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Sample records for illumination inertially confined

  1. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  2. Inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Edward Teller has been a strong proponent of harnessing nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. There are two approaches: Plowshare, which utilizes macro- explosions, and inertial confinement fusion, which utilizes microexplosions. The development of practical fusion power plants is a principal goal of the inertial program. It is remarkable that Teller's original thermonuclear problem, how to make super high yield nuclear explosions, and the opposite problem, how to make ultra low yield nuclear explosions, may both be solved by Teller's radiation implosion scheme. This paper reports on the essential physics of these two thermonuclear domains, which are separated by nine orders of magnitude in yield, provided by Teller's similarity theorem and its exceptions. Higher density makes possible thermonuclear burn of smaller masses of fuel. The leverage is high: the scale of the explosion diminishes with the square of the increase in density. The extraordinary compressibility of matter, first noticed by Teller during the Los Alamos atomic bomb program, provides an almost incredible opportunity to harness fusion. The energy density of thermonuclear fuels isentropically compressed to super high-- -densities---even to ten thousand times solid density---is small compared to the energy density at thermonuclear ignition temperatures. In small masses of fuel imploded to these super high matter densities, the energy required to achieve ignition may be greatly reduced by exploiting thermonuclear propagation from a relatively small hot spot

  3. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D.; Bussard, R.W.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 * 10 10 neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented

  4. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, J.R.; Del Vecchio, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material

  5. Inertial confinement fusion and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The current state of different approaches (laser fusion, light and heavy ions, electron beam) to the realization of inertial confinement fusion is considered. From comparative analysis a conclusion is made that from the viewpoint of physics, technology, safety, and economics the most realistic way to future energetics is an electric power plant based on a hybrid fission-fusion reactor which consists of an external source of neutrons (based on laser fusion) and a subcritical two-cascade nuclear blanket, which yields the energy under the action of 14 MeV neutrons. The main topics on inertial confinement fusion such as the energy driver, the interaction between plasmas and driver beam, the target design are discussed. New concept of creation of a laser driver for IFE based on generation and amplification of radiation with controllable coherence is reported. The performed studies demonstrate that the laser based on generation and amplification of radiation with controllable coherence (CCR laser) has a number of advantages as compared to conventional schemes of lasers. The carried out experiments have shown a possibility of suppression of small-scale self-focusing, formation of laser radiation pulses with required characteristics, simplification of an optical scheme of the laser, good matching of laser-target system and achievement of homogeneous irradiation and high output laser energy density without using traditional correcting systems (phase plates, adaptive optics, space filters etc.). The results of the latest experiments to reach ultimate energy characteristics of the developed laser system are also reported. Recent results from the experiments aimed at studying of the physical processes in targets under illumination by the laser with controllable coherence of radiation are presented and discussed, especially such important laser-matter interaction phenomena as absorption and scattering of the laser radiation, the laser radiation harmonic generation, X

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Inertial Confinement Fusion: ICF contributions to science and technology; target fabrication; laser-target interaction; KrF laser development; advanced KrF lasers; KrF laser technology; and plasma physics for light-ion program

  7. Hohlraum manufacture for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Gobby, P.; Bartos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Hohlraums are an integral part of indirect drive targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. Hohlraums are made by an electroforming process that combines elements of micromachining and coating technology. The authors describe how these target element are made and extension of the method that allow fabrication of other, more complex target components

  8. Inertial Confinement Fusion at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics on inertial confinement fusion: distribution of electron-beam energy in KrF laser media; electron collision processes in KrF laser media; Krf laser kinetics; and properties of the KrF laser medium

  9. Progress in high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews the progress in laboratory high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF), including ICF capsule physics, high-energy-density science, inertial fusion energy, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and its design of ignition targets and the peta watt laser breakthrough. High power laser, particle beam, and pulsed power facilities around the world have established the new laboratory field of high-energy- density plasma physics and have furthered development of inertial fusion. New capabilities such as those provided by high-brightness peta watt lasers have enabled the study of matter feasible in conditions previously unachievable on earth. Science and technology developed in inertial fusion research have found near-term commercial use and have enabled steady progress toward the goal of fusion ignition and high gain in the laboratory, and have opened up new fields of study for the 21 st century

  10. Inertial confinement: concept and early history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhart, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of inertial confinement is linked to the general theme of energy compression and staging. It is shown how it arose from the ideas and experiments on dynamic pinches towards the end of the fifties and how the important key concept of a linear was further developed during the sixties. THe various attempts at driving linears to speeds in excess of 1 cm/μs are reviewed in chronological order, mentioning the important impetus given to this field by the consideration of laser as a driver. It is concluded that the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is becoming ever richer in possibilities, and the understanding of the physics of high-energy density has reached now a satisfactory level

  11. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  12. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  13. Micromachining of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobby, P.L.; Salzer, L.J.; Day, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Many experiments conducted on today's largest inertial confinement fusion drive lasers require target components with sub-millimeter dimensions, precisions of a micron or less and surface finishes measured in nanometers. For metal and plastic, techniques using direct machining with diamond tools have been developed that yield the desired parts. New techniques that will be discussed include the quick-flip locator, a magnetically held kinematic mount that has allowed the direct machining of millimeter-sized beryllium hemishells whose inside and outside surface are concentric to within 0.25 micron, and an electronic version of a tracer lathe which has produced precise azimuthal variations of less than a micron

  14. Laser drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is the technology that we are developing to access the vast stored energy potential of deuterium fuel located in the world's water supply. This form of fusion is accomplished by compressing and heating small volumes of D-T fuel to very high temperatures (greater than 100M 0 C) and to very high densities (greater than 1000 times the normal liquid density). Under these fuel conditions, a thermonuclear reaction can occur, leading to a net energy release compared to the energy used to heat the fuel initially. To accomplish the condition where fusion reactions begin, effective drivers are required. These are lasers or particle beam accelerators which can provide greater than 10 14 W/cm 2 over millimeter scale targets with an appropriately programmed intensity vs time. At present, we are using research lasers to obtain an understanding of the physics and engineering of fuel compression

  15. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, Robert E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.

  16. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  17. Proton radiography for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, L.; Batani, D. [University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Baton, S.; Perez, F.; Koenig, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS-UPMC, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Nicolai, Ph.; Vauzour, B.; Santos, J. J. [CELIA, University de Bordeaux (France)

    2011-11-15

    Generation of high-intensity and well collimated multi-energetic proton beams from laser-matter interaction extend the possibility for using protons as a diagnostic to image imploding targets in inertial confinement fusion experiments in the framework of the experimental road map of the Hiper project (the European High Power laser Energy Research facility Project). Due to the very large mass densities reached during implosion processes, protons traveling through the target undergo a very large number of collisions which deviate the protons from their original trajectories reducing the proton radiography resolution below our expectations. Here we present a simple analytical model to study the performance of proton radiography as a function of the main experimental parameters, such as the proton beam energies and targets areal density. This approach leads to define two different criteria for proton radiography resolution (called the 'strong' and the 'weak' conditions) describing different experimental conditions. Finally, numerical simulations using both hydrodynamic and Monte Carlo codes are presented to validate the analytical predictions.

  18. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  19. Inertial confinement fusion reactor cavity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Hafer, J.F.; Devaney, J.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cavity phenomena in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are created by the interaction of energy released by the fuel pellet microexplosion with the medium inside the reactor cavity. The ambient state of the medium in ICF reactor cavities is restricted primarily by its effects on laser beam propagation and on the fuel pellet trajectory. Therefore, a relatively wide choice of ambient conditions can be exploited to gain first-wall protection and advantages in energy extraction. Depending on the choice of ambient cavity conditions and on fuel pellet design, a variety of physical phenomena may develop and dominate the ICF reactor cavity design. Because of the cavity phenomena, the forms of energy released by the fuel-pellet microexplosion are modified before reaching the first wall, thus giving rise to different cavity design problems. The types of cavity phenomena encountered in the conceptual design of ICF reactors are examined, the approaches available for their modeling and analysis are discussed, and some results are presented. Most phenomena are sufficiently well understood to permit valid engineering assessments of the proposed ICF reactor concepts

  20. Plan for the development and commercialization of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willke, T.; Dingee, D.; Ault, L.; Bampton, M.; Bickford, W.; Hartman, J.; Rockwood, A.; Simonen, E.; Teofilo, V.; Frank, T.

    1978-01-01

    An engineering development program strategy to take inertial confinement fusion (ICF) from the milestone of scientific feasibility to a point where its commercial viability can be determined is described. The ICF program objectives and basic program strategy are discussed

  1. Design considerations in inertially-confined fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1976-08-01

    This paper discusses the effects of short time pulses of energetic particles and waves typical of inertially-confined thermonuclear reactions on the first wall, blanket and shield of conceptual reactors. Several reactor designs are presented which attempt to cope with the various problems from the microexplosion debris. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on the first-wall problems of laser-initiated, inertially confined fusion reactors using the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle

  2. Definition of Ignition in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopherson, A. R.; Betti, R.

    2017-10-01

    Defining ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an unresolved problem. In ICF, a distinction must be made between the ignition of the hot spot and the propagation of the burn wave in the surrounding dense fuel. Burn propagation requires that the hot spot is robustly ignited and the dense shell exhibits enough areal density. Since most of the energy gain comes from burning the dense shell, in a scale of increasing yields, hot-spot ignition comes before high gains. Identifying this transition from hot-spot ignition to burn-wave propagation is key to defining ignition in general terms applicable to all fusion approaches that use solid DT fuel. Ad hoc definitions such as gain = 1 or doubling the temperature are not generally valid. In this work, we show that it is possible to identify the onset of ignition through a unique value of the yield amplification defined as the ratio of the fusion yield including alpha-particle deposition to the fusion yield without alphas. Since the yield amplification is a function of the fractional alpha energy fα =EαEα 2Ehs 2Ehs (a measurable quantity), it appears possible not only to define ignition but also to measure the onset of ignition by the experimental inference of the fractional alpha energy and yield amplification. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Services under Award Number DE-FC02-04ER54789 and National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  3. Inertial confinement fusion: present status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Power from inertial confinement fusion holds much promise for society. This paper points out many of the benefits relative to combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and fission power. Potential problems are also identified and put in perspective. The progress toward achieving inertial fusion power is described and results of recent work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are presented. Key phenomenological uncertainties are described and experimental goals for the Nova laser system are given. Several ICF reactor designs are discussed

  4. Microencapsulation and fabrication of fuel pellets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, R.L. Jr.; Kool, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Various microencapsulation techniques were evaluated for fabrication of thermonuclear fuel pellets for use in existing experimental facilities studying inertial confinement fusion and in future fusion-power reactors. Coacervation, spray drying, in situ polymerization, and physical microencapsulation methods were employed. Highly spherical, hollow polymeric shells were fabricated ranging in size from 20 to 7000 micron. In situ polymerization microencapsulation with poly(methyl methacrylate) provided large shells, but problems with local wall defects still must be solved. Extension to other polymeric systems met with limited success. Requirements for inertial confinement fusion targets are described, as are the methods that were used

  5. Inertial confinement fusion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindman, E.; Baker, D.; Barnes, C.; Bauer, B.; Beck, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is contributing to the resolution of key issues in the US Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Program and plans to play a strong role in the experimental program at the National Ignition Facility when it is completed

  6. Inertial confinement fusion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindman, E.; Baker, D.; Barnes, C.; Bauer, B.; Beck, J.B. [and others

    1997-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is contributing to the resolution of key issues in the US Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Program and plans to play a strong role in the experimental program at the National Ignition Facility when it is completed.

