, pre-B ALLs, and B ALLs. T ALLs include a broad spectrum of heterogeneous proliferations whose immunologic classification is made difficult by the large number of phenotypes encountered. Among acute myeloblastic leukemias (AMLs), some highly undifferentiated forms have been recognized, by means of immunologic typing, as originating in one of the myeloid cell lines. However, the nosologic and prognostic significance of these studies is less obvious than in ALLs.

  7. Optimal time interval for induction of immunologic adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Guizhi; Song Chunhua; Liu Shuzheng

    1994-01-01

    The optimal time interval between prior dose (D1) and challenge dose (D2) for the induction of immunologic adaptive response was investigated. Kunming mice were exposed to 75 mGy X-rays at a dose rate of 12.5 mGy/min. 3, 6, 12, 24 or 60 h after the prior irradiation the mice were challenged with a dose of 1.5 Gy at a dose rate of 0.33 Gy/min. 18h after D2, the mice were sacrificed for examination of immunological parameters. The results showed that with an interval of 6 h between D1 and D2, the adaptive response of the reaction of splenocytes to LPS was induced, and with an interval of 12 h the adaptive responses of spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes and the reaction of splenocytes to Con A and LPS were induced with 75 mGy prior irradiation. The data suggested that the optimal time intervals between D1 and D2 for the induction of immunologic adaptive response were 6 h and 12 h with a D1 of 75 mGy and a D2 of 1.5 Gy. The mechanism of immunologic adaptation following low dose radiation is discussed

  8. prevalence of clinical, immunological and virological failure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: There is increasing evidence that the current clinical and immunological monitoring tools are not sufficient to identify early enough patients who are failing on treatment. Development of resistance to the limited treatment options for children and premature switching are the dangers. The objective of ...

  9. Allergy-immunology glossary | El-Sayed | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a clear designation of some of the terms used in allergology and immunology. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  10. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Contact: Professor Ihab Z. El-Hakim. Email ihab.elhakim@gmail.com. Phone +201111224974. Fax … +202 33045060. Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University, Ramses Street, Abbassiya, Cairo 11566, Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology ...

  11. Highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...

  12. Current status of immunologic studies in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.

    1978-06-01

    Several aspects of the immunology of human malignancy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on relevant findings in lung cancer. The existence of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in numerous tumor types. Of more relevance in clinical situations is the association of generalized immunologic depression with malignancy. In the vast majority of cases, progressive declines in both tumor-specific and nonspecific immunologic parameters are observed with advancing disease. The approach to the immunologic evaluation of cancer patients and the potential usefulness of this approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, management, and assessment of therapeutic response are discussed. Evidence aimed at elucidating the mechanism of immunosuppression in malignancy, such as serum-blocking factors, immunoregulatory alpha globulins, and suppressor cells, is presented. Finally, emphasis is placed on the various forms of immunotherapy, including both specific active methods such as tumor cell or tumor antigen vaccines and nonspecific active immunotherapy involving agents like Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and levamisole. Early results from clinical immunotherapeutic trials are discussed.

  13. Experimental photoimmunology: immunologic ramifications of UV-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daynes, R.A.; Bernhard, E.J.; Gurish, M.F.; Lynch, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of animal model systems to investigate the sequence of events which lead to the induction and progression of skin tumors following chronic ultraviolet light (UVL) exposure has clearly shown that the direct mutagenic effects of UVL is only one of the components involved in this process. In spite of the fact that overt carcinogenesis is only one of the many effects produced by UV light, most hypotheses as to the mechanism by which UVL can cause the mutations necessary to achieve the transformed phenotype have focused on the direct effects of UVL on DNA and the generation of carcinogenic compounds. Investigations during the last 5 yr, however, have clearly demonstrated that immunologic factors are also critically important in the pathogenesis of UV-induced skin cancers. A complete understanding of UV-carcinogenesis must therefore consider the mechanisms which allow the transformed cell to evade immunologic rejection by the host in addition to those aspects which deal with conversion of a normal cell to a cancer cell. It is the object of this review to provide both a historical account of the work which established the immunologic consequences of chronic UVL exposure and the results of recent experiments designed to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms by which UVL affects the immunologic apparatus. In addition, a hypothetical model is presented to explain the sequence of events which ultimately lead to the emergence of the suppressor T-cells which regulate antitumor immune responses

  14. Modulation of the ISFET response by an immunological reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Bomer, Johan G.; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1989-01-01

    A new method is presented for the detection of an immunological reaction in a membrane. Antigens (or antibodies) are taken up in a porous membrane, which covers the gate area of an ISFET. By stepwise changing of the electrolyte concentration, a transient transport of ions through the

  15. Immunological Adaptations to Pregnancy in Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bart; van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; van den Berg, Paul P.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Sollie, Krystina M.; de Vos, Paul; Links, Thera P.; Faas, Marijke M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite adequate glycemic control, pregnancy outcome of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still unfavorable as compared to healthy women. In a rat-model of T1D under normoglycemic conditions, adverse pregnancy outcome was also observed, which was associated with aberrant immunological adaptations

  16. Immunological challenges during pregnancy : preeclampsia and egg donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Marie-Louise van der

    2012-01-01

    Human pregnancy is an interesting immunological paradox. The fetus is a semi-allograft, carrying paternal and maternal genes but is not rejected by the maternal immune system. The placenta is a key player in maintaining the pregnancy, since this fetus-derived organ is in direct contact with the

  17. Immunologic assessment of patients with pulmonary metaplasia and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.L.; Saccomanno, G.; Smith, D.M.; Saunders, R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Immune profiles have been obtained on 206 individuals including 57 controls, 50 lung cancer patients, and 99 uranium miners with well-defined sputum cytologies ranging from normal to carcinoma in situ. Little effect of smoking, uranium mining or a combination of mining plus smoking on immune function was observed if sputum cytology was normal. In heavy smokers there was a suggestion that total T cells are increased while T cell function is slightly depressed. Immunologic abnormalities were noted in the moderate atypia group where 40% had one or more abnormal immunologic parameters. Immunologic abnormalities were detected in 68 to 70 patients with marked atypia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Further sequential study of the uranium miner population is necessary to define more precisely the predictive value of immunologic testing, and the role of early identification of high risk individuals in the early institution of definitive therapy, such as surgery or immunotherapy. Long-term prospective analysis of this population may also provide the answer to the question of whether alterations in immune function precede, or result from the appearance of cells committed to the development of neoplasia

  18. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University ...

  19. Kinetics and clonality of immunological memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverley, Peter C L

    2004-10-01

    T-cell immunological memory consists largely of clones of proliferating lymphocytes maintained by antigenic stimulation and the survival and proliferative effects of cytokines. The duration of survival of memory clones in humans is determine by the Hayflick limit on the number of cell divisions, the rate of cycling of memory cells and factors that control erosion of telomeres, including mechanisms that control telomerase.

  20. The lymphopenic mouse in immunology: from patron to pariah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nevil J; Schwartz, Ronald H

    2006-12-01

    A recent surge of interest in the behavior of T and B cells in lymphopenic model systems has resurrected a certain cynicism about the validity of using such models to answer important immunological questions. Here we discuss this skepticism in a broader historical context.

  1. Regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu

    2015-12-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and is well-known as a co-factor for 5 indispensable carboxylases. Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the biotinylation of carboxylases and other proteins, whereas biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from biotinylated peptides. Previous studies have reported that nutritional biotin deficiency and genetic defects in either HLCS or biotinidase induces cutaneous inflammation and immunological disorders. Since biotin-dependent carboxylases involve various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, metabolic abnormalities may play important roles in immunological and inflammatory disorders caused by biotin deficiency. Transcriptional factors, including NF-κB and Sp1/3, are also affected by the status of biotin, indicating that biotin regulates immunological and inflammatory functions independently of biotin-dependent carboxylases. An in-vivo analysis with a murine model revealed the therapeutic effects of biotin supplementation on metal allergies. The novel roles of biotinylated proteins and their related enzymes have recently been reported. Non-carboxylase biotinylated proteins induce chemokine production. HLCS is a nuclear protein involved in epigenetic and chromatin regulation. In this review, comprehensive knowledge on the regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin and its potential as a therapeutic agent is discussed.

  2. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  3. A New Immunologic Method for Detection of Occult Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    in Workshop on Melanoma Monoclonal Antibodies, NIH. 1981 Workshop on ELISA, Cordia Laboratories, Culver City, invited Faculty. 1982 Invited Faculty...for Workshop on Practical Aspects of ELISA, Cordia Laboratories. 1983 Invited Faculty for Workshop on Melanoma Immunology, European Soc for

  4. Cutting edge issues in allergy and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Torsten; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2007-02-01

    Approximately every 5 yr, Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology deviates from its usual practice of publishing volumes devoted to one theme to including papers that cover a range of subjects. This issue is one such exception and arose following a symposium at the International Institute for Research in Autoimmune Diseases named AESKU.KIPP Institute at their Wendelsheim facility. The AESKU.KIPP Institute was a particularly venue because it was initially established by a German diagnostic company and a Swiss benefactor, Karl- Heinz Kipp. The goal of the Institute was to develop a unique atmosphere to encourage original research in the field of autoimmunity and clinical immunology. The thought was to create an institute where young scientists from throughout the world could come for short periods of time to learn newer methodologies in both clinical immunology and also molecular biology. This theme contains several of the papers presented at the opening of the Institute and are incorporated herein because they focus on several unique aspects of clinical immunology, often referred to as the mosaic of autoimmunity.

  5. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  6. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  7. Peptide modification in T cell immunology - from molecule to animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Ellen Christine de

    2003-01-01

    Chemical knowledge can be applied in the field of immunology. It provides a better understanding of how a peptide interacts with proteins and cells of the immune system. However, it is not possible to predict the outcome of peptide administration in an animal. Peptides are used in experimental

  8. An electrophoretical and immunological study of Pycnogonida, with phylogenetic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munilla, Tomás; Haro, de Andrés

    1981-01-01

    An electrophoretical and immunological study is made of nine species of pycnogonids, representing seven families, from the Catalan coast. An electrophoretogram of each species is given and the antigenic properties of its protein bands are determined. Taking as comparative basis the serological

  9. Host Competence: An Organismal Trait to Integrate Immunology and Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Burgan, S C; Adelman, James S; Gervasi, Stephanie S

    2016-12-01

    The new fields of ecological immunology and disease ecology have begun to merge, and the classic fields of immunology and epidemiology are beginning to blend with them. This merger is occurring because the integrative study of host-parasite interactions is providing insights into disease in ways that traditional methods have not. With the advent of new tools, mathematical and technological, we could be on the verge of developing a unified theory of infectious disease, one that supersedes the barriers of jargon and tradition. Here we argue that a cornerstone of any such synthesis will be host competence, the propensity of an individual host to generate new infections in other susceptible hosts. In the last few years, the emergence of systems immunology has led to novel insight into how hosts control or eliminate pathogens. Most such efforts have stopped short of considering transmission and the requisite behaviors of infected individuals that mediate it, and few have explicitly incorporated ecological and evolutionary principles. Ultimately though, we expect that the use of a systems immunology perspective will help link suborganismal processes (i.e., health of hosts and selection on genes) to superorganismal outcomes (i.e., community-level disease dynamics and host-parasite coevolution). Recently, physiological regulatory networks (PRNs) were cast as whole-organism regulatory systems that mediate homeostasis and hence link suborganismal processes with the fitness of individuals. Here, we use the PRN construct to develop a roadmap for studying host competence, taking guidance from systems immunology and evolutionary ecology research. We argue that PRN variation underlies heterogeneity in individual host competence and hence host-parasite dynamics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH UROLOGICAL PROFILE UNDER COMBINED THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Esipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and treatment of postoperative purulent-inflammatory complications in urological practice remains a subject for study and improvement in all medical centers. The principle of evidence must be taken as a basis of effectiveness of therapy. In this study the quality criteria of demonstrated therapy are immunological parameters.The purpose of this study is to identify the effectiveness of using monooxidase (NO containing a gas stream replenishing the deficiency of endogenous NO in a group of patients; and to investigate immunological reactivity in patients under complex therapy included nitrogen monoxide and immunomodulators.Materials and methods. In this experimental study we determined the functioning of the main links of the patient’s immunological system. They were determined on the basis of the levels of general T-lymphocytes (T-total, T-helper (T-h, T-suppressor (T-s, natural killer (NK, B-lymphocyte and immunoglobulin G, M, A, circulating immune complexes (CIC.Results. Based on the obtained data, we concluded that the traditional treatment of patients with postoperative complications was less effective than the one proposed in our study. Immunological picture of patient’s condition come back to normal almost from the first day of treatment, and under traditional treatment it was only on the 7th day. Under using complex treatment with nitrogen monoxide, parameters of humoral immunity corresponded to the norm already on the 7–14th day from the beginning of treatment.Conclusion. NO-containing gas flow application in complex prevention of purulent-inflammatory complications made possible to eliminate wound infection in shorter terms and to shorten the period of patient’s hospitalization. The best results were obtained in terms of immunological reactivity in a clinical trial in patients who received complex therapy included nitrogen monoxide and lymphotropic administration of the immunomodulators.

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Immunological Failure among HIV Patients on HAART in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirdaw, Kesetebirhan Delele; Hattingh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Immunological monitoring is part of the standard of care for patients on antiretroviral treatment. Yet, little is known about the routine implementation of immunological laboratory monitoring and utilization in clinical care in Ethiopia. This study assessed the pattern of immunological monitoring, immunological response, level of immunological treatment failure and factors related to it among patients on antiretroviral therapy in selected hospitals in southern Ethiopia. A retrospective longitudinal analytic study was conducted using documents of patients started on antiretroviral therapy. Adequacy of timely immunological monitoring was assessed every six months the first year and every one year thereafter. Immunological response was assessed every six months at cohort level. Immunological failure was based on the criteria: fall of follow-up CD4 cell count to baseline (or below), or CD4 levels persisting below 100 cells/mm3, or 50% fall from on-treatment peak value. A total of 1,321 documents of patients reviewed revealed timely immunological monitoring were inadequate. There was adequate immunological response, with pediatric patients, females, those with less advanced illness (baseline WHO Stage I or II) and those with higher baseline CD4 cell count found to have better immunological recovery. Thirty-nine patients (3%) were not evaluated for immunological failure because they had frequent treatment interruption. Despite overall adequate immunological response at group level, the prevalence of those who ever experienced immunological failure was 17.6% (n=226), while after subsequent re-evaluation it dropped to 11.5% (n=147). Having WHO Stage III/IV of the disease or a higher CD4 cell count at baseline was identified as a risk for immunological failure. Few patients with confirmed failure were switched to second line therapy. These findings highlight the magnitude of the problem of immunological failure and the gap in management. Prioritizing care for high risk

  12. Immunology for rheumatology residents: working toward a Canadian national curriculum consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shirley L; Herman-Kideckel, Sari; Mahendira, Dharini; McDonald-Blumer, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Immunologic mechanisms play an integral role in understanding the pathogenesis and management of rheumatic conditions. Currently, there is limited access to formal instruction in immunology for rheumatology trainees across Canada. The aims of this study were (1) to describe current immunology curricula among adult rheumatology training programs across Canada and (2) to compare the perceived learning needs of rheumatology trainees from the perspective of program directors and trainees to help develop a focused nationwide immunology curriculum. Rheumatology trainees and program directors from adult rheumatology programs across Canada completed an online questionnaire and were asked to rank a comprehensive list of immunology topics. A modified Delphi approach was implemented to obtain consensus on immunology topics. Only 42% of program directors and 31% of trainees felt the current method of teaching immunology was effective. Results illustrate concordance between program directors and trainees for the highest-ranked immunology topics including innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and cells and tissues of the immune system. However, there was discordance among other topics, such as diagnostic laboratory immunology and therapeutics. There is a need to improve immunology teaching in rheumatology training programs. Results show high concordance between the basic immunology topics. This study provides the groundwork for development of future immunology curricula.

