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Sample records for immobilization plant wtp

  1. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-activity Waste Vitrification (LAW) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, William F.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Holton, Langdon K.; Pegg, Ian L.; Bowen, Brad W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate (1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and (2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost

  2. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  3. Process Testing Results and Scaling for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Engineering Platform - 10173

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Barnes, Steven M.; Gilbert, Robert A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Office of River Protections Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks at Richland, Washington. In support of this effort, engineering-scale tests at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) have been completed to confirm the process design and provide improved projections of system capacity. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale facility designed, constructed, and operated to test the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes being deployed at the WTP. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes with prototypic equipment and control strategies and non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The testing approach used a nonradioactive aqueous slurry simulant to demonstrate the unit operations of caustic and oxidative leaching, cross-flow ultrafiltration solids concentration, and solids washing. Parallel tests conducted at the laboratory scale with identical simulants provided results that allow scale-up factors to be developed between the laboratory and PEP performance. This paper presents the scale-up factors determined between the laboratory and engineering-scale results and presents arguments that extend these results to the full-scale process.

  4. Phase 1 Testing Results of Immobilization of WTP Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottoms Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, Alex D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-05

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate, along with entrained, volatile, and semi-volatile metals, such as Hg, As, and Se. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate that get recycled to the melter, and is a key objective of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of earlier tasks was to formulate and prepare a

  5. 75 FR 81250 - Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Immobilization Plant (WTP) in conjunction with the Hanford tank farm waste feed delivery system will operate... imperative requires that the pulse jet mixing and transfer systems relied upon in the WTP design perform reliably and effectively for decades of WTP operations, and that technical issues with the performance of...

  6. Phase 2 testing results of immobilization of WTP effluent management facility vaporator bottoms simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-08

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate) from the primary off-gas system. This work examined three waste form formulations based on previous testing with related simulants: 8 wt% ordinary portland cement (OPC), 47 wt% blast furnace slag (BFS), 45 wt% fly ash (FA) known as Cast Stone formulation; 20 wt% Aquaset® II-GH and 80 wt% BFS; 20 wt% OPC and 80 wt% BFS. These tests successfully produced one waste form that set within five days (Cast Stone formulation); however the other two formulations, Aquaset® II-GH/BFS and OPC/BFS, took approximately eight and fourteen days to set, respectively.

  7. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Arlin

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  8. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  9. Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Vitrification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W. F.; Gerdes, K.; Holton, L. K.; Pegg, I.L.; Bowan, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the treatment rate of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing the cost of waste treatment. (authors)

  10. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  11. RPP-PRT-58489, Revision 1, One Systems Consistent Safety Analysis Methodologies Report. 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-15-014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mukesh [URS Professional Solutions LLC, Aiken, SC (United States); Niemi, Belinda [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Paik, Ingle [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In 2012, One System Nuclear Safety performed a comparison of the safety bases for the Tank Farms Operations Contractor (TOC) and Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) (RPP-RPT-53222 / 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-12-018, “One System Report of Comparative Evaluation of Safety Bases for Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project and Tank Operations Contract”), and identified 25 recommendations that required further evaluation for consensus disposition. This report documents ten NSSC approved consistent methodologies and guides and the results of the additional evaluation process using a new set of evaluation criteria developed for the evaluation of the new methodologies.

  12. Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Pell, Michael J.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S.; Duncan, Garth M.; Harrington, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule

  13. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  14. The integrated criticality safety evaluation for the Hanford tank waste treatment and immobilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losey, D. C.; Miles, R. E.; Perks, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) has been developed as a single, integrated evaluation with a scope that covers all of the planned WTP operations. This integrated approach is atypical, as the scopes of criticality evaluations are usually more narrowly defined. Several adjustments were made in developing the WTP CSER, but the primary changes were to provide introductory overview for the criticality safety control strategy and to provide in-depth analysis of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms that contribute to ensuring safety. The integrated approach for the CSER allowed a more consistent evaluation of safety and avoided redundancies that occur when evaluation is distributed over multiple documents. While the approach used with the WTP CSER necessitated more coordination and teamwork, it has yielded a report is that more integrated and concise than is typical. The integrated approach with the CSER produced a simple criticality control scheme that uses relatively few controls. (authors)

  15. Properties important to mixing and simulant recommendations for WTP full-scale vessel testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    Full Scale Vessel Testing (FSVT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc., to demonstrate the ability of the standard high solids vessel design (SHSVD) to meet mixing requirements over the range of fluid properties planned for processing in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. WTP personnel requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in FSVT. Among the tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that are important to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) performance in WTP vessels with elevated concentrations of solids.

  16. Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria - 12043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Duncan, Garth; Johnston, Jill C.; Lane, Thomas A.; Matis, George; Olson, John W. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (United States); Banning, Davey L.; Greer, Daniel A.; Seidel, Cary M.; Thien, Michael G. [Hanford Tank Operations Contractor - Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is under construction for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (contract no. DE-AC27-01RV14136). The plant when completed will be the world's largest nuclear waste treatment facility. Bechtel and URS are tasked with designing, constructing, commissioning, and transitioning the plant to the long term operating contractor to process the legacy wastes that are stored in underground tanks (from nuclear weapons production between the 1940's and the 1980's). Approximately 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is currently stored in these tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. There are three major WTP facilities being constructed for processing the tank waste feed. The Pretreatment (PT) facility receives feed where it is separated into a low activity waste (LAW) fraction and a high level waste (HLW) fraction. These fractions are transferred to the appropriate (HLW or LAW) facility, combined with glass former material, and sent to high temperature melters for formation of the glass product. In addition to PT, HLW and LAW, other facilities in WTP include the Laboratory (LAB) for analytical services and the Balance of Facilities (BOF) for plant maintenance, support and utility services. The transfer of staged feed from the waste storage tanks and acceptance in WTP receipt vessels require data for waste acceptance criteria (WAC) parameters from analysis of feed samples. The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development was a joint team effort between WTP and Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) representatives. The focus of this DQO effort was to review WAC parameters and develop data quality requirements, the results of which will determine whether or not the staged feed can be transferred from the TOC to WTP receipt vessels. The approach involved systematic planning for data collection consistent with EPA guidance for the seven

  17. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  18. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  19. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  20. Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes,' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

  1. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract no. 13460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling

  2. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  3. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  4. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  5. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORD'S WTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Joseph, I.; Bowman, B.W.; Gan, H.; Kot, W.; Matlack, K.S.; Pegg, I.L

    2009-01-01

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al 2 O 3 concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the

  6. Supplemental Immobilization Cast Stone Technology Development and Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pierce, Eric M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chung, Chul-Woo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment facility will have the capacity to separate all of the tank wastes into the HLW and LAW fractions, and the HLW Vitrification Facility will have the capacity to vitrify all of the HLW. However, a second immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A number of alternatives, including Cast Stone—a cementitious waste form—are being considered to provide the additional LAW immobilization capacity.

  7. SRNL PHASE 1 Assessment Of The WTP Waste Qualification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Hansen, E.; Herman, C.; Marra, S.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project is currently transitioning its emphasis from an engineering design and construction phase toward facility completion, start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements that must be met during the actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program. In general, the waste qualification program involves testing and analysis to demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria, determine waste processability, and demonstrate laboratory-scale unit operations to support WTP operations. The testing and analysis are driven by data quality objectives (DQO) requirements necessary for meeting waste acceptance criteria for transfer of high-level wastes from the tank farms to the WTP, and for ensuring waste processability including proper glass formulations during processing within the WTP complex. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which were based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested subject matter experts (SMEs) from SRNL to support a technology exchange with respect to waste qualification programs in which a critical review of the WTP program could be initiated and lessons learned could be shared. The technology exchange was held on July 18-20, 2011 in Richland, Washington, and was the initial step in a multi-phased approach to support development and implementation of a successful waste qualification program at the WTP. The 3-day workshop was hosted by WTP with representatives from the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and SRNL in attendance as well as representatives from the US DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Site Representative office. The purpose of the

  8. APPROVAL OF WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT CONTRACTOR-INITIATED AUTHORIZATION BASIS AMENDMENT REQUESTS (ABAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JONES GL

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to describe the process used by the Office of River Protection (ORP) for evaluating and implementing Contractor-initiated changes to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Authorization Basis (AB). The WTP Project's history has provided a unique challenge for establishing and maintaining an ORP-approved AB during design and construction. Until operations begin, the project cannot implement the classic Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process to determine when ORP approval of Contractor-initiated changes is required. A 'quasiUSQ' process has been implemented that defines when AB changes could occur. The three types of AB changes are (1) Limited Scope Changes, (2) Authorization Basis Deviations, and (3) Authorization Basis Amendment Request (ABAR). DOE RL/REG 97-13, 'Office of River Protection Position on Contractor-Initiated Changes to the Authorization Basis', describes the process the WTP Contractor must follow to make changes to the AB, with and without ORP approval. The process uses a 'safety evaluation' process that is similar to the USQ process but at a more qualitative level. The maturation of the WTP Contractor's facility design and activities, and other changing conditions, resulted in a process that allows the Contractor to make changes to the AB without ORP approval; however, those changes that may significantly affect nuclear safety do require ORP approval. This process balances the WTP regulatory principle of efficiency with assurance that adequate safety will not be compromised. The process has reduced the number of ABARs requiring ORP approval and reduced the potential for delays in design and procurement activities

  9. SRNL Review And Assessment Of WTP UFP-02 Sparger Design And Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Steimke, J. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-24

    During aerosol testing conducted by Parsons Constructors and Fabricators, Inc. (PCFI), air sparger plugging was observed in small-scale and medium-scale testing. Because of this observation, personnel identified a concern that the steam spargers in Pretreatment Facility vessel UFP-02 could plug during Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) operation. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide consultation on the evaluation of known WTP bubbler, and air and steam sparger issues. The authors used the following approach for this task: reviewed previous test reports (including smallscale testing, medium-scale testing, and Pretreatment Engineering Platform [PEP] testing), met with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) personnel to discuss sparger design, reviewed BNI documents supporting the sparger design, discussed sparger experience with Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Sellafield personnel, talked to sparger manufacturers about relevant operating experience and design issues, and reviewed UFP-02 vessel and sparger drawings.

  10. SRNL Phase 1 Assessment Of The WAC/DQO And Unit Operations For The WTP Waste Qualification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap identification

  11. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap

  12. Experimental Plan for Crystal Accumulation Studies in the WTP Melter Riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-28

    This experimental plan defines crystal settling experiments to be in support of the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of River Protection crystal tolerant glass program. The road map for development of crystal-tolerant high level waste glasses recommends that fluid dynamic modeling be used to better understand the accumulation of crystals in the melter riser and mechanisms of removal. A full-scale version of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter riser constructed with transparent material will be used to provide data in support of model development. The system will also provide a platform to demonstrate mitigation or recovery strategies in off-normal events where crystal accumulation impedes melter operation. Test conditions and material properties will be chosen to provide results over a variety of parameters, which can be used to guide validation experiments with the Research Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and that will ultimately lead to the development of a process control strategy for the full scale WTP melter. The experiments described in this plan are divided into two phases. Bench scale tests will be used in Phase 1 (using the appropriate solid and fluid simulants to represent molten glass and spinel crystals) to verify the detection methods and analytical measurements prior to their use in a larger scale system. In Phase 2, a full scale, room temperature mockup of the WTP melter riser will be fabricated. The mockup will provide dynamic measurements of flow conditions, including resistance to pouring, as well as allow visual observation of crystal accumulation behavior.

  13. Dynamic (G2) Model Design Document, 24590-WTP-MDD-PR-01-002, Rev. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yueying; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Statement of Work (Department of Energy Contract DE-AC27-01RV14136, Section C) requires the contractor to develop and use process models for flowsheet analyses and pre-operational planning assessments. The Dynamic (G2) Flowsheet is a discrete-time process model that enables the project to evaluate impacts to throughput from eventdriven activities such as pumping, sampling, storage, recycle, separation, and chemical reactions. The model is developed by the Process Engineering (PE) department, and is based on the Flowsheet Bases, Assumptions, and Requirements Document (24590-WTP-RPT-PT-02-005), commonly called the BARD. The terminologies of Dynamic (G2) Flowsheet and Dynamic (G2) Model are interchangeable in this document. The foundation of this model is a dynamic material balance governed by prescribed initial conditions, boundary conditions, and operating logic. The dynamic material balance is achieved by tracking the storage and material flows within the plant as time increments. The initial conditions include a feed vector that represents the waste compositions and delivery sequence of the Tank Farm batches, and volumes and concentrations of solutions in process equipment before startup. The boundary conditions are the physical limits of the flowsheet design, such as piping, volumes, flowrates, operation efficiencies, and physical and chemical environments that impact separations, phase equilibriums, and reaction extents. The operating logic represents the rules and strategies of running the plant.

  14. Enhanced HLW glass formulations for the waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [DOE-WTP Project Office, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Current estimates and glass formulation efforts are conservative vis-a-vis achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum, chromium, bismuth, iron, phosphorous, zirconium, and sulfur compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. DOE has a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by 25% or more. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bontha, Jagannadha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rassat, Scot D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Karri, Naveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tran, Diana N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  16. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  17. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mercier, Theresa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, William E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eibling, Russell E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reigel, Marissa M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Swanberg, David J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  18. Foaming/antifoaming in WTP Tanks Equipped with Pulse Jet Mixer and Air Spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, NEGUIB

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using actual Hanford waste and simulants subjected to air sparging. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated in SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming and ultrafiltration studies and commercial antifoam DOW Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels, HLW Concentrate Receipt Vessel, and the Ultrafiltration Vessels to assist the performance of the Jet Pulse Mixers (JPM). Sparging of air into WTP tanks will induce a foam layer within the process vessels. The air dispersion in the waste slurries and generated foams could present problems during plant operation. Foam in the tanks could also adversely impact hydrogen removal and mitigation. Antifoam (DOW Q2-3183A) will be used to control foaming in Hanford sparged waste processing tanks. These tanks will be mixed by a combination of pulse-jet mixers and air spargers. The percent allowable foaminess or freeboard in WTP tanks are shown in tables

  19. KEBUN RAYA BOTANI DENGAN SISTEM WTP (WATER TREATMENT PLAN DI MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Innayah Wahid

    2015-12-01

    areas such as land use, shape and mass of buildings, pedestrian paths, circulation and parking signage or markers, as well as support facilities into a regional botanical gardens botanical needed to achieve comfort for the users of land and WTP implement the system in the form of design which is sustainable (sustainable and non architectural another goal to formulate natural plant engineering activities so that the botanical garden botany can be an alternative education center, grouping plants according to the climate and site conditions botanical garden botany, to determining system WTP work in botany botanical garden that can meet the needs of plants. The results of this report in the form of a botanical garden design botanical arrangement with WTP system (water Treatment Plan in Makassar Keywords : botanical garden botany, WTP

  20. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  1. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has evaluated the existing waste feed qualification strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) based on experience from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste qualification program. The current waste qualification programs for each of the sites are discussed in the report to provide a baseline for comparison. Recommendations on strategies are then provided that could be implemented at Hanford based on the successful Macrobatch qualification strategy utilized at SRS to reduce the risk of processing upsets or the production of a staged waste campaign that does not meet the processing requirements of the WTP. Considerations included the baseline WTP process, as well as options involving Direct High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) processing, and the potential use of a Tank Waste Characterization and Staging Facility (TWCSF). The main objectives of the Hanford waste feed qualification program are to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), determine waste processability, and demonstrate unit operations at a laboratory scale. Risks to acceptability and successful implementation of this program, as compared to the DWPF Macro-Batch qualification strategy, include: Limitations of mixing/blending capability of the Hanford Tank Farm; The complexity of unit operations (i.e., multiple chemical and mechanical separations processes) involved in the WTP pretreatment qualification process; The need to account for effects of blending of LAW and HLW streams, as well as a recycle stream, within the PT unit operations; and The reliance on only a single set of unit operations demonstrations with the radioactive qualification sample. This later limitation is further complicated because of the 180-day completion requirement for all of the necessary waste feed qualification steps. The primary recommendations/changes include the

  2. Validity of WTP measures under preference uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Kniebes, Carola; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This paper establishes a new method for eliciting Willingness to Pay (WTP) in contingent valuation (CV) studies with an open-ended elicitation format: the Range-WTP method. In contrast to the traditional approach for eliciting Point-WTP, Range-WTP explicitly allows for preference uncertainty in responses. Using data from two novel large-scale surveys on the perception of solar radiation management (SRM), a little-known technique for counteracting climate change, we compare the performance of ...

  3. On Uncertainty and the WTA-WTP Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas D. Davis; Robert J. Reilly

    2012-01-01

    We correct an analysis by Isik (2004) regarding the effects of uncertainty on the WTA-WTP gap. Isik presents as his primary result a proposition that the introduction of uncertainty regarding environmental quality improvements causes WTA to increase and WTP to decrease by identical amounts relative to a certainty condition where WTA=WTP. These conclusions are incorrect. In fact, WTP may equal WTA even with uncertainty, and increases in the uncertainty of environmental quality improvements cau...

  4. Heterogeneity in the WTP for recreational access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Danny; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have addressed appropriate modelling of heterogeneity in willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental goods, and have demonstrated its importance using a case of forest access in Denmark. We compared WTP distributions for four models: (1) a multinomial logit model, (2) a mixed logit...... model assuming a univariate Normal distribution, (3) or assuming a multivariate Normal distribution allowing for correlation across attributes, and (4) a mixture of two truncated Normal distributions, allowing for correlation among attributes. In the first two models mean WTP for enhanced access...... was negative. However, models accounting for preference heterogeneity found a positive mean WTP, but a large sub-group with negative WTP. Accounting for preference heterogeneity can alter overall conclusions, which highlights the importance of this for policy recommendations....

  5. Waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A

    2009-01-01

    Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is designed to provide appropriate systems for processing, immobilization and storage of low and medium radioactive waste arising from the operation of the research facilities of the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC). It will serve as central collection station processing active waste generated through application of radionuclide in science, medicine and industry in the country. WTP building and structures will house the main waste processing systems and supporting facilities. All facilities will be interconnected. The interim storage building for processed waste drums will be located separately nearby. The separate interim storage building is located near the waste treatment building. Considering the low radiation level of the waste, storage building is large with no solid partitioning walls and with no services or extra facilities other than lighting and smoke alarm sensors. The building will be designed such that drums(200-1)are stacked 3 units high using handling by fork lift truck. To prevent radiation exposure to on-site personnel, the interim storage building will be erected apart from waste treatment plant or other buildings. The interim storage building will also be ready for buffer storage of unconditioned waste waiting for processing or decay and for storage material from the WTP

  6. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  7. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  8. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  9. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Garth M.; Saunders, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  10. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  11. WTP and WTA: do people think differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2007-09-01

    Contingent valuation (CV) studies in health care have used the willingness to pay (WTP) approach, to the virtual exclusion of willingness to accept (WTA). Outside the health care field, disparities between WTP and WTA values have been observed. Were such disparities to be demonstrated for health care technologies, the conventional assumption of a linear cost-effectiveness plane would be invalidated. This paper employs data derived from interviews with users of the UK's paediatric cochlear implantation (PCI) programme based in Nottingham (i) to assess the feasibility of estimating WTA for the potential discontinuation of an existing technology, and (ii) to investigate any WTA-WTP disparity which might be revealed. Only one-third of subjects providing WTP values were willing and able to offer a corresponding WTA value. Our qualitative data revealed that modes of response differed between the two valuation approaches. In particular, the presumption of fungibility of the health care intervention was a far more serious obstacle to completing the WTA task than it was for WTP. Among those prepared to offer values under both approaches, mean WTA was approximately four times mean WTP. Until more health studies are conducted, it remains unclear whether or not the findings are specific both to the intervention and to the elicitation format.

  12. Herbaceous plants as filters: Immobilization of particulates along urban street corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo; Säumel, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is considered to be the most serious threat to human health. Plants provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including reducing levels of PM by providing a surface for deposition and immobilization. While previous studies have mostly addressed woody species, we focus on herbaceous roadside vegetation and assess the role of species traits such as leaf surface roughness or hairiness for the immobilization of PM. We found that PM deposition patterns on plant surfaces reflect site-specific traffic densities and that strong differences in particulate deposition are present among species. The amount of immobilized PM differed according to particle type and size and was related to specific plant species traits. Our study suggests that herbaceous vegetation immobilizes a significant amount of the air pollutants relevant to human health and that increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration and thus healthier conditions along street corridors. -- Highlights: • We assessed PM immobilization by common urban herbaceous roadside species. • PM deposition was related to traffic density and plant species traits. • Amount of PM deposited differed according to particle type and size. • Increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration. -- Herbaceous urban roadside vegetation immobilizes particulate matter relevant to human health, thus supporting healthier conditions next to busy roads

  13. Department of Energy Technology Readiness Assessments - Process Guide and Training Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-12

    Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant ( WTP ) Analytical Laboratory, Low Activity Waste (LAW) Facility and Balance of Facilities (3 TRAs... WTP High-Level Waste (HLW) Facility – WTP Pre-Treatment (PT) Facility – Hanford River Protection Project Low Activity Waste Treatment Alternatives

  14. Why the WTA - WTP disparity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Thomas C.; Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) has been demonstrated repeatedly. Because using WTP estimates of value where a WTA estimate is appropriate tends to undervalue environmental assets, this issue is important to environmental managers. We summarize reasons for the disparity and then discuss some of the...

  15. Experimental Challenges and Successes in Measuring Aerosol Concentrations at Prototypic Spray Conditions Encountered at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13327

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontha, J.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Adkins, H.E.; Enderlin, C.W.; Blanchard, J.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C.; Schonewill, P.P.; Mahoney, L.A.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Boeringa, G.; Jenks, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    To date, majority of the work done on measuring aerosol releases from failure of process piping was done using simple Newtonian fluids and small engineered-nozzles that do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches postulated during accident analysis at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). In addition, the majority of the work conducted in this area relies on in-spray measurements that neglect the effect of splatter and do not yield any information regarding aerosol generation rates from this additional mechanism. In order to estimate aerosol generation rates as well as reduce the uncertainties in estimating the aerosol release fractions over a broad range of breaches, fluid properties and operating conditions encountered at the WTP, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has designed, commissioned, and tested two experimental test stands. The first test stand, referred to as the large-scale test stand, was designed specifically to measure aerosol concentrations and release fractions under prototypic conditions of flow and pressure for a range of breaches postulated in the hazard analysis for 0.076 m (3-inch) process pipes. However, the size of the large-scale test stand, anticipated fluid loss during a breach, experimental risks, and costs associated with hazardous chemical simulant testing limited the large-scale test stand utility to water and a few non-hazardous physical simulants that did not fully span the particle size and rheological properties of the fluids encountered at the WTP. Overcoming these limitations and extending the range of simulants used, required designing and building a smaller test stand, which was installed and operated in a fume hood. This paper presents some of the features of both test stands, the experimental challenges encountered, and successes in measuring aerosol concentration in both test stands over a range of test conditions. (authors)

  16. 76 FR 37798 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Your reaffirmation letter interpreted the Department of Energy's... actions being taken to validate the design, operation, and safety of the WTP PJM and transfer systems. Our... analyses should be conducted to provide additional confidence that the WTP PJM and transfer systems will...

  17. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  18. The Waste Treatment Plant, a Work in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W. F. Jr.; Duncan, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There are many challenges in the design and construction of Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site. The plant is being built to process some 55 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. Engineering and construction are progressing on this largest project in the DOE complex. This paper describes some of WTP's principal recent challenges and opportunities and how they are being addressed to minimize impact on the project, enhance the capabilities of the facilities, and reduce risk. A significant new development in 2005 was the need to account for higher seismic accelerations than originally specified for the facility structures and equipment. Efforts have centered on continuing design and construction with minimal risk, while the final seismic design spectra was developed. Other challenges include development of an alternative cesium ion exchange resin to minimize the risk from reliance on a single product, implementing advanced analytical techniques to improve laboratory performance, adopting a thinner walled high level waste (HLW) canister to reduce waste volume and mission duration, and commissioning a comprehensive external flowsheet review of the design, along with its underpinning technologies, and projected plant operability. These challenges make it clear that WTP is a work in progress, but the challenges are being successfully resolved as the design and construction move on to completion. (authors)

  19. 77 FR 479 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... the design of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This will include actions discussed... needs at the Tank Farms in order to deliver waste safely and efficiently to WTP. During Session II, the... and its contractors and the ability of the WTP project to identify and resolve technical issues, such...

  20. 76 FR 13397 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will achieve their design and operating requirements. DOE has... meeting; in the October 7-8, 2010 public hearing on WTP; and in our supplement to the public hearing... implementation of these commitments is on-going as part of WTP project plans that supports scheduled testing to...

  1. Removing Phosphate from Hanford High-Phosphate Tank Wastes: FY 2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Carter, Jennifer C.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2010-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental remediation at the Hanford Site in Washington State, a former nuclear weapons production site. Retrieving, processing, immobilizing, and disposing of the 2.2 × 105 m3 of radioactive wastes stored in the Hanford underground storage tanks dominates the overall environmental remediation effort at Hanford. The cornerstone of the tank waste remediation effort is the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). As currently designed, the capability of the WTP to treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes in the expected lifetime of the plant is questionable. For this reason, DOE has been pursuing supplemental treatment options for selected wastes. If implemented, these supplemental treatments will route certain waste components to processing and disposition pathways outside of WTP and thus will accelerate the overall Hanford tank waste remediation mission.

  2. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  3. Properties Important To Mixing For WTP Large Scale Integrated Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.

    2012-01-01

    Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i

  4. PROPERTIES IMPORTANT TO MIXING FOR WTP LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.

    2012-04-26

    Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i

  5. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  6. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  7. Simulating WTP Values from Random-Coefficient Models

    OpenAIRE

    Maurus Rischatsch

    2009-01-01

    Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) designed to estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values are very popular in health economics. With increased computation power and advanced simulation techniques, random-coefficient models have gained an increasing importance in applied work as they allow for taste heterogeneity. This paper discusses the parametrical derivation of WTP values from estimated random-coefficient models and shows how these values can be simulated in cases where they do not have a kn...

  8. WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QURESHI, ZAFAR

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours of operation) did not show any

  9. A Strategy for Maintenance of the Long-Term Performance Assessment of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Approximately 50 million gallons of high-level radioactive mixed waste has accumulated in 177 buried single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as a result of the past production of nuclear materials, primarily for defense uses. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is proceeding with plans to permanently dispose of this waste. Plans call for separating the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which will be vitrified at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Principal radionuclides of concern in LAW are 99Tc, 129I, and U, while non-radioactive contaminants of concern are Cr and nitrate/nitrite. HLW glass will be sent off-site to an undetermined federal site for deep geological disposal while the much larger volume of immobilized low-activity waste will be placed in the on-site, near-surface Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF).

  10. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans

  11. 76 FR 35861 - Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... high. This unhealthy tension has rendered the WTP project's formal processes to resolve safety issues... Board's investigative record demonstrates that both DOE and contractor project management behaviors... allegations raised by Dr. Tamosaitis, a contractor employee removed from his position at WTP, a construction...

  12. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-01-01

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved

  13. Radioactive Demonstration Of Final Mineralized Waste Forms For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Using The Bench Scale Reformer Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc, Cl, F, and SO 4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form

  14. Willingness to pay lip service? Applying a neuroscience-based method to WTP for green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbes, Carsten; Friege, Christian; Baldo, Davide; Mueller, Kai-Markus

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) represents a central question for providers of renewable energy. Most studies on the subject have used contingent valuation and choice experiments. However, all empirical designs employed to date suffer from serious biases, such as strategic behavior. We introduce a novel neuroscience-based approach to renewable energy-related WTP research, Neuropricing, which eliminates some of these biases. We tested consumers' WTP for two different green electricity products and found WTP for these products to be about 15% above that for a non-green electricity tariff. Our results suggest that Neuropricing is indeed able to eliminate strategic behavior. Moreover, this approach allows for WTP studies with much smaller sample sizes than traditional methods require. The neuroscience methodology can be used by researchers and marketers alike not only for testing the effects of product attributes on WTP but also for evaluating WTP effects of specific messages in marketing communications. Thus it may lead to a better understanding of consumer behavior and hence facilitate more successful marketing of renewable energy. - Highlights: • We introduce a neuroscience-based method for studying consumer WTP for green energy. • WTP derived from Neuropricing is above self-reported WTP for green energy. • Neuropricing allows smaller samples and eliminates respondents' strategic behavior. • Neuropricing offers a powerful new resource for companies marketing green energy. • Neuropricing offers new perspectives for architects of energy policy.

  15. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  16. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  17. Determinan Willingness To Pay (Wtp) Iuran Peserta Bpjs Kesehatan

    OpenAIRE

    Aryani, Maya Andita; Muqorrobin, Masyhudi

    2013-01-01

    : This study aims at identifying the factors that affect willingness to pay (WTP) participants of BPJS Kesehatan Class III in Yogyakarta will be analyzed by using the approach of contingent valuation method (CVM). Variables use to measure WTP in this research include age, number of family members, the last education taken, level of earnings, and assumptions of society about Sharia system using primary data by questionnaire and interview methods to 144 respondents. Results analysis of this stu...

  18. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration

  19. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  20. Cesium Ion Exchange Program at the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHARLES, NASH

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project - Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant will use cesium ion exchange to remove 137Cs from Low Activity Waste down to 0.3 Ci/m3 in the Immobilized LAW, ILAW product. The project baseline for cesium ion exchange is the elutable SuperLig, R, 644, SL-644, resin registered trademark of IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT or the Department of Energy approved equivalent. SL-644 is solely available through IBC Advanced Technologies. To provide an alternative to this sole-source resin supply, the RPP--WTP initiated a three-stage process for selection and qualification of an alternative ion exchange resin for cesium removal in the RPPWTP. It was recommended that resorcinol formaldehyde RF be pursued as a potential alternative to SL-644

  1. Estimating a constant WTP for a QALY-a mission impossible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Björn; Svensson, Mikael

    2017-09-21

    Economic evaluations are an important input to decision-making and priority-setting in the health care sector. Measuring preferences for health improvements, as the demand-side value (willingness to pay) of gaining a quality-adjusted life year (QALY), is one relevant component in the interpretation of the results from health economic evaluations. Our article addresses whether willingness to pay for a QALY (WTP-Q) is sensitive to the size of the health differences and the probability for improvement. We use data from a contingent valuation survey based on 1400 respondents conducted in the spring of 2014. The results show that the expectation of sensitivity to scope, or higher WTP to the larger expected quality of life improvement, is not supported. We find WTP-Q values that conform reasonably well to previous studies in Sweden.

  2. Scaled Testing to Evaluate Pulse Jet Mixer Performance in Waste Treatment Plant Mixing Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pre-treat and vitrify the waste in Hanford's 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. These vessels have pulse jet mixer (PJM) systems. A test program was developed to evaluate the adequacy of mixing system designs in the solids-containing vessels in the WTP. The program focused mainly on non-cohesive solids behavior. Specifically, the program addressed the effectiveness of the mixing systems to suspend settled solids off the vessel bottom, and distribute the solids vertically. Experiments were conducted at three scales using various particulate simulants. A range of solids loadings and operational parameters were evaluated, including jet velocity, pulse volume, and duty cycle. In place of actual PJMs, the tests used direct injection from tubes with suction at the top of the tank fluid. This gave better control over the discharge duration and duty cycle and simplified the facility requirements. The mixing system configurations represented in testing varied from 4 to 12 PJMs with various jet nozzle sizes. In this way the results collected could be applied to the broad range of WTP vessels with varying geometrical configurations and planned operating conditions. Data for 'just-suspended velocity', solids cloud height, and solids concentration vertical profile were collected, analyzed, and correlated. The correlations were successfully benchmarked against previous large-scale test results, then applied to the WTP vessels using reasonable assumptions of anticipated waste properties to evaluate adequacy of the existing mixing system designs.