  7. The sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yuquan.

    1986-01-01

    A sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system is developed based on a physical model similar to that embodied in the laser fusion code MEDUSA. The theory presented here can be an efficient tool for estimating the effects of many alternations in the data field. Our result is different from Greenspan's work in 1980. (author)

  8. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts

  9. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bock, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  10. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bangerter, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bock, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  11. HYLIFE-2 inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-10-04

    The HYLIFE-II inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x-rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-II avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09$/kW{center dot}h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D

    1998-01-01

    The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at http://lasers.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change provided a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated applications. We also

  13. Virtual cathode in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Miley, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (SIEC) was proposed as a fusion device. Its best feature is that confinement scheme does not need any magnetic field. Ion orbits pass through the center of the device, and thus the resulting ion density profile shows strong peaking. On the other hand, electron orbits are sensitive to the electrostatic self-field. Complete solution of particle orbits and of self-field is difficult to obtain. In the present paper steady-state solutions are obtained for two extreme cases. The first case assumes no electron collision, and the second case frequent electron collisions, and thus electrons are described by the Boltzmann law. (M. Tanaka)

  14. Transport of heavy ions in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvazian, A.; Shahbandari Gouchani, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we have investigated the interaction of heavy ions (U) with a target (Au). In inertial confinement fusion method Interaction between heavy ion beam and target was simulated, Numerical analysis of the Boltzmann Fokker Planck equation used in order to optimize the material of the target and Energy deposition of ion beam to electrons and ions of target and The thickness of the target were calculated.

  15. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Godlove, T.F.; Keefe, D.

    1980-03-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators.

  16. Inertial Confinement Fusion R and D and Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R and D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  17. Conceptual design of inertial confinement fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Nakai, Sadao

    1994-01-01

    Presented is the status of the conceptual design studies of inertial confinement fusion reactors. The recent achievements of the laser fusion research enable us to refine the conceptual design of the power plant. In the paper, main features of several new conceptual designs of ICF reactor; KOYO, SIRIUS-P, HYLIFE-II and so on are summarized. In particular, the target design and the reactor chamber design are described. Finally, the overview of the laser fusion reactor and the irradiation system is also described. (author)

  18. Repetitive pulsed power technology for inertial-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.; Buttram, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The pulsed power requirements for inertial-confinement fusion reactors are defined for ion-beam and laser drivers. Several megajoule beams with 100's of terrawatt peak powers must be delivered to the reactor chamber 1 to 10 times per second. Ion-beam drivers are relatively efficient requiring less energy storage in the pulsed-power system but more time compression in the power flow chain than gas lasers. These high peak powers imply very large numbers of components for conventional pulse-power systems. A new design that significantly reduces the number of components is presented

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  20. Non-LTE effects in inertial confinement fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In previous studies of transport processes in inertial confinement fusion target chambers, the radiative properties of the background plasma were calculated under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In this paper, the authors present a study of the equation of state and the radiative properties of high temperature, low-to-moderate density ( 21 cm -3 ) plasmas for the determination of the conditions under which non-LTE effects become important and for an assessment of the importance of non-LTE processes in target chambers during high yield inertial fusion target explosions. For this purpose, two-body (radiative and dielectronic) and three-body (collisional) recombination and de-excitation processes are considered in calculating the steady state ionization and excitation populations. The results of this study indicate that non-LTE processes generally become important at temperatures of > or approx. 1, 10 and 100 eV for plasma densities of 10 18 , 10 19 and 10 21 cm -3 , respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations utilizing the equation of state and the opacities for a non-LTE argon plasma were performed to study the response of a background gas to an inertial fusion target explosion. These calculations indicate that non-LTE processes are often the dominant atomic processes in the background plasma and that they can strongly affect the radiative and shock properties as energy is transported away from the point of the target explosion. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  1. Tritium burning in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Masami, E-mail: onishi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Department of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi; Osawa, Hodaka [Department of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Hatano, Yuji; Torikai, Yuji [Hydrogen Isotope Science Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Murata, Isao [Faculty of Engineering Environment and Energy Department, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamakura, Keita; Onishi, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Keiji; Konda, Hiroki [Department of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hotta, Eiki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An experiment on tritium burning is conducted in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) facility. • A deuterium–tritium gas mixture with 93% deuterium and 7% tritium is used. • The neutron production rate is measured to be 5–8 times more than that of pure deuterium gas. • The neutron production rate of the D–T gas mixture in 1:1 ratio is expected to be more than 10{sup 8}(1/sec) in the present D–T experiment. - Abstract: An experiment on tritium burning is conducted to investigate the enhancement in the neutron production rate in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) facility. The facility is designed such that it is shielded from the outside for safety against tritium and a getter pump is used for evacuating the vacuum chamber and feeding the fuel gas. A deuterium–tritium gas mixture with 93% deuterium and 7% tritium is used, and its neutron production rate is measured to be 5–8 times more than that of pure deuterium gas. Moreover, the results show good agreement with those of a simplified theoretical estimation of the neutron production rate. After tritium burning, the exhausted fuel gas undergoes a tritium recovery procedure through a water bubbler device. The amount of gaseous tritium released by the developed IECF facility after tritium burning is verified to be much less than the threshold set by regulations.

  2. Neutron imaging with bubble chambers for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilea, Marian C.

    One of the main methods to obtain energy from controlled thermonuclear fusion is inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a process where nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that contains deuterium and tritium, relying on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. In inertial confinement fusion experiments, it is important to distinguish failure mechanisms of the imploding capsule and unambiguously diagnose compression and hot spot formation in the fuel. Neutron imaging provides such a technique and bubble chambers are capable of generating higher resolution images than other types of neutron detectors. This thesis explores the use of a liquid bubble chamber to record high yield 14.1 MeV neutrons resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions on ICF experiments. A design tool to deconvolve and reconstruct penumbral and pinhole neutron images was created, using an original ray tracing concept to simulate the neutron images. The design tool proved that misalignment and aperture fabrication errors can significantly decrease the resolution of the reconstructed neutron image. A theoretical model to describe the mechanism of bubble formation was developed. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as active medium was designed and implemented for the OMEGA laser system. High neutron yields resulting from deuterium-tritium capsule implosions were recorded. The bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The research done in here shows that bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  3. A Parallel Boltzmann Simulation for Multi-grid Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is a means of confining a non-neutral, non-Maxwellian plasma with an electric field, with the goal of creating fusion...

  4. Electromagnetic pumping of liquid lithium in inertial confinement fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.; Blink, J.A.; Tessier, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The basic operating principles and geometries of ten electromagnetic pumps are described. Two candidate pumps, the annular-linear-induction pump and the helical-rotor electromagnetic pump, are compared for possible use in a full-scale liquid-lithium inertial confinement fusion reactor. A parametric design study completed for the helical-rotor pump is shown to be valid when applied to an experimental sodium pump. Based upon the preliminary HYLIFE requirements for a lithium flow rate per pump of 8.08 m 3 /s at a head of 82.5 kPa, a complete set of 70 variables are specified for a helical-rotor pump with either a normally conducting or a superconducting winding. The two alternative designs are expected to perform with efficiencies of 50 and 60%, respectively

  5. Overview of defense applications of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.J.; Tobin, M.T.

    1989-08-15

    The objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is to demonstrate a significant fusion capability in the laboratory. The applications of ICF are broad and numerous, ranging from basic and applied science to weapons physics and weapons effects to energy production and eventually space power and propulsion. This paper is limited to a brief summary of the applications of ICF to defense programs, and in particular, the nuclear weapons R D and technology base. While relevant weapons physics experiments are currently conducted using the Nova laser, the ultimate contribution of ICF in this area will be a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) in which fusion yields of 100 to 1000 MJ, provided in a single experimental shot, can be used to attain the near-term applications.

  6. Pierce instability in neutralized inertial confinement fusion ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, D.S.; Cary, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The stability of a charge and current neutralized electron-ion beam propagating between two planar boundaries is investigated. For equipotential boundaries the beam is, as originally shown by Pierce, electrostatically unstable for electron current densities above a certain limiting value. If, however, the electric field at the upstream boundary is required to vanish, there is no instability. An intermediate case, in which the two boundaries are electrically connected with a finite conductivity plasma, corresponds to the proposed use of neutralized light and heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion drivers. Results indicate such beams can propagate either stably or with zero-frequency Pierce instability growth rates which are probably insignificant. lectric currents; boundary conditions; current density; electric fields; plasma;

  7. Fabrication and characterization of cryogenic targets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, H.; Kim, K.

    1979-08-01

    A new technique has been developed which is capable of fabricating uniform cryogenic targets for use in inertial confinement fusion. The essence of the technique is to directly wet a target with a cold helium gas jet, which results in freezing of the DT mixture contained in the target. A controlled amount of current is pulsed through a heater wire surrounding the target, giving rise to fast evaporation and refreezing of the DT-condensate into a uniform layer. Experiments, which have been performed with D 2 -filled glass microshells, successfully produce uniform layers of both liquid and solid D 2 inside the glass shells. A set of data illustrating the technique is presented and analyzed

  8. Computer modeling and simulation in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1989-03-01

    The complex hydrodynamic and transport processes associated with the implosion of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellet place considerable demands on numerical simulation programs. Processes associated with implosion can usually be described using relatively simple models, but their complex interplay requires that programs model most of the relevant physical phenomena accurately. Most hydrodynamic codes used in ICF incorporate a one-fluid, two-temperature model. Electrons and ions are assumed to flow as one fluid (no charge separation). Due to the relatively weak coupling between the ions and electrons, each species is treated separately in terms of its temperature. In this paper we describe some of the major components associated with an ICF hydrodynamics simulation code. To serve as an example we draw heavily on a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code (ORCHID) written at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. 46 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  9. KULL: LLNL's ASCI Inertial Confinement Fusion Simulation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathkopf, J. A.; Miller, D. S.; Owen, J. M.; Zike, M. R.; Eltgroth, P. G.; Madsen, N. K.; McCandless, K. P.; Nowak, P. F.; Nemanic, M. K.; Gentile, N. A.; Stuart, L. M.; Keen, N. D.; Palmer, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    KULL is a three dimensional, time dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), KULL's purpose is to simulate the physical processes in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets. The National Ignition Facility, where ICF experiments will be conducted, and ASCI are part of the experimental and computational components of DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. This paper provides an overview of ASCI and describes KULL, its hydrodynamic simulation capability and its three methods of simulating radiative transfer. Particular emphasis is given to the parallelization techniques essential to obtain the performance required of the Stockpile Stewardship Program and to exploit the massively parallel processor machines that ASCI is procuring

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ''Capabilities Activation'' and ''Capabilities Demonstration'' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ''Small Glass Shell Deliveries'' and ''Composite Polymer Capsules'' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ''Onsite Support'' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ''Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats'' and established ''Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities'' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ''Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.'' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process

  11. Ignition and burn in inertially confined magnetized fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    At the third International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, we presented computational results which suggested that ''breakeven'' experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) may be possible with existing driver technology. We recently used the ICF simulation code LASNEX to calculate the performance of an idealized magnetized fuel target. The parameter space in which magnetized fuel operates is remote from that of both ''conventional'' ICF and magnetic confinement fusion devices. In particular, the plasma has a very high β and is wall confined, not magnetically confined. The role of the field is to reduce the electron thermal conductivity and to partially trap the DT alphas. The plasma is contained in a pusher which is imploded to compress and adiabatically heat the plasma from an initial condition of preheat and pre-magnetization to the conditions necessary for fusion ignition. The initial density must be quite low by ICF standards in order to insure that the electron thermal conductivity is suppressed and to minimize the generation of radiation from the plasma. Because the energy loss terms are effectively suppressed, the implosion may proceed at a relatively slow rate of about 1 to 3 cm/μs. Also, the need for low density fuel dictates a much larger target, so that magnetized fuel can use drivers with much lower power and power density. Therefore, magnetized fuel allows the use of efficient drivers that are not suitable for laser or particle beam fusion due to insufficient focus or too long pulse length. The ignition and burn of magnetized fuel involves very different dominant physical processes than does ''conventional'' ICF. The fusion time scale becomes comparable to the hydrodynamic time scale, but other processes that limit the burn in unmagnetized fuel are of no consequence. The idealized low gain magnetized fuel target presented here is large and requires a very low implosion velocity. 11 refs

  12. Illumination uniformity requirements for direct drive inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, J.E.; Eimerl, D.; Key, M.H.; Weber, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for laser uniformity are discussed in terms of the ell-mode spectrum. It is shown that the choice of smoothing methods can significantly alter this spectrum and that this choice should be made in the context of the target physics. Although two dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion yields a high quality near field beam profile, it results in poor smoothing for low spatial frequency. The partially coherent light method (fiber smoothing) leads to superior smoothing at low spatial frequencies, but has very poor near field beam quality. As a result, it may be desirable to use partially coherent light during the driver pulse foot (at low intensity and when minimizing the laser imprint is critical) and smoothing by spectral dispersion during the main pulse

  13. Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miley, George H

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with an introductory understanding of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC), a type of fusion meant to retain plasma using an electrostatic field. IEC provides a unique approach for plasma confinement, as it offers a number of spin-off applications, such as a small neutron source for Neutron Activity Analysis (NAA), that all work towards creating fusion power. The IEC has been identified in recent times as an ideal fusion power unit because of its ability to burn aneutronic fuels like p-B11 as a result of its non-Maxwellian plasma dominated by beam-like ions. This type of fusion also takes place in a simple mechanical structure small in size, which also contributes to its viability as a source of power. This book posits that the ability to study the physics of IEC in very small volume plasmas makes it possible to rapidly investigate a design to create a power-producing device on a much larger scale. Along with this hypothesis the book also includes a conceptual experiment propose...