  13. Genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 strain KOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Stuart J; Mostafa, Heba H; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J

    2012-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain KOS has been extensively used in many studies to examine HSV-1 replication, gene expression, and pathogenesis. Notably, strain KOS is known to be less pathogenic than the first sequenced genome of HSV-1, strain 17. To understand the genotypic differences between KOS and other phenotypically distinct strains of HSV-1, we sequenced the viral genome of strain KOS. When comparing strain KOS to strain 17, there are at least 1,024 small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 172 insertions/deletions (indels). The polymorphisms observed in the KOS genome will likely provide insights into the genes, their protein products, and the cis elements that regulate the biology of this HSV-1 strain.

  14. Pathological And Immunological Study On Infection With Escherichia Coli In ale BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Intisar H.; Jabir, Majid S.; Al-Shmgani, Hanady S. A.; Sulaiman, Ghassan M.; Sadoon, Ali H.

    2018-05-01

    Escherichia coli bacteria is considered as one of the common responsible for the frequency and severity of infections that it hospitalized patients. E. coli simultaneously carries a harmful side in which only a slight genetic recombination can bring about a highly pathogenic strain that most frequently causes the scourge of bacterial infections worldwide including sepsis, neonatal meningitis, pneumonia, bacteremia and traveler’s diarrhea. This study was carried out to assess Escherichia coli infection induced pathologically and immunologically. Following Escherichia coli isolation, identification and counting, the lethal dose (LD-50) was determined before infection. Twenty-two mice were used in this study for 21 days infection, the animals were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days, and tissues of different tissue were collected, examined for bacterial infection. Bacteria and mice immunization and ELISA were used to detect immunoglobulin G level in serum as well. For histological study, different infected organs were used. The results indicated that the LH50 was 1×109 cell; and all organs were infected after 3 days followed by decreased in infection level shown in brain at day 12, lung, kidney and intestine at day 15 and in liver, spleen and heart at day 21. Moreover, ELISA results revealed that concentration 1:200 of serum in positive and negative state and optimum concentration of Ag 1:40 dilution and compact dilution is 1:1000. In addition, diversity of histopathological alteration occurs in tissue on time-depended manner. This study concluded that the ability of activated E.coli to stimulate the intestinal secretory immune system of germ might result from a retardation of immunological maturity.

  15. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  16. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  17. Distinct Host Tropism Protein Signatures to Identify Possible Zoonotic Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic influenza A viruses constantly pose a health threat to humans as novel strains occasionally emerge from the avian population to cause human infections. Many past epidemic as well as pandemic strains have originated from avian species. While most viruses are restricted to their primary hosts, zoonotic strains can sometimes arise from mutations or reassortment, leading them to acquire the capability to escape host species barrier and successfully infect a new host. Phylogenetic analyses and genetic markers are useful in tracing the origins of zoonotic infections, but there are still no effective means to identify high risk strains prior to an outbreak. Here we show that distinct host tropism protein signatures can be used to identify possible zoonotic strains in avian species which have the potential to cause human infections. We have discovered that influenza A viruses can now be classified into avian, human, or zoonotic strains based on their host tropism protein signatures. Analysis of all influenza A viruses with complete proteome using the host tropism prediction system, based on machine learning classifications of avian and human viral proteins has uncovered distinct signatures of zoonotic strains as mosaics of avian and human viral proteins. This is in contrast with typical avian or human strains where they show mostly avian or human viral proteins in their signatures respectively. Moreover, we have found that zoonotic strains from the same influenza outbreaks carry similar host tropism protein signatures characteristic of a common ancestry. Our results demonstrate that the distinct host tropism protein signature in zoonotic strains may prove useful in influenza surveillance to rapidly identify potential high risk strains circulating in avian species, which may grant us the foresight in anticipating an impending influenza outbreak.

  18. [Immunologic risk analysis of blood transfusion: 1991-1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P; Le Pennec, P Y; Noizat-Pirenne, F

    2000-02-01

    The immunologic risk associated to erythrocyte transfusions is bound to the polymorphism of blood group systems and to the respect of blood transfusion regulations. The results of three studies are presented, which were carried out respectively by the French Society of Blood Transfusion, the National Institute of Blood Transfusion and the National Haemovigilance Network. Two hundred and twenty-seven cases of immunologic accidents are analysed using the Kaplan's interpretation model and the traditional method of process analysis. The results show three critical factors in the occurrence of this type of incident: the relevance of the clinical examinations prescribed, the way in which the biological results are taken into account, and the relationship/exchange of information between private and public hospitals, and blood transfusion centers.

  19. Immunological and genetic aspects of asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Madore

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics

  20. Advances in mechanisms of asthma, allergy, and immunology in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, David H; Finkelman, Fred; Bochner, Bruce S; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2011-03-01

    2010 was marked by rapid progress in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation and asthma. Studies published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology described advances in our knowledge of cells associated with allergic inflammation (mast cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, and T cells), as well as IgE, cytokines, receptors, signaling molecules, and pathways. Studies used animal models, as well as human cells and tissues, to advance our understanding of mechanisms of asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy, anaphylaxis and immediate hypersensitivity, mast cells and their disorders, atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Additional studies provided novel information about the induction and regulation of allergic inflammation and the genetic contribution to allergic inflammation. Critical features of these studies and their potential effects on human atopic disorders are summarized here. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in mechanisms of asthma, allergy, and immunology in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joshua A; Bochner, Bruce; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2012-02-01

    2011 was marked by rapid progress in the identification of basic mechanisms of allergic disease and the translation of these mechanisms into human cell systems. Studies published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology this year provided new insights into the molecular determinants of allergenicity, as well as the environmental, cellular, and genetic factors involved in sensitization to allergens. Several articles focused on mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy and the development of novel strategies to achieve tolerance to allergens. Additional studies identified substantial contributions from T(H)17-type cells and cytokines to human disease pathogenesis. Finally, new therapeutic applications of anti-IgE were identified. The highlights of these studies and their potential clinical implications are summarized in this review. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Venom on Immunological and Neurological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-06-29

    Bee Venom (BV) has long been used in Korea to relieve pain symptoms and to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of BV have been proved to some extent. Additionally, recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BV and BV-derived active components are applicable to a wide range of immunological and neurodegenerative diseases, including autoimmune diseases and Parkinson's disease. These effects of BV are known to be mediated by modulating immune cells in the periphery, and glial cells and neurons in the central nervous system. This review will introduce the scientific evidence of the therapeutic effects of BV and its components on several immunological and neurological diseases, and describe their detailed mechanisms involved in regulating various immune responses and pathological changes in glia and neurons.

  3. Immunological disturbances and their role in treatment for cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinevich, Yu.A.; Dzyubko, N.Ya.; Kokhanevich, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    The study is concerned with immunologic status (cell-mediated and humoral immunity) as a factor influencing the choice of scheme of treatment for carcinoma of cervix uteri. The indexes of immunocompetence should be taken into account in planning the differential treatment of precancer and early forms of carcinoma of cervix uteri. Radiation treatment exerts an immunosuppressive effect. However, immunologic indexes are not affected considerably by laser destruction or surgery. Cryodestruction has a beneficial effect on cell-mediated immunity. Considering these effects as well as the long-term results of different orocedures of treatment, laser coagulation, cryogenic destruction or diathermoconization should be recommended for management of carcinoma in situ of cervix uteri, and extensive extirpation of the uterus, unattended by radiation, for Tla

  4. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  5. [Infectious mononucleosis: etiology, immunological variants, methods of correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeets, A V; Savina, O G; Beniova, S N; Chernikova, A A

    2011-01-01

    Clinical options of infectious mononucleosis course depending on infecting agent etiology are presented for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), mono and mixed forms of the disease. Examined cytokine profiles demonstrate analogous changes of serum cytokines in the acute stage of the disease irrespective of etiological factors. Data show that it is important and useful clinically and immunologically to include immunomodulators--in particular, cycloferon--info a complex therapy of different types of mononucleosis.

  6. Effects of A-bomb radiation on immunological competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of A-bomb radiation on human immunological competence from the current immunological viewpoint. Early disturbance of immunological competence after A-bombing was characterized by (1) rapid decrease of lymphocytes (within one day), (2) decrease in humoral factors such as antibodies and complements (immediately), (3) decrease in neutrophils and monocytes (3-50 days later), and (4) delayed recovery of lymphocytes (more than 4 weeks). Long term effects of A-bombing on immunological competence are discussed in terms of immunocompetent cells. The peripheral lymphocyte response to PHA tended to be noticeable with aging among A-bomb survivors exposed to 2 Gy or more than the control persons. The peripheral lymphocyte response to MLC was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in A-bomb survivors aged 15 years or older at the time of A-bombing. The count of mature T lymphocytes was decreased in elderly A-bomb survivors, although neither functional nor numerical decrease in T lymphocytes was observed in younger A-bomb survivors. This could be explained by the hypothesis that the recovery of T lymphocytes is incomplete in elderly people due to thymus involution. An increased HPRT mutant cells in T lymphocytes correlated with A-bomb radiation doses. The count of B lymphocytes tended to be decreased in elderly A-bomb survivors. A functional and numerical increase in NK cells was associated with advancing age; however, this was not found to be correlated with A-bomb radiation. There was no evidence of correlation between A-bomb radiation and any of bone marrow cells, virus infection, autoimmunity, and tumor-specific immunity. (N.K.) 61 refs

  7. A role for Waldeyer's ring in immunological response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, Simonetta; Trabattoni, Daria; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; De Luca, Maria Cristina; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Leo, Gualtiero; Frati, Franco

    2014-02-01

    Adenoids, tubal tonsil, palatine tonsil, and lingual tonsil are immunological organs included in the Waldeyer's ring, the basic function of which is the antibody production to common environmental antigens. Adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) is a major medical issue in children, and adenoidectomy is still the most used treatment worldwide. The response of adenoids to allergens is a good model to evaluate their immunological function. This report assessed the immunological changes in adenoid tissues from children with allergic rhinitis (AR) undergoing sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Adenoid samples from 16 children (seven males, nine females, mean age 7.12 years) with AH and clinical indication to adenoidectomy were collected. Of them, five children were not allergic and 11 had house dust mite and grass pollen-induced AR. Among allergic children, in four AR was treated by antihistamines while in seven AR was treated by high-dose SLIT during 4-6 months. The evaluation addressed the T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th3 cells by performing a PCR array on mRNA extracted from adenoid samples. In non-allergic children, a typical Th1 pattern was found. SLIT induced a strong down-regulation of genes involved in Th2 and Th1 activation and function. In particular, in SLIT-treated allergic children IL-4, CCR2, CCR3, and PTGDR2 (Th2 related genes) and CD28, IL-2, and INHA (Th1 related genes) expression was reduced, compared with children treated with antihistamines. These preliminary findings warrant investigation in trials including larger numbers of patients, but indicate that hypertrophic adenoids of allergic children have the typical response to the specific allergen administered by SLIT. This should suggest that one should reconsider the immunological role of adenoids.

  8. [Evaluation of several immunologic indices in suppurative surgical infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, V G; Shemerovskaia, T G; Iusupov, Iu N; Vinogradov, O T

    1984-02-01

    The clinical course of the disease was correlated with the indices characterizing the activity of different components of the immune system in 47 patients with a purulent surgical infection. The investigation has shown the clinical value of immunological tests studied to be not identical. The determination of the concentration of the circulating immune complexes and the migration activity of macrophages is proposed for the prognostic assessment of the course of the disease.

  9. Immunological probes for lesions and repoair patches in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadon, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes two immunological approaches for the detection of DNA damage and its repair. The first uses a monoclonal antibody to directly measure the production and removal of one type of oxidized base, thymine glycol; the second uses an antibody to detect the repair synthesis event itself and, when combined with the use of molecular biological techniques, can be used to monitor the production and removal of lesions in specific sequences within the genome

  10. Prognostic criteria of sensitivity to antibiotics of staphylococcus clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordiy Paliy

    2015-06-01

    Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology, Vinnytsya National Pirogov Memorial Medical University Ministry of Health of Ukraine   Abstract In the article, the new data of sensitivity to antibiotics in clinical strains of Staphylococci are presented. For the first time, analytic dependence of dynamic prognostic criteria of the change of sensitivity of S. aureus clinical strains, isolated from patients, was obtained by means of mathematical prediction. There were investigated prognosticated indexes of Staphylococcus strains’ sensitivity to beta-lactams (oxacillin, ceftriaxone, imipenem and meropenem, vancomycin and linezolid. The dynamic of sensitivity decreasing to oxacillin, ceftriaxone, carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, vancomycin (92,5 % and high sensitivity to linezolid in clinical strains of S. aureus were found out. Key words: sensitivity, antibiotics, Staphylococcus, prognostic indexes.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii: II. Tachyzoite antigenic characterization of eigth strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Mitsuka

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Toxoplasma gondii strains were analyzed using ELISA and Western blot techniques, in order to demonstrate possible immunological differences. The analyzed strains were: LIV IV, LIV V and S 11 isolated from swine, RH and VPS from a human being, AS 28 from a wild mouse, HV III from a dog and CN from a cat. With the ELISA assay the eight strains showed similar reactivity with homologous and heterologous sera. The antigenic suspension, consisting of total cellular extract of tachyzoites, was effective in the indirect ELISA assay, with the positive sera reacting strongly and the negative not reacting with the antigens. The Western blot analysis showed that the T. gondii strains have similar antigenic profiles with a few variations. Three bands were observed in all strains: one of about 33 kDa (p33, another of 54 kDa (p54 and a third one of 66 kDa (p66. The HV III strain, isolated from a dog, did not show three antigens (50, 70 and 75 kDa that were present in the others. However, this difference was not detected by the ELISA assay. Only two antigens (62 kDa of the CN and 67 kDa of the LIV IV were strain-specific antigens.