  3. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  4. Investigation of variable compositions on the removal of technetium from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, John M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-29

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the offgas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  5. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  6. Literature Review: Assessment of DWPF Melter and Melter Off-gas System Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Testing to date for the MOC for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melters is being reviewed with the lessons learned from DWPF in mind and with consideration to the changes in the flowsheet/feed compositions that have occurred since the original testing was performed. This information will be presented in a separate technical report that identifies any potential gaps for WTP processing.

  7. WTP (willingness to pay) for tele-health consultation service in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Abe, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    We developed a tele-health consultation system that combines a sphygmomanometer with a tele-conference system. These were placed in pharmacies and the University. We selected five pharmacies to set up a consultation room; one in a local area, two in a suburban area, and the remaining two in an urban area. Nurses with more than 5 years of clinical experience were assigned as consultants. These consultants offer health consultation but do not practice medicine. Some researchers have indicated the economic viability of at-home health management systems, but nothing has been researched on the economic viability of tele-health consultation. The objective of present study was estimated Willingness to Payment (WTP) of Tele-health consultation service. The WTP was estimated by Double-Bounded Dichotomous-Choice model. We performed logistic-regression analysis to confirm factors to affect WTP. The number of the respondent was 480. Mean WTP was calculated 495 yen and the median was 367 yen. There was significant difference for factor of "annual income", "have a willingness to use this system", and "have a child/children".

  8. WTP for a QALY and health states: More money for severer health states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroiwa, Takeru; Igarashi, Ataru; Fukuda, Takashi; Ikeda, Shunya

    2013-01-01

    In economic evaluation, cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) is generally used as an indicator for cost-effectiveness. Although JPY 5 million to 6 million (USD 60, 000 to 75,000) per QALY is frequently referred to as a threshold in Japan, do all QALYs have the same monetary value? To examine the relationship between severity of health status and monetary value of a QALY, we obtained willingness to pay (WTP) values for one additional QALY in eight patterns of health states. We randomly sampled approximately 2,400 respondents from an online panel. To avoid misunderstanding, we randomly allocated respondents to one of 16 questionnaires, with 250 responses expected for each pattern. After respondents were asked whether they wanted to purchase the treatment, double-bounded dichotomous choice method was used to obtain WTP values. The results clearly show that the WTP per QALY is higher for worse health states than for better health states. The slope was about JPY -1 million per 0.1 utility score increase. The mean and median WTP values per QALY for 16 health states were JPY 5 million, consistent with our previous survey. For respondents who wanted to purchase the treatment, WTP values were significantly correlated with household income. This survey shows that QALY based on the EQ-5D does not necessarily have the same monetary value. The WTP per QALY should range from JPY 2 million (USD 20,000) to JPY 8 million (USD 80,000), corresponding to the severity of health states.

  9. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  10. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans

  11. Preventing land loss in coastal Louisiana: estimates of WTP and WTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrolia, Daniel R; Kim, Tae-Goun

    2011-03-01

    A dichotomous-choice contingent-valuation survey was conducted in the State of Louisiana (USA) to estimate compensating surplus (CS) and equivalent surplus (ES) welfare measures for the prevention of future coastal wetland losses in Louisiana. Valuations were elicited using both willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) payment vehicles. Mean CS (WTP) estimates based on a probit model using a Box-Cox specification on income was $825 per household annually, and mean ES (WTA) was estimated at $4444 per household annually. Regression results indicate that the major factors influencing support for land-loss prevention were income (positive, WTP model only), perceived hurricane protection benefits (positive), environmental and recreation protection (positive), distrust of government (negative), age (positive, WTA model only), and race (positive for whites). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASSES FOR HANFORD'S WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Bowan, B.W.; Joseph, I.; Gan, H.; Kot, W.K.; Matlack, K.S.; Pegg, I.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m 2 and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m 2 . The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al 2 O 3 concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m 2 .day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m 2 .day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m 2 .day).

  13. Managing sewer solids for the reduction of foul flush effects--Forfar WTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A G; Sakrabani, R; Ashley, R M; Johnstone, F M

    2002-01-01

    In times of high sewer flow, conditions can exist which enable previously deposited material to be re-entrained back into the body of the flow column. Pulses of this highly polluted flow have been recorded in many instances at the recently constructed wastewater treatment plant (WTP) in Forfar, Scotland. Investigations have been undertaken to characterise the incoming flows and to suggest remedial measures to manage the quality fluctuations. Initial visits to the works and incoming pipes indicated a high degree of sediment deposition in the two inlet pipes. Analyses were carried out and consequently, changes to the hydraulic regime were made. Measurements of sediment level, sediment quality, wall slime and bulk water quality were monitored in the period following the remedial works to observe any improvements. Dramatic alterations in each of the determinands measured were recorded. Analyses were then undertaken to determine long term sediment behaviour and to assess the future usefulness of existing upstream sediment traps. It was concluded that with proper maintenance of the traps, the new hydraulic regime is sufficient to prevent further significant build up of sediment deposits and reduce impacts on the WTP. Further investigations made by North of Scotland Water Authority highlighted trade inputs to the system which may also have contributed to the now managed foul flush problem.

  14. Ex post and ex ante willingness to pay (WTP) for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho-Min-Naing; Lertmaharit, S; Kamol-Ratanakul, P; Saul, A J

    2000-03-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in two villages in Myanmar. Kankone (KK) village has a rural health center (RHC) and Yae-Aye-Sann (YAS) is serviced by community health worker (CHW). The objectives were to assess WTP for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit and to determine factors affecting the WTP. In both villages WTP was assessed in two different conditions, ex post and ex ante. The ex post WTP was assessed at an RHC in the KK village and at the residence of a CHW in the YAS village on patients immediately following diagnosis of malaria. The ex ante WTP was assessed by household interviews in both villages on people with a prior history of malaria. Ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis was used to analyze factors affecting WTP. The WTP was higher in ex post conditions than ex ante in both villages. WTP was significantly positively associated with the average monthly income of the respondents and severity of illness in both ex post and ex ante conditions (p WTP (p < 0.05) in the ex post condition in the RHC survey in KK village.

  15. What Accounts for the Divergence between Ranchers' WTA and WTP for Public Forage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results from a 2002 survey of Nevada ranchers that asked about willingness to pay for public forage and willingness to accept compensation to part with grazing rights provide empirical support for the contention of large divergence between WTA and WTP. WTA and WTP are estimated simultaneously,

  16. Estimating a WTP-based value of a QALY: the 'chained' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Angela; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Bacon, Philomena; Baker, Rachel; Pennington, Mark; Donaldson, Cam

    2013-09-01

    A major issue in health economic evaluation is that of the value to place on a quality adjusted life year (QALY), commonly used as a measure of health care effectiveness across Europe. This critical policy issue is reflected in the growing interest across Europe in development of more sound methods to elicit such a value. EuroVaQ was a collaboration of researchers from 9 European countries, the main aim being to develop more robust methods to determine the monetary value of a QALY based on surveys of the general public. The 'chained' approach of deriving a societal willingness-to-pay (WTP) based monetary value of a QALY used the following basic procedure. First, utility values were elicited for health states using the standard gamble (SG) and time trade off (TTO) methods. Second, a monetary value to avoid some risk/duration of that health state was elicited and the implied WTP per QALY estimated. We developed within EuroVaQ an adaptation to the 'chained approach' that attempts to overcome problems documented previously (in particular the tendency to arrive at exceedingly high WTP per QALY values). The survey was administered via Internet panels in each participating country and almost 22,000 responses achieved. Estimates of the value of a QALY varied across question and were, if anything, on the low side with the (trimmed) 'all country' mean WTP per QALY ranging from $18,247 to $34,097. Untrimmed means were considerably higher and medians considerably lower in each case. We conclude that the adaptation to the chained approach described here is a potentially useful technique for estimating WTP per QALY. A number of methodological challenges do still exist, however, and there is scope for further refinement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HANFORD MEDIUM & LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 LAB REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-30

    A fractional crystallization (FC) process is being developed to supplement tank waste pretreatment capabilities provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). FC can process many tank wastes, separating wastes into a low-activity fraction (LAW) and high-activity fraction (HLW). The low-activity fraction can be immobilized in a glass waste form by processing in the bulk vitrification (BV) system.

  18. Financial Prospect to The Application of High Rate Water Treatment Plant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohajit Mohajit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The High Rate Water Treatment Plant (HR-WTP system, which is inexpensive, effective and efficient, has been developed to reduce the common operational problems, and also as an alternative for the development of water treatment plant systems capacity in Indonesia.Implementation of HR-WTP system in up-rating of the Dekeng-WTP system at PDAM Kota Bogor proved successful in increasing the plant capacity from its original of 500 Lps to more than 1200 Lps. The performance of the WTP system was also significantly improved from poor performance to very good performance.The investment cost for up-rating proved competitive when compared to alternatively constructing a new WTP system with an equivalent capacity and performance. Application of HR-WTP systems for the development of WTP system in Indonesia, i.e. rehabilitation, up-grading, and up-rating, as well as construction of a new WTP system, is expected to bring technical, financial, and economic benefits. This new approach might be an innovative solution to the challenge of Millennium Development Goals in Water Supply Sector in Indonesia, where an additional capacity of ca 150,000 Lps should be developed within a 15 years period with an estimated budget of US $1.5 billions. This budget might be reduced to less than 50% through the application of the HR-WTP system.

  19. Tracking the Key Constituents of Concern of the WTP LAW Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrouki, Ridha B. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Abramowitz, Howard [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The testing results presented in the present report were also obtained on a DM10 melter system operated with the primary WTP LAW offgas system components with recycle, as specified in the statement of work (SOW) [6] and detailed in the Test Plan for this work [7]. The primary offgas system components include the SBS, the WESP, and a recycle system that allows recycle of liquid effluents back to the melter, as in the present baseline for the WTP LAW vitrification. The partitioning of technetium and other key constituents between the glass waste form, the offgas system liquid effluents, the offgas stream that exits the WESP, and the liquid condensate from the vacuum evaporator were quantified in this work. The tests employed three different LAW streams spanning a range of waste compositions anticipated for WTP. Modifications to the offgas system and operational strategy were made to expedite the approach to steady state concentrations of key constituents in the glass and offgas effluent solutions during each test.

  20. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion

  1. Directional heterogeneity in WTP models for environmental valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.; Brouwer, R.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in the stated preference literature on environmental valuation do not include the effects of substitutes and distance in willingness-to-pay (WTP) models, in spite of the relevance of these effects in aggregation and benefit transfer. Heterogeneity in the availability of substitutes over

  2. Prosthetic restoration in the single-tooth gap: patient preferences and analysis of the WTP index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusti, Davide; Augusti, Gabriele; Re, Dino

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the preference of a patients' population, according to the index of willingness to pay (WTP), against two treatments to restore a single-tooth gap: the implant-supported crown (ISC) and the 3-unit fixed partial denture prosthesis (FPDP) on natural teeth. Willingness to pay values were recorded on 107 subjects by asking the WTP from a starting bid of €2000 modifiable through monetary increases or decreases (€100). Data were collected through an individually delivered questionnaire. The characteristics of the population and choices made, the median values and WTP associations with socio-demographic parameters (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests), correlations between variables (chi-square test in contingency tables) and significant parameters for predicting WTP values obtained in a multiple linear regression model were revealed. The 64% of patients expressed a preference for ISC, while the remaining 36% of the population chose the FPDP. The current therapeutic choice and those carried out in the past were generally in agreement (>70% of cases, P = 0.0001); a relationship was discovered between the anterior and posterior area to the same method of rehabilitation (101 of 107 cases, 94.4%). The WTP median values for ISC were of €3000 and of €2500 in the anterior and posterior areas, respectively. The smallest amount of money has been allocated for FPDP in posterior region (median of €1500). The "importance of oral care" for the patient was a significant predictor, in the regression model analysis, for the estimation of both anterior (P = 0.0003) and posterior (P WTP values. The "previous therapy" variable reached and was just close to significance in anterior (P = 0.0367) and posterior (P = 0.0511) analyses, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, most of the population (64%) surveyed indicated the ISC as a therapeutic solution for the replacement of a single missing tooth, showing a higher

  3. Valuing avoided morbidity using meta-regression analysis: what can health status measures and QALYs tell us about WTP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, George; Powers, John; Jessup, Amber; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2006-08-01

    Many economists argue that willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures are most appropriate for assessing the welfare effects of health changes. Nevertheless, the health evaluation literature is still dominated by studies estimating nonmonetary health status measures (HSMs), which are often used to assess changes in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Using meta-regression analysis, this paper combines results from both WTP and HSM studies applied to acute morbidity, and it tests whether a systematic relationship exists between HSM and WTP estimates. We analyze over 230 WTP estimates from 17 different studies and find evidence that QALY-based estimates of illness severity--as measured by the Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale--are significant factors in explaining variation in WTP, as are changes in the duration of illness and the average income and age of the study populations. In addition, we test and reject the assumption of a constant WTP per QALY gain. We also demonstrate how the estimated meta-regression equations can serve as benefit transfer functions for policy analysis. By specifying the change in duration and severity of the acute illness and the characteristics of the affected population, we apply the regression functions to predict average WTP per case avoided. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Full Focus Needed on Finishing Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant - 12196

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Suzanne; Biyani, Rabindra; Holmes, Erika [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Hanford Nuclear Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks located 19 to 24 km (12 to 15 miles) from the Columbia River in south-central Washington State. Hanford's tanks now hold about 212,000 cu m (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. Sixty-seven tanks have leaked an estimated 3,785 cu m (1 million gallons) of this waste into the surrounding soil. Further releases to soil, groundwater, and the Columbia River are the inevitable result of the tanks continuing to age. The risk from this waste is recognized as a threat to the Northwest by both State and Federal governments. US DOE and Bechtel National, Inc., are building the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat and vitrify (immobilize in glass) the waste from Hanford's tanks. As is usual for any groundbreaking project, problems have arisen that must be resolved as they occur if treatment is to take place as specified in the court-enforceable Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and the Consent Decree, entered into by US DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). At times, US DOE's approach to solving these critical issues seems to have caused undue wastes of time, energy, and, ultimately, public funds. Upon reviewing the history of Hanford's tank waste treatment project, Ecology hopes that constructive criticism of past failures and praise of successes will inspire US DOE to consider changing practices, be more transparent with regulatory agencies and the public, and take a 'lean production' approach to successfully completing this project. All three Tri-Party Agreement agencies share the goal of completing WTP on time, ensuring it is operational and in compliance with safety standards. To do this, Ecology believes US DOE should: - Maintain focus on the primary goal of

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Scaled Hanford Double Shell Tank Mixing - CFD Modeling Sensitivity Study Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  6. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  7. Borosilicate glass as a matrix for the immobilization of Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The reference waste form for immobilization of Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste is borosilicate glass. In the reference process, waste is mixed with glass-forming chemicals and melted in a Joule-heated ceramic melter at 1150 0 C. Waste glass made with actual or simulated waste on a small scale and glass made with simulated waste on a large scale confirm that the current reference process and glass-former composition are able to accommodate all SRP waste compositions and can produce a glass with: high waste loading; low leach rates; good thermal stability; high resistance to radiation effects; and good impact resistance. Borosilicate glass has been studied as a matrix for the immobilization of SRP waste since 1974. This paper reviews the results of extensive characterization and performance testing of the glass product. These results show that borosilicate glass is a very suitable matrix for the immobilization of SRP waste. 18 references, 3 figures, 10 tables

  8. Analysis and assessment of water treatment plant reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the publication is the analysis and assessment of the reliability of the surface water treatment plant (WTP. In the study the one parameter method of reliability assessment was used. Based on the flow sheet derived from the water company the reliability scheme of the analysed WTP was prepared. On the basis of the daily WTP work report the availability index Kg for the individual elements included in the WTP, was determined. Then, based on the developed reliability scheme showing the interrelationships between elements, the availability index Kg for the whole WTP was determined. The obtained value of the availability index Kg was compared with the criteria values.

  9. Predicting hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in a future phase III HIV vaccine trial among high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocos, Georgina; Kagee, Ashraf; Swartz, Leslie

    2008-11-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted stated hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in future Phase III HIV vaccine trials among South African adolescents. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) significantly predicted WTP. Of all the predictors, Subjective norms significantly predicted WTP (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.06-1.34). A stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that Subjective Norms (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.07-1.34) and Attitude towards participation in an HIV vaccine trial (OR = 1.32, 95% C.I. = 1.00-1.74) were significant predictors of WTP. The addition of Knowledge of HIV vaccines and HIV vaccine trials, Perceived self-risk of HIV infection, Health-promoting behaviours and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS yielded non-significant results. These findings provide support for the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and suggest that psychosocial factors may play an important role in WTP in Phase III HIV vaccine trials among adolescents.

  10. Vitrification and Product Testing of C-104 and AZ-102 Pretreated Sludge Mixed with Flowsheet Quantities of Secondary Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L.; Bates, Derrick J.; Goles, Ronald W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Lettau, Ralph C.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Smith, Harry D.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, Jerome J.

    2001-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) has acquired Hanford tank waste treatment services at a demonstration scale. The River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) team is responsible for producing an immobilized (vitrified) high-level waste (IHLW) waste form. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, hereafter referred to as PNNL, has been contracted to produce and test a vitrified IHLW waste form from two Envelope D high-level waste (HLW) samples previously supplied to the RPP-WTP project by DOE.

  11. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  12. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  13. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brigantic, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  14. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  15. A survey of methods to immobilize tritium and carbon-14 arising from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1991-02-01

    This report reviews the literature on methods to separate and immobilize tritium ( 3 H) and carbon-14 ( 14 C) released from U0 2 fuel in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. It was prepared as part of a broader review of fuel reprocessing waste management methods that might find future application in Canada. The calculated inventories of both 3 H and 14 C in used fuel are low; special measures to limit releases of these radionuclides from reprocessing plants are not currently in place, and may not be necessary in future. If required, however, several possible approaches to the concentration and immobilization of both radionuclides are available for development. Technology to control these radionuclides in reactor process streams is in general more highly developed than for reprocessing plant effluent, and some control methods may be adaptable to reprocessing applications

  16. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Agriculture in Mountain Areas: A Willingness to Pay (WTP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mazzocchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most evident elements of the agricultural crisis is farm abandonment in many marginal rural areas, such as mountains. Some traits of mountain agriculture such as remoteness, low productivity, extreme weather and small farm size, can limit the adaptation and the competitiveness of this branch. The analysis aims to assess the consumers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP for permanence of the upland farms and mountain pastures, by a Contingent Valuation analysis. The main results are that a WTP for the redevelopment of the pastures exists and that the personal characteristics of the sample are more influential than the opinions of the individuals on WTP. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that consumers seem to prefer an agricultural orientation of the upland farms rather than a touristic one. In the conclusion section, some policy guidelines are proposed.

  17. Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, Gordon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE.

  18. Investigation of TC and TSS Removal Efficiencies at Ahvaz West WTP Effluent Using the Land‒plant Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional (primary and secondary treatment processes are known to remove up to 95–99% of some micro-organisms, they do not provide adequate treatment to make the effluent suitable for direct reuse, mainly due to the presence of high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Obtaining reusable effluents, therefore, requires the use of processes that can be justified both technical and economic grounds. One such indigenous, low cost option is the land-plant process that can be used for advanced wastewater treatment. It is the objective of the present study to determine the efficiency of the local soil in Ahvaz and that of the vetiver plant in reducing the microbial load in the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A pilot study was thus carried out including three Lysimeters installed in West Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant. Local soil was used in one Lysimeter, local soil with vetiver plant in the second one, and an artificial assortment of soil comprising local soil, silica sand (0.5-1mm, and sand (15-30mm in the third. In addition, the effluent from the secondary settling outlet at the WTP was transferred by pumping at the three filtration rates of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 ml/min into the system with three replications for each rate and samples were collected from both inlet and outlet flows. The average removal efficiencies of Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Coliform (TC in the effluent from the three Lysimeters with local soil with vetiver, local soil without vetiver, and artificial soil assortment for the filtration rate of 0.2 ml/min were: 67.75% and 99.7%, 58.33% and 99.6%, and 56.25% and 99.5%, respectively. For a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min, these values were: 53.33% and 98.93%, 48.8 and 98.77%, and 47.68% and 98.64%. Finally, the values obtained for a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min were: 50% and 93.96%, 46.42 and 91.34%, and 44/04% and 88/81%, respectively. The results from the study showed that the

  19. Biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2017-02-10

    Vanillin is an important and popular plant flavor, but the amount of this compound available from plant sources is very limited. Biotechnological methods have high potential for vanillin production as an alternative to extraction from plant sources. Here, we report a new approach using immobilized enzymes for the production of vanillin. The recently discovered oxygenase Cso2 has coenzyme-independent catalytic activity for the conversion of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. Immobilization of Cso2 on Sepabeads EC-EA anion-exchange carrier conferred enhanced operational stability enabling repetitive use. This immobilized Cso2 catalyst allowed 6.8mg yield of vanillin from isoeugenol through ten reaction cycles at a 1mL scale. The coenzyme-independent decarboxylase Fdc, which has catalytic activity for the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, was also immobilized on Sepabeads EC-EA. We demonstrated that the immobilized Fdc and Cso2 enabled the cascade synthesis of vanillin from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol with repetitive use of the catalysts. This study is the first example of biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes, a process that provides new possibilities for vanillin production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  1. STRONTIUM & TRANSURANIC (TRU) SEPARATION PROCESS IN THE DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON; SWANSON; BOECHLER

    2005-06-10

    The supernatants stored in tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102) and 241-AN-107 (AN-107) contain soluble strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and transuranic (TRU) elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) specification and with the 1997 agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on incidental waste. A precipitation process has been developed and tested with tank waste samples and simulants using strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) to separate {sup 90}Sr and TRU from these wastes. This report evaluates removing Sr/TRU from AN-102 and AN-107 supernates in the DST system before delivery to the WTP. The in-tank precipitation is a direct alternative to the baseline WTP process, using the same chemical separations. Implementing the Sr/TRU separation in the DST system beginning in 2012 provides {approx}6 month schedule advantage to the overall mission, without impacting the mission end date or planned SST retrievals.

  2. Comparing WTP values of different types of QALY gain elicited from the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; Baker, Rachel; Brouwer, Werner; Mason, Helen; Hansen, Dorte Gyrd; Robinson, Angela; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-03-01

    The appropriate thresholds for decisions on the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions remain controversial, especially in 'end-of-life' situations. Evidence of the values placed on different types of health gain by the general public is limited. Across nine European countries, 17,657 people were presented with different hypothetical health scenarios each involving a gain of one quality adjusted life year (QALY) and asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for that gain. The questions included quality of life (QoL) enhancing and life extending health gains, and a scenario where respondents faced imminent, premature death. The mean WTP values for a one-QALY gain composed of QoL improvements were modest (PPP$11,000). When comparing QALY gains obtained in the near future, the valuation of life extension exceeded the valuation of QoL enhancing gains (mean WTP PPP$19,000 for a scenario in which a coma is avoided). The mean WTP values were higher still when respondents faced imminent, premature death (PPP$29,000). Evidence from the largest survey on the value of health gains by the general public indicated a higher value for life extending gains compared with QoL enhancing gains. A further modest premium may be indicated for life extension when facing imminent, premature death. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Overview of Corrosion, Erosion, and Synergistic Effects of Erosion and Corrosion in the WTP Pre-treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imrich, K. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-27

    Corrosion is an extremely complex process that is affected by numerous factors. Addition of a flowing multi-phase solution further complicates the analysis. The synergistic effects of the multiple corrosive species as well as the flow-induced synergistic effects from erosion and corrosion must be thoroughly evaluated in order to predict material degradation responses. Public domain data can help guide the analysis, but cannot reliably provide the design basis especially when the process is one-of-a-kind, designed for 40 plus years of service, and has no viable means for repair or replacement. Testing in representative simulants and environmental conditions with prototypic components will provide a stronger technical basis for design. This philosophy was exemplified by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site and only after 15 plus years of successful operation has it been validated. There have been “hiccups”, some identified during the cold commissioning phase and some during radioactive operations, but they were minor and overcome. In addition, the system is robust enough to tolerate most flowsheet changes and the DWPF design allows minor modifications and replacements – approaches not available with the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) “Black Cell” design methodology. Based on the available data, the synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion is a credible – virtually certain – degradation mechanism and must be considered for the design of the WTP process systems. Testing is recommended due to the number of variables (e.g., material properties, process parameters, and component design) that can affect synergy between erosion and corrosion and because the available literature is of limited applicability for the complex process chemistries anticipated in the WTP. Applicable testing will provide a reasonable and defensible path forward for design of the WTP Black Cell and Hard-to-Reach process equipment. These

  4. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Le, Henry; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP) method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR). Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014). Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days). The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit.

  5. Cultural Attitudes as WTP Determinants: A Revised Cultural Worldview Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy S. Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been little attention paid to the systematic measurement issue of general attitudes toward human-culture relationships. This paper applied the Cultural Worldview (CW scale that was developed by Choi et al. in 2007 (published in the Journal of Cultural Economics, and investigated its dimensionality and relationship with willingness to pay (WTP for cultural heritage protection through a sequential integration between latent variables and valuation models. A case study of 997 Korean respondents was employed to examine conservation values of cultural heritage sites using discrete choice models. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that this scale can be used either as a single second-order factor or four correlated factors. A more parsimonious version of the CW scale with twelve items is endorsed in this paper and the results also confirm that it is valid for use with non-Western nations. The findings support a significant attitude–WTP relationship; there was a significant role of the CW scale that reveals unobserved factors in valuation models.

  6. Pilot plant production of glucose from starch with soluble. cap alpha. -amylase and immobilized glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D D; Reilly, P J; Collins, Jr, E V

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant studies were conducted on cooking and thinning of corn starch with free ..cap alpha..-amylase and the conversion of the resulting dextrin with immobilized glucoamylase adsorbed on porous SiO/sub 2/. Feeds of intermediate DE values gave maximum yields unless the flow rate of low DE feeds was decreased. Final DE values and glucose concentrations after dextrin treated with Thermamyl 60 ..cap alpha..-amylase had been further hydrolyzed in an immobilized glucoamylase column, were slightly lower than they were when free glucoamylase was used. Similar results were obtained when dextrin, thinned with HT-1000 ..cap alpha..-amylase, was hydrolyzed at 38/sup 0/ and pH 4.4 in the immobilized glucoamylase column. Free glucoamylase yielded values of DE and glucose almost identical with dextrin thinned with Thermamyl 60 ..cap alpha..-amylase. Yields with the free glucoamylase were also slightly higher than they were with SiO/sub 2/-bound enzyme.

  7. Glass Formulation For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant (WTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Jain, V.

    2009-01-01

    A computational method for formulating Hanford HLW glasses was developed that is based on empirical glass composition-property models, accounts for all associated uncertainties, and can be solved in Excel R in minutes. Calculations for all waste form processing and compliance requirements included. Limited experimental validation performed.

  8. GLASS FORMULATION FOR THE HANFORD TANK WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT (WTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; VIENNA JD; KIM DS; JAIN V

    2009-05-27

    A computational method for formulating Hanford HLW glasses was developed that is based on empirical glass composition-property models, accounts for all associated uncertainties, and can be solved in Excel{sup R} in minutes. Calculations for all waste form processing and compliance requirements included. Limited experimental validation performed.

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations

  10. Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, Gordon H.

    2010-01-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL's '1831' use agreement and later PNNL's '1830' prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its '1831' use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL's support to the WTP was moved under its '1830' prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered 'PNWD-XXXX' were issued under PNNL's '1831' use agreement. Documents numbered 'PNNL-XXXX' were issued under PNNL's '1830' prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: (1) Characterization; (2) HLW (High Level Waste); (3) Material Characterization; (4) Pretreatment; (5) Simulant Development; (6) Vitrification; and (7) Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

  11. Secondary Waste Form Development and Optimization—Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Parker, Kent E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pitman, Stan G.; Chun, Jaehun; Chung, Chul-Woo; Kimura, Marcia L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Um, Wooyong; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-07-14

    Washington River Protection Services is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-permitted, multi-waste, treatment and storage unit and can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid wastes generated during operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The STU to ETF will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary wastes expected to be produced by WTP.

  12. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Ainy

    Full Text Available We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR. Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014. Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days. The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit.

  13. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-22

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  14. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  15. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  16. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  17. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  18. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  19. PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John G.H.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick L.J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.'(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  20. Disentangling WTP per QALY data: different analytical approaches, different answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kjaer, Trine

    2012-03-01

    A large random sample of the Danish general population was asked to value health improvements by way of both the time trade-off elicitation technique and willingness-to-pay (WTP) using contingent valuation methods. The data demonstrate a high degree of heterogeneity across respondents in their relative valuations on the two scales. This has implications for data analysis. We show that the estimates of WTP per QALY are highly sensitive to the analytical strategy. For both open-ended and dichotomous choice data we demonstrate that choice of aggregated approach (ratios of means) or disaggregated approach (means of ratios) affects estimates markedly as does the interpretation of the constant term (which allows for disproportionality across the two scales) in the regression analyses. We propose that future research should focus on why some respondents are unwilling to trade on the time trade-off scale, on how to interpret the constant value in the regression analyses, and on how best to capture the heterogeneity in preference structures when applying mixed multinomial logit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Immobilization of wet solid wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wet solid wastes are classified into four basic types: spent resins, filter sludges, evaporator concentrates, and miscellaneous liquids. Although the immobilization of wet solid wastes is primarily concerned with the incorporation of the waste with a solidification agent, there are a number of other discrete operations or subsystems involved in the treatment of these wastes that may affect the immobilized waste product. The immobilization process may be broken down into five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging, and waste package handling. The properties of the waste forms that are ultimately shipped from the reactor site are primarily influenced by the methods utilized during the waste collection, waste pretreatment and mixing/packaging operations. The mixing/packaging (solidification) operation is perhaps the most important stage of the immobilization process. The basic solidification agent types are: absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and other polymer systems

  2. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  3. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  4. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  5. Tungsten transport protein A (WtpA) in Pyrococcus furiosus: the first member of a new class of tungstate and molybdate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Krijger, Gerard C; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2006-09-01

    A novel tungstate and molybdate binding protein has been discovered from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This tungstate transport protein A (WtpA) is part of a new ABC transporter system selective for tungstate and molybdate. WtpA has very low sequence similarity with the earlier-characterized transport proteins ModA for molybdate and TupA for tungstate. Its structural gene is present in the genome of numerous archaea and some bacteria. The identification of this new tungstate and molybdate binding protein clarifies the mechanism of tungstate and molybdate transport in organisms that lack the known uptake systems associated with the ModA and TupA proteins, like many archaea. The periplasmic protein of this ABC transporter, WtpA (PF0080), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, WtpA was observed to bind tungstate (dissociation constant [K(D)] of 17 +/- 7 pM) and molybdate (K(D) of 11 +/- 5 nM) with a stoichiometry of 1.0 mol oxoanion per mole of protein. These low K(D) values indicate that WtpA has a higher affinity for tungstate than do ModA and TupA and an affinity for molybdate similar to that of ModA. A displacement titration of molybdate-saturated WtpA with tungstate showed that the tungstate effectively replaced the molybdate in the binding site of the protein.

  6. Cesium Isotherm Testing with Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin at High Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing a Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to provide low-activity waste (LAW) directly to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste Facility for immobilization. The pretreatment that will be conducted on tank waste supernate at the LAWPS facility entails filtration to remove entrained solids and cesium (Cs) ion exchange to remove Cs from the product sent to the WTP. Currently, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin (Microbeads AS, Skedsmokorset, Norway) is the Cs ion exchange resin of choice. Most work on Cs ion exchange efficacy in Hanford tank waste has been conducted at nominally 5 M sodium (Na). WRPS is examining the possibility of processing supernatant at high Na concentrations—up to 8 M Na—to maximize processing efficiency through the LAWPS. Minimal Cs ion exchange work has been conducted at 6 M and 8 M Na concentrations..