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, PE; Wootton, A.; Gorini, G.; Sindoni, E.; Batani, D.

    2003-02-01

    This book is a collection of papers, written by specialists in the field, on advanced topics of nuclear fusion diagnostics. The 78 contributions were originally presented at the International Conference on Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Fusion held at Villa Monastero, Italy in September 2001. Both magnetically confined and inertial fusion programmes are quite extensively covered, with more emphasis given to the former scheme. In the case of magnetic confinement, since the present international programme is strongly focused on next-step devices, particular attention is devoted to techniques and technologies viable in an environment with strong neutron fluxes. Indeed, in the first section, the various methods are considered in the perspective of performing the measurements of the relevant parameters in conditions approaching a burning plasma, mainly in the Tokamak configuration. The most demanding requirements, like the implications of the use of tritium and radiation resistance, are reviewed and the most challenging open issues, which require further research and development, are also clearly mentioned. The following three sections are devoted to some of the most recent developments in plasma diagnostics, which are grouped according to the following classification: `Neutron and particle diagnostics', `Optical and x-ray diagnostics' and `Interferometry, Polarimetry and Thomson Scattering'. In these chapters, several of the most recent results are given, covering measurements taken on the most advanced experiments around the world. Here the developments described deal more with the requirements imposed by the physical issues to be studied. They are therefore more focused on the approaches adopted to increase the spatial and time resolution of the diagnostics, on some methods to improve the characterisation of the turbulence and on fast particles. Good coverage is given to neutron diagnostics, which are assuming increasing relevance as the plasma

  15. IAEA technical committee on advances in inertial confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there is no national inertial confinement programme directed towards civil reactor use. The programme for Controlled Fusion Research, which forms part of the UKAEA Research Group activities, is located at the Culham Laboratory. At this centre, fusion research is devoted entirely to magnetic confinement systems. A fraction of the total effort involves the development and use of powerful lasers for diagnostic purposes, for toroidal plasma refuelling schemes, for basic studies of laser-plasma interactions, highly-ionised atoms and XUV light gain experiments, and for certain commercial applications. Within the universities there is a widespread interest in laser systems and laser-plasma interactions. The substantial research facilities in the Laser Division of the Rutherford Laboratory (SRC) provides a focus for these activities. These lasers are operated as a university users' facility. A two beam, neodymium in phosphate, glass laser (operating at 0.6 TW/beam, but presently being upgraded) is the Rutherford Laboratory's major laser system for implosion and compression studies. Sophisticated radiation diagnostics are a feature of this work. In a single-beam mode, the glass laser has been used for a great deal of laser-plasma interaction physics e.g. non-linear absorption, inhibited heat conduction and harmonic self-generation. Atomic structure of highly-ionised atoms, plasma line broadening and XUV light gain experiments are also active research topics. Concurrent with upgrading the glass laser facility to 6 x 1 TW beams, experiments on harmonic conversion of the output to 2ω 0 , 4ω 0 are being pursued. Electron beam-pumped, rare-gas halide, eximer systems operating in the blue region of the spectrum are also being investigated. The universities provide a considerable back-up for the work at the Rutherford Laser Division. (J.P.N.)

  16. Addressing Common Technical challenges in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The implosion phase for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) occurs from initiation of the drive until just before stagnation. Evolution of the shell and fusion fuel during the implosion phase is affected by the initial conditions of the target, the drive history. Poor performing implosions are a result of the behavior that occurs during the implosion phase such as low mode asymmetries, mixing of the ablator into the fuel, and the hydrodynamic evolution of initial target features and defects such as the shell mounting hardware. The ultimate results of these effects can only be measured at stagnation. However, studying the implosion phase can be effective for understanding and mitigating these effects and for of ultimately improving the performance of ICF implosions. As the ICF program moves towards the 2020 milestone to “determine the efficacy of ignition”, it will be important to understand the physics that occurs during the implosion phase. This will require both focused and integrated experiments. Focused experiments will provide the understanding and the evidence needed to support any determination concerning the efficacy of ignition.

  17. Heat transfer in inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of energy produced by the interaction of the intense pulses of short-ranged fusion microexplosion products with materials is one of the most difficult problems in inertially-confined fusion (ICF) reactor design. The short time and deposition distance for the energy results in local peak power densities on the order of 10 18 watts/m 3 . High local power densities may cause change of state or spall in the reactor materials. This will limit the structure lifetimes for ICF reactors of economic physical sizes, increasing operating costs including structure replacement and radioactive waste management. Four basic first wall protection methods have evolved: a dry-wall, a wet-wall, a magnetically shielded wall, and a fluid wall. These approaches are distinguished by the way the reactor wall interfaces with fusion debris as well as the way the ambient cavity conditions modify the fusion energy forms and spectra at the first wall. Each of these approaches requires different heat transfer considerations

  18. Modeling Small-Amplitude Perturbations in Inertial Confinement Fusion Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesak, Steven; Metzler, N.; Velikovich, A. L.; Gardner, J. H.; Manheimer, W.

    2005-10-01

    Recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology serve to ensure that imploding laser-driven ICF pellets will spend a significantly larger portion of their time in what is regarded as the ``linear'' portion of their perturbation evolution, i.e., in the presence of small-amplitude but nonetheless evolving perturbations. Since the evolution of these linear perturbations collectively form the initial conditions for the subsequent nonlinear evolution of the pellet, which in turn determines the energy yield of the pellet, the accurate numerical modeling of these small-amplitude perturbations has taken on an increased importance. This modeling is difficult despite the expected linear evolution of the perturbations themselves, because these perturbations are embedded in a highly nonlinear, strongly-shocked, and highly complex flow field which in and of itself stresses numerical computation capabilities, and whose simulation often employs numerical techniques which were not designed with the proper treatment of small-amplitude perturbations in mind. In this paper we will review some of the techniques that we have recently found to be of use toward this end.

  19. Addressing Common Technical challenges in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    The implosion phase for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) occurs from initiation of the drive until just before stagnation. Evolution of the shell and fusion fuel during the implosion phase is affected by the initial conditions of the target, the drive history. Poor performing implosions are a result of the behavior that occurs during the implosion phase such as low mode asymmetries, mixing of the ablator into the fuel, and the hydrodynamic evolution of initial target features and defects such as the shell mounting hardware. The ultimate results of these effects can only be measured at stagnation. However, studying the implosion phase can be effective for understanding and mitigating these effects and for of ultimately improving the performance of ICF implosions. As the ICF program moves towards the 2020 milestone to ''determine the efficacy of ignition'', it will be important to understand the physics that occurs during the implosion phase. This will require both focused and integrated experiments. Focused experiments will provide the understanding and the evidence needed to support any determination concerning the efficacy of ignition.

  20. Production of hollow microspheres for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.

    1994-12-01

    The targets used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are plastic capsules roughly 0.5 mm in diameter. The capsules, which typically have wall thicknesses from 20 to 60 μm, must possess extraordinary symmetry and concentricity and must have surface finishes of less than 1000 Angstrom peak-to-valley variation over surface contours of from 10 to 100's of μm. This paper reviews the fabrication of these capsules, focusing on the production of the thin-walled polystyrene microshell mandrel around which the capsule is built. The relationship between the capsule characteristics, especially surface finish, and capsule performance is discussed, as are the methods of surface characterization and modification necessary for experiments designed to study the effects of surface roughness on implosion dynamics. Targets for the next generation of ICF facilities using more powerful laser drivers will have to be larger while meeting the same or even more stringent symmetry and surface finish requirements. Some of the technologies for meeting these needs are discussed briefly

  1. Innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion reactors: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    Three areas of innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design are given. First, issues pertaining to the Cascade reactor concept are discussed. Then, several innovative concepts are presented which attempt to directly recover the blast energy from a fusion target. Finally, the Turbostar concept for direct recovery of that energy is evaluated. The Cascade issues discussed are combustion of the carbon granules in the event of air ingress, the use of alternate granule materials, and the effect of changes in carbon flow on details of the heat exchanger. Carbon combustion turns out to be a minor problem. Four ICF innovative concepts were considered: a turbine with ablating surfaces, a liquid piston system, a wave generator, and a resonating pump. In the final analysis, none show any real promise. The Turbostar concept of direct recovery is a very interesting idea and appeared technically viable. However, it shows no efficiency gain or any decrease in capital cost compared to reactors with conventional thermal conversion systems. Attempts to improve it by placing a close-in lithium sphere around the target to increase gas generation increased efficiency only slightly. It is concluded that these direct conversion techniques require thermalization of the x-ray and debris energy, and are Carnot limited. They therefore offer no advantage over existing and proposed methods of thermal energy conversion or direct electrical conversion

  2. Technology requirements for commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.G.; Rossi, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research is directed primarily at physics experiments intended to provide confidence in the scientific feasibility of the basic concept. In conjunction with these experiments, a variety of laser and particle beam drivers having potential for eventual use in fusion power plants is being developed. Expectations are that the scientific feasibility of ICF will be demonstrated in the latter part of the 1980s. At that time, the emphasis of the program will shift to engineering, economic, environmental, and licensing issues with the necessary technology development effort continuing into the early part of the next century. This paper discusses the technology requirements for the successive phases of engineering development leading to commercial application of ICF. The engineering areas requiring significant effort for ICF application include high average power driver development; pulsed high-energy power supply development; reactor cavity and heat transport system design; tritium extraction and control; commercial pellet development; pellet injection, tracking, and targeting systems design; materials radiation, fatigue, and corrosion behavior; and reactor plant systems integration and demonstration

  3. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M

    1999-01-01

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  4. An innovative accelerator-driven inertial electrostatic confinement device using converging ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T. H.; Wigeland, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental physics issues facing development of fusion power on a small-scale are assessed with emphasis on the idea of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). The authors propose a new concept of accelerator-driven IEC fusion, termed Converging Beam Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (CB-IEC). CB-IEC offers a number of innovative features that make it an attractive pathway toward resolving fundamental physics issues and assessing the ultimate viability of the IEC concept for power generation

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included this quarter include: the role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of Inertial Confinement Fusion, laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums, evolution of solid-state induction modulators for a heavy-ion recirculator, the National Ignition Facility project, and terminal-level relaxation in Nd-doped laser material

  6. Structural properties of hydrogen isotopes in solid phase in the context of inertial confinement fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Deuterium-Tritium capsules is a critical aspect in Inertial Confinement Fusion. In this work, we present a Quantum Molecular Dynamics methodology able to model hydrogen isotopes and their structural molecular organisation at extreme pressures and cryogenic temperatures (< 15 K. Our study sets up the basis for a future analysis on the mechanical and structural properties of DT-ice in inertial confinement fusion (ICF target manufacturing conditions.

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 5, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included this quarter include: the role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of Inertial Confinement Fusion, laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums, evolution of solid-state induction modulators for a heavy-ion recirculator, the National Ignition Facility project, and terminal-level relaxation in Nd-doped laser material.