  12. Transitioning the Allergy/Immunology Patient from Childhood to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2017-06-01

    Allergic disorders and immunodeficiencies are generally chronic and even lifelong conditions, often changing over time, making the cautious transition of care from childhood to adulthood particularly important. Many, but not all, patients can continue to receive their care from the same physician as they transition through adolescence and emerging adulthood, made possible because allergy/immunology training programs require cross-training in the care of both pediatric and adult patients. Although keeping the same physician makes the transition easier for many allergy/immunology patients, even these patients face psychosocial issues unique to adolescents and emerging adults, including increased autonomy, risk-taking behavior, and medical self-management. Successful transition for patients with chronic allergic and immunologic conditions involves an understanding of the natural history of these conditions by patients and physicians alike, a gradual increase in self-management depending on individual readiness, and careful communication between pediatric and adult specialists as care is transitioned. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(6):e229-e234.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids. Though present in lower quantities, e-cig aerosols are known to contain many of the harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. However, due to the paucity of experimental data and contradictory evidence, it is difficult to draw conclusive outcomes regarding toxicological, immunological and clinical impacts of e-cig aerosols. Excessive vaping has been reported to induce inflammatory responses including mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor-κB signalling, similar to that induced by tobacco smoke. Based on recent evidence, prolonged exposure to some constituents of e-cig aerosols might result in respiratory complications such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammation. Future studies are warranted that focus on establishing correlations between e-cig types, generations and e-liquid flavours and immunological and toxicological profiles to broaden our understanding about the effects of vaping.

  14. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120. Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests. Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  15. Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Pinkston, Rakeysha; Mclemore, Benathel; Dorsey, Waneene C; Batra, Sanjay

    2018-03-31

    Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig) aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs) are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids. Though present in lower quantities, e-cig aerosols are known to contain many of the harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. However, due to the paucity of experimental data and contradictory evidence, it is difficult to draw conclusive outcomes regarding toxicological, immunological and clinical impacts of e-cig aerosols. Excessive vaping has been reported to induce inflammatory responses including mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor-κB signalling, similar to that induced by tobacco smoke. Based on recent evidence, prolonged exposure to some constituents of e-cig aerosols might result in respiratory complications such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammation. Future studies are warranted that focus on establishing correlations between e-cig types, generations and e-liquid flavours and immunological and toxicological profiles to broaden our understanding about the effects of vaping. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  16. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Kumar, Ashok; Chauhan, R S; Pankaj, P K

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates. There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds.

  17. A global "imaging'' view on systems approaches in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, Burkhard; Stein, Jens V; Sharpe, James; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Thiel, Volker; Bocharov, Gennady

    2012-12-01

    The immune system exhibits an enormous complexity. High throughput methods such as the "-omic'' technologies generate vast amounts of data that facilitate dissection of immunological processes at ever finer resolution. Using high-resolution data-driven systems analysis, causal relationships between complex molecular processes and particular immunological phenotypes can be constructed. However, processes in tissues, organs, and the organism itself (so-called higher level processes) also control and regulate the molecular (lower level) processes. Reverse systems engineering approaches, which focus on the examination of the structure, dynamics and control of the immune system, can help to understand the construction principles of the immune system. Such integrative mechanistic models can properly describe, explain, and predict the behavior of the immune system in health and disease by combining both higher and lower level processes. Moving from molecular and cellular levels to a multiscale systems understanding requires the development of methodologies that integrate data from different biological levels into multiscale mechanistic models. In particular, 3D imaging techniques and 4D modeling of the spatiotemporal dynamics of immune processes within lymphoid tissues are central for such integrative approaches. Both dynamic and global organ imaging technologies will be instrumental in facilitating comprehensive multiscale systems immunology analyses as discussed in this review. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the relationship between primary HCK and HLS.

  19. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Badran, Yousef R; Geha, Raif S; Chou, Janet S; Fried, Ari J

    2017-10-01

    Advances in basic immunology in 2016 included studies that further characterized the role of different proteins in the differentiation of effector T and B cells, including cytokines and proteins involved in the actin cytoskeleton. Regulation of granule formation and secretion in cytotoxic cells was also further described by examining patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The role of prenylation in patients with mevalonate kinase deficiency leading to inflammation has been established. We reviewed advances in clinical immunology, as well as new approaches of whole-genome sequencing and genes newly reported to be associated with immunodeficiency, such as linker of activation of T cells (LAT); B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B); RGD, leucine-rich repeat, tropomodulin domain, and proline-rich domain-containing protein (RLTPR); moesin; and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). Trials of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy for primary immunodeficiency have had relative success; the use of autologous virus-specific cytotoxic T cells has proved effective as well. New medications are being explored, such as pioglitazone, which is under study for its role in enhancing the oxidative burst in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Development of vaccines for HIV infection continues to provide insight into the immune response against a virus with an extraordinary mutation rate. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Immunology via Engineering Design: The Role of Mathematical Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, David J.; Wang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in immunology is how to translate data into knowledge given the inherent complexity and dynamics of human physiology. Both the physiology and engineering communities have rich histories in applying computational approaches to translate data obtained from complex systems into knowledge of system behavior. However, there are some differences in how disciplines approach problems. By referring to mathematical models as mathematical prototypes, we aim to highlight aspects related to the process (i.e., prototyping) rather than the product (i.e., the model). The objective of this paper is to review how two related engineering concepts, specifically prototyping and “fitness for use,” can be applied to overcome the pressing challenge in translating data into improved knowledge of basic immunology that can be used to improve therapies for disease. These concepts are illustrated using two immunology-related examples. The prototypes presented focus on the beta cell mass at the onset of type 1 diabetes and the dynamics of dendritic cells in the lung. This paper is intended to illustrate some of the nuances associated with applying mathematical modeling to improve understanding of the dynamics of disease progression in humans. PMID:22973412

  1. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Choon [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  2. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  3. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  4. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  5. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue......, and the impact of Tregs on immunological reconstitution was determined. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy for a minimum of 2 years were included. The study population included 14 immunological nonresponders (INR; CD4 T-cell count .... In contrast, responders resembled healthy controls. Finally, in INR, high level of Tregs in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were associated with higher level of immunological reconstitution after 1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, altered distribution of Tregs was found in INR...

  6. Pubertal-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and cytokine secretion in response to an immunological stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, K H; Bain, Z A; Padow, V A; Lui, P; Klein, Z A; Romeo, R D

    2011-02-01

    Pubertal development is marked by profound changes in stress reactivity. For example, following a brief stressor, such as foot shock, ether inhalation or restraint, prepubertal rats display a prolonged adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone response that takes twice as long to return to baseline compared to adults. Pubertal-related differences in the recovery of the hormonal stress response following a more protracted systemic stressor, such as an immunological challenge, have not yet been investigated. Moreover, it is unclear whether an immunological stressor leads to a differential cytokine response in animals before and after pubertal maturation. To examine these issues, we used a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1 mg/kg) to induce a hormonal stress and innate immune response and measured plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in prepubertal and adult male rats 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24 h after LPS exposure. In a follow-up experiment, we assessed neural activation, as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in prepubertal and adult males 0, 4, 8, or 24 h after a 0.1 mg/kg injection of LPS. By contrast to the prolonged response observed in prepubertal animals following a variety of acute stressors, we found that corticosterone and IL-6 responses induced by LPS recover toward baseline faster in prepubertal compared to adult rats. Along with these different peripheral responses, we also found that LPS-induced neural activation in the PVN of prepubertal animals showed a faster return to baseline compared to adults. Together, these data indicate that prepubertal and adult animals react in distinct ways, both peripherally and centrally, to an immunological stressor. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  8. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.

  9. Immunological and biological properties of recombinant Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Lamontagne, P; Boulanger, J; Brunet, C; Hébert, J

    1997-03-01

    Current forms of allergy diagnosis and therapies are based on the use of natural allergenic extracts. Despite strong evidence that higher therapeutic efficacy may be achieved with purified allergens, the purification of multiple allergic components from extracts is a fastidious and sometimes an impossible task. However, the use of recombinant allergens may be an alternative to overcome this problem. In this study, we compared the immunological properties of recombinant (r) Lol p 1 with those of the natural protein. We cloned directly the gene encoding Lol p 1 from genomic DNA of ryegrass pollen. This gene was subcloned into the expression vector pMAL-c and expressed as fusion protein. Subsequently, rLol p 1 was cleaved from maltose-binding protein using factor Xa. Using binding inhibition and proliferative assays, we assessed the immunological properties of the recombinant allergens. The capacity of rLol p 1 to trigger basophil histamine release and to elicit a skin reaction was also assessed and compared to those of its natural counterpart. We found that the Lol p 1 gene has no introns since we amplified this gene directly from genomic DNA. We demonstrated that the binding sites of anti-Lol p 1 monoclonal antibody, specific human IgG and IgE antibody are well conserved on rLol p 1 as no difference in the binding inhibition profile was observed when using either natural or recombinant protein. At the T-cell level, rLol p 1 elicited a T-cell response in mice comparable to that observed with the natural protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the biological characteristics of rLol p 1 were comparable to those of the natural counterpart, in that rLol p 1 elicited a skin wheal reaction and induced basophil histamine release in grass-allergic patients only. The data indicate that natural Lol p 1 and rLol p 1 shared identical immunological and biological properties.

  10. Immunological profile of silent brain infarction and lacunar stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sarchielli

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is believed to be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of silent brain infarcts (SBI. However, the immunological profile of SBI has been scarcely investigated. In the context of a national research project named SILENCE, aimed at investigating clinical, biochemical and pathogenic features of SBI, we have measured the plasma profile of some inflammatory-related molecules in SBI patients (n = 21, patients with recent lacunar infarcts (LI, n = 28 and healthy controls (n = 31, consecutively enrolled in four Italian centres. A panel of chemokines (MIG, CTACK, IL16, SDF1a, MCP1, growth factors (SCF, SCGFb, HGF, IL3, immunoglobulin-type adhesion molecules (ICAM1, VCAM1, proinflammatory cytokines (IL18, INFa2, MIF, IL12p40, cell surface receptors on T-cells (IL2Ra, and inductors of apoptosis (TRAIL was assessed in plasma samples by Luminex xMAP™ technology. Immunological parameters were compared using non-parametric statistics and performance to distinguish SBI and LI was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Plasma levels of ICAM1 were significantly higher in both SBI and LI patients as compared to controls (SBI≥LI>Ctrl. A different trend was observed for IL16 (SBICtrl, SCF (LICtrl and SCGFb (SBI>LICtrl and IL18 when compared to LI patients (Ctrl≤SBI>LI. All the other immunological markers did not significantly differ among groups. According to ROC analysis, the best predictor for SBI condition was the chemokine MIG (AUC = 0.84, sensitivity 86%, specificity 77%, while SCF had the best performance in distinguishing LI patients (AUC = 0.84, sensitivity 86%, specificity 68%. These results confirm the involvement of inflammatory processes in cerebrovascular disorders, particularly in SBI, a very common age-related condition. The differences in plasma profile of inflammatory molecules may underlie different pathological mechanisms in SBI and LI patients.

  11. Human genetics of infectious diseases: Unique insights into immunological redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    For almost any given human-tropic virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite, the clinical outcome of primary infection is enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal infection. This variability has long been thought to be largely determined by the germline genetics of the human host, and this is increasingly being demonstrated to be the case. The number and diversity of known inborn errors of immunity is continually increasing, and we focus here on autosomal and X-linked recessive traits underlying complete deficiencies of the encoded protein. Schematically, four types of infectious phenotype have been observed in individuals with such deficiencies, each providing information about the redundancy of the corresponding human gene, in terms of host defense in natural conditions. The lack of a protein can confer vulnerability to a broad range of microbes in most, if not all patients, through the disruption of a key immunological component. In such cases, the gene concerned is of low redundancy. However, the lack of a protein may also confer vulnerability to a narrow range of microbes, sometimes a single pathogen, and not necessarily in all patients. In such cases, the gene concerned is highly redundant. Conversely, the deficiency may be apparently neutral, conferring no detectable predisposition to infection in any individual. In such cases, the gene concerned is completely redundant. Finally, the lack of a protein may, paradoxically, be advantageous to the host, conferring resistance to one or more infections. In such cases, the gene is considered to display beneficial redundancy. These findings reflect the current state of evolution of humans and microbes, and should not be considered predictive of redundancy, or of a lack of redundancy, in the distant future. Nevertheless, these observations are of potential interest to present-day biologists testing immunological hypotheses experimentally and physicians managing patients with immunological or infectious

  12. Immunological mechanisms of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Natalija; Bieber, T; Allam, J-P

    2011-06-01

    Within the last 100 years of allergen-specific immunotherapy, many clinical and scientific efforts have been made to establish alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies. Thus, intra-oral allergen delivery to the sublingual mucosa has been proven to be safe and effective. As a consequence, to date, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy. Although immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated in detail, several studies in mice and humans within recent years provided deeper insights into local as well as systemic immunological features in response to SLIT. First of all, it was shown that the target organ, the oral mucosa, harbours a sophisticated immunological network as an important prerequisite for SLIT, which contains among other cells, local antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells (DCs), with a constitutive disposition to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms. Further on, basic research on local DCs within the oral mucosa gave rise to possible alternative strategies to deliver the allergens to other mucosal regions than sublingual tissue, such as the vestibulum oris. Moreover, characterization of oral DCs led to the identification of target structures for both allergens as well as adjuvants, which could be applied during SLIT. Altogether, SLIT came a long way since its very beginning in the last century and some, but not all questions about SLIT could be answered so far. However, recent research efforts as well as clinical approaches paved the way for another exciting 100 years of SLIT. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. INFECTIOUS DISEASES ARE SLEEPING MONSTERS: Conventional and culturally adapted new metaphors in a corpus of abstracts on immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hidalgo Downing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the role played by metaphor in a corpus of sixty abstracts on immunology from Scientific American. We focus on the distinction between conventional metaphors and culturally adapted new metaphors and discuss the role played by metaphor choice in the communicative purposes of the abstracts and their register features. We argue that one of the main strategies used to attract the reader‘s attention is the combination of highly conventionalized metaphors, which occur more frequently in the corpus, together with what we call “culturally adapted new metaphors”, which display different degrees of creativity and are less frequent in the corpus. Conventional metaphors typically reinforce the world view shared by the scientific community and introduce basic ideas on the subject of immunology. Culturally adapted new metaphors include a cline from slightly new perspectives of conventional models, to highly creative uses of metaphor. Culturally adapted new metaphors appeal primarily to a general readership and not to the scientific community, as they tap human emotions and mythic constructions. These play a crucial role in the abstracts, as they contribute to persuasive and didactic communicative functions in the text.