  7. Surgical treatment of GERD. Comperative study of WTP vs. Toupet fundoplication - results of 151 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Kobryn, Konrad; Nowosad, Małgorzata; Krawczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is recognized as one of the most common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The best choice of management for advanced GERD is laparoscopic surgery. To compare and evaluate the results of surgical treatment of GERD patients operated on using two different techniques. Between 2001 and 2012, 353 patients (211 female and 142 male), aged 17-76 years (mean 44), underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery. The study included patients who underwent a Toupet fundoplication or Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure (WTP). The mean age of the group was 47.77 years (17-80 years). Forty-nine (32.45%) patients had severe symptoms, 93 (61.58%) had mild symptoms and 9 (5.96%) had a single mild but intolerable sign of GERD. Eighty-six (56.95%) patients had a Toupet fundoplication and 65 (43.04%) had a WTP. The follow-up period was 18-144 months. The average operating time for Toupet fundoplication and the WTP procedure was 164 min (90-300 min) and 147 min (90-210 min), respectively. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.66%. The average post-operative hospitalization period was 5.4 days (2-16 post-operative days (POD) = Toupet) vs. 4.7 days (2-9 POD = WTP). No reoperations were performed. No major surgical complications were identified. Wroblewski Tadeusz procedure due to a low percentage of post-operative complications, good quality of life of patients and a zero recurrence rate of hiatal hernia should be a method of choice.

  8. The willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation of wild animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    WTP often leads to a social dilemma of a choice between one's self interests and community or group interest. This choice often affects attitudes, motivations, perceptions, and values leading to ..... with the inclusion of tourism where the local inhabitants see “their ... media, and door-to-door campaigns for the benefits of all.

  9. PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

    2009-12-04

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.”(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  10. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  11. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  12. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described

  13. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  14. Supplier choice and WTP for electricity attributes in an emerging market: The role of perceived past experience, environmental concern and energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Francisco Javier; González, Rosa Marina; Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes customers' preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for certain service attributes in an electricity supplier choice context. Specifically, a stated preference choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market where limited competition exists. Preferences for different electricity suppliers and three level-of-service attributes are investigated, namely, supply reliability, share of renewable energies and availability of a complementary energy audit service. The results might be interpreted as an indication of different aspects new firms need to consider if they plan to enter in the market. There is an opportunity for new companies to establish in the market, though evidence of brand loyalty to the current company and/or significant switching costs are also found, especially in the case of older people. Regarding the estimated WTP, several results should be highlighted. First, customers who have experienced more serious outages in the past tend to show a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. Second, highly-educated respondents, those who state a great concern for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and those who carry out energy saving actions in their homes exhibit a larger WTP for renewable energies. This empirical evidence provides useful information for authorities responsible for energy policy design. - Highlights: • A stated choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market. • Serious outages in the past lead to a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. • A higher education level explains a greater WTP for renewables. • People concerned for emissions and energy savers show greater WTP for renewables. • These findings provide useful information for energy policy design

  15. A survey of methods for separating and immobilizing krypton-85 arising from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1990-12-01

    This report reviews the literature on methods to separate and immobilize krypton-85 arising from dissolution or prior treatment of nuclear fuel in a reprocessing plant. It was prepared as part of a broader review of fuel reprocessing waste management methods that might find future applications in Canada. Cryogenic distillation is the most fully demonstrated method of separation of krypton from off-gases, but it is complex. In particular, it requires pretreatment of the gas stream to eliminate several other components before the final distillation. The most highly developed alternative process is fluorocarbon adsorption, while several other processes have been investigated on a bench scale. The simplest method of storing radioactive krypton is in compressed-gas cylinders, but the risks of accidental release are increased by the corrosive nature of the decay product, rubidium. Encapsulation in either a metal matrix or a hydrothermally vitrified zeolite appears to offer the most secure immobilization of krypton. Processes for both types of material have been demonstrated inactively on a scale approaching that required for treatment of off-gases from a commercial-scale fuel reprocessing plant. Low-operating temperatures and pressures of the metal encapsulation process, compared with encapsulation in zeolites, represent a definite advantage, but electrical power requirements for the former process are relatively high. It appears that suitable technology is available for separation and immobilization of radioactive krypton, should the need arise in Canada in the future

  16. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  17. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.; Haass, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through out the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  18. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Kelly, S.E.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  19. Chemical Composition Analysis and Product Consistency Tests of the ORP Phase 5 Nepheline Study Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Caldwell, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated high-level waste glass compositions fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These data will be used in the development of improved models for the prediction of nepheline crystallization in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  20. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  1. Reference Dependence Effects on WTA and WTP Value Functions and Their Disparity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigate two reference dependence effects in a choice experiment. The first is the effect of the well-known distinction between gains and losses, the second is the effect of changing the reference value on willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA). The latter has

  2. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs.

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J.V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing

  4. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  5. EFFECT OF MELTER-FEED-MAKEUP ON VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.; Humrickhouse, C.J.; Moody, J.A.; Tate, R.M.; Tegrotenhuis, N.E.; Arrigoni, B.M.; Rodriguez, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting

  6. Uranium Immobilization in an Iron-Rich Rhizosphere of a Native Wetland Plant from the Savannah River Site under Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothesis of this study was that iron plaque formed on the roots of wetland plants and their rhizospheres create environmental conditions favorable for iron reducing bacteria that promote the in situ immobilization of uranium. Greenhouse microcosm studies were conducted usin...

  7. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  8. Surgical treatment of GERD. Comperative study of WTP vs. Toupet fundoplication – results of 151 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Wróblewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is recognized as one of the most common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The best choice of management for advanced GERD is laparoscopic surgery. Aim : To compare and evaluate the results of surgical treatment of GERD patients operated on using two different techniques. Material and methods : Between 2001 and 2012, 353 patients (211 female and 142 male, aged 17–76 years (mean 44, underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery. The study included patients who underwent a Toupet fundoplication or Wroblewski Tadeusz Procedure (WTP. Results: The mean age of the group was 47.77 years (17–80 years. Forty-nine (32.45% patients had severe symptoms, 93 (61.58% had mild symptoms and 9 (5.96% had a single mild but intolerable sign of GERD. Eighty-six (56.95% patients had a Toupet fundoplication and 65 (43.04% had a WTP. The follow-up period was 18–144 months. The average operating time for Toupet fundoplication and the WTP procedure was 164 min (90–300 min and 147 min (90–210 min, respectively. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.66%. The average post-operative hospitalization period was 5.4 days (2–16 post-operative days (POD = Toupet vs. 4.7 days (2–9 POD = WTP. No reoperations were performed. No major surgical complications were identified. Conclusions : Wroblewski Tadeusz Procedure due to a low percentage of post-operative complications, good quality of life of patients and a zero recurrence rate of hiatal hernia should be a method of choice.

  9. FINAL REPORT DETERMINATION OF THE PROCESSING RATE OF RPP WTP HLW SIMULANTS USING A DURAMELTER J 1000 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-00R2590-2 REV 0 8/21/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEREZ-CARDENAS F; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    increased plenum temperatures due to increased thermal radiation from the melt surface (which mayor may not be desirable but the flexibility to choose may be lost). Increased volatilization is an issue both in terms of the increased challenge to the off-gas system as well as for the ability to effectively close the recycle loops for volatile species that must be immobilized in the glass product, most notably technetium and cesium. For these reasons, improved information is needed on the specific glass production rates of RPP-WTP HLW streams in DuraMelterJ systems over a range of operating conditions. Unlike the RPP-WTP LAW program, for which a pilot melter system to provide large-scale throughout information is already in operation, there is no comparable HLW activity; the results of the present study are therefore especially important. This information will reduce project risk by reducing the uncertainty associated with the amount of conservatism that mayor may not be associated with the baseline RPP-WTP HLW melter sizing decision. After the submission of the first Test Plan for this work, the RPP-WTP requested revisions to include tests to determine the processing rates that are achievable without bubbling, which was driven by the potential advantages of omitting bubblers from the HLW melter design in terms of reduced maintenance. A further objective of this effort became the determination of whether the basis of design processing rate could be achieved without bubbling. Ideally, processing rate tests would be conducted on a full-scale RPP-WTP melter system with actual HLW materials, but that is clearly unrealistic during Part B1. As a practical compromise the processing rate determinations were made with HL W simulants on a DuraMelter J system at as close to full scale as possible and the DM 1000 system at VSL was selected for that purpose. That system has a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}, which corresponds to about one-third scale based on the specific glass

  10. Final Report Determination Of The Processing Rate Of RPP-WTP HLW Simulants Using A Duramelter J 1000 Vitrification System VSL-00R2590-2, Rev. 0, 8/21/00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Kot, W.K.; Perez-Cardenas, F.; Pegg, I.L.

    2011-01-01

    temperatures due to increased thermal radiation from the melt surface (which mayor may not be desirable but the flexibility to choose may be lost). Increased volatilization is an issue both in terms of the increased challenge to the off-gas system as well as for the ability to effectively close the recycle loops for volatile species that must be immobilized in the glass product, most notably technetium and cesium. For these reasons, improved information is needed on the specific glass production rates of RPP-WTP HLW streams in DuraMelterJ systems over a range of operating conditions. Unlike the RPP-WTP LAW program, for which a pilot melter system to provide large-scale throughout information is already in operation, there is no comparable HLW activity; the results of the present study are therefore especially important. This information will reduce project risk by reducing the uncertainty associated with the amount of conservatism that mayor may not be associated with the baseline RPP-WTP HLW melter sizing decision. After the submission of the first Test Plan for this work, the RPP-WTP requested revisions to include tests to determine the processing rates that are achievable without bubbling, which was driven by the potential advantages of omitting bubblers from the HLW melter design in terms of reduced maintenance. A further objective of this effort became the determination of whether the basis of design processing rate could be achieved without bubbling. Ideally, processing rate tests would be conducted on a full-scale RPP-WTP melter system with actual HLW materials, but that is clearly unrealistic during Part B1. As a practical compromise the processing rate determinations were made with HL W simulants on a DuraMelter J system at as close to full scale as possible and the DM 1000 system at VSL was selected for that purpose. That system has a melt surface area of 1.2 m 2 , which corresponds to about one-third scale based on the specific glass processing rate of 0.4 MT/m 2 /d

  11. Technetium Retention In WTP Law Glass With Recycle Flow-Sheet DM10 Melter Testing VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowitz, Howard; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-01-01

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the 99m Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the 99m Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P and ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives

  12. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowitz, Howard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Brandys, Marek [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Cecil, Richard [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; D& #x27; Angelo, Nicholas [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Matlack, Keith S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Muller, Isabelle S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Pegg, Ian L. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Callow, Richard A. [Energy Solutions, Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  13. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  14. Research on vitrification technology to immobilize radioactive sludge generated from Fukushima Daiichi power plant. Enhanced glass medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamoto, Ippei; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Kitamura, Naoto; Takebe, Hiromichi; Mitamura, Naoki; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya; Fukayama, Daigen; Nagano, Yuichi; Jantzen, Tatjana; Hack, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The search for an enhanced glass medium to immobilize the sludge at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is our main purpose. The iron phosphate glass (IPG) is a potential candidate as we set about assessing it by means of theoretical and experimental investigation. Based on the results of this study, the IPG showed favorable characteristics as a vitrification medium for the sludge. (author)

  15. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, T.

    1998-01-01

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D and T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D and T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D and T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology, this is accomplished by encapsulating the

  16. Economic valuation of health care services in public health systems: a study about Willingness to Pay (WTP) for nursing consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; del Cura-González, Ma Isabel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Gemma; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Zamora, Javier; Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Pérez-Rivas, Francisco Javier; Domínguez-Bidagor, Julia; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Tello-Bernabé, Ma Eugenia; Conde-López, Juan Francisco; Aguado-Arroyo, Óscar; Sanz-Bayona, Ma Teresa; Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the economic value assigned by users to a particular health service is of principal interest in planning the service. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of economic value of nursing consultation in primary care (PC) by its users. Economic study using contingent valuation methodology. A total of 662 users of nursing consultation from 23 health centers were included. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health needs, pattern of usage, and satisfaction with provided service were compiled. The validity of the response was evaluated by an explanatory mixed-effects multilevel model in order to assess the factors associated with the response according to the welfare theory. Response reliability was also evaluated. Subjects included in the study indicated an average Willingness to Pay (WTP) of €14.4 (CI 95%: €13.2-15.5; median €10) and an average Willingness to Accept [Compensation] (WTA) of €20.9 (CI 95%: €19.6-22.2; median €20). Average area income, personal income, consultation duration, home visit, and education level correlated with greater WTP. Women and older subjects showed lower WTP. Fixed parameters explained 8.41% of the residual variability, and response clustering in different health centers explained 4-6% of the total variability. The influence of income on WTP was different in each center. The responses for WTP and WTA in a subgroup of subjects were consistent when reassessed after 2 weeks (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.952 and 0.893, respectively). The economic value of nursing services provided within PC in a public health system is clearly perceived by its user. The perception of this value is influenced by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the subjects and their environment, and by the unique characteristics of the evaluated service. The method of contingent valuation is useful for making explicit this perception of value of health services.

  17. Immobilization routes - they're not standing still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basta, N

    1982-04-19

    A review of the current stage of research into enzyme immobilization and the application of this technology in food processing and biomass-energy conversion is presented. The major success of the technology at present is the production of high-fructose corn syrup in the U.S. A commercial-scale plant to make sweeteners from cheese whey using immobilized lactase has come onstream in the U.K. Of two other processes reported, one uses immobilized bacteria to treat waste-water and produces pipeline-quality methane, the other holds promise for cutting the cost of corn-to-ethanol processing and enhancing the performance of cellulose-to-ethanol routes.

  18. Experience gained with the Synroc demonstration plant at ANSTO and its relevance to plutonium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostsons, A.; Ridal, A.; Mercer, D.J.; Vance, E.R.L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    The Synroc Demonstration Plant (SDP) was designed and constructed at Lucas Heights to demonstrate the feasibility of Synroc production on a commercial scale (10 kg/hr) with simulated Purex liquid HLW. Since commissioning of the SDP in 1987, over 6000 kg of Synroc has been fabricated with a range of feeds and waste loadings. The SDP utilises uniaxial hot-pressing to consolidate Synroc. Pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing have also been studied at smaller scales. The results of this extensive process development have been incorporated in a conceptual design for a radioactive plant to condition HLW from a reprocessing plant with a capacity to treat 800 tpa of spent LWR fuel. Synroic containing TRU, including Pu, and fission products has been fabricated and characterised in a glove-box facility and hot cells, respectively. The extensive experience in processing of Synroc over the past 15 years is summarised and its relevance to immobilization of surplus plutonium is discussed.

  19. Immobilization technology for krypton in amorphous zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Atsushi; Ishiyama, Keiichi

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive krypton recovered from the offgas of a reprocessing plant requires long-term storage on the order of 100 years. Immobilization technology for krypton into amorphous zeolite 5A is considered one of the best methods for long-term storage. In this report, conditions for immobilization treatment and stability of amorphous zeolite 5A loaded krypton against heat, radiation and water are discussed, and a treatment system using this technology is described. (author)

  20. Estimation of CO2 emission from water treatment plant--model development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Daeseung; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Nosuk; Lee, Woojin

    2013-12-15

    A comprehensive mathematical model developed for this study was used to compare estimates of on-site and off-site CO2 emissions, from conventional and advanced water treatment plants (WTPs). When 200,000 m(3) of raw water at 10 NTU (Nepthelometric Turbidity Unit) was treated by a conventional WTP to 0.1 NTU using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant, the total CO2 emissions were estimated to be 790 ± 228 (on-site) and 69,596 ± 3950 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The emissions from an advanced WTP containing micro-filtration (MF) membrane and ozone disinfection processes; treating the same raw water to 0.005 NTU, were estimated to be 395 ± 115 (on-site) and 38,197 ± 2922 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The on-site CO2 emissions from the advanced WTP were half that from the conventional WTP due to much lower use of coagulant. On the other hand, off-site CO2 emissions due to consumption of electricity were 2.14 times higher for the advanced WTP, due to the demands for operation of the MF membrane and ozone disinfection processes. However, the lower use of chemicals in the advanced WTP decreased off-site CO2 emissions related to chemical production and transportation. Overall, total CO2 emissions from the conventional WTP were 1.82 times higher than that from the advanced WTP. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the advanced WTP to suggest tactics for simultaneously reducing CO2 emissions further and enhancing water quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of WQI and Microbial pollution for two water treatment plants in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed AliAl-Hashimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tigris River is the main water source for all water treatment plants in Baghdad city. In current study, Water Quality Index (WQI and microbial pollution was obtained for two water treatment plants and their networks in Baghdad city Al-Karama and Al-Wathba WTP for both raw and treated water, In order to assess water suitability as a source of domestic water supply. Physical, chemical, and Microbialparameters werestudied fora period of four months (March-June, 2014. The parameters which were taken into account for the present work are pH, turbidity (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, Total Alkalinity (TA, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Calcium (Ca++, Magnesium (Mg++, Total Hardness (TH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS,Chloride (Cl-, and Most Probable Number (MPN method as microbial pollution indicator. The results indicate that WQI for untreated Tigris water was classified as "unfit for human consumption" at both WTPs intakes and along study period and after water passing through the sequence treatment units in WTPs its quality is gradually increased and finally, the treated water quality ranged from "Good" to " Moderately polluted" at both All-Karama and Al-Wathba WTPs. In networks the quality of water ranged between "Good" to "moderately polluted" in Al-Karama WTP network and between "Moderately polluted" to "severely polluted" in Al-Wathba WTP network. For Microbiological pollution, MPN throughout the period of study was between (0-150 cell/100ml at Al-Karama WTP and between (0- 240 cell/100ml at Al-Wathba WTP. The highest value obtained was (240 cell/100ml at raw water in Al- Wathba WTP intake in June, while the lowest value obtained was (0 cell/100ml at all chlorinated samples.

  2. Scoping erosion flow loop test results in support of Hanford WTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.; Imrich, K.; Fowley, M.; Restivo, M.; Reigel, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will process Hanford Site tank waste by converting the waste into a stable glass form. Before the tank waste can be vitrified, the baseline plan is to process the waste through the Pretreatment (PT) Facility where it will be mixed in various process vessels using Pulse Jet Mixers (PJM) and transferred to the High Level Waste (HLW) or Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE) and Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB), as well as independent review groups, have raised concerns regarding the design basis for piping erosion in the PT Facility. Due to the complex nature of slurry erosion/corrosion wear and the unique conditions that exist within the PT Facility, additional testing has been recommended by these entities. Pipe loop testing is necessary to analyze the potential for localized wear at elbows and bends, close the outstanding PT and HLW erosion/corrosion technical issues, and underpin BNI's design basis for a 40-year operational life for black cell piping and vessels. SRNL is consulting with the DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to resolve technical concerns related to piping erosion/corrosion (wear) design basis for PT. SRNL was tasked by ORP to start designing, building, and testing a flow loop to obtain long-term total-wear rate data using bounding simulant chemistry, operating conditions, and prototypical materials. The initial test involved a scoping paint loop to locate experimentally the potential high-wear locations. This information will provide a basis for the placement of the many sensitive wear measurement instruments in the appropriate locations so that the principal flow-loop test has the best chance to estimate long-term erosion and corrosion. It is important to note that the scoping paint loop test only utilized a bounding erosion simulant for this test. A full chemical simulant needs to be added for the complete test flow loop. The

  3. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  4. Nitrogen Immobilization in Plant Growth Substrates: Clean Chip Residual, Pine Bark, and Peatmoss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R. Boyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising costs of potting substrates have caused horticultural growers to search for alternative, lower-cost materials. Objectives of this study were to determine the extent of nitrogen immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate, clean chip residual. Microbial activity and nitrogen availability of two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm of clean chip residual were compared to control treatments of pine bark and peatmoss in a 60-day incubation experiment. Four rates (0, 1, 2, or 3 mg of supplemental nitrogen were assessed. Peatmoss displayed little microbial respiration over the course of the study, regardless of nitrogen rate; followed by pine bark, 0.95 cm clean chip residual, and 0.48 cm clean chip residual. Respiration increased with increasing nitrogen. Total inorganic nitrogen (plant available nitrogen was greatest with peatmoss; inorganic nitrogen in other treatments were similar at the 0, 1, and 2 mg supplemental nitrogen rates, while an increase occurred with the highest rate (3 mg. Clean chip residual and pine bark were similar in available nitrogen compared to peatmoss. This study suggests that nitrogen immobilization in substrates composed of clean chip residual is similar to pine bark and can be treated with similar fertilizer amendments during nursery production.

  5. Economic Valuation of Health Care Services in Public Health Systems: A Study about Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Nursing Consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; del Cura-González, Mª Isabel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Gemma; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Zamora, Javier; Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Pérez-Rivas, Francisco Javier; Domínguez-Bidagor, Julia; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Tello-Bernabé, Mª Eugenia; Conde-López, Juan Francisco; Aguado-Arroyo, Óscar; Bayona, Mª Teresa Sanz-; Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying the economic value assigned by users to a particular health service is of principal interest in planning the service. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of economic value of nursing consultation in primary care (PC) by its users. Methods and Results Economic study using contingent valuation methodology. A total of 662 users of nursing consultation from 23 health centers were included. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health needs, pattern of usage, and satisfaction with provided service were compiled. The validity of the response was evaluated by an explanatory mixed-effects multilevel model in order to assess the factors associated with the response according to the welfare theory. Response reliability was also evaluated. Subjects included in the study indicated an average Willingness to Pay (WTP) of €14.4 (CI 95%: €13.2–15.5; median €10) and an average Willingness to Accept [Compensation] (WTA) of €20.9 (CI 95%: €19.6–22.2; median €20). Average area income, personal income, consultation duration, home visit, and education level correlated with greater WTP. Women and older subjects showed lower WTP. Fixed parameters explained 8.41% of the residual variability, and response clustering in different health centers explained 4–6% of the total variability. The influence of income on WTP was different in each center. The responses for WTP and WTA in a subgroup of subjects were consistent when reassessed after 2 weeks (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.952 and 0.893, respectively). Conclusions The economic value of nursing services provided within PC in a public health system is clearly perceived by its user. The perception of this value is influenced by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the subjects and their environment, and by the unique characteristics of the evaluated service. The method of contingent valuation is useful for making explicit this perception of value of

  6. Economic valuation of health care services in public health systems: a study about Willingness to Pay (WTP for nursing consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martín-Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying the economic value assigned by users to a particular health service is of principal interest in planning the service. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of economic value of nursing consultation in primary care (PC by its users. METHODS AND RESULTS: Economic study using contingent valuation methodology. A total of 662 users of nursing consultation from 23 health centers were included. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health needs, pattern of usage, and satisfaction with provided service were compiled. The validity of the response was evaluated by an explanatory mixed-effects multilevel model in order to assess the factors associated with the response according to the welfare theory. Response reliability was also evaluated. Subjects included in the study indicated an average Willingness to Pay (WTP of €14.4 (CI 95%: €13.2-15.5; median €10 and an average Willingness to Accept [Compensation] (WTA of €20.9 (CI 95%: €19.6-22.2; median €20. Average area income, personal income, consultation duration, home visit, and education level correlated with greater WTP. Women and older subjects showed lower WTP. Fixed parameters explained 8.41% of the residual variability, and response clustering in different health centers explained 4-6% of the total variability. The influence of income on WTP was different in each center. The responses for WTP and WTA in a subgroup of subjects were consistent when reassessed after 2 weeks (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.952 and 0.893, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The economic value of nursing services provided within PC in a public health system is clearly perceived by its user. The perception of this value is influenced by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the subjects and their environment, and by the unique characteristics of the evaluated service. The method of contingent valuation is useful for making explicit this perception

  7. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria

  8. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  9. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  10. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  11. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-12-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

  12. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen B.K.; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John G.H.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S.K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes. Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

  13. A disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This report describes a conceptual design of a disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste. The surface facilities consist of plants for the preparation of steel cylinders containing nuclear waste immobilized in glass, shaft headframe buildings and all necessary support facilities. The underground disposal vault is located on one level at a depth of 1000 m. The waste cylinders are emplaced into boreholes in the tunnel floors. All surface and subsurface facilities are described, operations and schedules are summarized, and cost estimates and manpower requirements are given. (auth)

  14. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbasha Sarkar

    Full Text Available Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm, and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF, cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we

  15. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  16. STATUS and DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  17. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed

  18. HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Callow, Richard A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Abramowitz, Howard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Brandys, Marek [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-11-13

    Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of ~ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150°C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage.

  19. HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A A.; Joseph, Innocent; Matlack, Keith S.; Callow, Richard A.; Abramowitz, Howard; Pegg, Ian L.; Brandys, Marek; Kot, Wing K.

    2012-01-01

    Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m 2 and depth of ∼ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150°C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage

  20. Diversity of microbiota found in coffee processing wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Josiane Ferreira; Cardoso, Larissa de Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Silva, Cristina Ferreira

    2017-11-13

    Cultivable microbiota presents in a coffee semi-dry processing wastewater treatment plant (WTP) was identified. Thirty-two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, these being 16 bacteria, 11 yeasts and 4 filamentous fungi. Bacteria dominated the microbial population (11.61 log CFU mL - 1 ), and presented the highest total diversity index when observed in the WTP aerobic stage (Shannon = 1.94 and Simpson = 0.81). The most frequent bacterial species were Enterobacter asburiae, Sphingobacterium griseoflavum, Chryseobacterium bovis, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium flavescens, Acetobacter orientalis and Acetobacter indonesiensis; these showed the largest total bacteria populations in the WTP, with approximately 10 log CFU mL - 1 . Yeasts were present at 7 log CFU mL - 1 of viable cells, with Hanseniaspora uvarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Saturnispora gosingensis, and Kazachstania gamospora being the prevalent species. Filamentous fungi were found at 6 log CFU mL - 1 , with Fusarium oxysporum the most populous species. The identified species have the potential to act as a biological treatment in the WTP, and the application of them for this purpose must be better studied.

  1. International survey on willingness-to-pay (WTP) for one additional QALY gained: what is the threshold of cost effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroiwa, Takeru; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Fukuda, Takashi; Lang, Hui-Chu; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2010-04-01

    Although the threshold of cost effectiveness of medical interventions is thought to be 20 000- 30 000 UK pounds in the UK, and $50 000-$100 000 in the US, it is well known that these values are unjustified, due to lack of explicit scientific evidence. We measured willingness-to-pay (WTP) for one additional quality-adjusted life-year gained to determine the threshold of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Our study used the Internet to compare WTP for the additional year of survival in a perfect status of health in Japan, the Republic of Korea (ROK), Taiwan, Australia, the UK, and the US. The research utilized a double-bound dichotomous choice, and analysis by the nonparametric Turnbull method. WTP values were JPY 5 million (Japan), KWN 68 million (ROK), NT$ 2.1 million (Taiwan), 23 000 UK pounds (UK), AU$ 64 000 (Australia), and US$ 62 000 (US). The discount rates of outcome were estimated at 6.8% (Japan), 3.7% (ROK), 1.6% (Taiwan), 2.8% (UK), 1.9% (Australia), and 3.2% (US). Based on the current study, we suggest new classification of cost-effectiveness plane and methodology for decision making. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 12518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. In 2010 Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to accurately identify critical velocities in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of >50 micrometers. In 2011 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated to identify critical velocities for slurries containing fast-settling, high-density particles with a mean particle diameter of <15 micrometers. This two-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  3. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased

  4. Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils--to mobilize or to immobilize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, Nanthi; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Thangarajan, Ramya; Kumpiene, Jurate; Park, Jinhee; Makino, Tomoyuki; Kirkham, Mary Beth; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-02-15

    Unlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation and persist for a long time after their introduction. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s plays a vital role in the remediation of contaminated soils. In this review, the remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils through manipulating their bioavailability using a range of soil amendments will be presented. Mobilizing amendments such as chelating and desorbing agents increase the bioavailability and mobility of metal(loid)s. Immobilizing amendments such of precipitating agents and sorbent materials decrease the bioavailabilty and mobility of metal(loid)s. Mobilizing agents can be used to enhance the removal of heavy metal(loid)s though plant uptake and soil washing. Immobilizing agents can be used to reduce the transfer to metal(loid)s to food chain via plant uptake and leaching to groundwater. One of the major limitations of mobilizing technique is susceptibility to leaching of the mobilized heavy metal(loid)s in the absence of active plant uptake. Similarly, in the case of the immobilization technique the long-term stability of the immobilized heavy metal(loid)s needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Restoration of mp53 to wtp53 by chemical chaperones restores p53-dependent apoptosis after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Asakawa, I.; Tamamoto, T.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.

    2003-01-01

    The mutations of many kinds of cancer related genes have been investigated for the predictive assay against cancer therapy by the application of molecular biology. A tumor suppressor gene product of wtp53 plays important roles in cancer suppression through the induction of cell growth arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis. The p53 exerts its function by induction of downstream genes and/or interaction to various proteins. Mutations in the p53 gene (mp53) cause conformational alterations in the p53 protein, the majority of which can no longer induce expression of the downstream genes. The genetic status of p53 gene has been focused as the most important candidate among them for cancer therapy. The gene therapy of p53 has been already applied. We reported that the transfection of mp53 gene increased the radio-, thermo- and chemo-resistance, and depressed apoptosis introduced with them through bax-induction and proteolysis of PARP and caspase-3. From these results, we propose that the gene therapy of wtp53 to p53-deleted cancer cells may be very useful for cancer therapy by the combination with radiotherapy. Even in the case of mp53 cancer cells, we succeeded the restoration of mp53 to wtp53 by glycerol or C-terminal peptide of p53 as chemical chaperones. These experimental progresses might support effective cancer therapy against individual patients bearing with different p53 gene status by the use of the most suitable treatment to them in the near future

  6. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase immobilized capillary reactors coupled to protein coated magnetic beads: A new tool for plant extract ligand screening

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzolini, Kenia Lourenço; Jiang, Zhengjin; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Vieira, Lucas Campos Curcino; Corrêa, Arlene Gonçalvez; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Moaddel, Ruin

    2013-01-01

    The use of immobilized capillary enzyme reactors (ICERs) and enzymes coated to magnetic beads ((NT or CT)-MB) for ligand screening has been adopted as a new technique of high throughput screening (HTS). In this work the selected target was the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which acts on the central nervous system and is a validated target for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, as well as for new insecticides. A new approach for the screening of plant extracts was developed based on t...

  8. Methods for Quantifying the Uncertainties of LSIT Test Parameters, Test Results, and Full-Scale Mixing Performance Using Models Developed from Scaled Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuhn, William L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rector, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report discusses the statistical methods for quantifying uncertainties in 1) test responses and other parameters in the Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT), and 2) estimates of coefficients and predictions of mixing performance from models that relate test responses to test parameters. Testing at a larger scale has been committed to by Bechtel National, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to “address uncertainties and increase confidence in the projected, full-scale mixing performance and operations” in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  9. Experience in industrial operation of the plant for immobilizing radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Romestain, P.; Bruant, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed, at the Grenoble Centre for Nuclear Studies, a procedure for immobilizing low- and intermediate-level wastes in thermosetting resins of the polyester or epoxy types. To demonstrate feasibility on an industrial scale, a pilot plant has been set up at the effluent treatment station of the Ardennes Franco-Belgium Nuclear Power Station (SENA), which is a 305 MW(e) PWR type. Assembly work began in January 1979. After a period devoted to final adjustments and operation with inactive products, conditioning of active products began in January 1981. In the paper, the methods of conditioning the three types of waste (evaporation concentrates, ion exchange resins and filter cartridges) are described, experience of the start-up and operation of the plant is reported and the principal results of coating characterization tests are given. The results of tests on active and inactive products show that the characteristics of the materials obtained on an industrial scale match those of laboratory products and confirm their high quality with regard to mechanical behaviour, fire resistance, homogeneity and low-leachability. Industrial experience and economic comparisons show that the process of immobilizing waste from nuclear power stations in thermosetting resins offers an extremely interesting alternative to classical methods of conditioning. (author)

  10. Final Report: Vitrification of Inorganic Ion-Exchange Media, VSL-16R3710-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Brandys, Marek [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Penafiel, Miguel [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.

    2018-02-21

    One of the primary roles of waste pretreatment at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is to separate the majority of the radioactive components from the majority of the nonradioactive components in retrieved tank wastes, producing a high level waste (HLW) stream and a low activity waste (LAW) stream. This separation process is a key element in the overall strategy to reduce the volume of HLW that requires vitrification and subsequent disposal in a national deep geological repository for high level nuclear waste. After removal of the radioactive constituents, the LAW stream, which has a much larger volume but smaller fraction of radioactivity than the HLW stream, will be immobilized and disposed of in near surface facilities at the Hanford site.