  8. Study of the shock ignition scheme in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Shock Ignition (SI) scheme is an alternative to classical ignition schemes in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Its singularity relies on the relaxation of constraints during the compression phase and fulfilment of ignition conditions by launching a short and intense laser pulse (∼500 ps, ∼300 TW) on the pre-assembled fuel at the end of the implosion.In this thesis, it has been established that the SI process leads to a non-isobaric fuel configuration at the ignition time thus modifying the ignition criteria of Deuterium-Tritium (DT) against the conventional schemes. A gain model has been developed and gain curves have been inferred and numerically validated. This hydrodynamical modeling has demonstrated that the SI process allows higher gain and lower ignition energy threshold than conventional ignition due to the high hot spot pressure at ignition time resulting from the ignitor shock propagation.The radiative hydrodynamic CHIC code developed at the CELIA laboratory has been used to determine parametric dependences describing the optimal conditions for target design leading to ignition. These numerical studies have enlightened the potential of SI with regards to saving up laser energy, obtain high gains but also to safety margins and ignition robustness.Finally, the results of the first SI experiments performed in spherical geometry on the OMEGA laser facility (NY, USA) are presented. An interpretation of the experimental data is proposed from mono and bidimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Then, different trails are explored to account for the differences observed between experimental and numerical data and alternative solutions to improve performances are suggested. (author) [fr

  9. Contribution to the numerical modeling of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, P.H.

    2011-02-01

    This work was realized by writing the CHIC code, which is a software for designing and restoring experience in the field of inertial confinement fusion. The theoretical model describing the implosion of a laser target is a system of partial differential equations in the center of which is the Euler equations written in Lagrangian formalism, coupled with diffusion equations modeling the nonlinear transport of energy by electrons and photons. After a brief review of the physical context, we describe two novel methods which constitute the backbone of the CHIC code. These are 2 high-order finite volume schemes respectively dedicated to solving the equations of Lagrangian hydrodynamics and the anisotropic diffusion equations on bi-dimensional unstructured grids. The first scheme, called EUCCLHYD (Explicit Unstructured Lagrangian Hydrodynamics), solves the equations of gas dynamics on a moving mesh that moves at the speed of light. It is obtained from a general formalism based on the concept of sub-cell forces. In this context, the numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of the sub-cell force and the nodal velocity. Their determination is based on 3 basic principles: geometric compatibility between the movement of nodes and the volume change of mesh (geometric conservation law), compatibility with the second law of thermodynamics and conservation of total energy and momentum. The high-order extension is performed using a method based on solving a generalized Riemann problem in the acoustic approximation. The second scheme, called CCLAD (Cell-Centered Lagrangian Diffusion), solves the anisotropic heat equation. The corresponding discretization relies on a discrete variational formulation based on the sub-cell that allows to build a multipoint approximation of heat flux. This high-order discretization makes possible the resolution of the equations of anisotropic diffusion with satisfactory accuracy on highly distorted Lagrangian meshes. (author)

  10. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-01-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  11. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion; Physique des plasmas thermonucleaires: la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D

    2001-07-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  12. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  13. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF [inertial confinement fusion] reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants

  14. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe

  15. Present status of inertial confinement fusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1984-01-01

    The Japanese inertial fusion program has made important progress towards implosion fusion process and the technical development required for realizing the breakeven of inertial fusion energy. The key issues for the ICF research are the development of a high power driver, the pertinent pellet design for implosion by a super computer code, and the diagnostics of implosion process with high space and time resolution. The Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, is the central laboratory for ICF research in Japan. The ILE Osaka has advanced the Kongo Project aiming at the breakeven of inertial fusion since 1980, and as the first phase, the Gekko 12 Nd glass laser of 20 kJ having 12 beams was constructed. The ILE has also the Lekko 8 CO 2 laser and the Reiden 4 light ion beam machine. In the second phase, a 100 kJ class driver will be provided. At the ILE, rare gas halide lasers such as KrF and ArF have been investigated. Laser plasma coupling, the scaling law for implosion pressure, the invention of a new type target ''Cannonball'', and the development of computer codes are described. Also the activities in universities, government laboratories and industrial companies are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. NRL inertial confinement fusion theory program. 1979 annual report, October 1978 - December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the 1979 annual report of the NRL Inertial Confinement Fusion Theory Program. It covers research performed from October 1978 through December 1979. Research in each of the four current program areas is reported: laser light absorption;fluid dynamics of ablative acceleration; development of computational techniques, and Rayleigh-Taylor stabilization techniques

  17. Engineering design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.; Godwin, R.O.; Hurley, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented from an engineering perspective. Emphasis is placed upon design-to-performance requirements as they impact the various subsystems that comprise this complex experimental facility

  18. Engineering design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial-confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, W W; Godwin, R O; Hurley, C A; Wallerstein, E. P.; Whitham, K.; Murray, J. E.; Bliss, E. S.; Ozarski, R. G.; Summers, M. A.; Rienecker, F.; Gritton, D. G.; Holloway, F. W.; Suski, G. J.; Severyn, J. R.

    1982-01-25

    The design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented from an engineering perspective. Emphasis is placed upon design-to-performance requirements as they impact the various subsystems that comprise this complex experimental facility.

  19. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, July--September 1994. Volume 4, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, E. [ed.

    1994-09-01

    The ICF Quarterly continues with six articles in this issue describing recent developments in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The topics include plasma characterization, production of millimeter scale-length plasmas for studying laser-plasma instabilities, hohlraum physics, three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, crystal growth, and laser-beam smoothing.

  20. Forty years of inertial confinement fusion research in the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chongbin; Wang Letian

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of China's own technology and industry, the 'Shenguang' inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research devices were built, and a series of world-class results achieved. In this paper, the history of ICF research in the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics is reviewed. (authors)

  1. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  2. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios

  3. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, April--June 1995. Volume 5, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The ICF Quarterly Reports is published four times each fiscal year by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The journal reports selected current research within the ICF Program. Major areas of investigation presented here include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology.

  4. Present status of inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Ido, Shunji; Nakai, Sadao.

    1986-01-01

    Since inertial nuclear fusion reactors do not require high vacuum and high magnetic field, the structure of the reactor cavity becomes markedly simple as compared with tokamak type fusion reactors. In particular, since high vacuum is not necessary, liquid metals such as lithium and lead can be used for the first wall, and the damage of reactor structures by neutrons can be prevented. As for the core, the energy efficiency of lasers is not very high, accordingly it must be designed so that the pellet gain due to nuclear fusion becomes sufficiently high, and typically, the gain coefficient from 100 to 200 is necessary. In this paper, the perspective of pellet gain, the plan from the present status to the practical reactors, and the conceptual design of the practical reactors are discussed. The plan of fuel ignition, energy break-even and high gain by the implosion mode, of which the uncertain factor due to uneven irradiation and instability was limited to the minimum, was clarified. The scenario of the development of laser nuclear fusion reactors is presented, and the concept of the reactor system is shown. The various types of nuclear fusion-fission hybrid reactors are explained. As for the design of inertial fusion power reactors, the engineering characteristics of the core, the conceptual design, water fall type reactors and DD fuel reactors are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  5. High efficiency targets for high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at the short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, pellets using 1/4 micron laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150 to 200) may produce energy gains as high as 200 to 250

  6. Inertial-confinement-fusion applications of ion-stopping theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Bailey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Methods were developed to calculate: (1) the stopping power of a hot plasma target, (2) the charge-state of a fast ion projectile, and (3) the final disposition of the deposited energy. The first issue refers to the stopping power for protons. The proton stopping power is altered in high-density or high-temperature targets, especially at velocities below the stopping peak. The second issue concerns the application of a proton stopping curve to the arbitrary projectile. The third topic is more specialized to inertial fusion and concerns the partition of deposited energy between ion (nuclear motion) degrees of freedom and those corresponding to bound and free electrons. The question here is whether a thermal equilibrium plasma is produced

  7. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  8. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs

  9. HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-12-14

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW{center dot}h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Index of light ion inertial confinement fusion publications and presentations January 1989 through December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.A. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report lists publications and presentations that are related to inertial confinement fusion and were authored or coauthored by Sandians in the Pulsed Power Sciences Center from 1989 through 1993. The 661 publications and presentations are categorized into the following general topics: (1) reviews, (2) ion sources, (3) ion diodes, (4) plasma opening switches, (5) ion beam transport, (6) targets and deposition physics, (7) advanced driver and pulsed power technology development, (8) diagnostics, and (9) code development. Research in these areas is arranged by topic in chronological order, with the early efforts under each topic presented first. The work is also categorized alphabetically by first author. A list of acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions of use in understanding light ion inertial confinement fusion research is also included.

  11. Index of light ion inertial confinement fusion publications and presentations January 1989 through December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report lists publications and presentations that are related to inertial confinement fusion and were authored or coauthored by Sandians in the Pulsed Power Sciences Center from 1989 through 1993. The 661 publications and presentations are categorized into the following general topics: (1) reviews, (2) ion sources, (3) ion diodes, (4) plasma opening switches, (5) ion beam transport, (6) targets and deposition physics, (7) advanced driver and pulsed power technology development, (8) diagnostics, and (9) code development. Research in these areas is arranged by topic in chronological order, with the early efforts under each topic presented first. The work is also categorized alphabetically by first author. A list of acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions of use in understanding light ion inertial confinement fusion research is also included

  12. High-gain direct-drive inertial confinement fusion for the Laser Megajoule: recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaud, B; Garaude, F; Ballereau, P; Bourgade, J L; Clique, C; Dureau, D; Houry, M; Jaouen, S; Jourdren, H; Lecler, N; Masse, L; Masson, A; Quach, R; Piron, R; Riz, D; Vliet, J van der; Temporal, M; Delettrez, J A; McKenty, P W

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in high-gain direct-drive inertial confinement fusion with the laser Megajoule is reviewed. A new baseline direct-drive target design is presented which implodes with a two-cones irradiation pattern of indirect-drive beam configuration and zooming. Perturbation amplitudes and correlated growth rates of hydrodynamic instabilities in the compressed core of a directly driven inertial confinement fusion capsule are analyzed in planar and spherical geometries, with and without heat conduction, in the unsteady state regime of the deceleration. Shock propagation in heterogeneous media is addressed in the context of first shock. The neutron and photon emissions of high-gain direct-drive target are characterized. Numerical interpretations of directly driven homothetic cryogenic D 2 target implosion experiments on the Omega facility are presented

  13. High-gain direct-drive inertial confinement fusion for the Laser Megajoule: recent progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaud, B [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Garaude, F [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Ballereau, P [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Bourgade, J L [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Clique, C [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Dureau, D [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Houry, M [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Jaouen, S [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Jourdren, H [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Lecler, N [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Masse, L [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Masson, A [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Quach, R [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Piron, R [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Riz, D [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Vliet, J van der [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Cedex (France); Temporal, M [Calle Grau, 685, Sucre (Bolivia); Delettrez, J A [Laboratory of Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); McKenty, P W [Laboratory of Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Recent progress in high-gain direct-drive inertial confinement fusion with the laser Megajoule is reviewed. A new baseline direct-drive target design is presented which implodes with a two-cones irradiation pattern of indirect-drive beam configuration and zooming. Perturbation amplitudes and correlated growth rates of hydrodynamic instabilities in the compressed core of a directly driven inertial confinement fusion capsule are analyzed in planar and spherical geometries, with and without heat conduction, in the unsteady state regime of the deceleration. Shock propagation in heterogeneous media is addressed in the context of first shock. The neutron and photon emissions of high-gain direct-drive target are characterized. Numerical interpretations of directly driven homothetic cryogenic D{sub 2} target implosion experiments on the Omega facility are presented.

  14. Primary heat transfer loop design for the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, K.A.; McDowell, M.W.

    1984-05-01

    This study investigates a heat exchanger and balance of plant design to accompany the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber concept. The concept uses solid Li 2 O or other lithium-ceramic granules, held to the wall of a rotating reaction chamber by centrifugal action, as a tritium breeding blanket and first wall protection. The Li 2 O granules enter the chamber at 800 K and exit at 1200 K after absorbing the thermal energy produced by the fusion process

  15. Early history of experimental inertial confinement fusion and diagnostics in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanke; Jiang Shao'en; Ding Yongkun

    2014-01-01

    The early history of China's research on experimental laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and diagnostics technology is reviewed. The long and difficult path started from scratch, from learning the basics, looking up the literature and copying experiments, to independent research and development of comprehensive experimental facilities. This article fills a gap in the history of China's ICF experimental and diagnostics research. (authors)

  16. Fusion-product energy loss in inertial confinement fusion plasmas with applications to target burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been proposed as a competitor to magnetic fusion in the drive towards energy production, but ICF target performance still contains many uncertainties. One such area is the energy-loss rate of fusion products. This situation is due in part to the unique plasma parameters encountered in ICF plasmas which are compressed to more than one-thousand times solid density. The work presented here investigates three aspects of this uncertainty

  17. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, October--December 1994. Volume 5, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The ICF quarterly report is published by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Topics included in this issue include: system description and initial performance results for beamlet, design and performance of the beamlet amplifiers and optical switch, beamlet pulse-generation and wavefront-control system, large-aperture, high- damage-threshold optics for beamlet, beamlet pulsed power system, beamlet laser diagnostics, and beam propagation and frequency conversion modeling for the beamlet laser

  18. Raman-Brillouin interplay for inertial confinement fusion relevant laser–plasma interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riconda, C.; Weber, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, Jul (2016), 1-16, č. článku e23. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : inertial confinement fusion * kinetic effects * laser-plasma interaction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. The US inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition programme and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindl, J. D.; Hammel, B. A.; Logan, B. Grant; Meyerhofer, David D.; Payne, S. A.; Sethian, John D.