  14. Immunologic difference between hypersensitivity to mosquito bite and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-I Lee

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a life-threatening, virus-triggered immune disease. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB, a presentation of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus infection (CAEBV, may progress to HLH. This study aimed to investigate the immunologic difference between the HMB episodes and the HLH episodes associated with EBV infection. Immunologic changes of immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subsets, cytotoxicity, intracellular perforin and granzyme expressions, EBV virus load and known candidate genes for hereditary HLH were evaluated and compared. In 12 HLH episodes (12 patients and 14 HMB episodes (4 patients, there were both decreased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ and increased memory CD4+ and activated (CD2+HLADR+ lymphocytes. In contrast to HMB episodes that had higher IgE levels and EBV virus load predominantly in NK cells, those HLH episodes with virus load predominantly in CD3+ lymphocyte had decreased perforin expression and cytotoxicity that were recovered in the convalescence period. However, there was neither significant difference of total virus load in these episodes nor candidate genetic mutations responsible for hereditary HLH. In conclusion, decreased perforin expression in the HLH episodes with predominant-CD3+ EBV virus load is distinct from those HMB episodes with predominant-NK EBV virus load. Whether the presence of non-elevated memory CD4+ cells or activated lymphocytes (CD2+HLADR+ increases the mortality rate in the HLH episodes remains to be further warranted through larger-scale studies.

  15. Hematology and immunology studies - The second manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Johnson, P. C.; Ritzman, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 astronauts were monitored during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the mission. Plasma protein profiles showed high consistency in all phases. A transient suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness was observed postflight. A reduction in the circulating blood volume due to drops in both the plasma volume and red cell mass was found. The loss of red cell mass is most likely a suppressed erythrypoiesis. The functional integrity of the circulating red cells did not appear to be compromised in the course of flight.

  16. Immunologic and clinical responses to "Monday morning miseries" antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernelc, S; Stropnik, Z

    1987-01-01

    Authors analysed 96 workers exposed to air conditioning system (Group A), and 71 workers (Group B) breathing normal ambient air. 38 workers in group A had a positive clinical history of "Monday morning miseries". Eight cases with the diagnosis hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute and chronic form was based on environmental history, clinical investigations, physical examination, Chest-X-ray examination, immunological test "in vivo" and "in vitro" with common allergens and antigen "Monday morning miseries", ELISA, spirometry and PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow-Rate) measurements. Exposure to contaminated air may be responsible for morbidity and reduced performance of workers.

  17. The Innovative Medicines Initiative moves translational immunology forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Michel; Wittelsberger, Angela; De Magistris, Maria-Teresa

    2013-02-01

    The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) was established in 2008 as a public-private partnership between the European Union and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations with the mission to promote the development of novel therapies through collaborative efforts based on the concept of pre-competitive research. Several consortia supported by IMI are dedicated to immuno-inflammatory disorders, immune-based biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. Herein, we present the key principles underlying IMI, briefly review the status of projects related to translational immunology, and present future topics of interest to immunologists.

  18. Reproductive immunology: current status and future directions (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeva, Elena

    2010-12-01

    Extensive research work over the past couple of decades has indicated a series of intricate relations between immune and reproductive systems. A range of reproductive immunology topics including the roles of adoptive and innate immunity in infertility and pregnancy, the immune system's role in induction of labor and preterm delivery, and immuno-modulatory effects of the female sex hormones will be discussed in this and the next issue of the Journal. The implications of this research on the development of novel therapeutic approaches are also addressed.

  19. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of auto-anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of auto-anti-thyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto-immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  20. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of autoantithyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of autoantithyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  1. Bronchiectasis in Children: Current Concepts in Immunology and Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutto, Susan J; Hare, Kim M; Upham, John W

    2017-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is a complex chronic respiratory condition traditionally characterized by chronic infection, airway inflammation, and progressive decline in lung function. Early diagnosis and intensive treatment protocols can stabilize or even improve the clinical prognosis of children with bronchiectasis. However, understanding the host immunologic mechanisms that contribute to recurrent infection and prolonged inflammation has been identified as an important area of research that would contribute substantially to effective prevention strategies for children at risk of bronchiectasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the role of the host immune response and important pathogens in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis (not associated with cystic fibrosis) in children.

  2. Mouse genetic model for clinical and immunological heterogeneity of leishmaniasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie; Svobodová, M.; Havelková, Helena; Krulová, Magdalena; Badalová, Jana; Nohýnková, E.; Hart, A. A. M.; Schlegel, David; Volf, P.; Demant, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2002), s. 174-183 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA MZd NM28; GA ČR GA310/00/0760; GA MŠk OK 394 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI55000323; WHO(XX) TDR I.D. 970772; EC(XE) ERBI-C15-CT98-0317; EC(XE) BIO-4-CT98-0445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Leishmaniasis * mouse model * complex disease Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2002

  3. The influence of Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, J.; Jokoniuk, P.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in mice irradiated with 300 or 500 R was studied. The immunologic response of the mice to sheep red blood cells used as antigen was assessed at the cellular level (by counting PFC) and humoral level. Injection of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells before irradiation of the mice diminished the immunosuppressive effect of roentgen radiation. Injection of the cells after irradiation accelerated regeneration of immunologic reactivity in the irradiated mice. (author)

  4. Survey of immunological features of the alpha-like proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeland, Johan A; Afset, Jan E; Lyng, Randi V; Radtke, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Nearly all Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) strains express a protein which belongs to the so-called alpha-like proteins (Alps), of which Cα, Alp1, Alp2, Alp3, Rib, and Alp4 are known to occur in GBS. The Alps are chimeras which form mosaic structures on the GBS surface. Both N- and C-terminal stretches of the Alps possess immunogenic sites of dissimilar immunological specificity. In this review, we have compiled data dealing with the specificity of the N- and C-terminal immunogenic sites of the Alps. The majority of N-terminal sites show protein specificity while the C-terminal sites show broader cross-reactivity. Molecular serotyping has revealed that antibody-based serotyping has often resulted in erroneous Alp identification, due to persistence of cross-reacting antibodies in antisera for serotyping. Retrospectively, this could be expected on the basis of sequence analysis results. Some of the historical R proteins are in fact Alps. The data included in the review may provide a basis for decisions regarding techniques for the preparation of specific antisera for serotyping of GBS, for use in other approaches in GBS research, and for decision making in the context of GBS vaccine developments. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Immunological and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from a bovine foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Ridieri, Karine Forster; Jorge, Sérgio; Oliveira, Natasha Rodrigues; Hartwig, Daiane Drawanz; Amaral, Marta Gonçalves; Hartleben, Cláudia Pinho; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Cattle are commonly infected with pathogenic leptospires, and similarly to rodents, they excrete the bacteria in their urine and can transmit the pathogen from animal to animal or animal to human. Thus, surveillance and monitoring systems for detection of new Leptospira serovars are important for the control of leptospirosis. Here, we report the isolation of a spirochete from a stillborn bovine foetus and its characterization by immunological and molecular techniques. A variable number tandem repeat profile using seven discriminatory primers identified the spirochete as belonging to species Leptospira interrogans serogroup Australis serovar Muenchen. A phenotypic analysis using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against leptospiral membrane-associated proteins confirmed the expression of important virulence and pathogenicity factors (LipL32 and LigBrep). Out of 120 reference sera tested, 22 positive (36.66%) and 9 negative (15%) also reacted with the new isolate. Furthermore, the serovar Muenchen isolate was virulent in hamster model. The animal inoculated developed acute lethal infection characterized by hepatic, pulmonary and renal lesions. Local isolates exhibited unique characteristics that differed from those of reference strains; therefore, isolation of leptospires is useful in the surveillance of local pathogenic serovars. In conclusion, the data obtained from this study can contribute to the epidemiological understanding and control of leptospirosis in southern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification, properties and immunological relationship of L (+)-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G L; Doelle, H W

    1976-08-16

    The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-activated L-lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 has been purified to homogenity by including affinity chromatography (cibacronblue-Sephadex-G-200) and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into the purification procedures. The enzyme has an Mr of 132000-135000 with a subunit Mr of 34000. The pH optimum was found to be 5.4 insodium acetate buffer. Tris/maleate and citrate/phosphate buffers inhibited enzyme activity at this pH. The enzyme was completely inactivated by a temperature increase from 60 degrees C to 70 degrees C. Pyruvate saturation curves were sigmoidal in the absence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. In the presence of 20 muM fructose 1,6-bisphosphate a Km of 1.0 mM for pyruvate was obtained, whereas fructose 1,6-bisphosphate had no effect on the Km of 0.01 mM for NADH. The use of pyruvate analogues revealed two types of pyruvate binding sites, a catalytic and an effector site. The enzyme from L. casei appears to be subject to strict metabolic control, since ADP, ATP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate are strong inhibitors. Immunodiffusion experiments with a rabbit antiserum to L. casei lactate dehydrogenase revealed that L. casei ATCC 393 L (+)-lactate dehydrogenase is probably not immunologically related to group D and group N streptococci. Of 24 lactic acid bacterial strains tested only 5 strains did cross-react: L. casei ATCC 393 = L. casei var. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 - L. casei var. alactosus NCDO 680 greater than L. casei UQM 95 greater than L. plantarum ATCC 14917.

  7. Immunological orchestration of zinc homeostasis: The battle between host mechanisms and pathogen defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian Vignesh, Kavitha; Deepe, George S

    2016-12-01

    The importance of Zn ions (Zn) in regulating development and functions of the immune system is well established. However, recent years have witnessed a surge in our knowledge of how immune cells choreograph Zn regulatory mechanisms to combat the persistence of pathogenic microbes. Myeloid and lymphoid populations manipulate intracellular and extracellular Zn metabolism via Zn binding proteins and transporters in response to immunological signals and infection. Rapid as well as delayed changes in readily exchangeable Zn, also known as free Zn and the Zn proteome are crucial in determining activation of immune cells, cytokine responses, signaling and nutritional immunity. Recent studies have unearthed distinctive Zn modulatory mechanisms employed by specialized immune cells and necessitate an understanding of the Zn handling behavior in immune responses to infection. The focus of this review, therefore, stems from novel revelations of Zn intoxication, sequestration and signaling roles deployed by different immune cells, with an emphasis on innate immunity, to challenge microbial parasitization and cope with pathogen insult. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Longitudinal immunological characterization of the first presensitized recipient of a face transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Thet Su; Murakami, Naoka; Borges, Thiago J; Chandraker, Anil; Murphy, George; Lian, Christine; Barrera, Victor; Ho Sui, Shannan; Schoenfeld, David; Teague, Jessica; Bueno, Ericka; Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Clark, Rachael A; Riella, Leonardo V

    2017-07-06

    Rejection affects greater than 80% of face transplants, yet no diagnostic criteria for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) following face transplantation have been established. Given that different treatment strategies are required to address AMR and T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), there is a critical need to delineate the features that can differentiate these two alloimmune responses. Here, we report the longitudinal immunological examination of what we believe to be the first and only highly sensitized recipient of a crossmatch-positive face transplant up to 4 years following transplantation. We conducted gene expression profiling on allograft biopsies collected during suspected AMR and TCMR episodes as well as during 5 nonrejection time points. Our data suggest that there are distinctive molecular features in AMR, characterized by overexpression of endothelial-associated genes, including ICAM1, VCAM1, and SELE. Although our findings are limited to a single patient, these findings highlight the potential importance of developing and implementing molecular markers to differentiate AMR from TCMR to guide clinical management. Furthermore, our case illustrates that molecular assessment of allograft biopsies offers the potential for new insights into the mechanisms underlying rejection. Finally, our medium-term outcomes demonstrate that face transplantation in a highly sensitized patient with a positive preoperative crossmatch is feasible and manageable.

  9. Impact of smoking on experimental gingivitis. A clinical, microbiological and immunological prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, D C; Gimenes, J H; Taiete, T; Casarin, R C V; Feres, M; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z; Kantovitz, K R; Nociti, F H

    2016-12-01

    The present study assessed the effect of smoking on clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters in an experimental gingivitis model. Twenty-four healthy dental students were divided into two groups: smokers (n = 10); and nonsmokers (n = 14). Stents were used to prevent biofilm removal during brushing. Visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were determined 5- on day -7 (running phase), baseline, 21 d (experimental gingivitis) and 28 d (resolution phase). Supragingival biofilm and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and assayed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and a multiplex analysis, respectively. Intragroup comparison was performed by Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests, whereas the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied for intergroup analyses. Cessation of oral hygiene resulted in a significant increase in VPI, GBI and gingival crevicular fluid volume in both groups, which returned to baseline levels 7 d after oral hygiene was resumed. Smokers presented lower GBI than did nonsmokers (p gingival inflammation after supragingival biofilm accumulation, but smokers had less bleeding, higher proportions of periodontal pathogens and distinct host-response patterns during the course of experimental gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Purification, partial characterization, and immunological relationships of multiple low molecular weight protease inhibitors of soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D L.R.; Lin, K T.D.; Yang, W K; Foard, D E

    1977-01-01

    Five protease inhibitors, I-V, in the molecular weight range 7000-8000 were purified from Tracy soybeans by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and G-75, and column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. In common with previously described trypsin inhibitors from legumes, I-V have a high content of half-cystine and lack tryptophan. By contrast with other legume inhibitors, inhibitor II contains 3 methionine residues. Isoelectric points range from 6.2 to 4.2 in order from inhibitor I to V. Molar ratios (inhibitor/enzyme) for 50% trypsin inhibition are I = 4.76, II = 1.32, III = 3.22, IV = 2.17, V = 0.97. Only V inhibits chymotrypsin significantly (molar ratio = 1.33 for 50% inhibition). The sequence of the first 16 N-terminal amino acid residues of inhibitor V is identical to that of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor; all other observations also indicate that inhibitor V and Bowman-Birk are identical. The first 20 N-terminal amino acid residues of inhibitor II show high homology to those of Bowman-Birk inhibitor, differing by 1 deletion and 5 substitutions. Immunological tests show that inhibitors I through IV are fully cross-reactive with each other but are distinct from inhibitor V.