  11. Preliminary ILAW Formulation Algorithm Description, 24590 LAW RPT-RT-04-0003, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2013-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), has contracted with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to design, construct, and commission the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site (DOE 2000). This plant is designed to operate for 40 years and treat roughly 50 million gallons of mixed hazardous high-level waste (HLW) stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The process involves separating the hight-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions through filtration, leaching, Cs ion exchange, and precipitation. Each fraction will be separately vitrified into borosilicate waste glass. This report documents the initial algorithm for use by Hanford WTP in batching LAW and glass-forming chemicals (GFCs) in the LAW melter feed preparation vessel (MFPV). Algorithm inputs include the chemical analyses of the pretreated LAW in the concentrate receipt vessel (CRV), the volume of the MFPV heel, and the compositions of individual GFCs. In addition to these inputs, uncertainties in the LAW composition and processing parameters are included in the algorithm.

  12. Feasibility Maintaining of the Efficiency of Orumieh Water Treatment Plant in the Case of Floating

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef Rahimi; Zahra Ghavi Panjeh

    2005-01-01

    Orumieh WTP was established based on nominal capacity of 18000 m3/d in 1962. By the last extension, its capacity was increased up to 30,000 m3/d. The raw water is transmitted from the sited intake on the Shahre Chaie River from the sited intake by gravity channel toward the WTP. The different units of treatment plant include manually coarse bar screen, grit chamber, accelerators, (5 units), gravity rapid sand filters (8 units), pressure rapid sand filters (7 units) and gas chlorination unit. ...

  13. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.M.; Jain, J.; Owens, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  14. Production of Biodiesel Using Immobilized Lipase and the Characterization of Different Co-Immobilizing Agents and Immobilization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipase from Candida sp. 99–125 is widely employed to catalyzed transesterification and can be used for biodiesel production. In this study, the lipase was immobilized by combined adsorption and entrapment to catalyze biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO via transesterification, and investigating co-immobilizing agents as additives according to the enzyme activity. The addition of the mixed co-immobilizing agents has positive effects on the activities of the immobilized lipase. Three different immobilizing methods were compared by the conversion ratio of biodiesel and structured by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, respectively. It was found that entrapment followed by adsorption was the best method. The effect of the co-immobilizing agent amount, lipase dosage, water content, and reuse ability of the immobilized lipase was investigated. By comparison with previous research, this immobilized lipase showed good reuse ability: the conversion ratio excesses 70% after 10 subsequent reactions, in particular, was better than Novozym435 and TLIM on waste cooking oil for one unit of lipase.

  15. Scaling Theory for Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels, Sparging, and Cyclic Feed Transport Systems for Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Rassat, Scot D.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Josephson, Gary B.; Wells, Beric E.; Berglin, Eric J.

    2013-09-27

    This document is a previously unpublished work based on a draft report prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) in 2012. Work on the report stopped when WTP’s approach to testing changed. PNNL is issuing a modified version of the document a year later to preserve and disseminate the valuable technical work that was completed. This document establishes technical bases for evaluating the mixing performance of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment process tanks based on data from less-than-full-scale testing, relative to specified mixing requirements. The technical bases include the fluid mechanics affecting mixing for specified vessel configurations, operating parameters, and simulant properties. They address scaling vessel physical performance, simulant physical performance, and “scaling down” the operating conditions at full scale to define test conditions at reduced scale and “scaling up” the test results at reduced scale to predict the performance at full scale. Essentially, this document addresses the following questions: • Why and how can the mixing behaviors in a smaller vessel represent those in a larger vessel? • What information is needed to address the first question? • How should the information be used to predict mixing performance in WTP? The design of Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being addressed in other, complementary documents.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase immobilization and characterization, and comparison of the activity of the porous silicon-immobilized enzyme with its free counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Lee, Ki Hwan

    2016-02-02

    A successful prescription is presented for acetylcholinesterase physically adsorbed on to a mesoporous silicon surface, with a promising hydrolytic response towards acetylthiocholine iodide. The catalytic behaviour of the immobilized enzyme was assessed by spectrophotometric bioassay using neostigmine methyl sulfate as a standard acetycholinesterase inhibitor. The surface modification was studied through field emission SEM, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cathode luminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, photoluminescence measurement and spectrophotometric bioassay. The porous silicon-immobilized enzyme not only yielded greater enzyme stability, but also significantly improved the native photoluminescence at room temperature of the bare porous silicon architecture. The results indicated the promising catalytic behaviour of immobilized enzyme compared with that of its free counterpart, with a greater stability, and that it aided reusability and easy separation from the reaction mixture. The porous silicon-immobilized enzyme was found to retain 50% of its activity, promising thermal stability up to 90°C, reusability for up to three cycles, pH stability over a broad pH of 4-9 and a shelf-life of 44 days, with an optimal hydrolytic response towards acetylthiocholine iodide at variable drug concentrations. On the basis of these findings, it was believed that the porous silicon-immobilized enzyme could be exploited as a reusable biocatalyst and for screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from crude plant extracts and synthesized organic compounds. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme could offer a great deal as a viable biocatalyst in bioprocessing for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and bioremediation to enhance productivity and robustness. © 2016 Authors.

  17. Immobilizer-assisted management of metal-contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Min-Suk; Owens, Gary; Youn, Gyu-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Su

    2012-07-15

    Production of food crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils is of concern because consumers are potentially exposed to hazardous metals via dietary intake of such crops or crop derived products. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop management protocols for crop cultivation to allow safer food production. Metal uptake, as influenced by pH change-induced immobilizing agents (dolomite, steel slag, and agricultural lime) and sorption agents (zeolite and compost), was monitored in three common plants representative of leafy (Chinese cabbage), root (spring onion) and fruit (red pepper) vegetables, in a field experiment. The efficiency of the immobilizing agents was assessed by their ability to decrease the phytoavailability of metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). The fruit vegetable (red pepper) showed the least accumulation of Cd (0.16-0.29 mgkg(-1) DW) and Pb (0.2-0.9 mgkg(-1) DW) in edible parts regardless of treatment, indicating selection of low metal accumulating crops was a reasonable strategy for safer food production. However, safer food production was more likely to be achievable by combining crop selection with immobilizing agent amendment of soils. Among the immobilizing agents, pH change-induced immobilizers were more effective than sorption agents, showing decreases in Cd and Pb concentrations in each plant well below standard limits. The efficiency of pH change-induced immobilizers was also comparable to reductions obtained by 'clean soil cover' where the total metal concentrations of the plow layer was reduced via capping the surface with uncontaminated soil, implying that pH change-induced immobilizers can be practically applied to metal contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FINAL REPORT SUMMARY OF DM 1200 OPERATION AT VSL VSL-06R6710-2 REV 0 9/7/06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; DIENER G; BARDAKCI T; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objective of this report was to summarize the testing experience on the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200), which is the High Level Waste (HLW) Pilot Melter located at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Further objectives were to provide descriptions of the history of all modifications and maintenance, methods of operation, problems and unit failures, and melter emissions and performance while processing a variety of simulated HL W and low activity waste (LAW) feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and employing a variety of operating methods. All of these objectives were met. The River Protection Project - Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) Project has undertaken a 'tiered' approach to vitrification development testing involving computer-based glass formulation, glass property-composition models, crucible melts, and continuous melter tests of increasing, more realistic scales. Melter systems ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 m{sup 2} installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) have been used for this purpose, which, in combination with the 3.3 m{sup 2} low activity waste (LAW) Pilot Melter at Duratek, Inc., span more than two orders of magnitude in melt surface area. In this way, less-costly small-scale tests can be used to define the most appropriate tests to be conducted at the larger scales in order to extract maximum benefit from the large-scale tests. For high level waste (HLW) vitrification development, a key component in this approach is the one-third scale DuraMelter 1200 (DM 1200), which is the HLW Pilot Melter that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. In particular, the DM1200 provides for

  19. Final Report Summary Of DM 1200 Operation At VSL VSL-06R6710-2, Rev. 0, 9/7/06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Diener, G.; Bardakci, T.; Pegg, I.L.

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this report was to summarize the testing experience on the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200), which is the High Level Waste (HLW) Pilot Melter located at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Further objectives were to provide descriptions of the history of all modifications and maintenance, methods of operation, problems and unit failures, and melter emissions and performance while processing a variety of simulated HL W and low activity waste (LAW) feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and employing a variety of operating methods. All of these objectives were met. The River Protection Project - Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) Project has undertaken a 'tiered' approach to vitrification development testing involving computer-based glass formulation, glass property-composition models, crucible melts, and continuous melter tests of increasing, more realistic scales. Melter systems ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 m 2 installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) have been used for this purpose, which, in combination with the 3.3 m 2 low activity waste (LAW) Pilot Melter at Duratek, Inc., span more than two orders of magnitude in melt surface area. In this way, less-costly small-scale tests can be used to define the most appropriate tests to be conducted at the larger scales in order to extract maximum benefit from the large-scale tests. For high level waste (HLW) vitrification development, a key component in this approach is the one-third scale DuraMelter 1200 (DM 1200), which is the HLW Pilot Melter that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m 2 ) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. In particular, the DM1200 provides for testing on a vitrification

  20. The cognitive and economic value of a nuclear power plant in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Gil Hwan [National Assembly Budget Office (NABO), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo Jin [Information Technology Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yong Tom [School of Business, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We studied the value of a nuclear power plant by considering Koreans' willingness to pay (WTP) for neutralizing the various problems caused by building and operating a new plant. For this, we used a conjoint analysis and ordered logistic regression. We then compared the WTP estimates between various segment groups. The results revealed that each household was willing to pay an additional 99,677 Korean Won (KRW)/mo on average to resolve the negative impacts from a nuclear plant. Therefore, the yearly cognitive and economic value of a nuclear plant in Korea was about 19 trillion KRW. Through a segment analysis, we found that the more educated, younger, and poorer groups gave higher cognitive values than the less educated, older, and richer groups, respectively. Also, people who lived far from a plant gave higher values than people living near a plant, and people with more knowledge about or interest in nuclear energy gave higher values than people with less knowledge or interest. People who felt that nuclear energy is necessary gave higher values to nuclear energy than those who did not. Our results can be used as bases to set targets for promoting nuclear energy and pursuing a national project of building a nuclear power plant.

  1. The cognitive and economic value of a nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gil Hwan; Jung, Woo Jin; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yong Tom

    2017-01-01

    We studied the value of a nuclear power plant by considering Koreans' willingness to pay (WTP) for neutralizing the various problems caused by building and operating a new plant. For this, we used a conjoint analysis and ordered logistic regression. We then compared the WTP estimates between various segment groups. The results revealed that each household was willing to pay an additional 99,677 Korean Won (KRW)/mo on average to resolve the negative impacts from a nuclear plant. Therefore, the yearly cognitive and economic value of a nuclear plant in Korea was about 19 trillion KRW. Through a segment analysis, we found that the more educated, younger, and poorer groups gave higher cognitive values than the less educated, older, and richer groups, respectively. Also, people who lived far from a plant gave higher values than people living near a plant, and people with more knowledge about or interest in nuclear energy gave higher values than people with less knowledge or interest. People who felt that nuclear energy is necessary gave higher values to nuclear energy than those who did not. Our results can be used as bases to set targets for promoting nuclear energy and pursuing a national project of building a nuclear power plant

  2. Standard High Solids Vessel Design De-inventory Simulant Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Linn, Diana T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the de-inventory (residual high-density tank solids cleanout) process. Its basis and target characteristics are defined in 24590-WTP-ES-ENG-16-021 and implemented through PNNL Test Plan TP-WTPSP-132 Rev. 1.0. This document describes the de-inventory Newtonian carrier fluid (DNCF) simulant composition that will satisfy the basis requirement to mimic the density (1.18 g/mL ± 0.1 g/mL) and viscosity (2.8 cP ± 0.5 cP) of 5 M NaOH at 25 °C.1 The simulant viscosity changes significantly with temperature. Therefore, various solution compositions may be required, dependent on the test stand process temperature range, to meet these requirements. Table ES.1 provides DNCF compositions at selected temperatures that will meet the density and viscosity specifications as well as the temperature range at which the solution will meet the acceptable viscosity tolerance.

  3. Estimate of Hanford Waste Rheology and Settling Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Wells, Beric E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Hall, Mark N.; Thomson, Scott L.; Smith, Gary Lynn; Johnson, Michael E.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Knight, Mark A.; Thien, Michael G.; Davis, Jim J.; Onishi, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. Piping, pumps, and mixing vessels have been selected to transport, store, and mix the high-level waste slurries in the WTP. This report addresses the analyses performed by the Rheology Working Group (RWG) and Risk Assessment Working Group composed of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PNNL, Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), CH2M HILL, DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and Yasuo Onishi Consulting, LLC staff on data obtained from documented Hanford waste analyses to determine a best-estimate of the rheology of the Hanford tank wastes and their settling behavior. The actual testing activities were performed and reported separately in referenced documentation. Because of this, many of the required topics below do not apply and are so noted

  4. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.A.; Thorson, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  5. Methods for Quantifying the Uncertainties of LSIT Test Parameters, Test Results, and Full-Scale Mixing Performance Using Models Developed from Scaled Test Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the statistical methods for quantifying uncertainties in 1) test responses and other parameters in the Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT), and 2) estimates of coefficients and predictions of mixing performance from models that relate test responses to test parameters. Testing at a larger scale has been committed to by Bechtel National, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ''address uncertainties and increase confidence in the projected, full-scale mixing performance and operations'' in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  6. Fluoride tracer test for the performance analysis of a basin used as a lagooning pre-treatment facility in a WTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    The water treatment plant (WTP) of the city of Torino (NW Italy), which treats about 40 · 10(6) m(3)/year of raw water from Po river, has a 15-ha basin used as a lagooning pre-treatment facility. Since the efficiency of the lagooning process in the removal of pollutants from raw water depends on the internal hydrodynamics of the basin, the hydraulic performance of the basin was studied by combining the results of a stimulus-response tracer test with the monitoring of the tracer (fluoride) concentration throughout the basin at different times. The outcomes of the test demonstrated that the system was efficiently mixed and could be assimilated to a continuous stirred reactor presenting no flow anomalies, with an actual mean residence time (RT) of 12.7 days, compared with a nominal RT of 18 days. This assured that dissolved contaminants (such as fluoride) coming from the river were efficiently diluted before entering the WTP. The axial dispersion coefficient calculated from the RT distribution was approximately 47,300 m(2)/day. Three of the most popular formulae developed for the calculation of the axial dispersion coefficient provided results spreading over three orders of magnitude, thus showing their limitations. Finally, because of the width extent of the basin and the characteristics of its inflow, the 1-D advection-dispersion model failed in predicting the tracer concentration values in time at the outlet channel. On the contrary, the analytical solution of the 2-D advection-dispersion model proved to be suitable to fit the tracer concentration data over time at the outlet channel but it failed in describing the tracer distribution throughout the basin on the monitoring dates.

  7. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  8. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  9. Initial Selection of Supplemental Treatment Technologies for Hanford's Low-Activity Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Richard E.; Powell, Roger W.; Hamilton, Dennis W.; Kitchen, William A.; Mauss, Billie M.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years (DOE 2002). A key element of the accelerated cleanup plan was a strategic initiative for acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (ETP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization''. The plan identified specific technologies to be evaluated for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). The objective was to complete required testing and evaluation that would ''...bring an appropriate combination of the above technologies to deployment to supplement LAW treatment and immobilization in the WTP to achieve the completion of tank waste treatment by 2028''. In concert with this acceleration plan, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have proposed to accelerate from 2012 to 2005 the Hanford Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone (M-62-08) associated with a final decision on treatment of the balance of tank waste that is beyond the capacity of the currently designed WTP

  10. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  11. Production of cellulase from immobilized Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that obtained on the study of the enzyme activity in the culture of immobilized Trichoderma reesei cells in flask scale (100ml) and bench scale (30l). In the flask scale culture, the batch and repeated batch culture were carried out, and in the bench scale culture, the batch, repeated batch and continuous culture were done by using a culture equipment that is an unit process of the bench scale test plant for saccharification of cellulosic wastes. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells was higher than that of the intact cells in the flask scale culture and it was confirmed that the enzyme activity was not decreased on the repeated batch culture of six times even. In the bench scale culture, it was found that a optimum culture condition of the immobilized cells was not different from that of the free cells and the immobilized cells gave the enzyme solution with a high enzyme activity in the culture condition of 450rpm stirring speed and air supply of 0.1v/v/m above. The technique of the repeated batch and continuous culture for long times in bench scale without contamination was established. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells in continuous culture became to be 85 % to that in batch culture and it was found that the enzyme solution with high enzyme activity was continuously obtained in the continuous culture for long times. (author)

  12. Capture and immobilization of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmell, D.S.; Geens, L.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Smith, M.J.S.

    1985-01-01

    It may become necessary to contain the krypton-85 released from nuclear fuel during reprocessing in order to reduce the exposure to the local population and the radioactive background throughout the world. A brief description is given of studies being carried out in the Indirect Action Programme. The separation of krypton from other off-gases by cryogenic distillation in the presence of oxygen is being studied at SCK/CEN Mol, together with the behavior of ozone in the distillation column. Two processes for the immobilization of krypton in solid forms have been successfully developed and demonstrated. At KfK Karlsruhe, krypton is encapsulated in vitrified zeolites; at AERE Harwell, krypton is immobilized within a metallic matrix. These processes offer excellent gas retention and either could be adopted for a reprocessing plant

  13. Estimating the robustness of contingenet valuation estimates of WTP to survey mode and treatment of protest responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Loomis; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Joseph Champ

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades teh contingent valuation method (CVM) has become a technique frequently used by economists to estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improvements in environmental quality and prot3tion of natural resources. The CVM was originall applied to estmate recreation use values (Davis, 1963; Hammack and Brown, 1974)and air quality (Brookshire et al....

  14. Monetary Value of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY) among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: a Willingness to Pay Study (WTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Najmeh; Rashidian, Arash; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Foroughi, Mahnoosh; Mohammadi, Teymoor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the monetary value of a QALY among patients with heart disease and to identify its determinants. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interview on 196 patients with cardiovascular disease from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran, to estimate the value of QALY using disaggregated and aggregated approaches. The EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Time Trade-Off (TTO) and contingent valuation WTP techniques were employed, first to elicit patients' preferences and then, to estimate WTP for QALY. The association of patients' characteristics with WTP for QALY, was assessed through Heckman selection model. The Mean willingness to pay per QALY, estimated by the disaggregated approach ranged from 2,799 to 3599 US dollars. It is higher than the values, estimated from aggregated methods (USD 2,256 to 3,137). However, in both approaches, the values were less than one Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of Iran. Significant variables were: Current health state, education, age, marital status, number of comorbidities, and household's cost group. Our results challenge two major issues: the first, is a policy challenge which concerns the WHO recommendation to use less than 3 GDP per capita as a cost-effectiveness threshold value. The second, is an analytical challenge related to patients with zero QALY gain. More scrutiny is suggested on the issue of how patients with full health state valuation should be dealt with and what arbitrary value could be included in the estimation value of QALY when the disaggregated approach used.

  15. Final Report: Support for DF LAW Flowsheet Development Report, VSL-17R4250-1, Rev. 0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlack, K. S. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Abramowitz, H. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, I. S. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Joseph, I. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-19

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the United States Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE’s Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity waste fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product is designed for acceptance into a national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal.

  16. Immobilization and Limited Reoxidation of Technetium-99 by Fe(II)-Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-shik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Smith, Steven C.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Buck, Edgar C.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Bowden, Mark E.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Lukens, Wayne W.

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes the methodology used to test the sequestration of technetium-99 present in both deionized water and simulated Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant waste solutions.

  17. Logit and probit model in toll sensitivity analysis of Solo-Ngawi, Kartasura-Palang Joglo segment based on Willingness to Pay (WTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Dewi; Cahyaning Putri, Hera; Mahmudah, AMH

    2017-12-01

    Solo-Ngawi toll road project is part of the mega project of the Trans Java toll road development initiated by the government and is still under construction until now. PT Solo Ngawi Jaya (SNJ) as the Solo-Ngawi toll management company needs to determine the toll fare that is in accordance with the business plan. The determination of appropriate toll rates will affect progress in regional economic sustainability and decrease the traffic congestion. These policy instruments is crucial for achieving environmentally sustainable transport. Therefore, the objective of this research is to find out how the toll fare sensitivity of Solo-Ngawi toll road based on Willingness To Pay (WTP). Primary data was obtained by distributing stated preference questionnaires to four wheeled vehicle users in Kartasura-Palang Joglo artery road segment. Further data obtained will be analysed with logit and probit model. Based on the analysis, it is found that the effect of fare change on the amount of WTP on the binomial logit model is more sensitive than the probit model on the same travel conditions. The range of tariff change against values of WTP on the binomial logit model is 20% greater than the range of values in the probit model . On the other hand, the probability results of the binomial logit model and the binary probit have no significant difference (less than 1%).

  18. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  19. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP.

  20. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  1. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  2. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-05-11

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 μm in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  3. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review's executive summary, ''Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.'' To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 (micro)m in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  4. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  5. ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC LOAD OF SELECTED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN JASŁO COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Piotr Młyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of hydraulic load in selected a wastewater treatment plant (WTP in Jasło County: in Przysieki, Kołaczyce and Szebnie. The study was based on the records of daily sewage volume entering the treatment plants within a multi-year period of 2011-2014. The analysis took into account the average daily amount of incoming sewage, the maximum daily peaking factor for the incoming sewage, changes in the sewage volume depending on specific month and the intervals with the greatest frequency of occurrence were designated. The analysis revealed that investigated wastewater treatment plants were hydraulically underloaded. Moreover it was conclude a significant variables of inflowing sewage amount. The sewage admission was the largest in spring and summer periods. Sewage volume interval most often occurring at the WTP in Przysieki was the one between 320 and 480 m3•d-1, for Kołaczyce between 290 and 320 m3•d-1 and Szebnie between 120 and 240 m3•d-1.

  6. Immobilization of microorganisms. Part 1. Preparation of immobilized Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K H

    1981-01-01

    The immobilization of Lactobacillus bulgaricus on polyacrylamide and on alginate beads was investigated. The most active immobilized cells were obtained by entrapment in Ca alginate beads. These immobilized microbial cells, when introduced into 4.5% lactose solution and whey solution showed maximum relative activity of 28% for lactose and 18% for whey compared to free cells.

  7. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2006-05-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important

  8. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2006-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important to

  9. An evaluation of a water treatment plant with improved overall effectiveness as an objective

    OpenAIRE

    Homsi, Ibrahim J.

    1995-01-01

    The XYZ water Authority (Authority) supplies a population of approximately one million people with drinking water. This water is being produced by three water treatment plants and several independent well sites. The River water Treatment Plant (WTP), the Authority's largest and most modern of all three plants has been experiencing, over a period of ten years, severe and premature equipment failures which are causing process interruptions, production losses and high maintenance cost. These fai...

  10. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of =14 micrometers (μm). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS' System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  11. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  12. Development and Characterization of Gibbsite Component Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-01-01

    According to Bechtel National, Inc.'s (BNI's) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006,, 'Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes', simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed so they can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents PNNL's results of the gibbsite simulant development.

  13. Annual and seasonal variation of turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrate and nitrite in the Parsabad water treatment plant, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the annual and seasonal variation of turbidity; total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrate and nitrite in Parsabad water treatment plant (WTP, Iran. Materials and Methods: The water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of Parsabad WTP from February 2002 to June 2009. The samples′ turbidity, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and temperature were measured according to standard methods once a month and the average of these parameters were calculated for each season of year. Results: The maximum concentration of inlet turbidity, TDS, nitrate and nitrite were 691, 700.5, 25, and 0.17 mg/l, respectively. These parameters for outlet samples in the study period were 3.0, 696.7, 18, and 0.06 mg/l, respectively. While these concentrations in outlet zone were lower than World Health Organization (WHO or United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA water quality guidelines, WTP could not reduce the TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH value and these parameters were not different in the inlet and outlet samples. However, the WTP reduced the turbidity significantly with an efficiency of up to 85%. Conclusion: This study showed that a common WTP with rapid sand filtration can treat a maximum river turbidity of 700 NTU in several years. As no differences were observed between inlet and outlet TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH in the studied WTP. It can be concluded that compensatory schemes should be predicted for modification of these parameters when they exceed the standards in the emergency situations.

  14. An Approach to Understanding Cohesive Slurry Settling, Mobilization, and Hydrogen Gas Retention in Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2009-05-22

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. Some of these vessels have mixing-system requirements to maintain conditions where the accumulation of hydrogen gas stays below acceptable limits, and the mixing within the vessels is sufficient to release hydrogen gas under normal conditions and during off-normal events. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries of solid particles suspended in Newtonian fluids that behave as non-Newtonian slurries, such as Bingham yield-stress fluids. When these slurries are contained in the process vessels, the particles can settle and become progressively more concentrated toward the bottom of the vessels, depending on the effectiveness of the mixing system. One limiting behavior is a settled layer beneath a particle-free liquid layer. The settled layer, or any region with sufficiently high solids concentration, will exhibit non-Newtonian rheology where it is possible for the settled slurry to behave as a soft solid with a yield stress. In this report, these slurries are described as settling cohesive slurries.

  15. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  16. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  17. Final Report - IHLW PCT, Spinel T1%, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity Model Development, VSL-07R1240-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Landmesser, S. M.; Pegg, I. L.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    This report is the last in a series of currently scheduled reports that presents the results from the High Level Waste (HLW) glass formulation development and testing work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America (CUA) and the development of IHLW property-composition models performed jointly by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. The models presented in this report may be augmented and additional validation work performed during any future immobilized HLW (IHLW) model development work. Completion of the test objectives is addressed.

  18. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  19. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  20. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  1. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  2. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  3. Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation: Antifoam Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAICH, MARKA

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed to determine the performance and fate of several commercial antifoams during evaporation of various simulants of Envelope A, B, and C mixed with simulated River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) recycle streams. Chemical and radiation stability of selected antifoams was also investigated.Contributors to this effort include: Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), DOW Corning Analytical, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)

  4. Determination of melatonin in wine and plant extracts by capillary electrochromatography with immobilized carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, Patricia W; Sombra, Lorena L; Messina, Germán; Martinez, Luis D; Silva, María F

    2010-07-01

    The finding of melatonin, the often called "hormone of darkness" in plants opens an interesting perspective associated to the plethora of health benefits related to the moderate consumption of red wine. In this study, the implementation of a new method for the determination of melatonin in complex food matrices by CEC with immobilized carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as stationary phase is demonstrated. The results indicated high electrochromatographic resolution, good capillary efficiencies and improved sensitivity respect to those obtained with conventional capillaries. In addition, it was demonstrated highly reproducible results between runs, days and columns. The LOD for melatonin was 0.01 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the determination of melatonin in red and white wine, grape skin and plant extracts of Salvia officinalis L.

  5. Technologies for immobilization and disposal of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppari, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    This study was done within a program one of whose objectives was to know the state of the technology development for tritium separation in the moderator circuit at HWR and to define the possible technologies to be applied to the Argentine nuclear power plants. Within this framework the strategies adopted by each country and the available technologies for a safe disposal of tritium, not only in its gaseous state tritium but also as tritiated water were analyzed. It is considered that if the selected separation method is such that the tritium is in its gaseous state, the hydride formation for long periods of immobilization should be studied. whereas if it were triated water immobilization should be studied to choose the technology between cementation and drying agents, in both cases the final disposal site will have to be selected. (author). 8 refs

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Project Concept for Dustless Transfer of Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium powder will be brought into the Plutonium Immobilization Plant in Food Pack Cans in 3013 packages. The Food Pack Cans will be removed from the 3013 outer and inner can. This document describes their concept and completes PIP milestone 2.2.3.4/FY01/c, Complete Concept for Material Transfer

  7. Propionic acid production in a plant fibrous-bed bioreactor with immobilized Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Dan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2012-12-15

    A plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (PFB) was constructed for propionic acid production. Sugar cane bagasse was applied to the PFB as immobilizing material. Starting at a concentration of 80g/L of glucose, Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 produced 41.20±2.03g/L of propionic acid at 108h in the PFB. The value was 21.07% higher than that produced by free cell fermentation. Intermittent and constant fed-batch fermentations were performed in the PFB to optimize the fermentation results. The highest propionic acid concentration obtained from constant fed-batch fermentation was 136.23±6.77g/L, which is 1.40 times higher than the highest concentration (97.00g/L) previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that cells exhibited striking changes in morphology after PFB domestication. Compared with free cell fermentation, the fluxes of propionic acid synthesis and the pentose phosphate pathway in PFB fermentation increased by 84.65% and 227.62%, respectively. On the other hand, a decrease in succinic and acetic acid fluxes was also observed. The metabolic flux distributions of the two PFB fed-batch fermentation strategies also demonstrated that constant fed-batch fermentation is a more beneficial method for the immobilized production of propionic acid. The relevant key enzyme activities and metabolic flux variations of the batch cultures showed good consistency. These results suggest that the PFB was effective in high-concentration propionic acid production. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  9. Phytoremediation of Benzophenone and Bisphenol A by Glycosylation with Immobilized Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Shimoda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzophenone and bisphenol A are environmental pollutions, which have been listed among “chemicals suspected of having endocrine disrupting effects” by the World Wildlife Fund, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in the USA and the Japanese Environment Agency. The cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum glycosylated benzophenone to three glycosides, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylbenzophenone (9%, diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside (14%, and diphenylmethyl 6-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (12% after 48 h incubation. On the other hand, incubation of benzophenone with immobilized cells of N. tabacum in sodium alginate gel gave products in higher yields, i.e. the yields of 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylbenzophenone, diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside, and diphenylmethyl 6-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside were 15, 27, and 22%, respectively. Bisphenol A was converted into three glycosides, 2,2-bis(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenylpropane (16%, 2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-gluco- pyranosyloxyphenyl propane (8%, and 2-(3-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphe nylpropane (5%. Also the use of immobilized N. tabacum cells improved the yield of products; the glycosylation of bisphenol A with immobilized N. tabacum gave 2,2-bis(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenylpropane (24%, 2-(4-β-D-gluco- pyranosyloxy-3-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenyl propane (15%, and 2-(3-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy- 4-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenylpropane (11%.

  10. ALKALINE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF SECONDARY WASTE FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Mierzwiński

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the possibility of using geopolymer matrix to immobilize heavy metals present in ash and slag from combustion of waste. In the related research one used the fly ash from coal combustion in one Polish CHP plant and the waste from Polish incineration plants. It was studied if the above-named waste materials are useful in the process of alkali-activation. Therefore, three sets of geopolymer mixtures were prepared containing 60, 50 and 30% of ash and slag from the combustion of waste and fly ash combustion of sewage skudge. The remaining content was fly ash from coal combustion. The alkali-activation was conducted by means of 14M solution of NaOH and sodium water glass. The samples, whose dimensions were in accordance with the PN-EN 206-1 norm, were subjected to 75°C for 24h. According to the results, the geopolymer matrix is able to immobilize heavy metals and retain compressive strength resembling that of concrete.