    2003-12-01

    There has been rapid progress in inertial fusion in the past few years. This progress spans the construction of ignition facilities, a wide range of target concepts and the pursuit of integrated programmes to develop fusion energy using lasers, ion beams and z-pinches. Two ignition facilities are under construction, the national ignition facility (NIF) in the United States and the laser megajoule (LMJ) in France, and both projects are progressing towards an initial experimental capability. The laser integration line prototype beamline for LMJ and the first four beams of NIF will be available for experiments in 2003. The full 192 beam capability of NIF will be available in 2009 and ignition experiments are expected to begin shortly after that time. There is steady progress in target science and target fabrication in preparation for indirect-drive ignition experiments on NIF. Advanced target designs may lead to 5 10 times more yield than initial target designs. There has also been excellent progress on the science of ion beam and z-pinch-driven indirect-drive targets. Excellent progress on direct-drive targets has been obtained on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester. This includes improved performance of targets with a pulse shape predicted to result in reduced hydrodynamic instability. Rochester has also obtained encouraging results from initial cryogenic implosions. There is widespread interest in the science of fast ignition because of its potential for achieving higher target gain with lower driver energy and relaxed target fabrication requirements. Researchers from Osaka have achieved outstanding implosion and heating results from the Gekko XII Petawatt facility and implosions suitable for fast ignition have been tested on the Omega laser. A broad-based programme to develop lasers and ion beams for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is under way with excellent progress in drivers, chambers, target fabrication and target injection. KrF and diode pumped solid

  20. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Significant theoretical and experimental progress towards the validation of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been recently made at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Direct-drive ICF offers the potential for high-gain implosions and is a leading candidate for an inertial fusion energy power plant. LLE's base-line direct-drive ignition design for NIF is an 'all-DT' design that has a 1-D gain of ∼45. Recent calculations show that targets composed of foam shells, wicked with DT, can potentially achieve 1-D gains of ∼100. LLE experiments are conducted on the OMEGA 60-beam, 30-kJ, UV laser system. Beam smoothing of OMEGA includes 1-THz, 2-D SSD and polarization smoothing. Cryogenic D2 and plastic shell (warm) spherical targets and a comprehensive suite of x-ray, nuclear, charged particle and optical diagnostics are used in these experiments. Future experiments will use cryogenic DT targets. (author)

  1. Simulations of mixing in Inertial Confinement Fusion with front tracking and sub-grid scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Verinder; Lim, Hyunkyung; Melvin, Jeremy; Cheng, Baolian; Glimm, James; Sharp, David

    2015-11-01

    We present two related results. The first discusses the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RMI) and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) and their evolution in Inertial Confinement Fusion simulations. We show the evolution of the RMI to the late time RTI under transport effects and tracking. The role of the sub-grid scales helps capture the interaction of turbulence with diffusive processes. The second assesses the effects of concentration on the physics model and examines the mixing properties in the low Reynolds number hot spot. We discuss the effect of concentration on the Schmidt number. The simulation results are produced using the University of Chicago code FLASH and Stony Brook University's front tracking algorithm.

  2. A novel charged-particle diagnostic for compression in inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, P. B.; Skupsky, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Soures, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    A new technique for diagnosing compression in multiple regions of inertial confinement fusion targets is discussed. This diagnostic uses knock-on deuterons and protons that have been elastically scattered by 14.1 MeV deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion neutrons. The target is composed of three different materials: DT gas contained in a plastic shell overcoated by deuterated plastic. The effect on the knock-on deuteron spectrum of mixing of these layers from hydrodynamic instabilities is also discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  3. Prolate-Spheroid ('Rugby-Shaped') Hohlraum for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bastian, J.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Jadaud, J.-P.; Laffite, S.; Liberatore, S.; Malinie, G.; Philippe, F.

    2007-01-01

    A novel rugby-ball shaped hohlraum is designed in the context of the indirect-drive scheme of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF). Experiments were performed on the OMEGA laser and are the first use of rugby hohlraums for ICF studies. Analysis of experimental data shows that the hohlraum energetics is well understood. We show that the rugby-ball shape exhibits advantages over cylinder, in terms of temperature and of symmetry control of the capsule implosion. Simulations indicate that rugby hohlraum driven targets may be candidates for ignition in a context of early Laser MegaJoule experiments with reduced laser energy

  4. Derivation of the physical equations solved in the inertial confinement stability code DOC. Informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannapieco, A.J.; Cranfill, C.W.

    1978-11-01

    There now exists an inertial confinement stability code called DOC, which runs as a postprocessor. DOC (a code that has evolved from a previous code, PANSY) is a spherical harmonic linear stability code that integrates, in time, a set of Lagrangian perturbation equations. Effects due to real equations of state, asymmetric energy deposition, thermal conduction, shock propagation, and a time-dependent zeroth-order state are handled in the code. We present here a detailed derivation of the physical equations that are solved in the code

  5. Measurements of neutron flux from an inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.

    1975-08-01

    A neutron-detection system was built for the purpose of measuring the neutron flux from an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device located at Brigham Young University. A BF 3 proportional counter was used for absolute flux measurements and a pair of scintillation detectors was used to compare neutron output under different operating conditions. The detectors were designed to be compatible with the operating conditions of the device and to be able to measure small changes in neutron output. The detectors were calibrated using a Pu-Be source with corrections made for laboratory conditions. Performance of the counting system was checked and data were collected on the neutron flux from the device

  6. Advances in HYDRA and its applications to simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinak M.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new set of capabilities has been implemented in the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics inertial confinement fusion simulation code. These include a Monte Carlo particle transport library. It models transport of neutrons, gamma rays and light ions, as well as products they generate from nuclear and coulomb collisions. It allows accurate simulations of nuclear diagnostic signatures from capsule implosions. We apply it to here in a 3D simulation of a National Ignition Facility (NIF ignition capsule which models the full capsule solid angle. This simulation contains a severely rough ablator perturbation and provides diagnostics signatures of capsule failure due to excessive instability growth.

  7. Standard method for economic analyses of inertial confinement fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    A standard method for calculating the total capital cost and the cost of electricity for a typical inertial confinement fusion electric power plant has been developed. A standard code of accounts at the two-digit level is given for the factors making up the total capital cost of the power plant. Equations are given for calculating the indirect capital costs, the project contingency, and the time-related costs. Expressions for calculating the fixed charge rate, which is necessary to determine the cost of electricity, are also described. Default parameters are given to define a reference case for comparative economic analyses

  8. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  9. Magnetic field generation in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Dimonte, Guy; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-04-20

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the field generation by 2D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇n(e)×∇T(e) term in the generalized Ohm's law. Scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, Atwood number, and perturbation wavelength.

  10. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J.

    2013-07-01

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  11. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  12. Cryogenic hydrogen fuel for controlled inertial confinement fusion (formation of reactor-scale cryogenic targets)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R.; Krokhin, O. N.; Osipov, I. E.

    2016-12-01

    In inertial fusion energy research, considerable attention has recently been focused on low-cost fabrication of a large number of targets by developing a specialized layering module of repeatable operation. The targets must be free-standing, or unmounted. Therefore, the development of a target factory for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is based on methods that can ensure a cost-effective target production with high repeatability. Minimization of the amount of tritium (i.e., minimization of time and space at all production stages) is a necessary condition as well. Additionally, the cryogenic hydrogen fuel inside the targets must have a structure (ultrafine layers—the grain size should be scaled back to the nanometer range) that supports the fuel layer survivability under target injection and transport through the reactor chamber. To meet the above requirements, significant progress has been made at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI) in the technology developed on the basis of rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST), also referred to as the FST layering method. Owing to the research carried out at LPI, unique experience has been gained in the development of the FST-layering module for target fabrication with an ultrafine fuel layer, including a reactor- scale target design. This experience can be used for the development of the next-generation FST-layering module for construction of a prototype of a target factory for power laser facilities and inertial fusion power plants.

  13. A unified modeling approach for physical experiment design and optimization in laser driven inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haiyan; Huang, Yunbao; Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei; Tianxuan, Huang; Ding, Yongkun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A unified modeling approach for physical experiment design is presented. • Any laser facility can be flexibly defined and included with two scripts. • Complex targets and laser beams can be parametrically modeled for optimization. • Automatically mapping of laser beam energy facilitates targets shape optimization. - Abstract: Physical experiment design and optimization is very essential for laser driven inertial confinement fusion due to the high cost of each shot. However, only limited experiments with simple structure or shape on several laser facilities can be designed and evaluated in available codes, and targets are usually defined by programming, which may lead to it difficult for complex shape target design and optimization on arbitrary laser facilities. A unified modeling approach for physical experiment design and optimization on any laser facilities is presented in this paper. Its core idea includes: (1) any laser facility can be flexibly defined and included with two scripts, (2) complex shape targets and laser beams can be parametrically modeled based on features, (3) an automatically mapping scheme of laser beam energy onto discrete mesh elements of targets enable targets or laser beams be optimized without any additional interactive modeling or programming, and (4) significant computation algorithms are additionally presented to efficiently evaluate radiation symmetry on the target. Finally, examples are demonstrated to validate the significance of such unified modeling approach for physical experiments design and optimization in laser driven inertial confinement fusion.

  14. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Nigel Oswald [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of ~17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, ~200 g/cm3 and ~20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases ~350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios.

  15. Reconstruction and analysis of temperature and density spatial profiles inertial confinement fusion implosion cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss several methods for the extraction of temperature and density spatial profiles in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores based on the analysis of the x-ray emission from spectroscopic tracers added to the deuterium fuel. The ideas rely on (1) detailed spectral models that take into account collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes, and radiation transport calculations, (2) the availability of narrow-band, gated pinhole and slit x-ray images, and space-resolved line spectra of the core, and (3) several data analysis and reconstruction methods that include a multi-objective search and optimization technique based on a novel application of Pareto genetic algorithms to plasma spectroscopy. The spectroscopic analysis yields the spatial profiles of temperature and density in the core at the collapse of the implosion, and also the extent of shell material mixing into the core. Results are illustrated with data recorded in implosion experiments driven by the OMEGA and Z facilities

  16. Studies on the feasibility of heavy-ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This annual report summarizes the scientific results of work carried out in 1981 in the framework of a feasibility study for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) with heavy ion beams. This program, established in autumn 1979 and funded by the German Ministry for Science and Technology, is devoted in a first period until 1984 to the study of fundamental aspects of the field. Its principal aims are the investigation of key problems and the identification of critical issues of the heavy ion ICF concept in the fields of accelerator research, pellet physics, atomic physics, and reactor design. The research is carried out by about ten working groups at various German research centers and universities. In addition, together with a group of the University of Wisconsin a conceptual design study for a reactor plant (HIBALL) has been started in 1980 and was continued 1981. (orig.) [de

  17. Aurora multikilojoule KrF laser system prototype for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Hanlon, J.A.; Mc Leod, J.; Kang, M.; Kortegaard, B.L.; Burrows, M.D.; Bowling, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos National Laboratory short-pulse, high-power, KrF laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems of interest for short wavelength, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The systems is a prototype for using optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by large electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF targets using an --1-km-long optical beam path. The entire Aurora KrF laser system is described and the design features of the following major system components are summarized: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, target irradiation apparatus, and alignment and controls systems

  18. Overview of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is focused on preparing for a National Ignition Facility. Target physics research is addressing specific issues identified for the Ignition Facility target, and materials experts are developing target fabrication techniques necessary for the advanced targets. We are also working with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the design of the National Ignition Facility target chamber. Los Alamos is also continuing to develop the KrF laser-fusion driver for ICF. We are modifying the Aurora laser to higher intensity and shorter pulses and are working with the Naval Research Laboratory on the development of the Nike KrF laser. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion Quarterly Report: April--June 1993. Volume 3, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGowan, B.J.; Kotowski, M.; Schleich, D. [eds.