  11. Inborn errors of human STAT1: allelic heterogeneity governs the diversity of immunological and infectious phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Okada, Satoshi; Cypowyj, Sophie; Puel, Anne; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The genetic dissection of various human infectious diseases has led to the definition of inborn errors of human STAT1 immunity of four types, including (i) autosomal recessive (AR) complete STAT1 deficiency, (ii) AR partial STAT1 deficiency, (iii) autosomal dominant (AD) STAT1 deficiency, and (iv) AD gain of STAT1 activity. The two types of AR STAT1 defect give rise to a broad infectious phenotype with susceptibility to intramacrophagic bacteria (mostly mycobacteria) and viruses (herpes viruses at least), due principally to the impairment of IFN-γ-mediated and IFN-α/β-mediated immunity, respectively. Clinical outcome depends on the extent to which the STAT1 defect decreases responsiveness to these cytokines. AD STAT1 deficiency selectively predisposes individuals to mycobacterial disease, owing to the impairment of IFN-γ-mediated immunity, as IFN-α/β-mediated immunity is maintained. Finally, AD gain of STAT1 activity is associated with autoimmunity, probably owing to an enhancement of IFN-α/β-mediated immunity. More surprisingly, it is also associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, through as yet undetermined mechanisms involving an inhibition of the development of IL-17-producing T cells. Thus, germline mutations in human STAT1 define four distinct clinical disorders. Various combinations of viral, mycobacterial and fungal infections are therefore allelic at the human STAT1 locus. These experiments of Nature neatly highlight the clinical and immunological impact of the human genetic dissection of infectious phenotypes. PMID:22651901

  12. Maintaining intestinal health: the genetics and immunology of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD occurring before the age of 5 represent a unique form of disease, termed Very Early Onset (VEO)-IBD, which is phenotypically- and genetically-distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies, and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal disease. Here we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation.

  13. Effect of intratracheally instilled depleted uranium on immunological function of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Hanhu; Yang Zhihua; Cao Zhenshan; Zhu Maoxiang; Liu Xingrong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study immunological effects of depleted uranium in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were exposed to depleted uranium by single intratracheal instillation. Body weight and peripheral blood cells were measured weekly and immunological functions were evaluated by weight coefficient of immune organs, plague forming cells of splenocytes, total and subpopulation counts of lymphocytes in thymus. Results: Early after administration, body weight decreased and red blood cells as well as platelets reduced while white blood cells increased, which returned to normal within 1 or 2 months. Immunological functions of splenocytes and thymocytes were affected dose-dependently by depleted uranium. Conclusion: Depleted uranium induces immunological dysfunction in rats. (authors)

  14. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  15. Mammalian β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors: immunological and structural comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxham, C.P.; George, S.T.; Graziano, M.P.; Brandwein, H.J.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    β 1 - and β 2 -adrenergic receptors, pharmacologically distinct proteins, have been reported to be structurally dissimilar. In the present study three techniques were employed to compare the nature of mammalian β 1 - and β 2 -adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against each of the receptor subtypes were raised separately. Polyclonal antisera against β 1 -receptors of rat fat cells were raised in mice, and antisera against β 2 -receptors of guinea pig lung were raised in rabbits. Receptors purified from rat fat cells (β 1 -), S49 mouse lymphoma cells (β 2 -), and rat liver (β 2 -) were probed with these antisera. Each anti-receptor antisera demonstrated the ability to immunoprecipitate purified receptors of both β 1 - and β 2 -subtypes. The mobility of β-receptors subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was probed using antireceptor antibodies and nitrocellulose blots of the gels. Fat cell β 1 -adrenergic receptors display M/sub r/ = 67,000 under reducing conditions and M/sub r/ = 54,000 under nonreducing conditions, as previously reported. Both β 1 - and β 2 -receptors displayed this same shift in electrophoretic mobility observed in the presence as compared to the absence of disulfide bridge-reducing agents, as detected both by autoradiography of the radiolabeled receptors and by immunoblotting of native receptors. Finally, isoelectric focusing of purified radioiodinated β 1 - and β 2 -adrenergic receptors revealed identical isoelectric points. These data are the first to provide analyses of immunological, structural, and biochemical features of β 1 - and β 2 -subtypes in tandem and underscore the structural similarities that exist between these pharmacologically distinct receptors

  16. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of the lux operon distinguishes two evolutionarily distinct clades of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2004-05-01

    The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon ( luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene ( luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).

  18. Cell source determines the immunological impact of biomimetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Michael; Parodi, Alessandro; Martinez, Jonathan O; Yazdi, Iman K; Cevenini, Armando; van de Ven, Anne L; Quattrocchi, Nicoletta; Boada, Christian; Taghipour, Nima; Corbo, Claudia; Brown, Brandon S; Scaria, Shilpa; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Recently, engineering the surface of nanotherapeutics with biologics to provide them with superior biocompatibility and targeting towards pathological tissues has gained significant popularity. Although the functionalization of drug delivery vectors with cellular materials has been shown to provide synthetic particles with unique biological properties, these approaches may have undesirable immunological repercussions upon systemic administration. Herein, we comparatively analyzed unmodified multistage nanovectors and particles functionalized with murine and human leukocyte cellular membrane, dubbed Leukolike Vectors (LLV), and the immunological effects that may arise in vitro and in vivo. Previously, LLV demonstrated an avoidance of opsonization and phagocytosis, in addition to superior targeting of inflammation and prolonged circulation. In this work, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of the importance of the source of cellular membrane in increasing their systemic tolerance and minimizing an inflammatory response. Time-lapse microscopy revealed LLV developed using a cellular coating derived from a murine (i.e., syngeneic) source resulted in an active avoidance of uptake by macrophage cells. Additionally, LLV composed of a murine membrane were found to have decreased uptake in the liver with no significant effect on hepatic function. As biomimicry continues to develop, this work demonstrates the necessity to consider the source of biological material in the development of future drug delivery carriers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Liver immunology and its role in inflammation and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark W; Harmon, Cathal; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2016-05-01

    The human liver is usually perceived as a non-immunological organ engaged primarily in metabolic, nutrient storage and detoxification activities. However, we now know that the healthy liver is also a site of complex immunological activity mediated by a diverse immune cell repertoire as well as non-hematopoietic cell populations. In the non-diseased liver, metabolic and tissue remodeling functions require elements of inflammation. This inflammation, in combination with regular exposure to dietary and microbial products, creates the potential for excessive immune activation. In this complex microenvironment, the hepatic immune system tolerates harmless molecules while at the same time remaining alert to possible infectious agents, malignant cells or tissue damage. Upon appropriate immune activation to challenge by pathogens or tissue damage, mechanisms to resolve inflammation are essential to maintain liver homeostasis. Failure to clear 'dangerous' stimuli or regulate appropriately activated immune mechanisms leads to pathological inflammation and disrupted tissue homeostasis characterized by the progressive development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventual liver failure. Hepatic inflammatory mechanisms therefore have a spectrum of roles in the healthy adult liver; they are essential to maintain tissue and organ homeostasis and, when dysregulated, are key drivers of the liver pathology associated with chronic infection, autoimmunity and malignancy. In this review, we explore the changing perception of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in normal liver homeostasis and propose targeting of liver-specific immune regulation pathways as a therapeutic approach to treat liver disease.

  20. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  1. Immunology teaching by incorporating knowledge from theater and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elisa Ferreira Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Immunology knowledge is important to therapeutic prevention of several diseases. The aim of this study was present a teaching methodology of Immunology and verify its efficacy as the knowledge acquisition by the participants of an event. To assess the progress of knowledge by the participants as well the use of the play and sung music, each participant fill a questionnaire, containing ten questions, before and after the presentation. The results were evaluated by paired T test at 5%. In both types there was knowledge incorporation after the play activity because the notes after the event were statistically higher. The participants remained attentive and praised the event. The knowledge showed by most of participants was considered lower and regular before the event and after the ludic activities they showed higher grades which categorized knowledge as regular and high. It was concluded that the methodology used contributed with knowledge acquisition and could contribute with the cultural and social education of the participants.

  2. Regulatory immune cells and functions in autoimmunity and transplantation immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gabor; Boros, Peter; Nakken, Britt; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2017-05-01

    In physiological circumstances, various tolerogenic mechanisms support the protection of self-structures during immune responses. However, quantitative and/or qualitative changes in regulatory immune cells and mediators can evoke auto-reactive immune responses, and upon susceptible genetic background, along with the presence of other concomitant etiological factors, autoimmune disease may develop. In transplant immunology, tolerogenic mechanisms are also critical, since the balance between of alloantigen-reactive effector cells and the regulatory immune cells will ultimately determine whether a graft is accepted or rejected. Better understanding of the immunological tolerance and the potential modulations of immune regulatory processes are crucial for developing effective therapies in autoimmune diseases as well as in organ transplantation. In this review, we focus on the novel insights regarding the impaired immune regulation and other relevant factors contributing to the development of auto-reactive and graft-reactive immune responses in autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection, respectively. We also address some promising approaches for modification of immune-regulatory processes and tolerogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity and solid organ transplantation, which may be beneficial in future therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Platelet Immunology in China: Research and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoguang; Zhou, Yan; Li, Lilan; Zhong, Zhoulin; Li, Hengchong; Li, Haiyan; Yu, Mei; Shen, Weidong; Ni, Heyu

    2017-04-01

    Immunization against human platelet alloantigens (HPAs) is associated with a number of clinical complications. The detection and identification of clinically relevant platelet antibodies are important for the diagnosis and management of patients affected with immune-mediated thrombocytopenias. Human platelet alloantigen frequencies and the characteristics of antiplatelet antibodies vary widely between ethnic groups. Since 2008, the importance of platelet immunology in the field of transfusion medicine has gained greater recognition by clinical laboratories in China. Laboratories in China have established and improved methods for platelet antibody detection and HPA genotyping techniques, which are used for the diagnosis of alloimmune platelet disorders in clinic and research environments. Research has revealed the frequencies of HPA alleles in different Chinese ethnic groups and compared the differences in HPA gene frequencies between the Chinese Han and other ethnic groups of the world. Production of anti-CD36 isoantibodies is an important risk factor for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in the Chinese population. Advances in research and clinical application of platelet immunology have significantly improved the clinical diagnosis, treatment including transfusion support, and prevention of alloimmune platelet disorders in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Widespread immunological functions of mast cells: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Feyerabend, Thorsten B

    2012-07-27

    Immunological functions of mast cells are currently considered to be much broader than the original role of mast cells in IgE-driven allergic disease. The spectrum of proposed mast cell functions includes areas as diverse as the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, protective immunity against viral, microbial, and parasitic pathogens, autoimmunity, tolerance to graft rejection, promotion of or protection from cancer, wound healing, angiogenesis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and others. The vast majority of in vivo mast cell data have been based on mast cell-deficient Kit mutant mice. However, work in new mouse mutants with unperturbed Kit function, which have a surprisingly normal immune system, has failed to corroborate some key immunological aspects, formerly attributed to mast cells. Here, we consider the implications of these recent developments for the state of the field as well as for future work, aiming at deciphering the physiological functions of mast cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unique topics and issues in rheumatology and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Clinicians are facing unexpected issues in everyday practice, and these may become counterintuitive or challenging. Illustrative examples are provided by the hypersensitivity to universally used immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or antibiotics such as beta-lactam. Secondly, additional issues are represented by the discovery of new pathogenetic mechanisms involved in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis or other chronic inflammatory diseases, genomic susceptibility to enigmatic diseases such as giant cell arteritis, or the shared role of specific mediators such as semaphorins. Third, the therapeutic armamentarium has dramatically changed over the past decade following the introduction of biotechnological drugs, and new mechanisms are being proposed to reduce adverse events or increase the drug effectiveness, particularly on cardiovascular comorbidities. Finally, rare diseases continue to represent difficult cases, as for Cogan's syndrome, with limited literature available for clinical recommendations. For these reason, the present issue of Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology is timely and dedicated to these and other unique topics in clinical immunology and allergy. The aim of this issue is thus to help clinicians involved in internal medicine as well as allergists and clinical immunologists while discussing new pathways that will prove important in the near future.

  6. Normal function of immunologic stem cells from aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.E.; Doubleday, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Marrow or spleen grafts from aged donor mice produced antibody-forming cells as effectively as did grafts from younger controls in recipients tested 3 to 10 months after the transplantation. All recipients were lethally irradiated, and the T6 chromosome marker was used to demonstrate that they were populated by donor cell lines. Recipients of aged or younger control grafts gave similar responses when stimulated with varying doses of antigen and when tested at different times after the transplantation except in two cases. Recipients of aged spleen grafts gave significantly lower responses than younger controls for the first few weeks after the transplantation. If recipients had been thymectomized before lethal irradiation, aged cell lines (pooled marrow and spleen cells) gave only 37 percent of the responses of younger controls. Given sufficient time and intact young recipients, immunologic stem cell lines from old donors populated recipients with cells having normal immune responses. These results suggest that age-related immunologic defects are not intrinsically timed in the precursor cell lines that populate the immune system. (U.S.)