  11. An Endoparasitoid Avoids Hyperparasitism by Manipulating Immobile Host Herbivore to Modify Host Plant Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomohisa; Matsuo, Kazunori; Abe, Yoshihisa; Yukawa, Junichi; Tokuda, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Many parasitic organisms have an ability to manipulate their hosts to increase their own fitness. In parasitoids, behavioral changes of mobile hosts to avoid or protect against predation and hyperparasitism have been intensively studied, but host manipulation by parasitoids associated with endophytic or immobile hosts has seldom been investigated. We examined the interactions between a gall inducer Masakimyia pustulae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoids. This gall midge induces dimorphic leaf galls, thick and thin types, on Euonymus japonicus (Celastraceae). Platygaster sp. was the most common primary parasitoid of M. pustulae. In galls attacked by Platygaster sp., whole gall thickness as well as thicknesses of upper and lower gall wall was significantly larger than unparasitized galls, regardless of the gall types, in many localities. In addition, localities and tree individuals significantly affected the thickness of gall. Galls attacked by Platygaster sp. were seldom hyperparasitized in the two gall types. These results strongly suggest that Platygaster sp. manipulates the host plant's development to avoid hyperparasitism by thickening galls. PMID:25033216

  12. Limb immobilization and corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Boeve, Bradley F; Drubach, Daniel A; Knopman, David S; Ahlskog, J Eric; Golden, Erin C; Drubach, Dina I; Petersen, Ronald C; Josephs, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we evaluated two patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) who reported symptom onset after limb immobilization. Our objective was to investigate the association between trauma, immobilization and CBS. The charts of forty-four consecutive CBS patients seen in the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer Disease Research Center were reviewed with attention to trauma and limb immobilization. 10 CBS patients (23%) had immobilization or trauma on the most affected limb preceding the onset or acceleration of symptoms. The median age at onset was 61. Six patients manifested their first symptoms after immobilization from surgery or fracture with one after leg trauma. Four patients had pre-existing symptoms of limb dysfunction but significantly worsened after immobilization or surgery. 23 percent of patients had immobilization or trauma of the affected limb. This might have implications for management of CBS, for avoiding injury, limiting immobilization and increasing movement in the affected limb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In southeastern Washington State, Bechtel National, Inc. is designing, constructing and commissioning the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant for the...

  14. Ceramic process and plant design for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; De Wames, R.E.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the last 3 years, significant advances in ceramic technology for high-level nuclear waste solidification have been made. Product quality in terms of leach-resistance, compositional uniformity, structural integrity, and thermal stability promises to be superior to borosilicate glass. This paper addresses the process effectiveness and preliminary designs for glass and ceramic immobilization plants. The reference two-step ceramic process utilizes fluid-bed calcination (FBC) and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidation. Full-scale demonstration of these well-developed processing steps has been established at DOE and/or commercial facilities for processing radioactive materials. Based on Savannah River-type waste, our model predicts that the capital and operating cost for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste is about the same for the ceramic and glass options. However, when repository costs are included, the ceramic option potentially offers significantly better economics due to its high waste loading and volume reduction. Volume reduction impacts several figures of merit in addition to cost such as system logistics, storage, transportation, and risk. The study concludes that the ceramic product/process has many potential advantages, and rapid deployment of the technology could be realized due to full-scale demonstrations of FBC and HIP technology in radioactive environments. Based on our finding and those of others, the ceramic innovation not only offers a viable backup to the glass reference process but promises to be a viable future option for new high-level nuclear waste management opportunities

  15. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.

    1996-01-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R ampersand D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 ) and rutile (TiO 2 ). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 ), zircon (ZrSiO 4 ), and monazite (CePO 4 ), to name a few of the most promising. R ampersand D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO 2 powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues

  16. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  17. Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, D.; Fowler, J.; Frier, S.

    2006-01-01

    For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

  18. ANALISIS PENGOLAHAN AIR TERPRODUKSI DI WATER TREATING PLANT PERUSAHAAN EKSPLOITASI MINYAK BUMI (STUDI KASUS: PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertiwi Andaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and production process of oil and its supporting operations always generates waste as by-product. If they are uncontrolled, it might decrease the environmental quality. Thus, it is necessary to manage and treat the waste in order to meet the regulation standard of quality and quantity. PT XYZ is an energy company, particularly oil and gas production, which its production activity generate a large amount of waste as well as produced water. Thus, PT XYZ must have facilities or produced water handling plant which could minimize pollution caused by produced water. PT XYZ already has a system of produced water handling with recycling principle. After oil and water separation including water treating at Water Treating Plant (WTP, produced water will be used for steam injection. This is the part of enhanced oil recovery by steam flooding in Duri Field. Besides, produced water could be used as backwash water at WTP, that is Oil Removal Filter (ORF and Water Softener, which is called brine water. If the produced water and brine water is over load the capacity of oil enhanced recovery injection, it might be disposed through injection to Disposal Well and there are certain condition that produced water should be discharged into canal. The objective f this study is to analyze the performance of a water treating plant in PT XYZ. Water Treating Plant is a facility for treating produced water. Basically, WTP is on good condition and each unit has high efficiency for separating oil and water (60-99%. Horizontal velocity at pit #A of API Separator was larger than the design criteria. In addition, Water Softeners have efficiency until 99% for the hardness.

  19. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  20. 2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations

  1. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  2. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai (Australia)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  3. Development and Characterization of Gibbsite Component Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-01-29

    According to Bechtel National, Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, "Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes," simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed so they can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents PNNL’s results of the gibbsite simulant development.

  4. Enzyme Immobilization: An Overview on Methods, Support Material, and Applications of Immobilized Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisha, V L; Jain, Ankita; Jain, Amita

    Immobilized enzymes can be used in a wide range of processes. In recent years, a variety of new approaches have emerged for the immobilization of enzymes that have greater efficiency and wider usage. During the course of the last two decades, this area has rapidly expanded into a multidisciplinary field. This current study is a comprehensive review of a variety of literature produced on the different enzymes that have been immobilized on various supporting materials. These immobilized enzymes have a wide range of applications. These include applications in the sugar, fish, and wine industries, where they are used for removing organic compounds from waste water. This study also reviews their use in sophisticated biosensors for metabolite control and in situ measurements of environmental pollutants. Immobilized enzymes also find significant application in drug metabolism, biodiesel and antibiotic production, bioremediation, and the food industry. The widespread usage of immobilized enzymes is largely due to the fact that they are cheaper, environment friendly, and much easier to use when compared to equivalent technologies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing attitudes toward spinal immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouland, Andrew J; Jenkins, J Lee; Levy, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Prospective studies have improved knowledge of prehospital spinal immobilization. The opinion of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers regarding spinal immobilization is unknown, as is their knowledge of recent research advances. To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and comfort of prehospital and Emergency Department (ED) EMS providers regarding spinal immobilization performed under a non-selective protocol. An online survey was conducted from May to July of 2011. Participants were drawn from the Howard County Department of Fire and Rescue Services and the Howard County General Hospital ED. The survey included multiple choice questions and responses on a modified Likert scale. Correlation analysis and descriptive data were used to analyze results. Comfort using the Kendrick Extrication Device was low among ED providers. Experienced providers were more likely to indicate comfort using this device. Respondents often believed that spinal immobilization is appropriate in the management of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. Reported use of padding decreased along with the frequency with which providers practice and encounter immobilized patients. Respondents often indicated that they perform spinal immobilization due solely to mechanism of injury. Providers who feel as if spinal immobilization is often performed unnecessarily were more likely to agree that immobilization causes an unnecessary delay in patient care. The results demonstrate the need for improved EMS education in the use of the Kendrick Extrication Device, backboard padding, and spinal immobilization in the management of penetrating trauma. The attitudes highlighted in this study are relevant to the implementation of a selective spinal immobilization protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Final Report for Crucible -Scale Radioactive Vitrification and Product Test of Waste Envelope B (AZ-102) Low-Activity Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRAWFORD, CHARLES

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-technology demonstration for the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) was performed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). As part of this demonstration, treated AZ-102 Low-Activity Waste supernate was vitrified using a crucible-scale furnace. Initial glass samples were quench-cooled and characterized for metals and radionuclides. The glass was also durability tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Product Consistency Test (PCT) protocol. These tests used the AZ-102 glass formulation Low Activity Waste (LAW) B88 that targeted AZ-102 waste loading at 5 wt% Na2O. After these initial results were obtained with the quench-cooled LAWB88 glass, a prototypical container centerline cooling (CCC) program was supplied to SRTC by WTP. A portion of the quench-cooled LAWB88 glass was remelted and centerline cooled. Samples from the CCC low-activity AZ-102 glass waste form were durability tested using the PCT and characterized for crystalline phase identification.This final report documents the characterization and durability of this AZ-102 glass

  7. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps - 12078

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E.; Wells, B.E.; Huckaby, J.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Daniel, R.C.; Burns, C.A.; Tingey, J.M.; Cooley, S.K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PO Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The retrieval, transport, treatment and disposal operations associated with Hanford Tank Wastes involve the handling of a wide range of slurries. Knowledge of the physical and rheological properties of the waste is a key component to the success of the design and implementation of the waste processing facilities. Previous efforts to compile and analyze the physical and rheological properties were updated with new results including information on solids composition and density, particle size distributions, slurry rheology, and particle settling behavior. The primary source of additional data is from a recent series of tests sponsored by the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). These tests involved an extensive suite of characterization and bench-scale process testing of 8 waste groups representing approximately 75% of the high-level waste mass expected to be processed through the WTP. Additional information on the morphology of the waste solids was also included. Based on the updated results, a gap analysis to identify gaps in characterization data, analytical methods and data interpretation was completed. (authors)

  8. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  9. Final Report - Crystal Settling, Redox, and High Temperature Properties of ORP HLW and LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/18/09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Wang, C.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Kot, W.; Feng, Z.; Viragh, C.; McKeown, D. A.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Cecil, R.; Zhao, W.

    2013-11-13

    The radioactive tank waste treatment programs at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) have featured joule heated ceramic melter technology for the vitrification of high level waste (HLW). The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) employs this same basic technology not only for the vitrification of HLW streams but also for the vitrification of Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams. Because of the much greater throughput rates required of the WTP as compared to the vitrification facilities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) or the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the WTP employs advanced joule heated melters with forced mixing of the glass pool (bubblers) to improve heat and mass transport and increase melting rates. However, for both HLW and LAW treatment, the ability to increase waste loadings offers the potential to significantly reduce the amount of glass that must be produced and disposed and, therefore, the overall project costs. This report presents the results from a study to investigate several glass property issues related to WTP HLW and LAW vitrification: crystal formation and settling in selected HLW glasses; redox behavior of vanadium and chromium in selected LAW glasses; and key high temperature thermal properties of representative HLW and LAW glasses. The work was conducted according to Test Plans that were prepared for the HLW and LAW scope, respectively. One part of this work thus addresses some of the possible detrimental effects due to considerably higher crystal content in waste glass melts and, in particular, the impact of high crystal contents on the flow property of the glass melt and the settling rate of representative crystalline phases in an environment similar to that of an idling glass melter. Characterization of vanadium redox shifts in representative WTP LAW glasses is the second focal point of this work. The third part of this work focused on key high temperature thermal properties of

  10. Immobilization of cellulase by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Immobilization of cellulase by radiation polymerization at low temperatures was studied. The enzymatic activity of immobilized cellulase pellets varied with the monomer, enzyme concentration, and the thickness of immobilized cellulase pellets. The optimum monomer concentration in the immobilization of cellulase was 30-50% at the pellet thickness of 1.0 mm, in which the enzymatic activity was 50%. The enzymatic activity of immobilized cellulase pellets was examined using various substrates such as cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, and paper pretreated by radiation. It was found that irradiated paper can be hydrolyzed by immobilized cellulase pellets. (author)

  11. Fusing probability density function into Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence for the evaluation of water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2013-05-01

    The evaluation of the status of a municipal drinking water treatment plant (WTP) is important. The evaluation depends on several factors, including, human health risks from disinfection by-products (R), disinfection performance (D), and cost (C) of water production and distribution. The Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence can combine the individual status with respect to R, D, and C to generate a new indicator, from which the overall status of a WTP can be evaluated. In the DST, the ranges of different factors affecting the overall status are divided into several segments. The basic probability assignments (BPA) for each segment of these factors are provided by multiple experts, which are then combined to obtain the overall status. In assigning the BPA, the experts use their individual judgments, which can impart subjective biases in the overall evaluation. In this research, an approach has been introduced to avoid the assignment of subjective BPA. The factors contributing to the overall status were characterized using the probability density functions (PDF). The cumulative probabilities for different segments of these factors were determined from the cumulative density function, which were then assigned as the BPA for these factors. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of PDF in DST to evaluate a WTP, leading to the selection of the required level of upgradation for the WTP.

  12. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  13. The effect of water content on gross mineralization and immobilization of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada C, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil-plant N cycle. It is hypothesised that moisture regime may also play an important role on this processes of soils. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization, nitrification and immobilization, in a Ultisol soil, was incubated at 25 a C, under two moisture regime, field capacity (40%w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34%w/w). Using mirror image 15N isotope dilution techniques it was possible to determine that both gross nitrification and mineralization rates were greater with 85%FC, the direct nitrification rates in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85%FC. The immobilization and the amount of the microbial biomass N in the soil was greater with FC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  14. Immobilized waste leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The main mechanism by which the immobilized radioactive materials can return to biosphere is the leaching due to the intrusion of water into the repositories. Some mathematical models and experiments utilized to evaluate the leaching rates in different immobilization matrices are described. (author) [pt

  15. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Hohl, T.M.; Empey, P.A.; Wells, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  16. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  17. Description of processes for the immobilization of selected transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-12-01

    Processed sludge and incinerator-ash wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization to prevent the release of these elements to the environment. As part of the TRU Waste Immobilization Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing applicable waste-form and processing technology that may meet this need. This report defines and describes processes that are capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste-stream consisting of a blend of three parts process sludge and one part incinerator ash. These selected waste streams are based on the compositions and generation rates of the waste processing and incineration facility at the Rocky Flats Plant. The specific waste forms that could be produced by the described processes include: in-can melted borosilicate-glass monolith; joule-heated melter borosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter aluminosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter basaltic-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter glass-ceramic monolith; cast-cement monolith; pressed-cement pellet; and cold-pressed sintered-ceramic pellet

  18. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities, April--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Fong, L.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process the types of waste expected from nuclear facilities. An air classification system has been developed to separate tramp metal from shredded combustible solid waste prior to the waste being fed to a fluidized-bed pilot-plant incinerator. Used organic ion exchange resin with up to 55 percent water has been effectively burned in the fluidized bed incinerator. Various methods of feeding waste into the incinerator were investigated as alternatives to the present compression screw; an extrusion ram was found to suffer extensive damage from hard particles in tested waste. A bench-scale continuous waste immobilization process has been operated and has produced glass from incinerator residue and other types of waste materials

  19. Membranes suited for immobilizing biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to flow-through membranes suitable for the immobilization of biomols., methods for the prepn. of such membranes and the use of such membranes for the immobilization of biomols. and subsequent detection of immobilized biomols. The invention concerns a flow-through

  20. Immobilization of krypton in a metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmell, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The report presents the work carried out on the immobilization of krypton in a metallic matrix by combined ion implantation and sputtering. The process has been successfully tested using 100 curies of fully active krypton in order to demonstrate that the process operates in the radiation levels which will be obtained with active gas at a reprocessing plant. A design study for a plant for fuel reprocessing has shown that the process can be simply operated, without requiring shielded cells. These results, which complete the development programme, indicate that the process is ideal for the containment of kripton arising from the processing of nuclear fuel and that the product will retain the gas under normal storage conditions and also during simulated accident conditions

  1. Immobilized enzymes and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucke, C; Wiseman, A

    1981-04-04

    This article reviews the current state of the art of enzyme and cell immobilization and suggests advances which might be made during the 1980's. Current uses of immobilized enzymes include the use of glucoamylase in the production of glucose syrups from starch and glucose isomerase in the production of high fructose corn syrup. Possibilities for future uses of immobilized enzymes and cells include the utilization of whey and the production of ethanol.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase immobilized capillary reactors coupled to protein coated magnetic beads: A new tool for plant extract ligand screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzolini, Kenia Lourenço; Jiang, Zhengjin; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Vieira, Lucas Campos Curcino; Corrêa, Arlene Gonçalvez; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Moaddel, Ruin

    2013-01-01

    The use of immobilized capillary enzyme reactors (ICERs) and enzymes coated to magnetic beads ((NT or CT)-MB) for ligand screening has been adopted as a new technique of high throughput screening (HTS). In this work the selected target was the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which acts on the central nervous system and is a validated target for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, as well as for new insecticides. A new approach for the screening of plant extracts was developed based on the ligand fishing experiments and zonal chromatography. For that, the magnetic beads were used for the ligand fishing experiments and capillary bioreactors for the activity assays. The latter was employed also under non-linear conditions to determine the affinity constants of known ligands, for the first time, as well as for the active fished ligand. PMID:24148457

  3. Effect of different management systems on the nitrogen mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla, Ximena; Leiva, Lucia; Luzio, Walter; Pino, Ines

    2005-01-01

    The soil organic matter decomposition, associated to the N mineralization and immobilization dynamic, are key processes in the soil-plant system. Hypothetically the different management systems have a significance influence over these processes. To study the effect of the management systems over the N mineralization and immobilization, were carried out laboratory assays on soil surface horizons samples from the Serie Metrenco, Family fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudults. Two management system, zero-tillage without burning (CL) and traditional burning residues (T). The study was done before and after fallow having a crop of oat and a wheat crop var. Kumpa at harvest. The samples were incubated at 15 o C with a 85% water field capacity. The gross N mineralization, nitrification and immobilization were determined using the 15 N isotopic dilution technique and the mirror image procedures. After a year the mineralization rates were higher in a soil under CL and the gross nitrification rates were higher in a soil under T. Statistical differences were not observed on the direct nitrification under both management systems. Nevertheless, statistical differences were observed for the ammonium immobilization for both till systems, being higher for zero tillage. The N transformation varied among management systems (AN)

  4. Immobilization in cement of ion exchange resins from Spanish nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebra, A.G. de la; Murillo, R.; Ortiz, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange materials used at nuclear power plants can be immobilized in cements less expensive than polymer matrices. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins shows swelling and cracking troubles (during setting time, or of storage). The objective of this study was to select the types of cement that produce the best quality on immobilization of three kinds of resins and to set up cement formulations containing the maximum possible loading of resin. Four cements were selected to carried out the study. After a study of hydration-dehydration phenomena of ion exchange resins, a systematic work has been carried out on immobilization. Tests were performed to study compressive strength and underwater stability by changing water/cement ratio and resin/cement ratio. Mixtures made with water, cement and resin only were loaded with 10% by weight dry resin. Mixtures with higher loadings show poor workability. Tests were carried out by adding organic plasticizers and silica products to improve waste loading. Plasticizers reduced water demand and silica products permit the use of more water. Leaching tests have been performed at 40 O C. In conclusion Blast Furnace Slag is the best cement for immobilization of ion exchange resin both bead and powdered form for mechanical strength, stability and leaching

  5. Corrosivity of cement pastes with addition of sludge generated in water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Martins, B.E.D.B.S.; Couto, V.M.P.; Carvalho, L.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of sludge produced in a water treatment plant (WTP) is an important economic factor in the context of waste treatment. The present article has the objective of study the corrosion of cement pastes produced with blended sludge. Aqueous extracts were produced from the milling of masses containing 5%, 10% and 30% of sludge in relation to cement after 28 days of healing. These extracts were used for polarization assays in order to determine the corrosiveness of the folders when in contact with the used fittings. Moreover, other chemical analysis tests were carried out for sludge characterization: X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The obtained results point to the possibility of use of the studied cement masses in the development of construction materials promoting the economic reuse of WTP sludge before discarded in landfills. (author)

  6. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waster Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Municipal Supply – It may be feasible for the installation to construct its own Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) and/or Waste Water Treatment Plant...Supply – It may be feasible for the installation to construct its own Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) and/or Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) to be free

  7. Enhanced LAW Glass Correlation - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Joseph, Innocent [Atkins Energy Federal EPC, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-12-01

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the United States Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE’s Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity waste fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product is designed for acceptance into a national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. Acceptable glass formulations for vitrification of Hanford low activity waste (LAW) must meet a variety of product quality, processability, and waste loading requirements. To this end, The Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at The Catholic University of America (CUA) developed and tested a number of glass formulations during Part A, Part B1 and Part B2 of the WTP development program. The testing resulted in the selection of target glass compositions for the processing of eight of the Phase I LAW tanks. The selected glass compositions were tested at the crucible scale to confirm their compliance with ILAW performance requirements. Duramelter 100 (DM100) and LAW Pilot Melter tests were then conducted to demonstrate the viability of these glass compositions for LAW vitrification at high processing rates.

  8. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  9. Microorganism immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  10. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We

  11. PROGRESS and CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m 3 (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m 3 (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to

  12. Process arrangement options for Defense waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    Current plans are to immobilize the SRP high-level liquid wastes in a high integrity form. Borosilicate glass was selected in 1977 as the reference waste form and a mjaor effort is currently underway to develop the required technology. A large new facility, referred to as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed to carry out this mission, with project authorization targeted for 1982 and plant startup in 1989. However, a number of other process arrangements or manufacturing strategies, including staging the major elements of the project or using existing SRP facilities for some functions, have been suggested in lieu of building the reference DWPF. This study assesses these various options and compares them on a technical and cost basis with the DWPF. Eleven different manufacturing options for SRP defense waste solidification were examined in detail. These cases are: (1) vitrification of acid waste at current generation rate; (2) vitrification of current rate acid waste and caustic sludge; (3 and 4) vitrification of the sludge portion of neutralized waste; (5) decontamination of salt cake and storage of concentrated cesium and strontium for later immobilization; (6) processing waste in a facility with lower capacity than the DWPF; (7) processing waste in a combination of existing and new facilities; (8) waste immobilization in H Canyon; (9) vitrification of both sludge and salt; (10) DWPF with onsite storage; (11) deferred authorization of DWPF

  13. Immobilization of chloride-rich radioactive wastes produced by pyrochemical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Terry, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    A a result of its former role as a producer of nuclear weapons components, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Golden, Colorado accumulated a variety of plutonium-contaminated materials. When the level of contamination exceeded a predetermined level (the economic discard limit), the materials were classified as residues rather than waste and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. Although large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, remain in storage at the site. It is planned for the residues with lower concentrations of plutonium to be disposed of as wastes at an appropriate disposal facility, probably the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Because the plutonium concentration is too high or because the physical or chemical form would be difficult to get into a form acceptable to WIPP, it may not be possible to dispose of a portion of the residues at WIPP. The pyrochemical salts are among the residues that are difficult to dispose of. For a large percentage of the pyrochemical salts, safeguards controls are required, but WIPP was not designed to accommodate safeguards controls. A potential solution would be to immobilize the salts. These immobilized salts would contain substantially higher plutonium concentrations than is currently permissible but would be suitable for disposal at WIPP. This document presents the results of a review of three immobilization technologies to determine if mature technologies exist that would be suitable to immobilize pyrochemical salts: cement-based stabilization, low-temperature vitrification, and polymer encapsulation. The authors recommend that flow sheets and life-cycle costs be developed for cement-based and low-temperature glass immobilization

  14. An overview of technologies for immobilization of enzymes and surface analysis techniques for immobilized enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Royhaila; Marzuki, Nur Haziqah Che; Buang, Nor Aziah; Huyop, Fahrul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies. PMID:26019635

  15. Phenotypic plasticity and longevity in plants and animals: cause and effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M

    2009-10-01

    Immobile plants and immobile modular animals outlive unitary animals. This paper discusses competing but not necessarily mutually exclusive theories to explain this extreme longevity, especially from the perspective of phenotypic plasticity. Stem cell immortality, vascular autonomy, and epicormic branching are some important features of the phenotypic plasticity of plants that contribute to their longevity. Monocarpy versus polycarpy can also influence the kind of senescent processes experienced by plants. How density-dependent phenomena affecting the establishment of juveniles in these immobile organisms can influence the evolution of senescence, and consequently longevity, is reviewed and discussed. Whether climate change scenarios will favour long-lived or short-lived organisms, with their attendant levels of plasticity, is also presented.

  16. How to understand our willingness-to-pay to fight climate change? A choice experiment approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Chaisemartin , Clément; Mahé , Thuriane

    2009-01-01

    We explore the willingness-to-pay (WTP) to fight climate change in a choice experiment. Since tree planting prevents climate change, subjects are offered to choose between receiving a high amount of money or receiving a lower amount of money plus participating to tree planting action. This allows us to get an individual interval of the WTP to prevent climate change. We also set the experiment to control for framing effects: we measure whether subjects WTP is higher not to prevent a tree plant...

  17. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from jets characteristic of pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell break through? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored.

  18. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program FK-WTP Fort Kamehameha Wastewater Treatment Plant FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared...established by the Fort Kamehameha Wastewater Treatment Plant (FK-WTP) for the water; toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) requirements for

  19. The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) revisited: A meta-analysis of studies for restoring Good Ecological Status (GES) of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllianakis, Emmanouil; Skuras, Dimitris

    2016-11-01

    The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) is ambiguous and results from meta-analyses are disparate. This may be because the environmental good or service to be valued is very broadly defined or because the income measured in individual studies suffers from extensive non-reporting or miss reporting. The present study carries out a meta-analysis of WTP to restore Good Ecological Status (GES) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This environmental service is narrowly defined and its aims and objectives are commonly understood among the members of the scientific community. Besides income reported by the individual studies, wealth and income indicators collected by Eurostat for the geographic entities covered by the individual studies are used. Meta-regression analyses show that income is statistically significant, explains a substantial proportion of WTP variability and its elasticity is considerable in magnitude ranging from 0.6 to almost 1.7. Results are robust to variations in the sample of the individual studies participating in the meta-analysis, the econometric approach and the function form of the meta-regression. The choice of wealth or income measure is not that important as it is whether this measure is Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted among the individual studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immobilization of Fe chelators on sepharose gel and its effect on their chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Zehava; Hadar, Yitzhak; Chen, Yona

    2003-09-24

    Iron chelates are usually costly and easily leached beyond the root zone. This creates a need to frequently replenish the rhizosphere with chelated Fe and might contaminate groundwater with organic compounds and metals. The development of a slow-release Fe fertilizer that will efficiently supply Fe to plants while exhibiting high resistance toward leaching and/or degradation in the rhizosphere has been the focus of this study. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) and ethylenediaminebis(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA) were immobilized on Sepharose. (13)C NMR and FTIR measurements confirmed that coupling of DFOB to the gel did not appear to influence its ability to chelate Fe(3+) or its binding nature. Isotherms for the immobilized ligands were determined in the presence of 1 mM HEDTA, at 25 degrees C and at an ionic strength of 0.1 M. The isotherms showed a high affinity of Fe(3+) to the ligands and binding up to saturation level throughout the pH range examined (4.0-9.0). The K(app) values for the immobilized Fe chelates were determined using a modified Scatchard model and found to be lower than the soluble ones. This decrease in K(app) might facilitate Fe uptake from these chelates by plants.

  1. Supramolecular protein immobilization on lipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, R.P.G.; Hendriksen, W.E.; Verheijden, Mark Lloyd; Eelkema, R.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; van Esch, J.H.; Brunsveld, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Protein immobilization on surfaces, and on lipid bilayers specifically, has great potential in biomolecular and biotechnological research. Of current special interest is the immobilization of proteins using supramolecular noncovalent interactions. This allows for a reversible immobilization and

  2. Biosorption of uranium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU immobilized in a novel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, M.C.Z.; Reeves, M.

    1997-01-01

    A number of polymeric materials, including calcium alginate, polyacrylamide, polysulfone, and polyurethane, were evaluated as possible immobilization matrices for lyophilized biomass of P. aeruginoso CSU. Polyurethane-based materials such as hydrogel were identified as superior candidates for biomass immobilization. A novel polyurethane gel-bead fabrication technique was developed and successfully demonstrated at pilot-plant scale for producing mass qualities of spherical, uniform-size beads. The immobilized bacterial biomass was evaluated via the measurement of sorption isotherms and dynamics within a batch, stirred-tank reactor; and loading and elution behavior within a continuous, upflow, packed-bed columnar reactor. Sorption equilibrium and dynamics in a batch stirred tank were modeled with a pore-diffusion mass transfer model, by which a pore-diffusion coefficient was determined to be approximately 2.0 x 10 -6 cm 2 /s for uranyl ion transport through the polyurethane gel matrix. The biosorbent beads were regenerable with dilute (0.01-0.1 M) sodium carbonate solutions. Preliminary column breakthrough-elution studies indicated that P. aeruginosa CSU biomass immobilized within polyurethane gel beads was effective for removal of uranium from low-concentration, acidic wastewater. 35 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Immobilization of Lead Migrating from Contaminated Soil in Rhizosphere Soil of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) Using Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Risky, Elsya; Sato, Takeshi

    2017-10-23

    This study conducted plant growth tests using a rhizobox system to quantitatively determine the distance of immobilization lead migrating from contaminated soil into uncontaminated rhizosphere soil, and to assess the lead phases accumulated in rhizosphere soil by sequential extraction. Without the hydroxyapatite, exchangeable lead fractions increased as the rhizosphere soil got closer to the contaminated soil. Exchangeable lead fractions were higher even in the rhizosphere soil that shares a boundary with the root surface than in the soil before being planted. Thus, plant growth of hairy vetch was lower in the soil without the hydroxyapatite than in the soil with the hydroxyapatite. The presence of hydroxyapatite may immobilize the majority of lead migrating from contaminated soil into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil. The dominant lead fraction in the rhizosphere soil with the hydroxyapatite was residual. Thus, plant growth was not suppressed and the lead concentration of the plant shoot remained at the background level. These results indicate that the presence of hydroxyapatite in the rhizosphere soil at 5% wt may immobilize most of the lead migrating into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil, resulting in the prevention of lead migration toward the root surface.

  4. Immobilization of enzymes by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M.; Himei, M.; Tamura, M.; Hayashi, K.

    1979-01-01

    Immobilization of various enzymes was performed by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers at low temperatures. Alpha-amylase and glucoamylase were effectively immobilized in hydrophilic polymer carrier such as poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and also in rather hydrophobic carrier such as poly(tetraethylene-glycol diacrylate). Immobilized human hemoglobin underwent the reversible oxygenation concomitantly with change of oxygen concentration outside of the matrices. (author)

  5. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) MANAGEMENT OF THE HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT and IMMOBILIZATION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHRADER, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of River Protection is currently overseeing the construction of the new Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (more commonly referred to as the Waste Treatment Plant). In December 2000, a contract was awarded to Bechtel National, Inc. for the design, construction, and commissioning of the $5.8 billion facility to treat and vitrify a significant portion of the waste currently stored in large underground tanks on the Hanford Site. As the owner, the Office of River Protection has developed an organization to oversee the design, construction, and commissioning of the facility. A Federal Project Director is responsible for all aspects of the project, including safety, design, construction, commissioning; and the baseline (scope, cost, and schedule). The Project Director reports to the Manager of the Office of River Protection and recommends changes to the contract requirements, safety basis documents, or the baseline. Approximately 30 engineers, scientists, and other support personnel have been assigned to a unique organization that supports the Federal Project Director in providing oversight of each phase of the project (i.e., design, construction, and commissioning). The organization includes an Engineering Division, a Programs and Projects Division, a Safety Authorization Basis Team, and an Operations and Commissioning Team. This organization is unique within the Department of Energy and provides a focused team to resolve issues of safety, cost, schedule, technical design changes, and construction. This paper will describe this team and show how the Office of River Protection utilizes this oversight team to manage this complex, accelerated project. The size and technical complexity of the facility poses unique challenges for safety, permitting, commissioning, engineering, and baseline control. A robust training and qualification program has been developed that will insure the Departmental personnel working closely

  6. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jaseem, Q.Kh., E-mail: qjassem@kacst.edu.sa [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Almasoud, Fahad I. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Ababneh, Anas M. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Islamic University in Madinah, Al-Madinah, P.O. Box 170 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23 Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185 Bq/L (5 pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750 Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000 Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2–18 Bq/m{sup 3} and 70–1000 nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3 mSv which is below the 1 mSv limit. - Highlights: • Radiological assessment of groundwater treatment plant was performed. • Radium Removal efficiency was calculated for different stages during water treatment. • Radium concentrations in sludge were measured and found to exceed the national limit for radioactive waste. • Air radon concentrations and dose rates were monitored in the water treatment plant. • The Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit was found to record the highest air radon concentrations and dose rates.