    1993-11-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains six articles describing recent advances in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. The current emphasis of the ICF program is in support of DOE`s National Ignition Facility (NIF) initiative for demonstrating ignition and gain with a 1-2 MJ glass laser. The articles describe recent Nova experiments and investigations tailored towards enhancing understanding of the key physics and technological issues for the NIF. Titles of the articles are: development of large-aperture KDP crystals; inner-shell photo-ionized X-ray lasers; X-ray radiographic measurements of radiation-driven shock and interface motion in solid density materials; the role of nodule defects in laser-induced damage of multilayer optical coatings; techniques for Mbar to near-Gbar equation-of-state measurements with the Nova laser; parametric instabilities and laser-beam smoothing.

  1. Transport vehicle for manned Mars missions powered by inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an ideal engine power source for manned spacecraft to Mars because of its inherently high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have produced a concept for a vehicle powered by ICF and utilizing a magnetic thrust chamber to avoid plasma thermalization with wall structures and the resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. This vehicle is capable of 100-day manned Mars missions with a 100-metric-ton payload and a total vehicle launch mass near 6000 metric tons, based on advanced technology assumed to be available by A.D. 2020. Such short-duration missions minimize radiation exposures and physiological deterioration of astronauts

  2. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, April--June 1994. Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.J. [ed.

    1994-06-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains six articles covering a wide range of activities within the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. It concentrates on target design; theoretical spectral analysis of ICF capsule surfaces; laser fusion experimental methods; and an alternative ICF design, based on ultrafast, ultrapowerful lasers. A key issue for the success of the ICF process is the hydrodynamic stability of the imploding capsule. There are two primary sources of instability growth in the ICF process: (1) asymmetries in the x-ray flux that drive the compression lead to asymmetric in the imploding surface; (2) imperfections on the capsule surface can grow into large perturbations, degrading the capsule performance. In recent years, a great deal of effort, both experimentally and theoretically, has been spent to enhance the Program`s ability to measure, model, and minimize instability growth during an implosion. Four the articles in this issue discuss this subject.

  3. A Freon-filled bubble chamber for neutron detection in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghilea, M. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Neutron imaging is one of the main methods used in inertial confinement fusion experiments to measure the core symmetry of target implosions. Previous studies have shown that bubble chambers have the potential to obtain higher resolution images of the targets for a shorter source-to-target distance than typical scintillator arrays. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as the active medium was designed and built for the OMEGA laser system. Bubbles resulting from spontaneous nucleation were recorded. Bubbles resulting from neutron-Freon interactions were observed at neutron yields of 10{sup 13} emitted from deuterium-tritium target implosions on OMEGA. The measured column bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The recorded data suggest that neutron bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility.

  4. A Freon-filled bubble chamber for neutron detection in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilea, M. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron imaging is one of the main methods used in inertial confinement fusion experiments to measure the core symmetry of target implosions. Previous studies have shown that bubble chambers have the potential to obtain higher resolution images of the targets for a shorter source-to-target distance than typical scintillator arrays. A bubble chamber for neutron imaging with Freon 115 as the active medium was designed and built for the OMEGA laser system. Bubbles resulting from spontaneous nucleation were recorded. Bubbles resulting from neutron-Freon interactions were observed at neutron yields of 1013 emitted from deuterium-tritium target implosions on OMEGA. The measured column bubble density was too low for neutron imaging on OMEGA but agreed with the model of bubble formation. The recorded data suggest that neutron bubble detectors are a promising technology for the higher neutron yields expected at National Ignition Facility.

  5. Stability of the lithium 'waterfall' first wall protection concept for inertial confinement fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, P.D.; Paul, D.D.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Uncertainties regarding the feasibility of using an annular waterfall of liquid lithium to protect the first wall in inertial confinement fusion reactor cavities have prompted a theoretical investigation of annular jet stability. Infinitesimal perturbation techniques are applied to an idealized model of the jet with disturbances acting upon either or both of the free surfaces. Dispersion relations are derived that predict the range of disturbance frequencies leading to instability, as well as the perturbation growth rates and jet break-up length. The results are extended to turbulent annular jets and are evaluated for the lithium waterfall design. It is concluded that inherent instabilities due to turbulent fluctuations will not cause the jet to break up over distances comparable to the height of the reactor cavity

  6. Recent progress in inertial confinement fusion at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.; Manes, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Shiva and Argus laser systems at Livermore have been developed to study the physics of inertial confinement fusion. Both laser system designs are predicated on the use of large aperture Nd-glass disk amplifiers and high power spatial filters. During the past year we have irradiated DT filled microshell targets with and without polymer coatings. Recently new instruments have been developed to investigate implosion dynamics and to determine the maximum fuel density achieved by these imploded fusion pellets. A series of target irradiations with thin wall microshells at 15 to 20 TW, exploding pusher designs, resulted in a maximum neutron yield of 3 x 10 10 . Polymer coated microshells designed for high compression were subjected to 4 kJ for 0.2 ns and reached fuel densities of 2.0 to 3.0 gm/cm 3 . Results of these and other recent experiments will be reviewed

  7. Preliminary Results of Experimental Studies from Low Pressure Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölükdemir, A. S.; Akgün, Y.; Alaçakır, A.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, Turkey's first low pressure inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device, constructed at the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SNRTC-IEC), is introduced and the first results are reported. This device was designed for neutronic fusion studies in terms of D-D reaction. The SNRTC-IEC device consists of spherical chamber 300 mm in diameter and a grid-type spherical cathode in which high negative voltage is applied at the center of chamber. The outer surface of the device held at ground potential has 10 ports to connect the vacuum pump, high voltage load, residual gas analyzer, ion sources and other peripherals. Cathode voltage is 85 kV and it is particularly emphasized that the SNRTC-IEC device is studied at low pressure (1-10 × 10-4 mbar). The maximum total neutron production rate is measured at around 2.4 × 104 neutrons per second for the medium grid cathode.

  8. Fabrication of thin-wall, freestanding inertial confinement fusion targets by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.W.; McCreary, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the requirements for plasma physics experiments in the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in fluid beds was used to fabricate freestanding tungsten spheres and cylinders with wall thicknesses less than 5.0 μm. Molybdenum and molybdenum alloy (TZM) mandrels of the desired geometry were suspended in a carrier bed of dense microspheres contained in an induction-heated fluid-bed reactor. The mandrels were free to float randomly through the bed, and using the reaction WF 6 +3H 2 →/sub /KW +6HF, very fine-grained tungsten was deposited onto the surface at a rate and in a grain size determined by temperature, gas flow rate, system pressure, and duration of the reaction. After coating, a portion of each mandrel was exposed by hole drilling or grinding. The mandrel was then removed by acid leaching, leaving a freestanding tungsten shape. Experimental procedures, mandrel preparation, and results obtained are discussed

  9. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guler Nevzat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT filled cryogenic plastic (CH capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13–15 MeV and downscattered (10–12 MeV neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  10. Manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional Euler equations with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, J.; Canfield, T.R.; Morgan, N.R.; Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as Rayleigh–Taylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies

  11. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Tom [Technical Univ. Munchen (Germany)

    2013-03-28

    This thesis explores the formation of ICF compatible foam layers inside of an ablator shell used for inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In particular, the capability of p- DCPD polymer aerogels to serve as a scaffold for the deuterium-tritium mix was analyzed. Four different factors were evaluated: the dependency of different factors such as thickness or composition of a precursor solution on the uniformity of the aerogel layer, how to bring the optimal composition inside of the ablator shell, the mechanical stability of ultra-low density p-DCPD aerogel bulk pieces during wetting and freezing with hydrogen, and the wetting behavior of thin polymer foam layers in HDC carbon ablator shells with liquid deuterium. The research for thesis was done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in cooperation with the Technical University Munich.

  12. Summary of research for the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1985-03-01

    The information presented in this report is a summary of the status of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory as of February 1985. This report contains material on the existing high-power CO 2 laser driver (Antares), the program to determine the potential of KrF as an ICF driver, heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for ICF, target fabrication for ICF, and a summary of our understanding of laser-plasma interactions. A classified companion report contains material on our current understanding of capsule physics and lists the contributions to the Laboratory's weapons programs made by the ICF program. The information collected in these two volumes is meant to serve as a report on the status of some of the technological components of the Los Alamos ICF program rather than a detailed review of specific technical issues

  13. Mode-selective symmetry control for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Slutz, S. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Campbell, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Achieving a high degree of radiation symmetry is a critical feature of target designs for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Typically, the radiation flux incident on the capsule is required to be uniform to 1% or better. It is generally possible to design a hohlraum that provides low values of higher-order asymmetry (Legendre mode P 10 and above) due to geometric averaging effects. Because low-order intrinsic asymmetry (e.g., Legendre modes P 2 and P 4 ) are less strongly reduced by geometric averaging alone, the development of innovative control techniques has been an active area of research in the inertial fusion community over the years. Shields placed inside the hohlraum are one example of a technique that has often been proposed and incorporated into hohlraum target designs. Simple mathematical considerations are presented indicating that radiation shields may be designed to specifically tune lower-order modes (e.g., P 4 ) without deleterious effects on the higher order modes. Two-dimensional view factor and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations confirm these results and support such a path to achieving a highly symmetric x-ray flux. The term ''mode-selective'' is used because these shields, essentially ring structures offset from the capsule, are designed to affect only a specific Legendre mode (or multiple modes) of interest

  14. Inertial confinement fusion. 1995 ICF annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is a Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program research and advanced technology development program focused on the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. During FY 1995, the ICF Program continued to conduct ignition target physics optimization studies and weapons physics experiments in support of the Defense Program`s stockpile stewardship goals. It also continued to develop technologies in support of the performance, cost, and schedule goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The NIF is a key element of the DOE`s Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. In addition to its primary Defense Program goals, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application to inertial fusion energy (IFE). Also, ICF technologies have had spin-off applications for industrial and governmental use. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. A generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The minimum energy needed to ignite an inertial confinement fusion capsule is of considerable interest in the optimization of an inertial fusion driver. Recent computational work investigating this minimum energy has found that it depends on the capsule implosion history, in particular, on the capsule drive pressure. This dependence is examined using a series of LASNEX simulations to find ignited capsules which have different values of the implosion velocity, fuel adiabat and drive pressure. It is found that the main effect of varying the drive pressure is to alter the stagnation of the capsule, changing its stagnation adiabat, which, in turn, affects the energy required for ignition. To account for this effect a generalized scaling law has been devised for the ignition energy, E ign ∝α if 1.88±0.05 υ -5.89±0.12 P -0.77±0.03 . This generalized scaling law agrees with the results of previous work in the appropriate limits. (author)

  16. Optical and scintillation properties of Pr-doped Li-glass for neutron detection in inertial confinement fusion process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fukabori, A.; Yanagitani, T.; Chani, V.; Moretti, F.; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Y.; Kawaguchi, N.; Kamada, K.; Watanabe, K.; Murata, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Yamanoi, K.; Shimizu, T.; Sarukura, N.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.; Fujino, S.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 357, č. 3 (2011), s. 910-914 ISSN 0022-3093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Li glass * scintillator * inertial confinement fusion * neutron detection * scintillation properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.537, year: 2011