  7. Disturbances of immunological homeostasis induced by radioactive iodine agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, Yu.N.; Norets, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    (CBAxC57B1/6)F 1 mice were injected with 125 I and 131 I-sodium iodide at a dose of 5.74x10 4 Bq/g. For a long time after such treatment the animals manifested an increased level of spleen cells humoral immune response to a foreign antigen (sheep erythrocytes). The autoreactivity of spleen and lymph node lymphocytes to autologous erythrocytes was also elevated. At the same time the selective migration of 51 Cr-labeled spleen lymphocytes to the peripheral lymphoid organs was suppressed. The use of a model system of adoptive cell transfer revealed an increase in the functional activity of cells suppressing a humoral response in mice treated with radiopharmaceuticals. The most pronounced disturbances of immunological reactivity in mice took place 6 mos. after the beginning of the experiment. The results obtained indicated that mechanisms of immune response regulation played a certain role in disturbances of immunological homeostasis induced by radioactive iodine agents

  8. Immunological gap in the infectious animal model for biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Schmidt, G; Verhagen, W; Szavay, P; Leonhardt, J; Petersen, C

    2001-11-01

    Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA), the etiology of which still remains unclear, occurs exclusively in newborns and has recently been simulated in an animal model. It is possible to trigger an EHBA corresponding to the human disease by means of intraperitoneal infection of newborn Balb/c mice with rhesus rotavirus (RRV). The aim of the present study was to determine the conditions and circumstances for inducing biliary atresia in this model focusing on first-line immunological aspects. Newborn as well as pregnant Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with RRV. The highest incidence of cholestasis (86%) was achieved by infection with 10(6) PFU/ml RRV within the first 12 h postpartum, resulting in EHBA with a lethality of 100%. However, the later the newborn mouse is infected, the less likelihood there is that EHBA is triggered. Additionally, the incidence of biliary atresia in this model depends on the quantity of the virus that is given intraperitoneally. However, the development of biliary atresia is not correlated to the virus in the liver. The antepartum infection of pregnant mice does not induce EHBA in the offspring. Female mice that are immunized against RRV protect their newborns from developing RRV-induced cholestasis and EHBA. This protection is transmitted transplacentally and not by breast milk. It is obvious that a temporary immunological gap is essential for virally induced EHBA. Further studies should focus on specific parameters of the immune system of newborn mice in this biliary atresia model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Matthew J; Morris, Joanna S; McDermott, Mark R; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Oral canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a spontaneously occurring aggressive tumour with relatively few medical treatment options, which provides a suitable model for the disease in humans. Historically, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at provoking both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses have been published with varying levels of activity against CMM. Recently, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing human tyrosinase has been licensed for the adjunct treatment of oral CMM. This article reviews the immunological similarities between CMM and the human counterpart; mechanisms by which tumours evade the immune system; reasons why melanoma is an attractive target for immunotherapy; the premise of whole cell, dendritic cell (DC), viral and DNA vaccination strategies alongside preliminary clinical results in dogs. Current "gold standard" treatments for advanced human malignant melanoma are evolving quickly with remarkable results being achieved following the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptively transferred cell therapies. The rapidly expanding field of cancer immunology and immunotherapeutics means that rational targeting of this disease in both species should enhance treatment outcomes in veterinary and human clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Re-evaluation of the immunological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2014-11-03

    Classically the immunological 'Big Bang' of adaptive immunity was believed to have resulted from the insertion of a transposon into an immunoglobulin superfamily gene member, initiating antigen receptor gene rearrangement via the RAG recombinase in an ancestor of jawed vertebrates. However, the discovery of a second, convergent adaptive immune system in jawless fish, focused on the so-called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), was arguably the most exciting finding of the past decade in immunology and has drastically changed the view of immune origins. The recent report of a new lymphocyte lineage in lampreys, defined by the antigen receptor VLRC, suggests that there were three lymphocyte lineages in the common ancestor of jawless and jawed vertebrates that co-opted different antigen receptor supertypes. The transcriptional control of these lineages during development is predicted to be remarkably similar in both the jawless (agnathan) and jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, suggesting that an early 'division of labor' among lymphocytes was a driving force in the emergence of adaptive immunity. The recent cartilaginous fish genome project suggests that most effector cytokines and chemokines were also present in these fish, and further studies of the lamprey and hagfish genomes will determine just how explosive the Big Bang actually was. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained

  12. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki [Graduate School of Suzuka Univ. of Med Sci. Master, Suzuka (Japan)] (and others)

    2004-11-15

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained.

  13. Development of an Integrated Immunology and Vaccines Pharmacy Elective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie F James

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe an elective course on immunology and vaccines for pharmacy students that extends beyond basic immunization training. Design: A three credit-hour Immunology and Vaccines elective was developed and taught by an immunologist, policy research expert, and pharmacist. The learning objectives of the course included: understanding how the immune system works with vaccines to provide protection against infectious diseases, the history and policies involved in immunization practice, and how to counsel the vaccine hesitant individual. Classes were conducted using a variety of formats; group projects, lectures, films, literature reviews and guest speakers. An end-of-course evaluation was used to gauge student opinion on course value. Students were evaluated by four exams and a final group presentation. Conclusion: Students indicated that this course was valuable to their future pharmacy careers and provided insight into why people choose not to vaccinate and how they could use the course insight to properly educate such individuals. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Note

  14. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  15. Distinction between infections with European and American/vaccine type PRRS virus after vaccination with a modified-live PRRS virus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Sørensen, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    types of PRRSV was made on a serological basis. The immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), carried out using a Danish strain (IPMA/DK) and the vaccine strain (IPMA/vac) in parallel, allows the distinction of infections with EU and US strains of PRRSV. In herds infected with the EU type, the titer...... in individual samples is higher in the IPMA/DK compared to the titer in the IPMA/vac, while in herds infected with the vaccine/US type, the titers are highest in the IPMA/vac. Furthermore, a double blocking ELISA has been developed, which enables large scale screening for and simultaneous distinction between...... ELISA-Vac), which enables us to serologically distinguish between EU and US strains of PRRSV infections. In herds infected with the Danish strain of PRRSV, most animals have a ratio below 1, while in herds infected with the vaccine/US strain most animals have a ratio above 2. The distinction between...

  16. Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; The US-Japan workshop on immunological molecular markers in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Hideaki; Sato, Marimo; Thurin, Magdalena; Wang, Ena; Butterfield, Lisa H; Disis, Mary L; Fox, Bernard A; Lee, Peter P; Khleif, Samir N; Wigginton, Jon M; Ambs, Stefan; Akutsu, Yasunori; Chaussabel, Damien; Doki, Yuichiro; Eremin, Oleg; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Imai, Kohzoh; Jacobson, James; Jinushi, Masahisa; Kanamoto, Akira; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Kato, Kazunori; Kawakami, Yutaka; Kirkwood, John M; Kleen, Thomas O; Lehmann, Paul V; Liotta, Lance; Lotze, Michael T; Maio, Michele; Malyguine, Anatoli; Masucci, Giuseppe; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Mayrand-Chung, Shawmarie; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Palucka, A Karolina; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Pos, Zoltan; Ribas, Antoni; Rivoltini, Licia; Sato, Noriyuki; Shiku, Hiroshi; Slingluff, Craig L; Streicher, Howard; Stroncek, David F; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Toyota, Minoru; Wada, Hisashi; Wu, Xifeng; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhao, Yingdong; Zocca, Mai-Britt; Marincola, Francesco M

    2009-01-01

    Supported by the Office of International Affairs, National Cancer Institute (NCI), the "US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Biomarkers in Oncology" was held in March 2009. The workshop was related to a task force launched by the International Society for the Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to identify strategies for biomarker discovery and validation in the field of biotherapy. The effort will culminate on October 28th 2009 in the "iSBTc-FDA-NCI Workshop on Prognostic and Predictive Immunologic Biomarkers in Cancer", which will be held in Washington DC in association with the Annual Meeting. The purposes of the US-Japan workshop were a) to discuss novel approaches to enhance the discovery of predictive and/or prognostic markers in cancer immunotherapy; b) to define the state of the science in biomarker discovery and validation. The participation of Japanese and US scientists provided the opportunity to identify shared or discordant themes across the distinct immune genetic background and the diverse prevalence of disease between the two Nations. Converging concepts were identified: enhanced knowledge of interferon-related pathways was found to be central to the understanding of immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction (TSD) of which tumor rejection is a representative facet. Although the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) likely mediates the inflammatory process leading to tumor rejection, it is insufficient by itself and the associated mechanisms need to be identified. It is likely that adaptive immune responses play a broader role in tumor rejection than those strictly related to their antigen-specificity; likely, their primary role is to trigger an acute and tissue-specific inflammatory response at the tumor site that leads to rejection upon recruitment of additional innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Other candidate systemic and/or tissue-specific biomarkers were recognized that

  17. Emerging concepts in biomarker discovery; The US-Japan workshop on immunological molecular markers in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivoltini Licia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Supported by the Office of International Affairs, National Cancer Institute (NCI, the "US-Japan Workshop on Immunological Biomarkers in Oncology" was held in March 2009. The workshop was related to a task force launched by the International Society for the Biological Therapy of Cancer (iSBTc and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA to identify strategies for biomarker discovery and validation in the field of biotherapy. The effort will culminate on October 28th 2009 in the "iSBTc-FDA-NCI Workshop on Prognostic and Predictive Immunologic Biomarkers in Cancer", which will be held in Washington DC in association with the Annual Meeting. The purposes of the US-Japan workshop were a to discuss novel approaches to enhance the discovery of predictive and/or prognostic markers in cancer immunotherapy; b to define the state of the science in biomarker discovery and validation. The participation of Japanese and US scientists provided the opportunity to identify shared or discordant themes across the distinct immune genetic background and the diverse prevalence of disease between the two Nations. Converging concepts were identified: enhanced knowledge of interferon-related pathways was found to be central to the understanding of immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction (TSD of which tumor rejection is a representative facet. Although the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs likely mediates the inflammatory process leading to tumor rejection, it is insufficient by itself and the associated mechanisms need to be identified. It is likely that adaptive immune responses play a broader role in tumor rejection than those strictly related to their antigen-specificity; likely, their primary role is to trigger an acute and tissue-specific inflammatory response at the tumor site that leads to rejection upon recruitment of additional innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Other candidate systemic and/or tissue-specific biomarkers

  18. Clinical and immunological characteristics of 150 systemic lupus erythematosus patients in Jamaica: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, K C; Ferguson, T S; Stewart, H D; Myers, A A; De Ceulaer, K

    2017-11-01

    Background Epidemiological studies in systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported in the literature in many countries and ethnic groups. Although systemic lupus erythematosus in Jamaica has been described in the past, there has not been a detailed evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in urban Jamaica, a largely Afro-Caribbean population. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical features, particularly disease activity, damage index and immunological features, of 150 systemic lupus erythematosus subjects. Methods 150 adult patients (≥18 years) followed in rheumatology clinic at a tertiary rheumatology hospital centre (one of two of the major public referral centres in Jamaica) and the private rheumatology offices in urban Jamaica who fulfilled Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria were included. Data were collected by detailed clinical interview and examination and laboratory investigations. Hence demographics, SLICC criteria, immunological profile, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) damage index (SDI) were documented. Results Of the 150 patients, 145 (96.7%) were female and five (3.3%) were male. The mean age at systemic lupus erythematosus onset was 33.2 ± 10.9. Mean disease duration was 11.3 ± 8.6 years. The most prevalent clinical SLICC criteria were musculoskeletal, with 141 (94%) of subjects experiencing arthralgia/arthritis, followed by mucocutaneous manifestations of alopecia 103 (68.7%) and malar rash 46 (30.7%), discoid rash 45 (30%) and photosensitivity 40 (26.7%). Lupus nephritis (biopsy proven) occurred in 42 (28%) subjects and 25 (16.7%) met SLICC diagnostic criteria with only positive antinuclear antibodies/dsDNA antibodies and lupus nephritis on renal biopsy. The most common laboratory SLICC criteria were positive antinuclear antibodies 136 (90.7%) followed by anti-dsDNA antibodies 95 (63.3%) and

  19. In Vitro Immunologic Studies with an {sup 131}I-Labelled Component of Complement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spar, I. L.; Benz, L. L. [Department of Radiation Biology and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1970-02-15

    Most of the in vitro immunological studies using radioactive isotopes have involved labelling of the reacting antigen or antibody. For meaningful results, it is also necessary to use a relatively purified preparation of either the antigen or antibody. This has been difficult to obtain when the antigenic component is ill- defined, as in tissue or tumour immunity. It seemed possible that detection of reactions of this type could be done more easily by using labelled components of haemolytic complement, since some of the factors involved in this 9-11 factor system are known to firmly bind to most antigen-antibody combinations. As an initial step in this study, {sup 125}I- or {sup 131}I-labelled components of complement were used to detect and quantitate known antigen-antibody systems. The initial reacting component of guinea pig complement, C'l, was partially purified and labelled with {sup 125}I or {sup 131}I. It was found that labelled C'l would react with ovalbumin- antiovalbumin (OA) precipitates and would bind to sensitized sheep cells (EA) in proportion to the amount of haemolysin bound to the cells. EDTA elusion of such bound {sup 125}I-C'l yielded a product that would react with EA or OA to a much greater extent than the starting material. In addition, lysis of EA would occur after binding of eluted {sup 125}I-C'l if the remaining complement components were added to the system. In further studies it was found that {sup 131}I-C'l could be used to detect reactions between anti-kidney antisera and hpmogenates of kidney, liver and lung. Extension of this work with isotopically labelled components of complement to a study involving tissue sections after incubation with antisera could lead to defection of tissue-antitissue antibody binding in situ. By utilizing autoradiographic techniques, one can further extend this system to define the site of antibody fixation. A distinct advantage of this approach is that the isotopically labelled reactant, complement, is

  20. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  1. Natural Microbial Assemblages Reflect Distinct Organismal and Functional Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, P.; Andersson, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Lefsrud, M. G.; Wexler, M.; Singer, S. W.; Shah, M.; Bond, P. L.; Thelen, M. P.; Hettich, R. L.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to link microbial community structure to function has long been a primary focus of environmental microbiology. With the advent of community genomic and proteomic techniques, along with advances in microscopic imaging techniques, it is now possible to gain insights into the organismal and functional makeup of microbial communities. Biofilms growing within highly acidic solutions inside the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, Redding, California) exhibit distinct macro- and microscopic morphologies. They are composed of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life, including archaea, bacteria and eukarya. The proportion of each organismal type depends on sampling location and developmental stage. For example, mature biofilms floating on top of acid mine drainage (AMD) pools exhibit layers consisting of a densely packed bottom layer of the chemoautolithotroph Leptospirillum group II, a less dense top layer composed mainly of archaea, and fungal filaments spanning across the entire biofilm. The expression of cytochrome 579 (the most highly abundant protein in the biofilm, believed to be central to iron oxidation and encoded by Leptospirillum group II) is localized at the interface of the biofilm with the AMD solution, highlighting that biofilm architecture is reflected at the functional gene expression level. Distinct functional partitioning is also apparent in a biological wastewater treatment system that selects for distinct polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Community genomic data from " Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" dominated activated sludge has enabled high mass-accuracy shotgun proteomics for identification of key metabolic pathways. Comprehensive genome-wide alignment of orthologous proteins suggests distinct partitioning of protein variants involved in both core-metabolism and specific metabolic pathways among the dominant population and closely related species. In addition, strain- resolved proteogenomic analysis of the AMD biofilms

  2. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Lide Abu Kassim

    Full Text Available Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK, which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS, controlled use of health care services (HCS and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356 and university students from a local university (n = 147. Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits. Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001. However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001 and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001. These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on

  3. 21 CFR 866.5520 - Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5520 Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5540 Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5530 Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  6. Immunological methods for the detection and determination of connective tissue proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, B; Baker, J R; Christner, J E

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we report the use of immunological methods for specifically detecting and determining proteoglycan in cartilage and other connective tissues. Antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) have been raised against specific components of cartilage proteoglycan aggregates (i.e., proteoglycan...... surrounding invaginating hair follicles. These immunological procedures are currently being used to complement conventional biochemical analyses of proteoglycans found in different connective tissue matrices....

  7. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Class II (special controls). Tumor markers must comply with the following special controls: (1) A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen...

  8. 76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus... CFR part 866 is amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 0 1. The authority...

  9. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus... proposed that 21 CFR part 866 be amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1. The...