  7. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  8. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  9. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  10. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol

  11. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  12. Spectroscopic Evidence of Uranium Immobilization in Acidic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6-5.8) conditions using U L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U-C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland process, U immobilization on roots was 2 orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was reoxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication on the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands. There were several former U processing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC. As a result of their operations, uranium has entered the surrounding environments. For example, approximately 45,000 kg o

  13. Elimination of methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process by immobilized methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Min; Yang, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Fu, Shan-Fei; Sun, Meng-Ting; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-05-01

    Biogas upgrading is essential for the comprehensive utilization of biogas as substitute of natural gas. However, the methane in the biogas can be fully recovered during the upgrading process of biogas, and the exhaust gas produced during biogas upgrading may contain a very low concentration of methane. If the exhaust gas with low concentration methane releases to atmosphere, it will be harmful to environment. In addition, the utilization of large amounts of digestate produced from biogas plant is another important issue for the development of biogas industry. In this study, solid digestate was used to produce active carbon, which was subsequently used as immobilized material for methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in biofilter. Biofilter with MOB immobilized on active carbon was used to eliminate the methane in exhaust gas from biogas upgrading process. Results showed porous active carbon was successfully made from solid digestate. The final methane elimination capacity of immobilized MOB reached about 13molh -1 m -3 , which was more 4 times higher than that of MOB without immobilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of immobilization on spermiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitner, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of immobilization stress on spermiogenesis in rats was investigated. After 96 hour immobilization, histological changes began to manifest themselves in the form of practically complete disappearance of cell population of the wall of seminiferous tubule as well as a markedly increased number of cells with pathologic mitoses. Enzymological investigations showed various changes of activity (of acid and alkaline phosphatase and nonspecific esterase) in the 24, 48, and 96 hour immobilization groups.

  15. Evaluation of Technetium Getters to Improve the Performance of Cast Stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lawter, Amanda R.; Stephenson, John R.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. One of the major radionuclides that Cast Stone has the potential to immobilize is technetium (Tc). The mechanism for immobilization is through the reduction of the highly mobile Tc(VII) species to the less mobile Tc(IV) species by the blast furnace slag (BFS) used in the Cast Stone formulation. Technetium immobilization through this method would be beneficial because Tc is one of the most difficult contaminants to address at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site due to its complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes (vitrification, steam reformation, etc.), and high mobility in subsurface environments. In fact, the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (TC&WM EIS) identifies technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) as one of the radioactive tank waste components contributing the most to the environmental impact associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site. The TC&WM EIS, along with an earlier supplemental waste-form risk assessment, used a diffusion-limited release model to estimate the release of different contaminants from the WTP process waste forms. In both of these predictive modeling exercises, where effective diffusivities based on grout performance data available at the time, groundwater at the 100-m down-gradient well exceeded the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for 99 Tc. (900 pCi/L). Recent relatively short-term (63 day

  16. Evaluation of Technetium Getters to Improve the Performance of Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. One of the major radionuclides that Cast Stone has the potential to immobilize is technetium (Tc). The mechanism for immobilization is through the reduction of the highly mobile Tc(VII) species to the less mobile Tc(IV) species by the blast furnace slag (BFS) used in the Cast Stone formulation. Technetium immobilization through this method would be beneficial because Tc is one of the most difficult contaminants to address at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site due to its complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes (vitrification, steam reformation, etc.), and high mobility in subsurface environments. In fact, the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (TC&WM EIS) identifies technetium-99 (99Tc) as one of the radioactive tank waste components contributing the most to the environmental impact associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site. The TC&WM EIS, along with an earlier supplemental waste-form risk assessment, used a diffusion-limited release model to estimate the release of different contaminants from the WTP process waste forms. In both of these predictive modeling exercises, where effective diffusivities based on grout performance data available at the time, groundwater at the 100-m down-gradient well exceeded the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for 99Tc. (900 pCi/L). Recent relatively

  17. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marinšek, Marjan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona, E-mail: polona.znidarsic@fkkt.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A very efficient approach for immobilization of cells into microreactors is presented. • It is applicable to various materials, including PFA and cyclic olefin (co)polymers. • It was used to immobilize different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. • Cells were immobilized on the surface in high density and showed good stability. • Mechanisms of APTES interactions with target materials are proposed. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor{sup ®} and Topas{sup ®}.

  18. WRPS Meeting The Challenge Of Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is the Hanford tank operations contractor, charged with managing one of the most challenging environmental cleanup projects in the nation. The U.S. Department of Energy hired WRPS to manage 56 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The waste is the legacy of 45 years of plutonium production for the U. S. nuclear arsenal. WRPS mission is three-fold: safely manage the waste until it can be processed and immobilized; develop the tools and techniques to retrieve the waste from the tanks, and build the infrastructure needed to deliver the waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) when it begins operating. WTP will 'vitrify' the waste by mixing it with silica and other materials and heating it in an electric melter. Vitrification turns the waste into a sturdy glass that will isolate the radioactivity from the environment. It will take more than 20 years to process all the tank waste. The tank waste is a complex highly radioactive mixture of liquid, sludge and solids. The radioactivity, chemical composition of the waste and the limited access to the underground storage tanks makes retrieval a challenge. Waste is being retrieved from aging single-shell tanks and transferred to newer, safer double-shell tanks. WRPS is using a new technology known as enhanced-reach sluicing to remove waste. A high-pressure stream of liquid is sprayed at 100 gallons per minute through a telescoping arm onto a hard waste layer several inches thick covering the waste. The waste is broken up, moved to a central pump suction and removed from the tank. The innovative Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) is also being used to retrieve waste. MARS is a remotely operated, telescoping arm installed on a mast in the center of the tank. It uses multiple technologies to scrape, scour and rake the waste toward a pump for removal. The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) provided nearly $326 million over two

  19. The Start Of Ebullition In Quiescent, Yield-Stress Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G. R.; Sherwood, David J.; Saez, A. Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Non-Newtonian rheology is typical for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) slurries processed in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hydrogen and other flammable gases are generated in the aqueous phase by radiolytic and chemical reactions. HLW slurries have a capacity for retaining gas characterized by the shear strength holding the bubbles still. The sizes and degassing characteristics of flammable gas bubbles in the HLW slurries expected to be processed by the WTP are important considerations for designing equipment and operating procedures. Slurries become increasingly susceptible to degassing as the bubble concentration increases. This susceptibility and the process of ebullitive bubble enlargement are described here. When disturbed, the fluid undergoes localized flow around neighboring bubbles which are dragged together and coalesce, producing an enlarged bubble. For the conditions considered in this work, bubble size increase is enough to displace the weight required to overcome the fluid shear strength and yield the surroundings. The buoyant bubble ascends and accumulates others within a zone of influence, enlarging by a few orders of magnitude. This process describes how the first bubbles appear on the surface of a 7 Pa shear strength fluid a few seconds after being jarred

  20. The Start Of Ebullition In Quiescent, Yield-Stress Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, G. R.; Sherwood, David J.; Saez, A. Eduardo

    2012-08-30

    Non-Newtonian rheology is typical for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) slurries processed in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hydrogen and other flammable gases are generated in the aqueous phase by radiolytic and chemical reactions. HLW slurries have a capacity for retaining gas characterized by the shear strength holding the bubbles still. The sizes and degassing characteristics of flammable gas bubbles in the HLW slurries expected to be processed by the WTP are important considerations for designing equipment and operating procedures. Slurries become increasingly susceptible to degassing as the bubble concentration increases. This susceptibility and the process of ebullitive bubble enlargement are described here. When disturbed, the fluid undergoes localized flow around neighboring bubbles which are dragged together and coalesce, producing an enlarged bubble. For the conditions considered in this work, bubble size increase is enough to displace the weight required to overcome the fluid shear strength and yield the surroundings. The buoyant bubble ascends and accumulates others within a zone of influence, enlarging by a few orders of magnitude. This process describes how the first bubbles appear on the surface of a 7 Pa shear strength fluid a few seconds after being jarred.

  1. Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Plutonium conversion and first stage immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brault, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Since the break up of the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War, the United States and Russia have been negotiating ways to reduce their nuclear stockpiles. Economics is one of the reasons behind this, but another important reason is safeguarding these materials from unstable organizations and countries. With the downsizing of the nuclear stockpiles, large quantities of plutonium are being declared excess and must be safely disposed of. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been selected as the site where the immobilization facility will be located. Conceptual design and process development commenced in 1998. SRS will immobilize excess plutonium in a ceramic waste form and encapsulate it in vitrified high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. These canisters will then be interred in the national repository at Yucca Mountain, New Mexico. The facility is divided into three distinct operating areas: Plutonium Conversion, First Stage Immobilization, and Second Stage Immobilization. This paper will discuss the first two operations

  2. Evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities - Implementation of the WTP-WTA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsidas, Odysseas; Batzias, Fragiskos

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure, including 28 activity stages and 6 decision nodes, has been developed for evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities. The main part of this procedure is a modification of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which is heavily relied on survey-based estimation of WTP-WTA (willingness to pay/accept, respectively). The survey may take place either under a strictly controlled environment or in situ and as-is ('laboratory conditions' or 'field conditions', respectively, in the terminology of experimental economics). Implementation of this methodology is presented, referring to three cases of industrial pollution (in three different sites) caused by (i) a cement producing units, (ii) an oil refinery complex, and (iii) an industrialized small city with an intensively polluted port, where several industrial units co-exist, all of them located in the vicinity of Athens, Greece. The results are interpreted/discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  3. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  5. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  6. Immobilized cells of Candida rugosa possessing fumarase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Zhone, L.

    1980-01-01

    Immobilized cells of C. rugosa that possessed fumarase activity were prepared by different methods; the most active immobilized cells were entrapped in polyacrylamide gels. The effects of pH temperature, and divalent cations on the fumarase activity of both immobilized and native cells were the same. Mn/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/ did not protect the immobilized enzyme against thermal inactivation. The activity of immobilized fumarase remained constant during 91 days of storage of 4-6 degrees. The immobilized cell column was used for the continuous production of L-malic acid from 1M fumarate at 30 degrees and pH 8.5. The immobilized column operated steadily for 2 months. Half life of the immobilized fumarase at 30 degrees was 95 days.

  7. Immobilization needs and technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.; Armantrout, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US and Russia agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, DOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of plutonium in keeping with US policy that plutonium must be subjected to the highest standards of safety, security, and accountability. One alternative being considered is immobilization. To arrive at a suitable immobilization form, we first reviewed published information on high-level waste immobilization technologies and identified 72 possible plutonium immobilization forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were further screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine the most promising technology families. Promising immobilization families were further evaluated to identify chemical, engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems that remain to be solved prior to making technical decisions as to the viability of using the form for long- term disposition of plutonium. From this evaluation, a detailed research and development plan has been developed to provide answers to these remaining questions

  8. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Meshkab Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) is June 2010. This WTP project, funded by $23.1 million Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) and $46.9...Forces - Iraq USG U.S. Government VBIED Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device WG Working Group WTO World Trade Organization WTP Water

  9. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana de-Magistris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i non-obese with good body image; (ii non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii obese with good body image; (iv obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers’ willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  10. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; López-Galán, Belinda; Caputo, Vincenzina

    2016-12-21

    The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers' willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  11. Immobilization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Rice Hulls for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Martini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The whole cell immobilization in ethanol fermentation can be done by using natural carriers or through synthetic carriers. All of these methods have the same purpose of retaining high cell concentrations within a certain defined region of space which leads to higher ethanol productivity. Lignocellulosic plant substance represents one of highly potential sources in ethanol production. Some studies have found that cellulosic substances substances can also be used as a natural carrier in cell immobilization by re-circulating pre-culture medium into a reactor. In this experiment, rice hulls without any treatment were used to immobilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae through semi solid state incubation combined with re-circulating pre-culture medium. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM pictures of the carrier show that the yeast cells are absorbed and embedded to the rice hull pore. In liquid batch fermentation system with an initial sugar concentration of 50 g/L, nearly 100% total sugar was consumed after 48 hours. This resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.32 g ethanol/g glucose, which is 62.7% of the theoretical value. Ethanol productivity of 0.59 g/(L.h is 2.3 fold higher than that of free cells which is 0.26 g/(L.h. An effort to reuse the immobilized cells in liquid fermentation system showed poor results due to cell desorption in the first batch which led to high sugar concentration inhibitory effect in the second batch fermentation. This might be solved by using semi solid fermentation process in the future work.

  12. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immobilization Patterns and Dynamics of Acetate-Utilizing Methanogens Immobilized in Sterile Granular Sludge in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kjær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After several months of reactor operation, the methanogens were immobilized, either separately or together. The fastest immobilization was observed in the reactor containing M. mazeii S-6. The highest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor with only M. mazeii S-6 immobilized, while the lowest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor where both types of methanogens were immobilized together. No changes were observed in the kinetic parameters (Ks and μmax) of immobilized M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 compared with suspended cultures, indicating that immobilization does not affect the growth kinetics of these methanogens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies against either M. concilii GP-6 or M. mazeii S-6 showed significant variations in the two methanogenic populations in the different reactors. Polyclonal antibodies were further used to study the spatial distribution of the two methanogens. M. concilii GP-6 was immobilized only on existing support material without any specific pattern. M. mazeii S-6, however, showed a different immobilization pattern: large clumps were formed when the concentration of acetate was high, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps. The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor. PMID:10049862

  14. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  15. Plant cells : immobilization and oxygen transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The study described in this thesis is part of the integrated project 'Biotechnological production of non-persistent bioinsecticides by means of plant cells invitro ' and was done in close cooperation with the research Institute Ital within the framework

  16. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... immobilized crude extracts were reused for all other experiments and found that immobilization .... India which are of analytical reagent grade. .... 9. 60. 3. 1. Figure 3. Degradation of chlorobenzene by immobilized crude.

  17. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technology progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.A.; Scott, J.L.; Allen, C.R.

    1989-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is currently being designed to safely process and temporarily store immobilized defense liquid high-level wastes from the Hanford Site. These wastes will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass waste form in the HWVP and stored onsite until a qualified geologic waste repository is ready for permanent disposal. Because of the diversity of wastes to be disposed of, specific technical issues are being addressed so that the plant can be designed and operated to produce a waste form that meets the requirements for permanent disposal in a geologic repository. This paper reports the progress to date in addressing these issues. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Immobilized/P25/DSAT and Immobilized/Kronos/DSAT on Photocatalytic Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Under Fluorescent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 4 (RR4 using immobilized P25 and kronos were performed under fluorescent light sources. The photocatalysis activity for both catalysts was investigated under fluorescent lamp source which consist UV and Visible light. The effect of various parameters such as initial concentration, initial pH and strenght of immobilized plate were studied. The result showed that 90% of RR4 dye was degrade in 1 hr using immobilized/kronos/DSAT at 100 mg L-1 of RR4 dye while 81% degradation was achieved by immobilized/P25/DSAT at the same condition. The lowest pH showed the higher photocatalytic activity. Hence, the effect of dye concentration and pH on the photocatalysis study can be related with the behavior of environmental pollution. The low strength showed by immobilized/P25/DSAT where it remain 37 % as compared with strength of immobilized/kronos/DSAT (52 wt.%. For the future work, the polymer binder like Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, Polyethylene glycol (PEG, and others polymers can be apply in immobilized study to overcome the strength problem.

  20. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  1. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  2. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Benton J.; Kacich, Richard M.; Skwarek, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  3. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines

  4. Combining physico-chemical analysis with a Daphnia magna bioassay to evaluate a recycling technology for drinking water treatment plant waste residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Xu, Yongpeng; Zhu, Shijun; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-12-01

    Recycling water treatment plant (WTP) waste residuals is considered to be a feasible method to enhance the efficiency of pollutant removal. This study also evaluated the safety and water quality of a pilot-DWTP waste residuals recycling technology by combining physical-chemistry analysis with a Daphnia magna assay. The water samples taken from each treatment step were extracted and concentrated by XAD-2 resin and were then analyzed for immobilization and enzyme activity with D. magna. The measured parameters, such as the dissolve organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and THM formation potential (THMFPs) of the recycling process, did not obviously increase over 15 days of continuous operation and were even lower than typical values from a conventional process. The extract concentration ranged from 0 to 2 Leq/ml as measured on the 7th and 15th days and the immobilization of D. magna exposed to water treated by the recycling process was nearly equivalent to that of the conventional process. Both the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activity assay indicated that a lower dose of water extract (0.5, 1, 1.5 Leq/ml) could stimulate the enzyme activity of D. magna, whereas a higher dose (2 Leq/ml at the sampling point C3, R3, R4 ) inhibits the activity. Moreover, the SOD and CAT activity of D. magna with DOC and UV254 showed a strong concentration-effect relationship, where the concentration range of DOC and UV254 were 4.1-16.2 mg/L and 0.071-4.382 cm(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the conventional and recycling treatment processes and the toxicity of water samples in the recycling process did not increase during the 15-day continuous recycling trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  6. Recovery and removal of uranium by using plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akira; Sakaguchi, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    The uranium-adsorbing abilities of seven plant wastes were investigated. High abilities to adsorb uranium from non-saline water containing 10 mg dm -3 of uranium were observed with a number of plant wastes tested. However, with seawater supplemented with 10 mg dm -3 of uranium, similar results were found only with chestnut residues. When the plant wastes were immobilized with formaldehyde, their ability to adsorb uranium was increased. Uranium and copper ions were more readily adsorbed by all plant wastes tested than other metal ions from a solution containing a mixture of seven different heavy metals. The selective adsorption of heavy metal ions differs with different species of plant wastes. The immobilization of peanut inner skin, orange peel and grapefruit peel increased the selectivity for uranium. (author)

  7. 78 FR 41398 - City of Berlin, Berlin Water Works; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...) to be located on a water supply conduit at the City of Berlin's municipal water treatment plant (WTP... diameter cement-transite water main leading to the City's WTP; (2) piping, valves, control panels, and.... The WTP will use the power produced by the proposed project to run process equipment, lighting, and...

  8. Chromium immobilization by extra- and intraradical fungal structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Songlin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yuqing; Wu, Zhaoxiang; Li, Tao; Hu, Yajun; Lv, Jitao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zhensong; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Zhen, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cr immobilization in AM symbioses revealed by SEM-EDS, STXM and XAFS. • EPS like particles formed on fungal surface upon Cr(VI) stress. • Cr(VI) was reduced to mainly Cr(III)-phosphate analogues on fungal surface. • Cr can be retained by the intraradical fungal structures in mycorrhizal roots. - Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance plant Cr tolerance through immobilizing Cr in mycorrhizal roots. However, the detailed processes and mechanisms are unclear. The present study focused on cellular distribution and speciation of Cr in both extraradical mycelium (ERM) and mycorrhizal roots exposed to Cr(VI) by using field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM-EDS), scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy techniques. We found that amounts of particles (possibly extracellular polymeric substances, EPS) were produced on the AM fungal surface upon Cr(VI) stress, which contributed greatly to Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization. With EDS of the surface of AM fungi exposed to various Cr(VI) levels, a positive correlation between Cr and P was revealed, suggesting that phosphate groups might act as counter ions of Cr(III), which was also confirmed by the XAFS analysis. Besides, STXM and XAFS analyses showed that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) in AM fungal structures (arbuscules, intraradical mycelium, etc.) and cell walls in mycorrhizal roots, and complexed possibly with carboxyl groups or histidine analogues. The present work provided evidence of Cr immobilization on fungal surface and in fungal structures in mycorrhizal roots at a cellular level, and thus unraveled the underlying mechanisms by which AM symbiosis immobilize Cr.

  9. Chromium immobilization by extra- and intraradical fungal structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Songlin [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycká 129, Prague 6−Suchdol 165 21 (Czech Republic); Zhang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Sun, Yuqing; Wu, Zhaoxiang [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Li, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu, Yajun [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, 410125 (China); Lv, Jitao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zhensong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhen, Xiangjun [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); and others

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Cr immobilization in AM symbioses revealed by SEM-EDS, STXM and XAFS. • EPS like particles formed on fungal surface upon Cr(VI) stress. • Cr(VI) was reduced to mainly Cr(III)-phosphate analogues on fungal surface. • Cr can be retained by the intraradical fungal structures in mycorrhizal roots. - Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance plant Cr tolerance through immobilizing Cr in mycorrhizal roots. However, the detailed processes and mechanisms are unclear. The present study focused on cellular distribution and speciation of Cr in both extraradical mycelium (ERM) and mycorrhizal roots exposed to Cr(VI) by using field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM-EDS), scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy techniques. We found that amounts of particles (possibly extracellular polymeric substances, EPS) were produced on the AM fungal surface upon Cr(VI) stress, which contributed greatly to Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization. With EDS of the surface of AM fungi exposed to various Cr(VI) levels, a positive correlation between Cr and P was revealed, suggesting that phosphate groups might act as counter ions of Cr(III), which was also confirmed by the XAFS analysis. Besides, STXM and XAFS analyses showed that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) in AM fungal structures (arbuscules, intraradical mycelium, etc.) and cell walls in mycorrhizal roots, and complexed possibly with carboxyl groups or histidine analogues. The present work provided evidence of Cr immobilization on fungal surface and in fungal structures in mycorrhizal roots at a cellular level, and thus unraveled the underlying mechanisms by which AM symbiosis immobilize Cr.

  10. Management of immobilization and its complication for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmi, Purwita W; Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Setiati, Siti; Soejono, Czeresna H; Aries, Wanarani; Roosheroe, Arya Govinda

    2008-10-01

    Increased life expectancy have an effect on the rising percentage of elderly population in Indonesia and health problem associated with the elderly, particularly immobilization. Immobilization may cause various complications, especially when it has been overlooked without any appropriate and proper medical care in keeping with the procedures. High incidence of immobilization in elderly and the life-threatening complication call for an agreement on management of immobilization and its complication. Management of immobilization needs interdisciplinary team-work cooperation, the patients and their family. The management may be commenced through a complete geriatric review, formulating functional goals and constructing therapeutic plan. Various medical conditions and external factors that may act as risk factors of immobilization as well as drugs intake that may exaggerate the immobilization should be evaluated and optimally managed. Any complication due to immobilization and other concomitant disease/condition should be recognized and managed comprehensively in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. Management of immobilization and its complications include pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, i.e. various mobility exercises, utilization of ambulatory device and supporting appliance for assisting patients in stand-up position, as well as the management of urinary voiding and defecation.

  11. TESTS WITH HIGH-BISMUTH HLW GLASSES FINAL REPORT VSL-10R1780-1, Rev. 0; 12/13/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlack, K.S.; Kruger, A.A.; Joseph, I.; Gan, H.; Kot, W.K.; Chaudhuri, M.; Mohr, R.K.; Mckeown, D.A.; Bardakei, T.; Gong, W.; Buecchele, A.C.; Pegg, I.L.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report describes the testing of glass formulations developed for Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) containing high concentrations of bismuth. In previous work on high-bismuth HLW streams specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP), fully compliant, high waste loading compositions were developed and subjected to melter testing on the DM100 vitrification system. However, during heat treatment according to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW canister centerline cooling (CCC) curves, crucible melts of the high-bismuth glasses were observed to foam. Clearly, such an occurrence during cooling of actual HLW canisters would be highly undesirable. Accordingly, the present work involves larger-scale testing to determine whether this effect occurs under more prototypical conditions, as well as crucible-scale tests to determine the causes and potentially remediate the observed foaming behavior. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts designed to determine the underlying causes of the foaming behavior as well as to assess potential mitigation strategies. Testing was also conducted on the DM1200 HLW Pilot melter with a composition previously tested on the DM100 and shown to foam during crucible-scale CCC heat treatment. The DM1200 tests evaluated foaming of glasses over a range of bismuth concentrations poured into temperature-controlled, 55-gallon drums which have a diameter that is close to that of the full-scale WTP HLW canisters. In addition, the DM1200 tests provided the first large-scale melter test data on high-bismuth WTP HLW compositions, including information on processing rates, cold cap behavior and off-gas characteristics, and data from this waste composition on the prototypical DM1200 off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for ORP on the same waste composition. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was

  12. TESTS WITH HIGH-BISMUTH HLW GLASSES FINAL REPORT VSL-10R1780-1 REV 0 12/13/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MATLACK KS; KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; CHAUDHURI M; MOHR RK; MCKEOWN DA; BARDAKEI T; GONG W; BUECCHELE AC; PEGG IL

    2011-01-05

    This Final Report describes the testing of glass formulations developed for Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) containing high concentrations of bismuth. In previous work on high-bismuth HLW streams specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP), fully compliant, high waste loading compositions were developed and subjected to melter testing on the DM100 vitrification system. However, during heat treatment according to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW canister centerline cooling (CCC) curves, crucible melts of the high-bismuth glasses were observed to foam. Clearly, such an occurrence during cooling of actual HLW canisters would be highly undesirable. Accordingly, the present work involves larger-scale testing to determine whether this effect occurs under more prototypical conditions, as well as crucible-scale tests to determine the causes and potentially remediate the observed foaming behavior. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts designed to determine the underlying causes of the foaming behavior as well as to assess potential mitigation strategies. Testing was also conducted on the DM1200 HLW Pilot melter with a composition previously tested on the DM100 and shown to foam during crucible-scale CCC heat treatment. The DM1200 tests evaluated foaming of glasses over a range of bismuth concentrations poured into temperature-controlled, 55-gallon drums which have a diameter that is close to that of the full-scale WTP HLW canisters. In addition, the DM1200 tests provided the first large-scale melter test data on high-bismuth WTP HLW compositions, including information on processing rates, cold cap behavior and off-gas characteristics, and data from this waste composition on the prototypical DM1200 off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for ORP on the same waste composition. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was

  13. The use of mineral-like matrices for hlw solidification and spent fuel immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhitonov, J.A.; Starchenko, V.A.; Strelnikov, A.V.; Sorokin, V.T.; Shvedov, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The conception of radioactive waste management is based upon the multi-barrier protection principle stating that the long-lived radionuclides safety isolation is ensured by a system of engineering and natural geological barriers. One of the effective ways of the long-lived radionuclides immobilization is the integration of these materials within a mineral-like matrice. This technique may be used both for isolation of separated groups of nuclides (Cs, Sr, TUE, TRE) and for immobilization of spent fuel which for some reason can't be processed at the radiochemical plant. In this paper two variants of flowsheets HLW management are discussed. The following ways of HLW reprocessing are considered: - The first cycle raffinate solidification (without partitioning); - The individual solidification of two separated radionuclide groups (Sr+Cs+FP fraction and TPE+TRE fraction). The calcination of some characteristics (annual and total amounts, specific activity, radiochemical composition and radiogenic heat) of HLW integrated within a mineral-like matrix are performed for both options. The matrix compositions may be also used for spent fuel immobilization by means of the hot isostatic pressing technique. (authors)

  14. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  15. Evaluation of bitumens for nuclear facilities radioactive waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Silva, Tania V. da; Loiola, Roberto; Monte, Lauro J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The activities developed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN/CNEN, include the research and development work of the radioactive wastes immobilization in different kind of bitumen. The present work describes the bituminization of simulated low level wastes of evaporator concentrates.Two types of bitumen are used for incorporation of the simulated wastes generated by nuclear power plants. Studies on rheological properties, leaching data, differential thermoanalysis and water content of the waste-products have been carried out. (author)

  16. Radiation immobilization of catalase and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghui; Ha Hongfei; Wang Xia; Wu Jilan

    1988-01-01

    Catalase was immobilized by a chemical method on porous polyacrylamide particles produced by radiation polymerization of acrylamide monomer at low temperature (-78 0 C). Activity of immobilized catalase was enhanced distinctly by joining a chemical arm to the support. The method of recovery of catalase activity on immobilized polymer was found by soaking it in certain buffer. The treatment of H 2 O 2 both in aqueous solution and alcoholic solution by using the immobilized catalase was performed. (author)

  17. Immobilization of Bacillus sp. in mesoporous activated carbon for degradation of sulphonated phenolic compound in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G., E-mail: ganesansekaran@gmail.com [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India); Karthikeyan, S. [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India); Gupta, V.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247 667 (India); Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Boopathy, R.; Maharaja, P. [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Xenobiotic compounds are used in considerable quantities in leather industries besides natural organic and inorganic compounds. These compounds resist biological degradation and thus they remain in the treated wastewater in the unaltered molecular configurations. Immobilization of organisms in carrier matrices protects them from shock load application and from the toxicity of chemicals in bulk liquid phase. Mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) has been considered in the present study as the carrier matrix for the immobilization of Bacillus sp. isolated from Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) employed for the treatment of wastewater containing sulphonated phenolic (SP) compounds. Temperature, pH, concentration, particle size and mass of MAC were observed to influence the immobilization behavior of Bacillus sp. The percentage immobilization of Bacillus sp. was the maximum at pH 7.0, temperature 20 Degree-Sign C and at particle size 300 {mu}m. Enthalpy, free energy and entropy of immobilization were - 46.9 kJ mol{sup -1}, - 1.19 kJ mol{sup -1} and - 161.36 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} respectively at pH 7.0, temperature 20 Degree-Sign C and particle size 300 {mu}m. Higher values of {Delta}H{sup 0} indicate the firm bonding of the Bacillus sp. in MAC. Degradation of aqueous sulphonated phenolic compound by Bacillus sp. immobilized in MAC followed pseudo first order rate kinetics with rate constant 1.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation on phenolic syntan using immobilized activated carbon as catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacillus sp. immobilized cell reactor removed all refractory organic loads. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal mechanism is due to co-metabolism between carbon and organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organics are completely metabolized rather than adsorption.

  18. Immobilization of Bacillus sp. in mesoporous activated carbon for degradation of sulphonated phenolic compound in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Gupta, V K; Boopathy, R; Maharaja, P

    2013-03-01

    Xenobiotic compounds are used in considerable quantities in leather industries besides natural organic and inorganic compounds. These compounds resist biological degradation and thus they remain in the treated wastewater in the unaltered molecular configurations. Immobilization of organisms in carrier matrices protects them from shock load application and from the toxicity of chemicals in bulk liquid phase. Mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) has been considered in the present study as the carrier matrix for the immobilization of Bacillus sp. isolated from Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) employed for the treatment of wastewater containing sulphonated phenolic (SP) compounds. Temperature, pH, concentration, particle size and mass of MAC were observed to influence the immobilization behavior of Bacillus sp. The percentage immobilization of Bacillus sp. was the maximum at pH 7.0, temperature 20 °C and at particle size 300 μm. Enthalpy, free energy and entropy of immobilization were -46.9 kJ mol(-1), -1.19 kJ mol(-1) and -161.36 JK(-1)mol(-1) respectively at pH 7.0, temperature 20 °C and particle size 300 μm. Higher values of ΔH(0) indicate the firm bonding of the Bacillus sp. in MAC. Degradation of aqueous sulphonated phenolic compound by Bacillus sp. immobilized in MAC followed pseudo first order rate kinetics with rate constant 1.12 × 10(-2) min(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 3255 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Acquisition of a Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... back to World War II. To this end, DOE is constructing the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Site's Central Plateau (200 East Area). Once operational, the WTP will treat radioactive waste presently stored in underground storage tanks on the Central Plateau to prepare it for disposal. The WTP is planned to...

  20. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y.; Messing, E.; Rubens, D.; Sarkar, N.; Ng, W.

    2008-01-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  1. Characteristics of Immobilized Urease on Grafted Alginate Bead Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas N. Danial

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biological importance of immobilized urease enzyme over the free urease. The support material used for urease immobilization was alginate. Generally, the immobilization of urease in alginate gel showed a marked increase in Km and Vmax. However, the immobilized urease showed higher thermal stability than that of free enzyme. The rate of thermal inactivation of the immobilized enzyme decreased due to entrapment in gel matrix. Also, the activity of the immobilized urease was more stable in retention than that of the free enzyme during the storage in solution, although the activity of the immobilized enzyme was lower in comparison with the free enzyme. A stable immobilized system and long storage life are convenient for applications that would not be feasible with a soluble enzyme system. These results highlighted the technical and biochemical benefits of immobilized urease over the free enzyme.

  2. Spectroscopic Evidence of Uranium Immobilization in Acidic Wetlands by Natural Organic Matter and Plant Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah Ri...

  3. The WTP for property rights for the Giant Panda: can a charismatic species be an instrument for conservation of natural habitat?