  17. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the laboratory for laser energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Significant theoretical and experimental progress toward the validation of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been made at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Direct-drive ICF offers the potential for high-gain implosions and is a leading candidate for an inertial fusion energy power plant. LLE's base-line direct-drive ignition design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an 'all-DT' design that has a 1-D gain of ∼45 (∼30 when two-dimensional calculations are performed). The 'all-DT target' consists of a thin (∼3 μm) plastic shell enclosing a thick (∼330 μm) DT-ice layer. Recent calculations show that targets composed of foam shells, wicked with DT, can potentially achieve 1-D gains ∼100 at NIF energy levels (∼1.5 MJ). The addition of a 'picket' pulse to the beginning of the all-DT pulse shape reduces the target sensitivity to laser nonuniformities, increasing the potentially achievable gains. LLE experiments are conducted on the OMEGA 60-beam, 30-kJ, UV laser system. Beam smoothing includes 1-THz, 2-D SSD and polarization smoothing. Ignition-scaled cryogenic D 2 and plastic-shell spherical targets and a comprehensive suite of x-ray, nuclear, charged-particle, and optical diagnostics are used to understand the characteristics of the implosions. Recent cryogenic D 2 implosions with high adiabat (α ∼ 25) perform as predicted by one-dimensional (perfectly symmetric) simulations. Moderateconvergence- ratio (CR ∼ 15), high-adiabat (α ∼ 25), warm-capsule (surrogates for cryogenic capsules) implosions produce >30% of the 1-D predicted neutron yield and nearly 100% of the predicted fuel and shell areal densities. From a combination of x-ray, nuclear, and particle spectroscopy, a 'Lawson' fusion parameter (n i T i τi) of ∼7 x 10 20 m -3 keV was measured, the highest directly measured in inertial confinement fusion experiments to date. Estimates from cryogenic target performance give similar Lawson conditions. Future

  18. Scaling of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) for near-term thrusters and future fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.; Bromley, B.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; DeMora, J.; Chacon, L.; Gu, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is a unique approach to fusion and plasma energy systems that was conceptualized in the 1960s (Hirsch 1967) and has been the focus of recent development in the 1990s (Miley et al. 1995a). In the interests of space power and propulsion systems, conceptual rocket design studies (Bussard and Jameson 1994, Miley et al. 1995b) using the IEC have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions, since the power unit avoids the use of magnets and heavy drives resulting in a very high, specific impulse compared to other fusion systems. In their recent survey of prior conceptual design studies of fusion rockets, Williams and Borowski (1997) found that the Bussard IEC conceptual study (the open-quotes QEDclose quotes engine) offered a thrust-to-weight ratio of 10 milli-g close-quote s, a factor of five higher than conventional magnetic confinement concepts and even slightly above anti-proton micro fission/fusion designs. Thus there is considerable motivation to study IEC concepts for eventual space applications. However, the physics feasibility of the IEC still requires experimental demonstration, and an expanded data base is needed to insure that a power unit can in fact be built. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  20. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements

  1. Recent progress on the Los Alamos Aurora ICF [inertial confinement fusion] laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Blair, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse, high-power, krypton-fluoride laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF-relevant targets. This paper presents a summary of the Aurora system and a discussion of the progress achieved in the construction and integration of the laser system. We concentrate on the main features of the following major system components: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, and the associated optical alignment system. During the past year, two major construction and integration tasks have been accomplished. The first task is the demonstration of 96-beam multiplexing and amplified energy extraction, as evidenced by the integrated operation of the front end, the multiplexer (12-fold and 8-fold encoders), the optical relay train, and three electron-beam-driven amplifiers. The second task is the assembly and installation of the demultiplexer optical hardware, which consists of over 300 optical components ranging in size from several centimeters square to over a meter square. 13 refs., 13 figs

  2. Double emulsion generation in the mass production of inertial confinement fusion targets using T-junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Matthew J.

    This work demonstrates a new device for the continuous controlled production of double emulsions for the manufacturing of inertial confinement fusion targets. This device can be integrated into a microfluidic approach to produce targets which should increase the yield and quality of the targets and at a lower cost. The device is a double T-Junction, which has been scaled, optimized and built to produce oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions from diameters of roughly 4 mm or less. A T-Junction is an intersection of two channels at a right angle where fluid emerges and is broken off to form droplets. A systematic study presented here has shown that a single T-Junction has four modes of operation: squeezing, dripping, transition and streaming. The droplet size may be controlled by controlling the fluid flow rate through the channels; the droplet increases with increasing dispersed flow and decreasing continuous flow. The device was utilized to produce hundreds of ˜ 2.5 mm diameter resorcinol formaldehyde double emulsions with better than 2 percent reproducibility in diameter. The device was used to produce 2.0 mm shells with an average wall thickness of 510 microns.

  3. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The studies on the ''Feasibility of Heavy Ion Beams for Inertial Confinement'' funded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology have been continued in the same extent as in previous years. This Annual Report summarizes the scientific results of research carried out in the framework of this project at various research laboratories and universities. The principal aims of this research program are the identification and investigation of key issues of the heavy ion ICF concept based on a RF linac driver. Work done in 1983 concentrated on problems of accelerator and target physics: The theoretical investigations on the dynamics of high-intensity beams were continued. For the first time a low frequency RFQ for a high A/q ratio, to be used as a first unit of an injector, was put into operation. Theoretical target studies concentrated more on fundamental physics problems in the ICF targets, and on considerations for the generation of dense plasmas by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./GG) [de

  4. Grazing incidence metal mirrors as the final elements in a laser driver for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.; Guinan, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Grazing incidence metal mirrors (GIMMs) have been examined to replace dielectric mirrors for the final elements in a laser beam line for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. For a laser driver with a wavelength from 250 to 500 nm in a 10-ns pulse, irradiated mirrors made of Al, Al alloys, or Mg were found to have calculated laser damage limits of 0.3--2.3 J/cm 2 of beam energy and neutron lifetime fluence limits of over 5 x 10 20 14 MeV n/cm 2 (or 2.4 full power years when used in a 1000-MW reactor) when used at grazing incidence (an angle of incidence of 85 degrees) and operated at room temperature or at 77 K. A final focusing system including mirrors made of Al alloy 7457 at room temperature or at liquid nitrogen temperatures used with a driver which delivers 5 MJ of beam energy in 32 beams would require 32 mirrors of roughly 10 m 2 each. This paper briefly reviews the methods used in calculating the damage limits for GIMMs and discusses critical issues relevant to the integrity and lifetime of such mirrors in a reactor environment. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Investigation of natural frequencies of laser inertial confinement fusion capsules using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaojun [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Xing; Wang, Zongwei [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Qian; Qian, Menglu [Institute of Acoustic, Tongji University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Meng, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Yongjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zou, Yaming; Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, Dangzhong, E-mail: dgaocn@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The frequency equation of isotropic multi-layer hollow spheres was derived using three-dimension (3D) elasticity theory and transfer matrix method. • The natural frequencies of the capsules with a millimeter-sized diameter are determined experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) system. • The predicted natural frequencies of the frequency equation accord well with the observed results. • The theoretical and experimental investigation has proved the potential applicability of RUS to both metallic and non-metallic capsules. - Abstract: The natural frequency problem of laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules is one of the basic problems for determining non-destructively the elasticity modulus of each layer material using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). In this paper, the frequency equation of isotropic one-layer hollow spheres was derived using three dimension (3D) elasticity theory and some simplified frequency equations were discussed under axisymmetric and spherical symmetry conditions. The corresponding equation of isotropic multi-layer hollow spheres was given employing transfer matrix method. To confirm the validity of the frequency equation and explore the feasibility of RUS for characterizing the ICF capsules, three representative capsules with a millimeter-sized diameter were determined by piezoelectric-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (PZT-RUS) and laser-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (LRUS) techniques. On the basis of both theoretical and experimental results, it is proved that the calculated and measured natural frequencies are accurate enough for determining the ICF capsules.

  6. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics of the deceleration stage in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C. R., E-mail: weber30@llnl.gov; Clark, D. S.; Cook, A. W.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The deceleration stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions is modeled in detail using three-dimensional simulations designed to match experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In this final stage of the implosion, shocks rebound from the center of the capsule, forming the high-temperature, low-density hot spot and slowing the incoming fuel. The flow field that results from this process is highly three-dimensional and influences many aspects of the implosion. The interior of the capsule has high-velocity motion, but viscous effects limit the range of scales that develop. The bulk motion of the hot spot shows qualitative agreement with experimental velocity measurements, while the variance of the hot spot velocity would broaden the DT neutron spectrum, increasing the inferred temperature by 400–800 eV. Jets of ablator material are broken apart and redirected as they enter this dynamic hot spot. Deceleration stage simulations using two fundamentally different rad-hydro codes are compared and the flow field is found to be in good agreement.

  7. A Model for the Growth of Localized Shell Features in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, V. N.

    2017-10-01

    Engineering features and target debris on inertial confinement fusion capsules play detrimental role in target performance. The contact points of such features with target surface as well as shadowing effects produce localized shell nonuniformities that grow in time because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability developed during shell acceleration. Such growth leads to significant mass modulation in the shell and injection of ablator and cold fuel material into the target vapor region. These effects are commonly modeled using 2-D and 3-D hydrodynamic codes that take into account multiple physics effects. Such simulations, however, are very challenging since in many cases they are inherently three dimensional (as in the case of fill tube or stalk shadowing) and require very high grid resolution to accurately model short-scale features. To gain physics insight, an analytic model describing the growth of these features has been developed. The model is based on the Layzer-type approach. The talk will discuss the results of the model used to study perturbation growth seeded by localized target debris, glue spots, fill tubes, and stalks. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  8. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Justin; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Bruce Marshall; Perry Bell; Daniel Kalantar; Joseph Kimbrough; Stephen Vernon; Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called 'comb' pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber

  9. Hybrid indirect-drive/direct-drive target for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Lindsay John

    2018-02-27

    A hybrid indirect-drive/direct drive for inertial confinement fusion utilizing laser beams from a first direction and laser beams from a second direction including a central fusion fuel component; a first portion of a shell surrounding said central fusion fuel component, said first portion of a shell having a first thickness; a second portion of a shell surrounding said fusion fuel component, said second portion of a shell having a second thickness that is greater than said thickness of said first portion of a shell; and a hohlraum containing at least a portion of said fusion fuel component and at least a portion of said first portion of a shell; wherein said hohlraum is in a position relative to said first laser beam and to receive said first laser beam and produce X-rays that are directed to said first portion of a shell and said fusion fuel component; and wherein said fusion fuel component and said second portion of a shell are in a position relative to said second laser beam such that said second portion of a shell and said fusion fuel component receive said second laser beam.

  10. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Bourque, R.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of a two-year study on the design and evaluation of the Cascade concept as a commercial inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. We developed a reactor design based on the Cascade reaction chamber concept that would be competitive in terms of both capital and operating costs, safe and environmentally acceptable in terms of hazard to the public, occupational exposure and radioactive waste production, and highly efficient. The Cascade reaction chamber is a double-cone-shaped rotating drum. The granulated solid blanket materials inside the rotating chamber are held against the walls by centrifugal force. The fusion energy is captured in a blanket of solid carbon, BeO, and LiAlO 2 granules. These granules are circulated to the primary side of a ceramic heat exchanger. Primary-side granule temperatures range from 1285 K at the LiAlO 2 granule heat exchanger outlet to 1600 K at the carbon granule heat exchanger inlet. The secondary side consists of a closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system with helium working fluid, operating at 1300 K peak outlet temperature and achieving a thermal power conversion efficiency of 55%. The net plant efficiency is 49%. The reference design is a plant producing 1500 MW of D-T fusion power and delivering 815 MW of electrical power for sale to the utility grid. 88 refs., 44 figs., 47 tabs

  11. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm 3 are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system

  12. A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Bennett, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a microscope capable of imaging x-ray emission from inertial confinement fusion targets in the range of 7 - 9 keV. Imaging is accomplished with a Kirkpatrick-Baez type, four-image microscope coated with a WB 4 C multilayer having a 2d period of 140 Angstrom. This microscope design (a standard used on the University of Rochester close-quote s OMEGA laser system) is capable of 5 μm resolution over a region large enough to image an imploded target (∼400 μm). This design is capable of being extended to ∼40 keV if state-of-the-art, short-spacing, multilayer coatings are used (∼25 Angstrom), and has been configured to obtain 3 μm resolution with the appropriate choice of mirror size. As such, this type of microscope could serve as a platform for multiframe, hard x-ray imaging on the National Ignition Facility. Characterization of the microscope and laboratory measurements of the energy response made with a cw x-ray source will be shown. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Hydrodynamic stability theory of double ablation front structures in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez Vico, C.