  10. Main stages in the development of radiation immunology: from immunochemical analysis of injury to monitored radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarilin, A.A.; Kashkin, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research of the radiation action on immunity are presented. The results of immunochemical investigation of radiation tissue injuries are considered. Much attention is given to the problem of radiation injury and repair of the lymphoid system. It is shown that the next stage of development of radiation immunology is immunologic control of radiotherapy of oncologic patients

  11. 76 FR 16292 - Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Ovarian Adnexal Mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0026] Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Ovarian... of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part 866 is amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  12. 76 FR 48871 - Immunology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Immunology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Immunology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To...

  13. 76 FR 55398 - Immunology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: Notice of Postponement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Immunology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: Notice of Postponement of Meeting AGENCY... postponing the meeting of the Immunology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee scheduled...

  14. The immunology of the vermiform appendix: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, I. A.; Sahami, S.; Meijer, S. L.; Buskens, C. J.; te Velde, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    This literature review assesses the current knowledge about the immunological aspects of the vermiform appendix in health and disease. An essential part of its immunological function is the interaction with the intestinal bacteria, a trait shown to be preserved during its evolution. The existence of

  15. INFLUENCE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY ON CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    T.L. Nastausheva; L.T. Dmitrieva

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and immunological status has been evaluated in 85 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before and after physiotherapeutic procedures: electrophoresis with dimexid and magnetotherapy. The control group of 31 children did not follow physiotherapeutic procedures. The following results were fixed: clinical indices and immunological status of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis have been changed in a larger degree in case of magnetotherapy.

  16. Immunological Demyelination Triggers Macrophage/Microglial Cells Activation without Inducing Astrogliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Cloutier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The glial scar formed by reactive astrocytes and axon growth inhibitors associated with myelin play important roles in the failure of axonal regeneration following central nervous system (CNS injury. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that immunological demyelination of the CNS facilitates regeneration of severed axons following spinal cord injury. In the present study, we evaluate whether immunological demyelination is accompanied with astrogliosis. We compared the astrogliosis and macrophage/microglial cell responses 7 days after either immunological demyelination or a stab injury to the dorsal funiculus. Both lesions induced a strong activated macrophage/microglial cells response which was significantly higher within regions of immunological demyelination. However, immunological demyelination regions were not accompanied by astrogliosis compared to stab injury that induced astrogliosis which extended several millimeters above and below the lesions, evidenced by astroglial hypertrophy, formation of a glial scar, and upregulation of intermediate filaments glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Moreover, a stab or a hemisection lesion directly within immunological demyelination regions did not induced astrogliosis within the immunological demyelination region. These results suggest that immunological demyelination creates a unique environment in which astrocytes do not form a glial scar and provides a unique model to understand the putative interaction between astrocytes and activated macrophage/microglial cells.

  17. A novel pAA virulence plasmid encoding toxins and two distinct variants of the fimbriae of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boll, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    phylogenetically distinct, strains harboring the major pilin subunits from both AAF/III and AAF/V. Whole-genome and plasmid sequencing revealed that in these six strains the agg3A and agg5A genes were located on a novel pAA plasmid variant. Moreover, the plasmid also encoded several other virulence genes including...... some not previously found on pAA plasmids. Thus, this plasmid endows the host strains with a remarkably high number of EAEC associated virulence genes hereby likely promoting strain pathogenicity....

  18. Face-offs in reproductive immunology: the Montreal forum meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, B Anne; Baines, Malcolm G

    2004-10-01

    The combined 12th International Congress of Immunology (ICI) and the 4th Annual Conference of the Federation of Clinical Immunological Societies (FOCIS) was held in Montreal, Canada July 18-23, 2004 and attracted over 6000 immunologists and almost 4000 abstracts. The host society, the Canadian Society for Immunology (CSI) spent many years in preparation for this large meeting and encouraged its members to propose topics for symposia and mini-symposia and to sponsor satellite meetings. With sponsorship of CSI; the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; the University of Guelph, Guelph, ON; Queen's University, Kingston, ON; McGill University, Montreal, QU, Canada; and the American Society for Reproductive Immunology, a focused, highly successful, one day satellite meeting on human uterine immunology was held. The highlights of the presentations and discussions are reported.

  19. Mathematical Models for Immunology: Current State of the Art and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftimie, Raluca; Gillard, Joseph J; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2016-10-01

    The advances in genetics and biochemistry that have taken place over the last 10 years led to significant advances in experimental and clinical immunology. In turn, this has led to the development of new mathematical models to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively various open questions in immunology. In this study we present a review of some research areas in mathematical immunology that evolved over the last 10 years. To this end, we take a step-by-step approach in discussing a range of models derived to study the dynamics of both the innate and immune responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue scales. To emphasise the use of mathematics in modelling in this area, we also review some of the mathematical tools used to investigate these models. Finally, we discuss some future trends in both experimental immunology and mathematical immunology for the upcoming years.

  20. Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Sutee Yoksan; Duncan R. Smith; Prasert Auewarakul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

  1. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  2. Case immunologically disturbed by thorotrast-induced hepatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boku, S; Kato, M; Okuyama, T; Masuzawa, Manabu; Matsuo, S [National Osaka Hospital (Japan)

    1980-10-01

    A case, 57 years old man, with thorotrast-induced hepatocellular carcinoma was reported. Thorium deposits in the reticuloendothelial tissues have the hazardous radiation effects on those tissues forever. In this case, the mean thorium amount in the spleen was 28.4% and the mean activity ratio of Ac-228 to Th-232 was 0.948. These values were much different from those reported by Kato in 1968. The ratio of T-cell to T.B. population decreased and PPD and PHA intradermal skin test were negative. Plasma cells in bone marrow increased and IgG was 4 g/dl. In these immunological studies it was supposed that T-cell function was impaired and B-cell function, especially IgG fraction was stimulated.

  3. Developing the Immunology Book for Animal and Human Physiology Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuni Mitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of the study was to develop an immunology book for Animal and Human Physiology subject. This book was developed based on the Thiagarajan development model which was modified of: Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate (4D. The data expert validation instrument was questionnaire using Likert scales, comments, and recommendation sheets. Expert appraisal was done by material expert and media and design learning expert. The developmental testing was conducted using questionnaire to test the readibility. The expert validation was conducted by material expert as well as design and media learning expert validator; meanwhile, the field test was done to measure the readability. The validity test results were: the material expert state that the material is valid (97.14%, as well as the design and learning media expert (84.88% and field test by students (88.17%.

  4. The immunology of the allergy epidemic and the hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2017-09-19

    The immunology of the hygiene hypothesis of allergy is complex and involves the loss of cellular and humoral immunoregulatory pathways as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle and the disappearance of chronic infectious diseases. The influence of diet and reduced microbiome diversity now forms the foundation of scientific thinking on how the allergy epidemic occurred, although clear mechanistic insights into the process in humans are still lacking. Here we propose that barrier epithelial cells are heavily influenced by environmental factors and by microbiome-derived danger signals and metabolites, and thus act as important rheostats for immunoregulation, particularly during early postnatal development. Preventive strategies based on this new knowledge could exploit the diversity of the microbial world and the way humans react to it, and possibly restore old symbiotic relationships that have been lost in recent times, without causing disease or requiring a return to an unhygienic life style.

  5. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Minchenko, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  6. Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology: A Psychobiological Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello M

    2017-01-01

    Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology (P.N.E.I.) is a scientific field of study that investigates the link between bidirectional communications among the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system and the correlations of this cross-talk with physical health. The P.N.E.I. innovative medical approach represents a paradigm shift from a strictly biomedical view of health and disease taken as hermetically sealed compartments to a more interdisciplinary one. The key element of P.N.E.I. approach is represented by the concept of bidirectional cross-talk between the psychoneuroendocrine and immune systems. The Low Dose Medicine is one of the most promising approaches able to allow the researchers to design innovative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of skin diseases based on the rebalance of the immune response.

  7. BELFAST nonagenarians: nature or nurture? Immunological, cardiovascular and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea I M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonagenarians are the fastest growing sector of populations across Western European and the developed world. They are some of the oldest members of our societies and survivors of their generation and may help us understand how to age not only longer, but better. The Belfast Longevity Group enlisted the help of 500 community-living, mobile, mentally competent, 'elite' nonagenarians, as part of an ongoing study of ageing. We assessed some immunological, cardiovascular, nutritional and genetic factors and some aspects of their interaction in this group of 'oldest old'. Here we present some of the evidence related to genetic and nutritional factors which seem to be important for good quality ageing in nonagenarians from the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST.

  8. Immunological aspects of the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Heidrun H

    2012-01-01

    Limb trauma can lead to the development of a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). CRPS is a descriptive term of a variety of different symptoms. According to the current IASP-approved criteria, human CRPS can be diagnosed if a combination of signs is present: continuing pain and hyperalgesia, disproportionate to the initial trauma, skin temperature and colour asymmetry, sweating asymmetry, edema, decreased range of motion, and trophic changes. The diagnosis and treatment of human CRPS can be demanding and the pathophysiology underlying the disease is still under investigation. Immunological aspects are considered to play an important role in the development of CRPS. The impact of elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines systemically as well as locally, increased neurogenic inflammation and auto-antibodies in the pathophysiological development of CRPS are discussed in this review.

  9. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  10. Immunological Effects of Conventional Chemotherapy and Targeted Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Buqué, Aitziber; Kepp, Oliver; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-12-14

    The tremendous clinical success of checkpoint blockers illustrates the potential of reestablishing latent immunosurveillance for cancer therapy. Although largely neglected in the clinical practice, accumulating evidence indicates that the efficacy of conventional and targeted anticancer agents does not only involve direct cytostatic/cytotoxic effects, but also relies on the (re)activation of tumor-targeting immune responses. Chemotherapy can promote such responses by increasing the immunogenicity of malignant cells, or by inhibiting immunosuppressive circuitries that are established by developing neoplasms. These immunological "side" effects of chemotherapy are desirable, and their in-depth comprehension will facilitate the design of novel combinatorial regimens with improved clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlling the Immunological Crosstalk during Conception and Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge Nilsson, Line; Djurisic, Snezana; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2014-01-01

    of immune cells. As the expression of HLA-G primarily is limited to gestation, this has given rise to the hypothesis that HLA-G plays an important role in the immunological tolerance of the fetus by the mother. In keeping with this, it might not be surprising that polymorphisms in the HLA-G gene, and levels...... in reproduction. HLA-G is characterized mainly by its low polymorphism and restricted tissue distribution in non-pathological conditions. In fact, its expression pattern is primarily limited to extravillous cytotrophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy. Due to low polymorphism, almost......, and is present in seminal fluid from men. In addition, HLA-G expression has been found in the pre-implanted embryo. Therefore, we propose that a combined contribution from the mother, the father, and the embryo/fetus is likely to be important. Furthermore, this review presents important aspects of HLA...

  12. Immunological Mechanisms in the Pathophysiology of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Francque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation and hepatocyte injury and constitutes hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of NASH is complex and implicates cross-talk between different metabolically active sites, such as liver and adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and the liver has been recognized as being an “immunological organ”. The complex role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of NASH is currently raising great interest, also in view of the possible therapeutic potential of immunotherapy in NASH. This review focuses on the disturbances of the cells constituting the innate and adaptive immune system in the liver and in adipose tissue.

  13. Comparison of selected immunological parameters in silver and polar foxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostro, K.; Woloszyn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the work was to compare selected nonspecific immunological parameters in silver and polar foxes. It was found that out of three mitogens (Con A, La and PWM) only Con A stimulated the strongest lymphocyte proliferation in both species of foxes. Mean stimulation indices and the absolute values of incorporated thymidine were significantly higher in polar foxes. The average percentages of phagocytes and the fatal indices of neutrophils were comparable in both species of foxes, while the mean value of the phagocyte index was much higher in the silver fox. However, in polar foxes a higher concentration of lysozyme in the blood serum was found. The differences in the parameters may influence the susceptibility of these foxes to some infections already at the level of nonspecific primary response. (author)

  14. The immunology of Zika Virus [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Culshaw

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV was initially thought to cause only mild, self-limiting symptoms. However, recent outbreaks have been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome and causally linked to a congenital malformation known as microcephaly. This has led to an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. A comprehensive understanding of the immunology of ZIKV infection is required to aid in the design of such a vaccine. Whilst details of both innate and adaptive immune responses to ZIKV are emerging, further research is needed. As immunopathogenesis has been implicated in poor outcomes following infection with the related dengue virus, identification of cross-reactive immune responses between flaviviruses and the impact they may have on disease progression is also of high importance.

  15. Clinical and Immunological Characteristics of Acute Tonsillopharyngitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the pressing issues of timely diagnosis of acute tonsillopharyngitis in children. Particular attention is paid to early diagnosis of acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. As additional paraclinical criteria to confirm the streptococcal nature of acute tonsillopharyngitis, there were selected indicators of cellular immunity (content in peripheral blood of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD22. Sufficient indicators of sensitivity (80 % and specificity (81.3 % enable to use integrated clinical and immunological parameters, which include the contents of CD8-lymphocytes > 10 %, CD-3 lymphocytes > 30 %, CD22-lymphocytes < 18 % in the peripheral blood with a total evaluation of the clinical status by McIsaac’s scale ≥ 4 points to confirm the streptococcal nature of acute tonsillopharyngitis in children.

  16. Immunology of Taenia solium taeniasis and human cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Rodriguez, S; Friedland, J S

    2014-08-01

    The life cycle of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, is continuously closed in many rural settings in developing countries when free roaming pigs ingest human stools containing T. solium eggs and develop cysticercosis, and humans ingest pork infected with cystic larvae and develop intestinal taeniasis, or may also accidentally acquire cysticercosis by faecal-oral contamination. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system, neurocysticercosis, is a major cause of seizures and other neurological morbidity in most of the world. The dynamics of exposure, infection and disease as well as the location of parasites result in a complex interaction which involves immune evasion mechanisms and involutive or progressive disease along time. Moreover, existing data are limited by the relative lack of animal models. This manuscript revises the available information on the immunology of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Imunologia da hanseníase Immunology of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amaral Mendonça

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A hanseníase é doença crônica infecciosa que se caracteriza por apresentar formas clínicas contrastantes, que são dependentes da interação do bacilo com a resposta imune do hospedeiro. O estudo dos processos imunológicos torna-se fundamental para o entendimento dos mecanismos envolvidos na apresentação e no desenvolvimento da doença. Neste artigo, é revisada a imunopatogênese da hanseníase.Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease characterized by contrasting clinical forms that are dependent on the interactions between the bacillus and the host immune response. Thus, the study of the immunological process is extremely relevant for the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in leprosy presentation and development. In this paper, the immunopathogenesis of leprosy is reviewed.