    OpenAIRE

    Kontoleon, A.; Swanson, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a stated preference study to address issues concerning the potential for using flag-ship species, such as the Giant Panda, to purchase the property rights for the conservation of natural habitat. The study finds, first, that there is clear WTP for acquiring the property rights for panda habitat. The nature of this demand is found both convincing and logically coherent in that it is an increasing function of land (at a diminishing rate). Secondly, the stu...

  4. Immobilization and characterization of inulinase from Ulocladium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ulocladium atrum inulinase was immobilized on different composite membranes composed of chitosan/nonwoven fabrics. Km values of free and immobilized U. atrum inulinase on different composite membranes were calculated. The enzyme had optimum pH at 5.6 for free and immobilized U. atrum inulinase on polyester ...

  5. Plant cell tissue culture: A potential source of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Dougall, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Higher plants produce many industrially important products. Among these are drugs and medicinal chemicals, essential oils and flavors, vegetable oils and fats, fine and specialty chemicals, and even some commodity chemicals. Although, currently, whole-plant extraction is the primary means of harvesting these materials, the advent of plant cell tissue culture could be a much more effective method of producing many types of phytochemicals. The use of immobilized plant cells in an advanced bioreactor configuration with excretion of the product into the reactor medium may represent the most straightforward way of commercializing such techniques for lower-value chemicals. Important research and development opportunities in this area include screening for plant cultures for nonmedical, lower-value chemicals; understanding and controlling plant cell physiology and biochemistry; optimizing effective immobilization methods; developing more efficient bioreactor concepts; and perfecting product extraction and purification techniques. 62 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Chromium immobilization by extra- and intraradical fungal structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songlin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yuqing; Wu, Zhaoxiang; Li, Tao; Hu, Yajun; Lv, Jitao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zhensong; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Zhen, Xiangjun; Chen, Baodong

    2016-10-05

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance plant Cr tolerance through immobilizing Cr in mycorrhizal roots. However, the detailed processes and mechanisms are unclear. The present study focused on cellular distribution and speciation of Cr in both extraradical mycelium (ERM) and mycorrhizal roots exposed to Cr(VI) by using field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM-EDS), scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy techniques. We found that amounts of particles (possibly extracellular polymeric substances, EPS) were produced on the AM fungal surface upon Cr(VI) stress, which contributed greatly to Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization. With EDS of the surface of AM fungi exposed to various Cr(VI) levels, a positive correlation between Cr and P was revealed, suggesting that phosphate groups might act as counter ions of Cr(III), which was also confirmed by the XAFS analysis. Besides, STXM and XAFS analyses showed that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) in AM fungal structures (arbuscules, intraradical mycelium, etc.) and cell walls in mycorrhizal roots, and complexed possibly with carboxyl groups or histidine analogues. The present work provided evidence of Cr immobilization on fungal surface and in fungal structures in mycorrhizal roots at a cellular level, and thus unraveled the underlying mechanisms by which AM symbiosis immobilize Cr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and immobilization of alpha amylase using biotechnology techniques for use in biological and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasher, E.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The immobilized enzymes on polymeric supports are prepared for purpose of repeated use and the possibilities of continuous reaction system. One of the most important properties is the stability of proteins when they are used in some medical and industrial applications. The immobilization of the enzymes improves this property as well as many other properties.In this study, alpha amylase was purified and immobilized onto two different polymers. α- amylase was used in this study for its biological and industrial applications. It is used in paper textile, pharmaceutical applications, food, and detergent industries. α- amylase was found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Purification of α-amylase from microorganisms is the main source of α-amylase because it was excreted from many bacteria and fungi. In this study, α-amylase was purified from Aspergillus niger. Fractional precipitation of the α- amylase produced by A. niger with 80% ammonium sulphate saturation. The crude enzyme was applied on column chromatography packed with Sephadex G 100 for purification. The active eluents containing partially purified enzyme were collected for further investigation. The specific activity of α-amylase was (34.9 U/mg) which was corresponding to 2.09 fold purification for the tested organism. The purified α-amylase was immobilized by entrapment method into two types of polymers. One of them was natural consist of chitosan and alginate. The other polymer was synthetic consist of N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. The temperature optimum and thermal inactivation showed a severe loss in the activity of the free enzymes, while the temperature profile of the immobilized enzymes was much broader at higher temperatures demonstrating the effectiveness of the polymer protecting the enzymes. Also, the immobilized enzymes (natural polymer and synthetic polymer) showed higher thermal stability. Optimum ph and stability showed that immobilization of enzymes resulted in more

  8. Immobilization of Mortierella vinacea cells by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Immobilization of Mortierella vinacea cells, which contain active α-galactosidase, by radiation polymerization at low temperatures was studied. The durability of the enzymatic activity of the immobilized cells obtained with hydrophilic monomers was affected by the concentrations of the cells and monomer in which optimum conditions were observed. The enzymatic activity of the immobilized cells obtained with hydrophilic monomers was compared to that of hydrophobic monomers. Michaelis constants of the immobilized cells varied with monomer concentration. The effect of addition of porous solid substances on the immobilization of the cells was studied

  9. Treatment and immobilization of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Partridge, J.A.; Richardson, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses a new program underway to develop and demonstrate treatment and immobilization technologies for intermediate level wastes (ILW) generated in the nuclear fuel cycle. Initial work has defined the sources, quantities and types of wastes which comprise ILW. Laboratory studies are underway to define treatment technologies for liquid ILW which contains volatile contaminants and to define immobilization parameters for the residues resulting from treatment of ILW. Immobilization agents initially being evaluated for the various residues include cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen although other immobilization agents will be studied. The program also includes development of acceptable test procedures for the final immobilized products as well as development of proposed criteria for storage, transportation, and disposal of the immobilized ILW. 20 figures, 10 tables

  10. Technetium Incorporation in Glass for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    A priority of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is to dispose of nuclear wastes accumulated in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington State. These nuclear wastes date from the Manhattan Project of World War II and from plutonium production during the Cold War. The DOE plans to separate high-level radioactive wastes from low activity wastes and to treat each of the waste streams by vitrification (immobilization of the nuclides in glass) for disposal. The immobilized low-activity waste will be disposed of here at Hanford and the immobilized high-level waste at the national geologic repository. Included in the inventory of highly radioactive wastes is large volumes of 99Tc (~9 × 10E2 TBq or ~2.5 × 104 Ci or ~1500 kg). A problem facing safe disposal of Tc-bearing wastes is the processing of waste feed into in a chemically durable waste form. Technetium incorporates poorly into silicate glass in traditional glass melting. It readily evaporates during melting of glass feeds and out of the molten glass, leading to a spectrum of high-to-low retention (ca. 20 to 80%) in the cooled glass product. DOE-ORP currently has a program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University and in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University that seeks to understand aspects of Tc retention by means of studying Tc partitioning, molten salt formation, volatilization pathways, and cold cap chemistry. Another problem involves the stability of Tc in glass in both the national geologic repository and on-site disposal after it has been immobilized. The major environmental concern with 99Tc is its high mobility in addition to a long half-life (2.1×105 yrs). The pertechnetate ion (TcO4-) is highly soluble in water and does not adsorb well onto the surface of minerals and so migrates nearly at the same velocity as groundwater

  11. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, Yasin; Demir, Cevdet; Dizge, Nadir; Keskinler, Buelent

    2011-01-01

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L ® and Novozym 388 ® , were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 o C and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L ® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  12. Reversible thermal denaturation of immobilized rhodanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, P.; Bowman, S.

    1987-01-01

    For the first time, the enzyme rhodanese had been refolded after thermal denaturation. This was previously not possible because of the strong tendency for the soluble enzyme to aggregate at temperatures above 37 degrees C. The present work used rhodanese that was covalently coupled to a solid support under conditions that were found to preserve enzyme activity. Rhodanese was immobilized using an N-hydroxymalonimidyl derivative of Sepharose containing a 6-carbon spacer. The number of immobilized competent active sites was measured by using [ 35 S]SO 3 (2-) to form an active site persulfide that is the obligatory catalytic intermediate. Soluble enzyme was irreversibly inactivated in 10 min at 52 degrees C. The immobilized enzyme regained at least 30% of its original activity even after boiling for 20 min. The immobilized enzyme had a Km and Vmax that were each approximately 3 times higher than the corresponding values for the native enzyme. After preincubation at high temperatures, progress curves for the immobilized enzyme showed induction periods of up to 5 min before attaining apparently linear steady states. The pH dependence of the activity was the same for both the soluble and the immobilized enzyme. These results indicate significant stabilization of rhodanese after immobilization, and instabilities caused by adventitious solution components are not the sole reasons for irreversibility of thermal denaturation seen with the soluble enzyme. The results are consistent with models for rhodanese that invoke protein association as a major cause of inactivation of the enzyme. Furthermore, the induction period in the progress curves is consistent with studies which show that rhodanese refolding proceeds through intermediate states

  13. Properties of immobilized papain by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1984-01-01

    Papain was immobilized by the radiation polymerization of various monomers at low temperatures and the effects of the polymer matrix on the enzyme activity and thermal stability of the immobilized enzymes were studied. The activity of the immobilized enzymes prepared from monofunctional (acrylate and methacrylate) monomers was higher than that from bifunctional (bismethacrylate) monomers and that from polyoxyethylene dimethacrylate monomers increased with an increase in the number of oxyethylene units. The thermal stability of the immobilized enzymes prepared from hydrophilic monomers was higher than that from hydrophobic monomers and increased markedly with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  14. Preparation of Laccase Immobilized Cryogels and Usage for Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Uygun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate (poly(MMA-co-GMA cryogels were synthesized by radical cryopolymerization technique. Then, laccase enzyme was covalently attached to the cryogel and characterized by using swelling studies and SEM and EDX analyses. Kinetic properties and optimum conditions of the immobilized and free laccase were studied and it was found that of the immobilized laccase was lower than that of free laccase. of the immobilized laccase was increased upon immobilization. Optimum pH was found to be 4.0 for each type of laccase, while optimum temperature was shifted to the warmer region after the immobilization. It was also found that thermal stability of the immobilized laccase was higher than that of free laccase. Immobilized laccase could be used for 10 times successive reuse with no significant decrease in its activity. Also, these laccase immobilized cryogels were successfully used for the decolorization of seven different dyes.

  15. River Protection Project (RPP) Immobilized Low- Ativity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document replaces HNF-1517, Rev 2 which is deleted. It incorporates updates to reflect changes in programmatic direction associated with the vitrification plant contract change and associated DOE/ORP guidance. In addition it incorporates the cancellation of Project W-465, Grout Facility, and the associated modifications to Project W-520, Immobilized High-Level Waste Disposal Facility. It also includes document format changes and section number modifications consistent with CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. procedures

  16. Recovery of uranium from low uranium concentration waste water using collagen fiber immobilized bayberry tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yun; Long Xianming; Zhao Ning; Liao Pinxue

    2012-01-01

    Tannin, extracted from plants, is a kind of natural polyphenol, which is able to chelate with various metal ions and also exhibits selectivity in some extent. The collagen fiber immobilized bayberry tannin was prepared by the immobilization of bayberry tannin onto collagen fiber through the Mannich reaction. Experiment of the adsorption of U from U containing wastewater by using collagen fiber immobilized bayberry tannin suggested that the pH increase of U containing wastewater can promote the adsorption of U onto the adsorbent. When the pH was 4.5 and the initial concentration of U was 300.0 mg/L, the adsorption capacity of U reached the maximum of 52 mg/g while the other impurity metal ions were less than 16.0 mg/g, thus exhibiting excellent selectivity. The treatment of wastewater can be optimized by changing the U concentration, inlet rate of wastewater, and the ratio of column height/diameter etc. In addition. the adsorbed U can be desorbed using 0.1 mol/L HNO 3 solution when the column was saturated, the column can also be re used for the treatment of U containing wastewater after the column is washed by deionized water, collagen fiber immobilized bayberry tannin exhibit selectivity, high adsorption capacity, good reusability when adsorbed U. (authors)

  17. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and processes for immobilization of wastes generated at nuclear facilities are undergoing development. After minor piping modifications to eliminate dust collecting points, a pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator run of 225 continuous hours was successfully completed in a demonstration of component reliability. Vitrification of incinerator ash and other wastes is now being accomplished using a pilot scale unit developed as a continuous flow process

  18. Novel immobilization process of a thermophilic catalase: efficient purification by heat treatment and subsequent immobilization at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Luo, Hui; López, Claudia; Xiao, Jing; Chang, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of the present work is to investigate a novel process of purification and immobilization of a thermophilic catalase at high temperatures. The catalase, originated from Bacillus sp., was overexpressed in a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET28-CATHis and efficiently purified by heat treatment, achieving a threefold purification. The purified catalase was then immobilized onto an epoxy support at different temperatures (25, 40, and 55 °C). The immobilizate obtained at higher temperatures reached its maximum activity in a shorter time than that obtained at lower temperatures. Furthermore, immobilization at higher temperatures required a lower ionic strength than immobilization at lower temperatures. The characteristics of immobilized enzymes prepared at different temperatures were investigated. The high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) showed the highest thermal stability, followed by the 40 °C immobilizate. And the high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) had slightly higher operational stability than the 25 °C immobilizate. All of the immobilized catalase preparations showed higher stability than the free enzyme at alkaline pH 10.0, while the alkali resistance of the 25 °C immobilizate was slightly better than that of the 40 and 55 °C immobilizates.

  19. Glucose Oxidase Immobilization on TMAH-Modified Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chrisnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bentonite modification by tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH on its capability to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOX was studied. Modification of bentonite was conducted by the adding of 0-5% (v/v TMAH. The observed results show that the different concentrations of TMAH affect the percentage of immobilized enzyme. The results of this study show that the best concentration of TMAH is 5% (v/v which can immobilize up to 84.71% of GOX. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR studies have been carried out to observe the structural changes in bentonite due to TMAH modification. The obtained immobilized GOX show the optimum catalytic activity on reaction temperature of 40-50 °C and pH of 7. The immobilized GOX kinetics at the optimum conditions determined the Km and Vmax value to be 4.96x10-2 mM and 4.99x10-3 mM.min-1 respectively. In addition, the immobilized GOX on TMAH-modified bentonite is stable enough so it could be re-used six times before its activity decreased by 39.44%.

  20. A three-year experiment confirms continuous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated paddy field with biochar amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Rongjun; Joseph, Stephen; Cui, Liqiang; Pan, Genxing; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Afeng; Rutlidge, Helen; Wong, Singwei; Chia, Chee; Marjo, Chris; Gong, Bin; Munroe, Paul; Donne, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar significantly increased soil pH, organic matter and immobilized soil Cd and Pb. • Biochar treatment consistently reduced rice Cd and Pb content in three years. • Contaminated biochar from the study field contained much higher heavy metals than fresh biochar. • Biochar caused metal immobilization primarily due to the precipitation and surface adsorption. - Abstract: Heavy metal contamination in croplands has been a serious concern because of its high health risk through soil-food chain transfer. A field experiment was conducted in 2010–2012 in a contaminated rice paddy in southern China to determine if bioavailability of soil Cd and Pb could be reduced while grain yield was sustained over 3 years after a single soil amendment of wheat straw biochar. Contaminated biochar particles were separated from the biochar amended soil and microscopically analyzed to help determine where, and how, metals were immobilized with biochar. Biochar soil amendment (BSA) consistently and significantly increased soil pH, total organic carbon and decreased soil extractable Cd and Pb over the 3 year period. While rice plant tissues’ Cd content was significantly reduced, depending on biochar application rate, reduction in plant Pb concentration was found only in root tissue. Analysis of the fresh and contaminated biochar particles indicated that Cd and Pb had probably been bonded with the mineral phases of Al, Fe and P on and around and inside the contaminated biochar particle. Immobilization of the Pb and Cd also occurred to cation exchange on the porous carbon structure

  1. A three-year experiment confirms continuous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated paddy field with biochar amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Rongjun [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Joseph, Stephen [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Cui, Liqiang [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pan, Genxing, E-mail: pangenxing@aliyun.com [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Lianqing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Afeng [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Rutlidge, Helen [Solid State and Elemental Analysis Unit, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wong, Singwei [Electron Microscope Unit, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Chia, Chee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Marjo, Chris; Gong, Bin [Solid State and Elemental Analysis Unit, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia); Munroe, Paul [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Donne, Scott [Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Biochar significantly increased soil pH, organic matter and immobilized soil Cd and Pb. • Biochar treatment consistently reduced rice Cd and Pb content in three years. • Contaminated biochar from the study field contained much higher heavy metals than fresh biochar. • Biochar caused metal immobilization primarily due to the precipitation and surface adsorption. - Abstract: Heavy metal contamination in croplands has been a serious concern because of its high health risk through soil-food chain transfer. A field experiment was conducted in 2010–2012 in a contaminated rice paddy in southern China to determine if bioavailability of soil Cd and Pb could be reduced while grain yield was sustained over 3 years after a single soil amendment of wheat straw biochar. Contaminated biochar particles were separated from the biochar amended soil and microscopically analyzed to help determine where, and how, metals were immobilized with biochar. Biochar soil amendment (BSA) consistently and significantly increased soil pH, total organic carbon and decreased soil extractable Cd and Pb over the 3 year period. While rice plant tissues’ Cd content was significantly reduced, depending on biochar application rate, reduction in plant Pb concentration was found only in root tissue. Analysis of the fresh and contaminated biochar particles indicated that Cd and Pb had probably been bonded with the mineral phases of Al, Fe and P on and around and inside the contaminated biochar particle. Immobilization of the Pb and Cd also occurred to cation exchange on the porous carbon structure.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of immobilized lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renxun; Cole, Nerida; Dutta, Debarun; Kumar, Naresh; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-11-01

    Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were immobilized on glass surfaces via two linkers, 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) or 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide (FNA). The resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the surfaces was determined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains by fluorescence microscopy. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilization was confirmed by XPS showing significant increases (p lactoferricin immobilized on glass significantly (p lactoferricin were successfully immobilized on glass surfaces and showed promising antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2612-2617, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Crossflow Ultra-filter Module Draining and Flush Testing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Lessons Learned in De-clogging Crossflow Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townson, P.S.; Brackenbury, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes test work conducted in order to study crossflow ultra-filter module draining and flushing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that the current design, with a flush tank at elevation 29.9 m (98'-00'') has enough pressure head to drain (to a minimum elevation ∼1.5 m [∼5'-00'']) and clean out the ultra-filter tube side. Without demonstrating this, a potential failure of the flush system could cause immovable solids to plug the tubular membranes of the filters causing serious adverse impacts to plant availability and/or throughput, and could permit deleterious flammable gas accumulations. In conjunction with the water flush, the plant also utilizes air purging to prevent build up of flammable gases. Two filter configurations were investigated, one being the baseline horizontal layout and one being an alternative vertical layout. The slurry used in the tests was a non radioactive simulant (kaolin-bentonite clay), and it mimicked the rheological properties of the real waste slurry. The filter modules were full scale items, being 2.44 m (8') in length and containing 241 by 1.3 cm (1/2'') id sintered stainless steel filter tubes. (authors)

  4. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals with an emphasis on immobilization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan Nejad, Zahra; Jung, Myung Chae; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-06-01

    The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s. Besides, the immobilization technique in contaminated soils is evaluated through the manipulation of the bioavailability of heavy metals using a range of soil amendment conditions. This technique is expected to efficiently alleviate the risk of groundwater contamination, plant uptake, and exposure to other living organisms. The efficacy of several amendments (e.g., red mud, biochar, phosphate rock) has been examined to emphasize the need for the simultaneous measurement of leaching and the phytoavailability of heavy metals. In addition, some amendments that are used in this technique are inexpensive and readily available in large quantities because they have been derived from bio-products or industrial by-products (e.g., biochar, red mud, and steel slag). Among different amendments, iron-rich compounds and biochars show high efficiency to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils. Thereupon, immobilization technique can be considered a preferable option as it is inexpensive and easily applicable to large quantities of contaminants derived from various sources.

  5. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  6. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Huckaby, James L.; Cooley, Scott K.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Anderson, K. K.

    2011-08-01

    The Hanford Site in Washington State manages 177 underground storage tanks containing approximately 250,000 m3 of waste generated during past defense reprocessing and waste management operations. These tanks contain a mixture of sludge, saltcake and supernatant liquids. The insoluble sludge fraction of the waste consists of metal oxides and hydroxides and contains the bulk of many radionuclides such as the transuranic components and 90Sr. The saltcake, generated by extensive evaporation of aqueous solutions, consists primarily of dried sodium salts. The supernates consist of concentrated (5-15 M) aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium salts. The 177 storage tanks include 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double -hell tanks (DSTs). Ultimately the wastes need to be retrieved from the tanks for treatment and disposal. The SSTs contain minimal amounts of liquid wastes, and the Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to interim storage in the DSTs. The Hanford DST system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s (ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP is being designed and constructed to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks.

  7. Immobilization thresholds of electrofishing relative to fish size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C.R.; Miranda, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    Fish size and electrical waveforms have frequently been associated with variation in electrofishing effectiveness. Under controlled laboratory conditions, we measured the electrical power required by five electrical waveforms to immobilize eight fish species of diverse sizes and shapes. Fish size was indexed by total body length, surface area, volume, and weight; shape was indexed by the ratio of body length to body depth. Our objectives were to identify immobilization thresholds, elucidate the descriptors of fish size that were best associated with those immobilization thresholds, and determine whether the vulnerability of a species relative to other species remained constant across electrical treatments. The results confirmed that fish size is a key variable controlling the immobilization threshold and further suggested that the size descriptor best related to immobilization is fish volume. The peak power needed to immobilize fish decreased rapidly with increasing fish volume in small fish but decreased slowly for fish larger than 75-100 cm 3. Furthermore, when we controlled for size and shape, different waveforms did not favor particular species, possibly because of the overwhelming effect of body size. Many of the immobilization inconsistencies previously attributed to species might simply represent the effect of disparities in body size.

  8. Immobilization of yeast cells by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, T.; Kaetsu, I.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization method was applied to the immobilization of yeast cells. The effects of irradiation, cooling and monomer, which are neccessary for polymerization, were recovered completely by subsequent aerobical incubation of yeast cells. The ethanol productive in immobilized yeast cells increased with the increase of aerobical incubation period. The growth of yeast cells in immobilized yeast cells was indicated. The maximum ethanol productivity in immobilized yeast cell system was around three times as much as that in free yeast cell system. (orig.)

  9. The Continued Need for Modeling and Scaled Testing to Advance the Hanford Tank Waste Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, Loni M.; Fort, James A.; Rector, David R.

    2013-09-03

    Hanford tank wastes are chemically complex slurries of liquids and solids that can exhibit changes in rheological behavior during retrieval and processing. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) recently abandoned its planned approach to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) supported by testing at less than full scale to verify the design of vessels that process these wastes within the plant. The commercial CFD tool selected was deemed too difficult to validate to the degree necessary for use in the design of a nuclear facility. Alternative, but somewhat immature, CFD tools are available that can simulate multiphase flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Yet both CFD and scaled testing can play an important role in advancing the Hanford tank waste mission—in supporting the new verification approach, which is to conduct testing in actual plant vessels; in supporting waste feed delivery, where scaled testing is ongoing; as a fallback approach to design verification if the Full Scale Vessel Testing Program is deemed too costly and time-consuming; to troubleshoot problems during commissioning and operation of the plant; and to evaluate the effects of any proposed changes in operating conditions in the future to optimize plant performance.

  10. Ceramic membrane microfilter as an immobilized enzyme reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, T J; Gainer, J L; Kirwan, D J

    1992-10-01

    This study investigated the use of a ceramic microfilter as an immobilized enzyme reactor. In this type of reactor, the substrate solution permeates the ceramic membrane and reacts with an enzyme that has been immobilized within its porous interior. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of permeation rate on the observed kinetic parameters for the immobilized enzyme in order to assess possible mass transfer influences or shear effects. Kinetic parameters were found to be independent of flow rate for immobilized penicillinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Therefore, neither mass transfer nor shear effects were observed for enzymes immobilized within the ceramic membrane. Both the residence time and the conversion in the microfilter reactor could be controlled simply by regulating the transmembrane pressure drop. This study suggests that a ceramic microfilter reactor can be a desirable alternative to a packed bed of porous particles, especially when an immobilized enzyme has high activity and a low Michaelis constant.

  11. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniwati Dali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum temperature, thermal stability and reusability were carried out. The results showed that free lipase had optimum pH 8,2 and optimum temperature 35 °C while the immobilized lipase had optimum 8,2 and optimum temperature 45 °C. The thermal stability of the immobilized lipase, relative to that of the free lipase, was markedly increased. The immobilized lipase can be reused for at least six times.

  12. Analysis of the Relationship between Risk Perception and Willingness to Pay for Nuclear Power Plant Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of new technologies, more risk is introduced into modern society. Important decisions about new technologies tend to be made by specialists, which can lead to a mismatch of risk perception between citizens and specialists, resulting in high social cost. Using contingent valuation methods, this paper analyzes the relationship between willingness to pay (WTP and the factors expressed through people’s image of nuclear power plants (NPP, their perception of NPP safety, and how these can be affected by their scientific background level. Results indicate that groups with a high scientific background level tend to have low risk perception level, represented through their image and safety levels. Further, the results show that mean WTP is dependent on scientific background and image levels. It is believed that these results could help decision makers address the mismatch of trust between the public and specialists in terms of new policy.

  13. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    the V° requirements or the V* requirements. Haider (1993, p. 62) and Koopman (1995), who also discuss such immobile verbs, only account for verbs with two prefix-like parts (e.g., German uraufführen ‘to perform (a play) for the first time' or Dutch herinvoeren ‘to reintroduce'), not for the more...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian....

  14. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  15. Immobilization of thorium over fibroin by polyacrylonitrile (PAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, M.A.A.; Akyil, S.; Eral, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a process for immobilization of thorium over fibroin, which was used as a bio-adsorbant, by polyacrylonitrile. The amounts of thorium in aqueous solutions which may be leached in various aqueous ambients were detected by a spectrophotometer. The results show that polyacrylonitrile processes are feasible to immobilize spent fibroins. The leachability of the materials immobilized with polyacrylonitrile can meet the requirements of storage and final disposal. The leachability of thorium ions from immobilized spent fibroin was rather low for 8 months

  16. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  17. Immobilization of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanqiu; Tu, Baojun

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were immobilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate. The immobilization conditions and ammonia oxidation ability of the immobilized bacteria were investigated. The following immobilization conditions were observed to be optimal: PVA, 12%; sodium alginate, 1.1%; calcium chloride, 1.0%; inoculum concentration, 1.3 immobilized balls/mL of immobilized medium; pH, 10; and temperature, 30°C. The immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria exhibited strong ammonia oxidation ability even after being recycled four times. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate of the immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria reached 90.30% under the optimal immobilization conditions. When compared with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria immobilized by sodium alginate alone, the bacteria immobilized by PVA and sodium alginate were superior with respect to pH resistance, the number of reuses, material cost, heat resistance, and ammonia oxidation ability. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation technology for immobilization of bioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Within the framework of the Agency's coordinated research programme on ''Application of Radiation Technology in Immobilization of Bioactive Materials'', the third and final research coordination meeting was held at Beijing University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 15-18 June 1987. The present publication compiles all presentations made at the meeting. Fundamental processes for the immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, cells and drugs were developed and established using gamma radiation, electron beams and plasma discharge. Applications of various biofunctional components, immobilized by radiation techniques in different processes, were studied. A range of backbone polymers has been examined together with various monomers. Coupling procedures have been developed which are relevant to our particular requirements. Enzymes of various types and characteristics have been immobilized with considerable efficiency. The immobilized biocatalysts have been shown to possess significant activity and retention of activity on storage. There appears to be a high degree of specificity associated with the properties of the immobilised biocatalysts, their activity and the ease of their preparation. Novel additives which lower the total radiation dose in grafting have been discovered and their value in immobilization processes assessed. Potential applications include: medical (diagnostic, therapeutic), and industrial processes (fermentation, bioseparation, etc.). Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Thermal stability of the immobilized fructosyltransferase from Rhodotorula sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Aguiar-Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal stability of the extracellular fructosyltransferase (FTase from Rhodotorula sp., recovered from cultivation medium by ethanol precipitation and immobilized onto niobium ore, was studied by Arrhenius plot, half - life profile, half - inactivation temperature (T50 and thermodynamic parameters. The Arrhenius plot showed two different behaviors with different deactivation energies (Ead only after immobilization, the transition occurring in the temperature interval between 51 and 52ºC. T50 for the free enzyme was estimated to be around 62ºC and, after immobilization, 66ºC. After 15 minutes at 52ºC, it was also possible to observe enzymatic activation for both the free and immobilized forms, but greater activation was achieved at pH 4.5 with the immobilized enzyme. Between 47 - 51ºC the immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme, with pH 6.0 being the more stable condition for the immobilized enzyme. However, above 52ºC the free form was more stable.

  20. Application of magnetic nanoparticles in smart enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghari, Hamideh; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Mohammadlou, Mojgan; Berenjian, Aydin; Anarjan, Navideh; Jafari, Nahideh; Nasiri, Shahin

    2016-02-01

    Immobilization of enzymes enhances their properties for efficient utilization in industrial processes. Magnetic nanoparticles, due to their high surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio and easy separation under external magnetic fields, are highly valued. Significant progress has been made to develop new catalytic systems that are immobilized onto magnetic nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of recent developments in enzyme immobilization and stabilization protocols using this technology. The current applications of immobilized enzymes based on magnetic nanoparticles are summarized and future growth prospects are discussed. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  1. Mineralization-immobilization and plant uptake of nitrogen as influenced by the spatial distribution of cattle slurry in soils of different texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of incorporating cattle slurry in soil, either by mixing or by simulated injection into a hollow in soil, on the ryegrass uptake of total N and (NH4+)-N-15-N was determined in three soils of different textrue. The N accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) from slurry N...... and from an equivalent amount of NH4+-N in ((NH4)-N-15) SO4 (control) was measured during 6 months of growth in pots. After this period the total recovery of labelled N in the top soil plus herbage was similar in the slurry and the control treatments. This indicated that gaseous losses from slurry NH4+-N...... were insignificant. Consequently, the availability of slurry N to plants was mainly influenced by the mineralization-immobilization processes. The apparent utilization of slurry NH4+-N mixed into soil was 7%, 14% and 24% lower than the utilization of (NH4)(2)SO4-N in a sand soil, a sandy loam soil...

  2. Preparation and characterization of immobilized lipase on magnetic hydrophobic microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Bai, Shu; Sun, Yan

    2003-01-01

    H for the immobilized CCL were determined. Activity amelioration of the immobilized CCL for the hydrolysis of olive oil was observed, indicating an interfacial activation of the enzyme after immobilization. Moreover, the immobilized CCL showed enhanced thermal stability and good durability in the repeated use after...

  3. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  4. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaseem, Q Kh; Almasoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M; Al-Hobaib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185Bq/L (5pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2-18Bq/m(3) and 70-1000nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3mSv which is below the 1mSv limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto sensor chips to study their interactions with proteins and pectins by SPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrelot, Aude A., E-mail: aude.watrelot@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d’Origine Végétale, Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon (France); Université d’Avignon, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale, F-84000 Avignon (France); Tran, Dong Tien [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (UMR-CNRS 5255), 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie (IECB), 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France); Buffeteau, Thierry [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (UMR-CNRS 5255), 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Deffieux, Denis [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (UMR-CNRS 5255), 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie (IECB), 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Flavanol-macromolecule interactions were determined using SPR. • Flavanols were chemically modified with a linker bearing a thiol group. • Flavanols were immobilized onto a carboxymethyl dextran surface. • Citrus pectin interacted more with flavanols than apple pectin. • Epicatechin interacted more with BSA than flavanol oligomer. - Abstract: Interactions between plant polyphenols and biomacromolecules such as proteins and pectins have been studied by several methods in solution (e.g. isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and spectrophotometry). Herein, these interactions were investigated in real time by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis after immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto a sensor chip surface. (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers with an average degree of polymerization of 2 and 8 were chemically modified using N-(2-(tritylthio)ethyl)propiolamide in order to introduce a spacer unit onto the catecholic B ring. Modified flavan-3-ols were then immobilized onto a carboxymethylated dextran surface (CM5). Immobilization was validated and further verified by evaluating flavan-3-ol interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), poly-L-proline or commercial pectins. BSA was found to have a stronger association with monomeric flavan-3-ols than oligomers. SPR analysis of selected flavan-3-ols immobilized onto CM5 sensor chips showed a stronger association for citrus pectins than apple pectins, regardless of flavan-3-ol degree of polymerization.

  6. Immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto sensor chips to study their interactions with proteins and pectins by SPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrelot, Aude A.; Tran, Dong Tien; Buffeteau, Thierry; Deffieux, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flavanol-macromolecule interactions were determined using SPR. • Flavanols were chemically modified with a linker bearing a thiol group. • Flavanols were immobilized onto a carboxymethyl dextran surface. • Citrus pectin interacted more with flavanols than apple pectin. • Epicatechin interacted more with BSA than flavanol oligomer. - Abstract: Interactions between plant polyphenols and biomacromolecules such as proteins and pectins have been studied by several methods in solution (e.g. isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and spectrophotometry). Herein, these interactions were investigated in real time by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis after immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto a sensor chip surface. (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers with an average degree of polymerization of 2 and 8 were chemically modified using N-(2-(tritylthio)ethyl)propiolamide in order to introduce a spacer unit onto the catecholic B ring. Modified flavan-3-ols were then immobilized onto a carboxymethylated dextran surface (CM5). Immobilization was validated and further verified by evaluating flavan-3-ol interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), poly-L-proline or commercial pectins. BSA was found to have a stronger association with monomeric flavan-3-ols than oligomers. SPR analysis of selected flavan-3-ols immobilized onto CM5 sensor chips showed a stronger association for citrus pectins than apple pectins, regardless of flavan-3-ol degree of polymerization.

  7. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dali, Seniwati; Patong, A. B. D. Rauf; Jalaluddin, M. Noor; Pirman; Hamzah, Baharuddin

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum ...

  8. Polymer-assisted iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle immobilized keratinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Karak, Niranjan [Advanced Polymer and Nanomaterial Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Tezpur-784028, Assam (India); Rai, Sudhir Kumar; Mukherjee, Ashis Kumar [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur-784028, Assam (India)], E-mail: karakniranjan@yahoo.com

    2009-06-03

    Nanotechnology holds the prospect for avant-garde changes to improve the performance of materials in various sectors. The domain of enzyme biotechnology is no exception. Immobilization of industrially important enzymes onto nanomaterials, with improved performance, would pave the way to myriad application-based commercialization. Keratinase produced by Bacillus subtilis was immobilized onto poly(ethylene glycol)-supported Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The optimization process showed that the highest enzyme activity was noted when immobilized onto cyanamide-activated PEG-assisted MNP prepared under conditions of 25 deg. C and pH 7.2 of the reaction mixture before addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (3% w/w), 2% (w/v) PEG{sub 6000} and 0.062:1 molar ratio of PEG to FeCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O. Further statistical optimization using response surface methodology yielded an R{sup 2} value that could explain more than 94% of the sample variations. Along with the magnetization studies, the immobilization of the enzyme onto the PEG-assisted MNP was characterized by UV, XRD, FTIR and TEM. The immobilization process had resulted in an almost fourfold increase in the enzyme activity over the free enzyme. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme exhibited a significant thermostability, storage stability and recyclability. The leather-industry-oriented application of the immobilized enzyme was tested for the dehairing of goat-skin.

  9. Polymer-assisted iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle immobilized keratinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Karak, Niranjan; Rai, Sudhir Kumar; Mukherjee, Ashis Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds the prospect for avant-garde changes to improve the performance of materials in various sectors. The domain of enzyme biotechnology is no exception. Immobilization of industrially important enzymes onto nanomaterials, with improved performance, would pave the way to myriad application-based commercialization. Keratinase produced by Bacillus subtilis was immobilized onto poly(ethylene glycol)-supported Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The optimization process showed that the highest enzyme activity was noted when immobilized onto cyanamide-activated PEG-assisted MNP prepared under conditions of 25 deg. C and pH 7.2 of the reaction mixture before addition of H 2 O 2 (3% w/w), 2% (w/v) PEG 6000 and 0.062:1 molar ratio of PEG to FeCl 2 ·4H 2 O. Further statistical optimization using response surface methodology yielded an R 2 value that could explain more than 94% of the sample variations. Along with the magnetization studies, the immobilization of the enzyme onto the PEG-assisted MNP was characterized by UV, XRD, FTIR and TEM. The immobilization process had resulted in an almost fourfold increase in the enzyme activity over the free enzyme. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme exhibited a significant thermostability, storage stability and recyclability. The leather-industry-oriented application of the immobilized enzyme was tested for the dehairing of goat-skin.

  10. Polymer-assisted iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle immobilized keratinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Karak, Niranjan; Rai, Sudhir Kumar; Mukherjee, Ashis Kumar

    2009-06-01

    Nanotechnology holds the prospect for avant-garde changes to improve the performance of materials in various sectors. The domain of enzyme biotechnology is no exception. Immobilization of industrially important enzymes onto nanomaterials, with improved performance, would pave the way to myriad application-based commercialization. Keratinase produced by Bacillus subtilis was immobilized onto poly(ethylene glycol)-supported Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The optimization process showed that the highest enzyme activity was noted when immobilized onto cyanamide-activated PEG-assisted MNP prepared under conditions of 25 °C and pH 7.2 of the reaction mixture before addition of H2O2 (3% w/w), 2% (w/v) PEG6000 and 0.062:1 molar ratio of PEG to FeCl2·4H2O. Further statistical optimization using response surface methodology yielded an R2 value that could explain more than 94% of the sample variations. Along with the magnetization studies, the immobilization of the enzyme onto the PEG-assisted MNP was characterized by UV, XRD, FTIR and TEM. The immobilization process had resulted in an almost fourfold increase in the enzyme activity over the free enzyme. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme exhibited a significant thermostability, storage stability and recyclability. The leather-industry-oriented application of the immobilized enzyme was tested for the dehairing of goat-skin.

  11. Contract Audits: Role in Helping Ensure Effective Oversight and Reducing Improper Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    the risk of improper paymen Department of Energy (DOE). DOE’s internal controls over payments to its Waste Treatment Plant ( WTP ) contractor did not...provide reasonab assurance against the risk of improper payments, particularly given the WTP project’s substantial inherent risks. 18 Several factors...DCAA and the contractor, with little oversight of its own, exposed the hundreds of millions of dolla spent annually on the WTP project to an

  12. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jiali; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove 241 Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting 241 Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb 241 Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of 241 Am was removed from 241 Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of 241 Am. At this time, the total adsorption of 241 Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed 241 Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO 3

  13. Technologies for immobilization and disposal of tritium; Tecnologias para inmobilizacion y disposicion de tritio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppari, N R [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    This study was done within a program one of whose objectives was to know the state of the technology development for tritium separation in the moderator circuit at HWR and to define the possible technologies to be applied to the Argentine nuclear power plants. Within this framework the strategies adopted by each country and the available technologies for a safe disposal of tritium, not only in its gaseous state tritium but also as tritiated water were analyzed. It is considered that if the selected separation method is such that the tritium is in its gaseous state, the hydride formation for long periods of immobilization should be studied. whereas if it were triated water immobilization should be studied to choose the technology between cementation and drying agents, in both cases the final disposal site will have to be selected. (author). 8 refs.

  14. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-10-14

    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  15. Halloysite Clay Nanotubes for Enzyme Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Joshua; Yendluri, Raghuvara; Lvov, Yuri

    2016-02-08

    Halloysite clay is an aluminosilicate nanotube formed by rolling flat sheets of kaolinite clay. They have a 15 nm lumen, 50-70 nm external diameter, length of 0.5-1 μm, and different inside/outside chemistry. Due to these nanoscale properties, they are used for loading, storage, and controlled release of active chemical agents, including anticorrosions, biocides, and drugs. We studied the immobilization in halloysite of laccase, glucose oxidase, and lipase. Overall, negatively charged proteins taken above their isoelectric points were mostly loaded into the positively charged tube's lumen. Typical tube loading with proteins was 6-7 wt % from which one-third was released in 5-10 h and the other two-thirds remained, providing enhanced biocatalysis in nanoconfined conditions. Immobilized lipase showed enhanced stability at acidic pH, and the optimum pH shifted to more alkaline pH. Immobilized laccase was more stable with respect to time, and immobilized glucose oxidase showed retention of enzymatic activity up to 70 °C, whereas the native sample was inactive.

  16. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-01-01

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  17. Disposition of surplus fissile materials via immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Danker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cold War aftermath, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, the USDOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One disposition alternative being considered is immobilization. Immobilization is a process in which surplus Pu would be embedded in a suitable material to produce an appropriate form for ultimate disposal. To arrive at an appropriate form, we first reviewed published information on HLW immobilization technologies to identify forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine promising technologies for Pu immobilization. We further evaluated the most promising immobilization families to identify and seek solutions for chemical, chemical engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems; these problems remain to be solved before we can make technical decisions about the viability of using the forms for long-term disposition of Pu. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in Summer of 1996

  18. Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens immobilized in sterile granular sludge in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fea upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After......, but where the acetate concentration was low this strain was immobilized on support material as single cells or small clumps, The data clearly show that the two aceticlastic methanogens immobilize differently in UASB systems, depending on the conditions found throughout the UASB reactor....

  19. Fouling-induced enzyme immobilization for membrane reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2013-01-01

    A simple enzyme immobilization method accomplished by promoting membrane fouling formation is proposed. The immobilization method is based on adsorption and entrapment of the enzymes in/on the membrane. To evaluate the concept, two membrane orientations, skin layer facing feed (normal mode......, but the reverse mode allowed for higher enzyme loading and stability, and irreversible fouling (i.e. pore blocking) developed more readily in the support structure than in the skin layer. Compared with an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) with free enzymes, the novel EMR with enzymes immobilized in membrane......) and support layer facing feed (reverse mode), were used to immobilize alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.3), respectively. The nature of the fouling in each mode was determined by filtration fouling models. The permeate flux was larger in the normal mode...

  20. Drug immobilization of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaster, D.P.; Faro, J.B.; Estes, J.A.; Taggart, James; Zabel, C.

    1981-01-01

    Five out of nine walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) were successfully immobilized at Round Island, Alaska, in May of 1978 by combinations of phencyclidine hydrochloride and acepromazine hydrochloride. A crossbow was an effective delivery technique. Walruses that had recently hauled out were more suitable for immobilization than well-rested animals. Care was taken to prevent walruses from overheating or suffocating.

  1. b-GALACTOSIDASE IMMOBILIZATION ON CONTROLLED PORE SILICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Trevisan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of b -galactosidase from Kluyveromyces fragilis on controlled pore silica was investigated. Immobilization was performed on amino silica activated with glutaraldehyde and the product was applied to the hydrolysis of lactose of whey. The behaviors of the soluble and immobilized enzyme were compared by using whey and a lactose solution as the substrate. With the aim of optimizing the method, parameters such as the amount of glutaraldehyde and the size of the particles were evaluated by comparing activities and stabilities on batch and continuously fluidized bed reactors

  2. Immobilization of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Compounds: A Synthetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Lindhorst, Anja C; Groche, Florian J; Kühn, Fritz E

    2017-02-08

    Over the course of the past 15 years the success story of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compounds in organic, inorganic, and organometallic chemistry has been extended to another dimension. The immobilization of NHC compounds, undergoing continuous diversification, broadens their range of applications and leads to new solutions for challenges in catalytic and synthetic chemistry. This review intends to present a synthetic toolkit for the immobilization of NHC compounds, giving the reader an overview on synthetic techniques and strategies available in the literature. By individually summarizing and assessing the synthetic steps of the immobilization process, a comprehensive picture of the strategies and methodologies for the immobilization of NHC compounds is presented. Furthermore, the characterization of supported NHC compounds is discussed in detail in order to set up necessary criteria for an in-depth analysis of the immobilized derivatives. Finally, the catalytic applications of immobilized NHC compounds are briefly reviewed to illustrate the practical use of this technique for a broad variety of reaction types.

  3. Insulin action in human thighs after one-legged immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Mizuno, M.

    1989-01-01

    Insulin action was assessed in thighs of five healthy young males who had one knee immobilized for 7 days by a splint. The splint was not worn in bed. Subjects also used crutches to prevent weight bearing of the immobilized leg. Immobilization decreased the activity of citrate synthase and 3-OH......-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase in the vastus lateralis muscle by 9 and 14%, respectively, and thigh volume by 5%. After 7 days of immobilization, a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was performed. Insulin action on glucose uptake and tyrosine release...... of the thighs at mean plasma insulin concentrations of 67 (clamp step I) and 447 microU/ml (clamp step II) was decreased by immobilization, whereas immobilization did not affect insulin action on thigh exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, O2, or potassium. Before and during the clamp step I, lactate release...

  4. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  5. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  6. Dependence of protein binding capacity of dimethylamino-γ-butyric-acid (DMGABA)-immobilized porous membrane on composition of solvent used for DMGABA immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanade, Akio; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugo, Takanobu

    2013-01-01

    Dimethylamino-γ-butyric acid (DMGABA) as an ampholite was reacted with the epoxy group of the poly-glycidyl methacrylate chain grafted onto the pore surface of a porous hollow-fiber polyethylene membrane by radiation-induced graft polymerization. DMGABA was dissolved in a mixture of dioxane and water at various dioxane volume fractions, defined by dividing the dioxane volume by the total volume. The equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) of the DMGABA-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane for lysozyme was evaluated in the permeation mode. The EBC was varied from a 1/50-fold monolayer binding capacity to a 10-fold monolayer binding capacity by controlling the composition of the solvent used for DMGABA immobilization and the molar conversion of the epoxy group into the DMGABA group. - Highlights: ► A DMGABA membrane was immobilized by irradiation induced graft polymerization. ► The DMGABA was immobilized in a mixture of dioxane and water of various compositions. ► Lysozyme adsorptivity of DMGABA-immobilized membranes evaluated in the permeation mode. ► The composition of the DMGABA immobilized solvent can control adsorptivity

  7. Preparation of immobilized growing cells and enzymatic hydrolysis of sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1984-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cells were immobilized by radiation polymerization using porous materials such as non-woven material and sawdust, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of sawdust with the enzyme solution from the immobilized growing cells was studied. The filter paper activity, which shows the magnitude of cellulase production in the immobilized cells, was comparable with that in the intact cells. The filter paper activity was affected by addition concentration of monomer and porous materials. The cells in the immobilized cells grew to be adhered on the surface of the fibrous polymers. Sawdust, which was pretreated by irradiation technique, was effectively hydrolyzed with the enzyme solution resulting from the culture of the immobilized cells, in which the glucose yield increased increasing the culture time of the immobilized cells. (author)

  8. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  9. Screening of supports for immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robison Scherer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to report the performance of different supports for the immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase. The immobilization tests were carried out in several types of Accurel, activated alumina, kaolin, montmorillonite, ion exchange resins and zeolites. The characterization of the supports showed differences in terms of specific area and morphology. The characteristics of the supports influenced the amount of enzyme adsorbed, yield of immobilization and esterification activity of the resulting immobilized catalyst. The clays KSF and natural and pillared montmorillonites presented potential for use as support for lipase immobilization in terms of yield and esterification activity. Yields of immobilization of 76.32 and 52.01% were achieved for clays KSF and natural montmorillonite, respectively. Esterification activities of 754.03, 595.51, 591.88 and 515.71 U.g-1 were obtained for lipases immobilized in Accurel MP-100, Amberlite XAD-2, mordenite and pillared montmorillonite, respectively.

  10. Occurrences and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water and water/sewage treatment plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Tsang, Yiu Fai

    2017-10-15

    In recent years, many of micropollutants have been widely detected because of continuous input of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment and newly developed state-of-the-art analytical methods. PPCP residues are frequently detected in drinking water sources, sewage treatment plants (STPs), and water treatment plants (WTPs) due to their universal consumption, low human metabolic capability, and improper disposal. When partially metabolized PPCPs are transferred into STPs, they elicit negative effects on biological treatment processes; therefore, conventional STPs are insufficient when it comes to PPCP removal. Furthermore, the excreted metabolites may become secondary pollutants and can be further modified in receiving water bodies. Several advanced treatment systems, including membrane filtration, granular activated carbon, and advanced oxidation processes, have been used for the effective removal of individual PPCPs. This review covers the occurrence patterns of PPCPs in water environments and the techniques adopted for their treatment in STP/WTP unit processes operating in various countries. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the removal and fate of PPCPs in different treatment facilities as well as the optimum methods for their elimination in STP and WTP systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of fungal laccase immobilized on natural nanostructured bacterial cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eChen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of using native bacterial nanocellulose (BC as a carrier for laccase immobilization. BC was synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which was statically cultivated in a mannitol-based medium and was freeze-dried to form BC sponge after purification. For the first time, fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on the native nanofibril network-structured BC sponge through physical adsorption and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The properties including morphologic and structural features of the BC as well as the immobilized enzyme were thoroughly investigated. It was found that enzyme immobilized by cross-linking exhibited broader pH operation range of high catalytic activity as well as higher running stability compared to free and adsorbed enzyme. Using ABTS as substrate, the optimum pH value was 3.5 for the adsorption-immobilized laccase and 4.0 for the crosslinking-immobilized laccase. The immobilized enzyme retained 69% of the original activity after being recycled 7 times. Novel applications of the BC-immobilized enzyme tentatively include active packaging, construction of biosensors, and establishment of bioreactors.

  12. Utility Estimation of the Manufactured Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ahn, Jong Ho; Seo, Jeong Min; Shin, Eun Hyeak; Choi, Byeong Gi; Song, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    Immobilizations used in order to maintain the reproducibility of a patient set-up and the stable posture for a long period are important more than anything else for the accurate treatment when the stereotactic body radiotherapy is underway. So the purpose of this study is to adapt the optimum immobilizations for the stereotactic body radiotherapy by comparing two commercial immobilizations with the self-manufactured immobilizations. Five people were selected for the experiment and three different immobilizations (A: Wing-board, B: BodyFix system, C: Arm up holder with vac-lock) were used to each target. After deciding on the target's most stable respiratory cycles, the targets were asked to wear a goggle monitor and maintain their respiration regularly for thirty minutes to obtain the respiratory signals. To analyze the respiratory signal, the standard deviation and the variation value of the peak value and the valley value of the respiratory signal were separated by time zone with the self-developed program at the hospital and each tie-downs were compared for the estimation by calculating a comparative index using the above. The stability of each immobilizations were measured in consideration of deviation changes studied in each respiratory time lapse. Comparative indexes of each immobilizations of each experimenter are shown to be A: 11.20, B: 4.87, C: 1.63 / A: 3.94, B: 0.67, C: 0.13 / A: 2.41, B: 0.29, C: 0.04 / A: 0.16, B: 0.19, C: 0.007 / A: 35.70, B: 2.37, C: 1.86. And when all five experimenters wore the immobilizations C, the test proved the most stable value while four people wearing A and one man wearing D expressed relatively the most unstable respiratory outcomes. The self-developed immobilizations, so called the arm up holder vac-lock for the stereotactic body radiotherapy is expected to improve the effect of the treatment by decreasing the intra-fraction organ motions because it keeps the respiration more stable than other two immobilizations

  13. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Khandare, Rahul V. [School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Jadhav, Jyoti P., E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  14. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D.; Khandare, Rahul V.; Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.; Jadhav, Jyoti P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent

  15. Purification-Free, Target-Selective Immobilization of a Protein from Cell Lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaehyun; Kwon, Inchan

    2018-02-27

    Protein immobilization has been widely used for laboratory experiments and industrial processes. Preparation of a recombinant protein for immobilization usually requires laborious and expensive purification steps. Here, a novel purification-free, target-selective immobilization technique of a protein from cell lysates is reported. Purification steps are skipped by immobilizing a target protein containing a clickable non-natural amino acid (p-azidophenylalanine) in cell lysates onto alkyne-functionalized solid supports via bioorthogonal azide-alkyne cycloaddition. In order to achieve a target protein-selective immobilization, p-azidophenylalanine was introduced into an exogenous target protein, but not into endogenous non-target proteins using host cells with amber codon-free genomic DNAs. Immobilization of superfolder fluorescent protein (sfGFP) from cell lysates is as efficient as that of the purified sfGFP. Using two fluorescent proteins (sfGFP and mCherry), the authors also demonstrated that the target proteins are immobilized with a minimal immobilization of non-target proteins (target-selective immobilization). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Cellulase immobilization on superparamagnetic nanoparticles for reuse in cellulosic biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Segato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current cellulosic biomass hydrolysis is based on the one-time use of cellulases. Cellulases immobilized on magnetic nanocarriers offer the advantages of magnetic separation and repeated use for continuous hydrolysis. Most immobilization methods focus on only one type of cellulase. Here, we report co-immobilization of two types of cellulases, β-glucosidase A (BglA and cellobiohydrolase D (CelD, on sub-20 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles demonstrated 100% immobilization efficiency for both BglA and CelD. The total enzyme activities of immobilized BglA and CelD were up to 67.1% and 41.5% of that of the free cellulases, respectively. The immobilized BglA and CelD each retained about 85% and 43% of the initial immobilized enzyme activities after being recycled 3 and 10 times, respectively. The effects of pH and temperature on the immobilized cellulases were also investigated. Co-immobilization of BglA and CelD on MNPs is a promising strategy to promote synergistic action of cellulases while lowering enzyme consumption.

  17. Full-scale effects of addition of sludge from water treatment stations into processes of sewage treatment by conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Marguti André; Sidney Seckler, Ferreira Filho; Passos, Piveli Roque

    2018-06-01

    An emerging practice for water treatment plant (WTP) sludge is its disposal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), an alternative that does not require the installation of sludge treatment facilities in the WTP. This practice can cause both positive and negative impacts in the WWTP processes since the WTP sludge does not have the same characteristics as domestic wastewater. This issue gives plenty of information in laboratory and pilot scales, but lacks data from full-scale studies. The main purpose of this paper is to study the impact of disposing sludge from the Rio Grande conventional WTP into the ABC WWTP, an activated sludge process facility. Both plants are located in São Paulo, Brazil, and are full-scale facilities. The WTP volumetric flow rate (4.5 m³/s) is almost three times that of WWTP (1.6 m³/s). The data used in this study came from monitoring the processes at both plants. The WWTP liquid phase treatment analysis included the variables BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, ammonia, total nitrogen, phosphorus and iron, measured at the inlet, primary effluent, mixed liquor, and effluent. For the WWTP solids treatment, the parameters tested were total and volatile solids. The performance of the WWTP process was analyzed with and without sludge addition: 'without sludge' in years 2005 and 2006 and 'with sludge' from January 2007 to March 2008. During the second period, the WTP sludge addition increased the WWTP removal efficiencies for solids (93%-96%), organic matter (92%-94% for BOD) and phosphorus (52%-88%), when compared to the period 'without sludge'. These improvements can be explained by higher feed concentrations combined to same or lower effluent concentrations in the 'with sludge' period. No critical negative impacts occurred in the sludge treatment facilities, since the treatment units absorbed the extra solids load from the WTP sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently

  19. Fungal laccase: copper induction, semi-purification, immobilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal laccase: copper induction, semi-purification, immobilization, phenolic effluent treatment and electrochemical measurement. ... In order to apply in an effluent treatment, laccase was immobilized on different vitroceramics supports, pyrolytic graphite and also on a carbon fiber electrode as biosensor. The maximum ...

  20. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  1. Increase in stability of cellulase immobilized on functionalized magnetic nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenjuan [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Akita 015-0055 (Japan); Qiu, Jianhui, E-mail: qiu@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Akita 015-0055 (Japan); Feng, Huixia [College of Petrochemical Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zang, Limin; Sakai, Eiichi [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Akita 015-0055 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanospheres were prepared by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate with three different amino-silanes: 3-(2-aminoethylamino propyl)-triethoxysilane (AEAPTES), 3-(2-aminoethylamino propyl)-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMES) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then three functionalized magnetic nanospheres were used as supports for immobilization of cellulase. The three functionalized magnetic nanospheres with core–shell morphologies exhibited higher capacity for cellulase immobilization than unfunctionalized magnetic nanospheres. The increasing of surface charge of functionalized magnetic nanospheres leads to an enhancement of the capacity of cellulase immobilization. Particularly, AEAPTMES with methoxy groups was favored to be hydrolyzed and grafted on unfunctionalized magnetic nanospheres than the others. AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres with the highest zeta potential (29 mV) exhibited 87% activity recovery and the maximum amount of immobilized cellulase was 112 mg/g support at concentration of initial cellulase of 8 mg/mL. Immobilized cellulase on AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres had higher temperature stability and broader pH stability than other immobilized cellulases and free cellulase. In particular, it can be used in about 40 °C, demonstrating the potential of biofuel production using this immobilized cellulase. - Highlights: • Three Amino-silane modified magnetic nanospheres were prepared. • Cellulase immobilized AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres had higher temperature stability and broader pH stability than free cellulase. • The potential of biofuel production using this immobilized cellulase.

  2. Increase in stability of cellulase immobilized on functionalized magnetic nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Qiu, Jianhui; Feng, Huixia; Zang, Limin; Sakai, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanospheres were prepared by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate with three different amino-silanes: 3-(2-aminoethylamino propyl)-triethoxysilane (AEAPTES), 3-(2-aminoethylamino propyl)-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMES) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then three functionalized magnetic nanospheres were used as supports for immobilization of cellulase. The three functionalized magnetic nanospheres with core–shell morphologies exhibited higher capacity for cellulase immobilization than unfunctionalized magnetic nanospheres. The increasing of surface charge of functionalized magnetic nanospheres leads to an enhancement of the capacity of cellulase immobilization. Particularly, AEAPTMES with methoxy groups was favored to be hydrolyzed and grafted on unfunctionalized magnetic nanospheres than the others. AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres with the highest zeta potential (29 mV) exhibited 87% activity recovery and the maximum amount of immobilized cellulase was 112 mg/g support at concentration of initial cellulase of 8 mg/mL. Immobilized cellulase on AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres had higher temperature stability and broader pH stability than other immobilized cellulases and free cellulase. In particular, it can be used in about 40 °C, demonstrating the potential of biofuel production using this immobilized cellulase. - Highlights: • Three Amino-silane modified magnetic nanospheres were prepared. • Cellulase immobilized AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres had higher temperature stability and broader pH stability than free cellulase. • The potential of biofuel production using this immobilized cellulase

  3. Ethanol fermentation by immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, W.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that immobilized yeast cell cultures have commercial potential for fuel ethanol production. In this study the suitability of strains of Z. mobilis for whole cell immobilization was investigated. Experiments revealed that immobilization in Ca-alginate or K-carrageenan gel or use of flocculating strains was effective for ethanol production at relatively high productivities. Two laboratory size reactors were designed and constructed. These were a compartmented multiple discshaft column and a tower fermentor. Results of this work supported other studies that established that growth and fermentation could be uncoupled. The data indicated that specific metabolic rates were dependent on the nature of the fermentation media. The addition of lactobacilli to Z. mobilis continuous fermentations had only a transient effect, and was unlikely to affect an immobilized Z. mobilis process. With 150 gl/sup -1/ glucose media and a Z. mobilis ZM4 immobilized cell reactor, a maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of 55 gl/sup -1/h/sup -1/ was obtained. The fermentation of sucrose media or sucrose-based raw materials (molasses, cane juice, synthetic mill liquor) by immobilized Z. mobilis ZM4 revealed a pattern of rapid sucrose hydrolysis, preferential glucose utilization and the conversion of fructose to the undesirable by-products levan and sorbitol.

  4. Characterization of a frozen shoulder model using immobilization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Hwan; Lee, Kil-Ho; Lho, Yun-Mee; Ha, Eunyoung; Hwang, Ilseon; Song, Kwang-Soon; Cho, Chul-Hyun

    2016-12-08

    The objective of this study was to investigate serial changes for histology of joint capsule and range of motion of the glenohumeral joint after immobilization in rats. We hypothesized that a rat shoulder contracture model using immobilization would be capable of producing effects on the glenohumeral joint similar to those seen in patients with frozen shoulder. Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one control group (n = 8) and seven immobilization groups (n = 8 per group) that were immobilized with molding plaster for 3 days, or for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 weeks. At each time point, eight rats were euthanized for histologic evaluation of the axillary recess and for measurement of the abduction angle. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was found in the synovial tissue until 2 weeks after immobilization. However, inflammatory cells were diminished and fibrosis was dominantly observed in the synovium and subsynovial tissue 3 weeks after immobilization. From 1 week after immobilization, the abduction angle of all immobilization groups at each time point was significantly lower than that of the control group. Our study demonstrated that a rat frozen shoulder model using immobilization generates the pathophysiologic process of inflammation leading to fibrosis on the glenohumeral joint similar to that seen in patients with frozen shoulder. This model was attained within 3 weeks after immobilization. It may serve as a useful tool to investigate pathogenesis at the molecular level and identify potential target genes that are involved in the development of frozen shoulder.

  5. Energy transfer between surface-immobilized light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) studied by surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Rolf; Liu, Jing; Knoll, Wolfgang; Paulsen, Harald

    2010-11-16

    The major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) of the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants can be viewed as a protein scaffold binding and positioning a large number of pigment molecules that combines rapid and efficient excitation energy transfer with effective protection of its pigments from photobleaching. These properties make LHCII potentially interesting as a light harvester (or a model thereof) in photoelectronic applications. Most of such applications would require the LHCII to be immobilized on a solid surface. In a previous study we showed the immobilization of recombinant LHCII on functionalized gold surfaces via a 6-histidine tag (His tag) in the protein moiety. In this work the occurrence and efficiency of Förster energy transfer between immobilized LHCII on a functionalized surface have been analyzed by surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS). A near-infrared dye was attached to some but not all of the LHC complexes, serving as an energy acceptor to chlorophylls. Analysis of the energy transfer from chlorophylls to this acceptor dye yielded information about the extent of intercomplex energy transfer between immobilized LHCII.

  6. A simple and robust approach to immobilization of antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomova, Svetlana P; He, Ziming; Karlsson, Amy J

    2016-08-01

    Antibody fragments, such as the single-chain variable fragment (scFv), have much potential in research and diagnostics because of their antigen-binding ability similar to a full-sized antibody and their ease of production in microorganisms. Some applications of antibody fragments require immobilization on a surface, and we have established a simple immobilization method that is based on the biotin-streptavidin interaction and does not require a separate purification step. We genetically fused two biotinylation tags-the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) or the AviTag minimal sequence-to six different scFvs (scFv13R4, scFvD10, scFv26-10, scFv3, scFv5, and scFv12) for site-specific biotinylation in vivo by endogenous biotin ligases produced by Escherichia coli. The biotinylated scFvs were immobilized onto streptavidin-coated plates directly from cell lysates, and immobilization was detected through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All scFvs fusions were successfully immobilized, and scFvs biotinylated via the BCCP tag tended to immobilize better than those biotinylated via the AviTag, even when biotinylation efficiency was improved with the biotin ligase BirA. The ability of immobilized scFvs to bind antigens was confirmed using scFv13R4 and scFvD10 with their respective targets β-galactosidase and bacteriophage lambda head protein D (gpD). The immobilized scFv13R4 bound to β-galactosidase at the same level for both biotinylation tags when the surface was saturated with the scFv, and immobilized scFvs retained their functionality for at least 100days after immobilization. The simplicity and robustness of our method make it a promising approach for future applications that require antibody fragment immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Corrosion of steel drums containing immobilized ion exchange-resins and incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, F.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.M.; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The intermediate radioactive waste consists mostly in spent ionic exchange resins and filters from the nuclear power plants, research reactors and radioisotopes production facilities. The spent resins, as well as the incineration ashes, have to be immobilized before being stored to improve leach resistance of waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability for safety requirements. Generally, cementation processes have been used as immobilization techniques for economical reasons as well as for being a simple operation. The immobilized resins and incineration ashes are thus contained in steel drums that, in turn, can undergo corrosion depending on the ionic content of the matrix. This work is a