  18. Sex Reporting in Preclinical Microbiological and Immunological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Tanvi; Engle, Kyrra; Fink, Ashley L; Vom Steeg, Landon G; Klein, Sabra L

    2017-11-14

    Both sex (i.e., biological construct of male and female) and gender (i.e., social construct of masculine and feminine) impact the pathogenesis of diseases, including those caused by microbial infections. Following the 2015 NIH policy for consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research, in 2018, authors of papers published in primary-research American Society for Microbiology (ASM) journals will be asked to report the sex of the research subjects and animals and of materials derived directly from them. To address the need for sex reporting in ASM journals, we systematically reviewed 2,928 primary-research articles published in six primary-research ASM journals ( Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , Clinical and Vaccine Immunology , Infection and Immunity , Journal of Bacteriology , Journal of Virology , and mBio ) in 2016. Approximately 37% of animal studies and 9% of primary cell culture papers published in 2016 would have been affected by the new sex-reporting policy. For animal studies (i.e., studies with any nonhuman vertebrate hosts), most published papers either did not report the sex of the animals or used only female animals, and a minority used only males or both sexes. For published studies using primary cells from diverse animal species (i.e., humans and nonhuman vertebrates), almost all studies failed to report the sex of donors from which the cells were isolated. We believe that reporting the sex of animals and even of the donors of derived cells could improve the rigor and reproducibility of research conducted in microbiology and immunology and published in ASM journals. Copyright © 2017 Potluri et al.

  19. Complementary and alternative interventions in asthma, allergy, and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielory, Leonard

    2004-08-01

    To review which herbs are most commonly used as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of asthma, allergy, and immunologic conditions. A review of the literature was performed using the PubMed and OVID databases searching the keywords asthma, allergy, and CAM to identify studies published between 1980 and 2003 that focused on Echinacea (Echinacea augustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea); garlic (Allium); angelica; chamomile; ephedra; gingko; grape seed extract; licorice root (Glycyrrhiza); St. John's wort (Hypericum); kava kava (Piper); peppermint oil and leaf (Mentha); stinging nettle (Urtica); and ginseng (Panax) published in the English and German literature. Studies included in vitro and in vivo clinical trials and case reports selected according to the expert opinion of the author. Echinacea is one of the most common herbs used to treat symptoms of the "common cold" or upper respiratory tract allergies. Although no common drug interactions have been reported, there is a risk of hepatotoxicity, exacerbation of allergies and asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Garlic is primarily used for cardiovascular health and relief of cough, colds, and rhinitis. Adverse effects commonly include gastrointestinal disturbances, change in body odor through the sweat and breath, and rarely allergic reactions or hypoglycemia. Other CAM agents, including angelica, German chamomile flower, ephedra, gingko, grape seed extract, licorice root, St. John's wort, kava kava rhizome, peppermint, stinging nettle, and ginseng, are also associated with significant adverse effects. The specialty of allergy and immunology has seen the second largest increase in the popularity of CAM (second only to practitioners who treat lower back pain). Almost all of the CAM interventions have displayed adverse effects, usually in the form of a hypersensitivity reaction. Allergists and clinical immunologists need to become more knowledgeable about CAM so that they can

  20. Immunology of IgG4-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Torre, E; Lanzillotta, M; Doglioni, C

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition that derives its name from the characteristic finding of abundant IgG4+ plasma cells in affected tissues, as well as the presence of elevated serum IgG4 concentrations in many patients. In contrast to fibrotic disorders, such as systemic sclerosis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in which the tissues fibrosis has remained largely intractable to treatment, many IgG4-RD patients appear to have a condition in which the collagen deposition is reversible. The mechanisms underlying this peculiar feature remain unknown, but the remarkable efficacy of B cell depletion in these patients supports an important pathogenic role of B cell/T cell collaboration. In particular, aberrant T helper type 2 (Th2)/regulatory T cells sustained by putative autoreactive B cells have been proposed to drive collagen deposition through the production of profibrotic cytokines, but definitive demonstrations of this hypothesis are lacking. Indeed, a number of unsolved questions need to be addressed in order to fully understand the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. These include the identification of an antigenic trigger(s), the implications (if any) of IgG4 antibodies for pathophysiology and the precise immunological mechanisms leading to fibrosis. Recent investigations have also raised the possibility that innate immunity might precede adaptive immunity, thus further complicating the pathological scenario. Here, we aim to review the most recent insights on the immunology of IgG4-RD, focusing on the relative contribution of innate and adaptive immune responses to the full pathological phenotype of this fibrotic condition. Clinical, histological and therapeutic features are also addressed. PMID:25865251

  1. Immunologic analyses of mouse cystathionase in normal and leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikel, I.; Faibes, D.; Uren, J.R.; Livingston, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbit antisera have been raised against mouse liver cystathionase and shown to possess enzyme neutralizing activity. Agar gel double immunodiffusion analyses demonstrated that both mouse liver cystathionase and rat liver cystathionase react with the antisera, the latter enzyme being completely cross-reactive with the former. Following radioiodination of the purified rat liver enzyme, a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed in which greater than 90% of the labeled protein could be specifically precipitated with the anti-mouse cystathionase antibodies. In this test the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were virtually indistinguishable, generating superimposable competition displacement curves on a protein mass basis. These results indicate that both enzymes are immunologically identical, thus validating the use of the rat in lieu of the murine liver enzyme as radiolabeled tracer in an assay for mouse cystathionase. In addition, competition radioimmunoassays demonstrated that the immunological reactivities of both the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were equally heat sensitive. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 1 ng of enzyme protein/0.22 mL of assay mixture, and the assay could be used to detect the presence of enzyme protein in tissue homogenates of single mouse organs. Mouse or rat cross-reactivity with human liver cystathionase was incomplete; but, with the exception of heart and spleen, parallel radioimmunoassay competition displacement curves were obtained for cystathionase from different mouse organs including thymus. Extracts of 7-, 9-, and 10-month-old spontaneous AKR mouse thymomas were tested in the radioimmunoassay along with extracts of age-matched thymuses which were grossly tumor free. A reaction of nonidentity was observed for all of the tumor extracts while a reaction identical with that of the pure liver enzyme was found with all of the normal thymus extracts

  2. Imagining 'reactivity': allergy within the history of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michelle

    2010-12-01

    An allergy is commonly understood to be an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances that are misrecognised as foreign. This concept of allergy as an abnormal, misdirected immune response-a biological fault-stems from the idea that the immune system is an inherently defensive operation designed to protect the individual through an innate capacity to discriminate between the benign and toxic, or self and nonself. However, this definition of allergy represents a radical departure from its original formulation. Literally meaning 'altered reactivity', the term was coined in 1906 by Austrian paediatrician Clemens von Pirquet, to describe the fundamentally mutable nature of the immune response. This paper argues that the conventional interpretation of allergy-as-pathology derives from specific concepts of 'organism', 'response', and 'normal' immune function that have-for over a century-governed the perception and study of immune phenomena within immunology. Through an examination of Louis Pasteur's conceptualisation of the host body/microorganism relationship, I argue that immunology is founded on a view of the organism as a discrete, autonomous entity, and on a concomitant notion of the immune response as essentially reactive. Revisiting the concept of 'altered reactivity', this paper points to the fact that allergy was initially posited as a general theory of immune responsiveness and, importantly, one that poses a significant challenge to orthodox notions of immunopathology. It suggests that Pirquet's unique view of immune responsiveness presents an account of organismic or biological identity that encapsulates, rather than reduces, its ecological complexity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two distinct forms of Chlamydia psittaci associated with disease and infertility in Phascolarctos cinereus (koala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girjes, A A; Hugall, A F; Timms, P; Lavin, M F

    1988-01-01

    While several diseases associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection have been reported in Phascolarctos cinereus (koala), it is still unclear whether one or more chlamydial strains are responsible. In this study, we provide evidence, obtained by restriction enzyme and gene probe analysis, that two quite distinct strains of C. psittaci infect koalas; one strain was isolated from the conjunctivae, and the other was isolated from the urogenital tract and the rectum. A gene probe, pFEN207, containing the coding sequence for an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the chlamydial genus-specific lipopolysaccharide antigen, and a separate probe, pCPML-4N, prepared from a DNA fragment of a koala-infecting strain of C. psittaci, were used to determine the patterns of hybridization in the koala-infecting strains; these patterns were found to be quite distinct from those observed with C. psittaci isolates from other animals. We also demonstrated by hybridization analysis with an avian strain plasmid that all three koala urogenital isolates contain a plasmid and that there is no evidence for the presence of a homologous plasmid in any of the ocular isolates. Images PMID:3397180

  4. Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  5. [A comparison of the properties of bacteriocins formed by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains of diverse origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianova, L G; Egorov, N S; Fedorova, G B; Katrukha, G S; Netrusov, A I

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins formed by four strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis have been studied and compared: 729 (a natural strain isolated from milk), 1605 (a mutant of strain 729), F-116 (a recombinant obtained by fusing of protoplasts of the two related strain 729 and 1605), and a nisin-forming strain obtained by adaptive selection at Moscow State University. Antimicrobial activity studies revealed differences between the strains in the effects on individual groups of microorganisms; the activities of the strains were also distinct from that of Nisaplin (a commercial preparation of the bacteriocin nisin). Methods for isolation and purification of bacteriocins have been developed, making it possible to obtain individual components of antibiotic complexes as chromatographically pure preparations. Bacteriocins formed by the strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis have been identified and differences in their biological and physicochemical properties, established. A novel potent broad-spectrum antibiotic substance distinct from nisin has been isolated from the recombinant strain F-116.

  6. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Highly Successful Outbreak Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Litrup, Eva; Larsson, Jonas T.

    2011-01-01

    we detected changes in three of five MLVA loci in a small fraction of isolates. These changes were mainly due to the gain or loss of single repeats. Optical Mapping of the large cluster strain indicated no increased content of virulence genes; however, Optical Mapping did reveal a large insert......, a probable prophage, in the main cluster. This probable prophage may give the cluster strain a competitive advantage. The molecular methods employed suggested that the four clusters represented four distinct strains, although they seemed to be epidemiologically linked and shared genotypic characteristics....

  8. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...... lymphocyte count, T-helper (CD4) and T-cytotoxic/suppressor (CD8) counts, and lymphocyte transformation responses to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and to antigenic extracts from Candida albicans and cytomegalovirus. 24 individuals developed HIV-related symptoms or AIDS (11...... cases). All parameters except the CD8 count were of prognostic value, but a multivariate analysis of symptom-free survival showed that HIV antigenemia, a CD4 count less than 0.5 x 10(9)/l, and relative response to PWM below 25% of controls contained all the prognostic information. Individuals abnormal...

  9. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  10. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  11. DMPD: DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory response. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17114416 DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of the...ml) (.csml) Show DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory resp...onse. PubmedID 17114416 Title DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phospha

  12. Prediction (early recognition) of emerging flu strain clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of incipient dominant influenza strains is one of the key steps in the design and manufacture of an effective annual influenza vaccine. Here we report the most current results for pandemic H3N2 flu vaccine design. A 2006 model of dimensional reduction (compaction) of viral mutational complexity derives two-dimensional Cartesian mutational maps (2DMM) that exhibit an emergent dominant strain as a small and distinct cluster of as few as 10 strains. We show that recent extensions of this model can detect incipient strains one year or more in advance of their dominance in the human population. Our structural interpretation of our unexpectedly rich 2DMM involves sialic acid, and is based on nearly 6000 strains in a series of recent 3-year time windows. Vaccine effectiveness is predicted best by analyzing dominant mutational epitopes.

  13. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery N Gilbert

    Full Text Available The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateljak-Lukacevic Sanja

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL, RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Šantak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Background The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. Results We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes. PMID:18616793

  16. Genetic heterogeneity of L-Zagreb mumps virus vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutic-Gulija, Tanja; Forcic, Dubravko; Santak, Maja; Ramljak, Ana; Mateljak-Lukacevic, Sanja; Mazuran, Renata

    2008-07-10

    The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically heterogeneous. We identified the heterogeneity of L-Zagreb throughout the entire genome. Two major variants were defined: variant A being identical to the consensus sequence of viral seeds and vaccine(s) and variant B which differs from variant A in three nucleotide positions. The difference between viral variants in L-Zagreb strain is insufficient for distinct viral strains to be defined. We demonstrated that proportion of variants in L-Zagreb viral population depends on cell substrate used for viral replication in vitro and in vivo. L-Zagreb strain should be considered as a single strain composed of at least two variant viral genomes.

  17. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest. PMID:29401526

  18. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos; Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2016-07-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267-169 and rMF35767-196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267-169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and development of a promising novel mumps vaccine candidate strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Ma, Shaohui; Liu, Longding; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Jiang, Li; Xie, Zhongping; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Qihan

    2010-12-01

    Mumps epidemics are usually caused by airborne transmission of mumps virus (MuV) and have high morbidity in non-immunized children. Epidemiological studies in many regions of China show that the genotype F viral strain is the most prevalent. However, the genotype A strain is currently used to prepare vaccines. Regional epidemiological MuV data suggest a significant application for the development of live attenuated mumps vaccines targeting specific genotypes. This article reports the isolation and culture of a genotype F MuV candidate strain that could be used to prepare a live attenuated mumps vaccine. This strain is shown to have good immunological efficacy and stability in neurovirulence evaluations. This work should facilitate the implementation of mumps vaccination in mainland China by targeting the most prevalent MuV genotype, genotype F. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial-based systems for expression and purification of recombinant Lassa virus proteins of immunological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashman Kathleen A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant requirement for the development and acquisition of reagents that will facilitate effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lassa fever. In this regard, recombinant Lassa virus (LASV proteins may serve as valuable tools in diverse antiviral applications. Bacterial-based systems were engineered for expression and purification of recombinant LASV nucleoprotein (NP, glycoprotein 1 (GP1, and glycoprotein 2 (GP2. Results Full-length NP and the ectodomains of GP1 and GP2 were generated as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusions in the Rosetta strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli using pMAL-c2x vectors. Average fusion protein yields per liter of culture for MBP-NP, MBP-GP1, and MBP-GP2 were 10 mg, 9 mg, and 9 mg, respectively. Each protein was captured from cell lysates using amylose resin, cleaved with Factor Xa, and purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC. Fermentation cultures resulted in average yields per liter of 1.6 mg, 1.5 mg, and 0.7 mg of purified NP, GP1 and GP2, respectively. LASV-specific antibodies in human convalescent sera specifically detected each of the purified recombinant LASV proteins, highlighting their utility in diagnostic applications. In addition, mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluids (MHAF against a panel of Old and New World arenaviruses demonstrated selective cross reactivity with LASV proteins in Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Conclusion These results demonstrate the potential for developing broadly reactive immunological assays that employ all three arenaviral proteins individually and in combination.