    2012-11-01

    For moderate-Z materials, the hydrodynamic structure of the ablation region formed by the irradiation of high intensity laser beams differs from that of low-Z materials (hydrogenic ablators). In particular, the role played by the radiative energy flux becomes non-negligible for increasing atomic number material and ended up forming a second ablation front. This structure of two separated ablation fronts, called double ablation (DA) front, was confirmed in the simulations carried out by Fujioka et al. In this work a linear stability theory of DA fronts is developed for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Two models are proposed. First, a sharp boundary model where the thin front approximation is assumed for both ablation fronts. The information about the corona region that permits to close the sharp boundary model is obtained from a prior self-consistent analysis of the electronic-radiative ablation (ERA) front. Numerical results are presented as well as an analytical approach for the radiation dominated regime of very steep double ablation front structure. Second, a self-consistent numerical method where the finite length of the ablation fronts is considered. Accurate hydrodynamic profiles are taken into account in the theoretical model by means of a fitting parameters method using one-dimensional simulation results. Numerical dispersion relation is compared to the analytical sharp boundary model showing an excellent agreement for the radiation dominated regime, and the stabilization due to smooth profiles. 2D simulations are presented to validate the linear stability theory

  14. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy's nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy

  15. Progress in laboratory high gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion): Prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, E.; Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M.; Bernat, T.P.; Coleman, L.W.; Emmett, J.L.; Hogan, W.J.; Hunt, J.T.; Krupke, W.F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a thermonuclear reaction in a small (/approximately/5 mm diameter) fuel capsule filled with a few milligrams of deuterium and tritium, has been the subject of very fruitful experimentation since the early 1970's. High gain ICF is now on the threshold of practical applications. With a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), these applications will have major implications for national defense, basic and applied science, and power production. With a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ in a 10-ns pulse at an intensity of /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/, an appropriately configured cryogenic capsule could be compressed to a density of about 200 g/cm/sup 3/ and a temperature of 3--5 keV. Under these conditions, up to 10 mg of DT could be ignited, and with a burn efficiency of about 30%, release up to 1000 MJ of fusion energy, an energy gain of about 100. A thousand megajoules is equivalent to about one quarter ton of TNT, or about 7 gallons of oil--an amount of energy tractable under laboratory conditions and potentially very useful for a variety of applications. 61 refs., 33 figs.

  16. Effect of charge exchange on ion guns and an application to inertial- electrostatic confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.C.; Stuart, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967, R. L. Hirsch [J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4522 (1967)] reported neutron production rates of 10 10 neutrons per second from an electrostatic inertial confinement device. The device consisted of six ion guns injecting deuterium or a mixture of deuterium and tritium ions into an evacuated cathode chamber at 30--150 keV. No previous theoretical model for this experiment has adequately explained the observed neutron fluxes. A new model that includes the effects of charge exchange and ionization in the ion guns is analyzed. This model predicts three main features of the observed neutron flux: Neutron output proportional to gun current, neutron production localized at the center of the evacuated chamber, and neutron production decreasing with increasing neutral background gas density. Previous analysis modelled the ion guns as being monoenergetic. In this study, the ion gun output is modelled as a mixture of ions and fast neutrals with energies ranging from zero to the maximum gun energy. Using this theoretical model, a survey of the possible operating parameters indicates that the device was probably operated at or near the most efficient combined values of voltage and background pressure. Applications of the theory to other devices are discussed

  17. Inertial Confinement Fusion: steady progress towards ignition and high gain (summary talk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Most important recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) are highlighted. With the construction of the NIF and LMJ facilities, and a number of improvements in the target design, the conventional indirect-drive approach is making a steady progress towards demonstration of ignition and high gain. The development of the polar direct-drive concept made also the prospects for direct-drive ignition on the NIF extremely favorable. A substantial progress has been reported from the Institute of Laser Engineering in Osaka on exploration of the fast-ignition approach to ICF. Parallel to that, multi-wire Z-pinches have become a competitive driver option for achieving ignition at a lowest possible cost. In heavy ion fusion, experiments have been devoted so far to studying the generation, transport, and final focusing of high-current ion beams. A new concept for a power plant with a heavy-ion driver, based on a cylindrical direct-drive target compressed and ignited (in the fast-ignition mode) by two separate beams of very energetic (E i > or ∼ 0.5 GeV/u) heavy ions, has been proposed. (author)

  18. Inertial confinement fusion: steady progress towards ignition and high gain (summary talk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basko, M. M.

    2005-10-01

    Based on the results presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2004, this paper highlights the most important recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the Laser Mégajoule facility and many improvements in the target design, the conventional indirect-drive approach is advancing steadily towards the demonstration of ignition and high gain. The development of the polar direct-drive concept also made the prospects for direct-drive ignition on the NIF very favourable. Substantial progress was reported on the exploration of the fast-ignition approach to ICF. Parallel to that, multi-wire Z-pinches have become a competitive driver option for achieving ignition at the lowest possible cost. In heavy-ion fusion, experiments have been devoted so far to studying the generation, transport, and final focusing of high-current ion beams. A new concept for a power plant with a heavy-ion driver, based on a cylindrical direct-drive target compressed and ignited (in the fast-ignition mode) by two separate beams of very energetic (Ei>~ 0.5 GeV u-1) heavy ions, has been proposed.

  19. Electron-detachment cross sections of halogen negative-ion projectiles for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, M. M.; Zappa, F.; Santos, A. C. F.; de Barros, A. L. F.; Wolff, W.; Coelho, L. F. S.; de Castro Faria, N. V.

    2004-07-01

    Negative-ion beams have recently been suggested as sources of high-energy heavy atoms to be used as drivers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Owing to their electron affinities limited to a few eV, anions can be efficiently photo-detached in the vicinity of the fusion chamber, with the resulting high-velocity neutral projectiles following ballistic trajectories towards the hydrogen pellet target. Electron-detachment cross sections are needed as parameters to estimate the beam attenuation in the path from the ion source to the hydrogen pellet. Halogen anions are possible projectile choices. In this paper we present experimental data for total electron-detachment cross sections for F-, Cl-, Br- and I- ions incident on N2, in the 0.94-74 keV u-1 energy range. Our measurements can benchmark theory on anion electron detachment at intermediate to high velocities. Comparison between different projectiles shows very similar collision velocity dependencies. A simple geometrical scaling is presented, providing an estimate for electron-detachment cross sections at the MeV u-1 energy range. The presented scaling indicates that the vacuum requirements due to the use of halogen anions for ICF are less critical than previously suggested.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion: steady progress towards ignition and high gain (summary talk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2004, this paper highlights the most important recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the Laser Megajoule facility and many improvements in the target design, the conventional indirect-drive approach is advancing steadily towards the demonstration of ignition and high gain. The development of the polar direct-drive concept also made the prospects for direct-drive ignition on the NIF very favourable. Substantial progress was reported on the exploration of the fast-ignition approach to ICF. Parallel to that, multi-wire Z-pinches have become a competitive driver option for achieving ignition at the lowest possible cost. In heavy-ion fusion, experiments have been devoted so far to studying the generation, transport, and final focusing of high-current ion beams. A new concept for a power plant with a heavy-ion driver, based on a cylindrical direct-drive target compressed and ignited (in the fast-ignition mode) by two separate beams of very energetic (E i ≥ 0.5 GeV u -1 ) heavy ions, has been proposed

  1. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results

  2. Electron-detachment cross sections of halogen negative-ion projectiles for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, M M; Zappa, F; Santos, A C F; Barros, A L F de; Wolff, W; Coelho, L F S; Faria, N V de Castro

    2004-01-01

    Negative-ion beams have recently been suggested as sources of high-energy heavy atoms to be used as drivers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Owing to their electron affinities limited to a few eV, anions can be efficiently photo-detached in the vicinity of the fusion chamber, with the resulting high-velocity neutral projectiles following ballistic trajectories towards the hydrogen pellet target. Electron-detachment cross sections are needed as parameters to estimate the beam attenuation in the path from the ion source to the hydrogen pellet. Halogen anions are possible projectile choices. In this paper we present experimental data for total electron-detachment cross sections for F - , Cl - , Br - and I - ions incident on N 2 , in the 0.94-74 keV u -1 energy range. Our measurements can benchmark theory on anion electron detachment at intermediate to high velocities. Comparison between different projectiles shows very similar collision velocity dependencies. A simple geometrical scaling is presented, providing an estimate for electron-detachment cross sections at the MeV u -1 energy range. The presented scaling indicates that the vacuum requirements due to the use of halogen anions for ICF are less critical than previously suggested

  3. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Cheng, B.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-01

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  4. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, T; Landoas, O; Briat, M; Kime, S; Rossé, B; Thfoin, I; Bourgade, J L; Disdier, L; Glebov, V Yu; Marshall, F J; Sangster, T C

    2012-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution (~10 μm) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MégaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a (60)Co γ-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 μm were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  5. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Kime, S.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MegaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 {mu}m were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  6. Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: heat transfer loop and balance of plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Murray, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance of plant design for the Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and results are presented. The Pulse*Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar approximately 11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li 17 Pb 83 coolant which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5 m thick plenum of droplets around an 8 m diameter inner chamber. The reactor and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17 m diameter pool of Li 17 Pb 83 coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops with flow rates of 5.5 m 3 /s each are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. Power balance calculations based on an improved electrical conversion efficiency revealed a net electrical output of 1260 MWe to the bus bar and a resulting net efficiency of 39%. Suggested balance-of-plant layouts are also presented

  7. Inertial confinement fusion research and development studies. Final report, October 1979-August 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullis, R.; Finkelman, M.; Leng, J.; Luzzi, T.; Ojalvo, I.; Powell, E.; Sedgley, D.

    1980-08-01

    These Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research and development studies were selected for structural, thermal, and vacuum pumping analyses in support of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept development. An additional task provided an outlined program plan for an ICF Engineering Test Facility, using the HYLIFE concept as a model, although the plan is generally applicable to other ICF concepts. The HYLIFE is one promising type of ICF concept which features a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets surround the fusion reaction to protect the first structural wall (FSW) of the vacuum chamber by absorbing the fusion energy, and to act as the tritium breeder. The fusion energy source is a deuterium-tritium pellet injected into the chamber every second and driven by laser or heavy ion beams. The studies performed by Grumman have considered the capabilities of specific HYLIFE features to meet life requirements and the requirement to recover to preshot conditions prior to each subsequent shot. The components under investigation were the FSW which restrains the outward motion of the liquid lithium, the nozzle plate which forms the falling jet array, the graphite shield which is in direct top view of the fusion pellet, and the vacuum pumping system. The FSW studies included structural analysis, and definition of an experimental program to validate computer codes describing lithium motion and the resulting impact on the wall

  8. Thermonuclear reactions probed at stellar-core conditions with laser-based inertial-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D. T.; Sayre, D. B.; Brune, C. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Dearborn, D.; Benedetti, L. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; McNaney, J. M.; Ma, T.; Kyrala, G. A.; MacLaren, S.; Salmonson, J.; Khan, S. F.; Pak, A.; Hopkins, L. Berzak; Lepape, S.; Spears, B. K.; Meezan, N. B.; Divol, L.; Yeamans, C. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; McNabb, D. P.; Holunga, D. M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, M.; Kohut, T. R.; Parham, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    Stars are giant thermonuclear plasma furnaces that slowly fuse the lighter elements in the universe into heavier elements, releasing energy, and generating the pressure required to prevent collapse. To understand stars, we must rely on nuclear reaction rate data obtained, up to now, under conditions very different from those of stellar cores. Here we show thermonuclear measurements of the 2H(d, n)3He and 3H(t,2n)4He S-factors at a range of densities (1.2-16 g cm-3) and temperatures (2.1-5.4 keV) that allow us to test the conditions of the hydrogen-burning phase of main-sequence stars. The relevant conditions are created using inertial-confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility. Our data agree within uncertainty with previous accelerator-based measurements and establish this approach for future experiments to measure other reactions and to test plasma-nuclear effects present in stellar interiors, such as plasma electron screening, directly in the environments where they occur.

  9. Analysis of near-field of diffractive gratings used in inertial confinement fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xionggui; Gao, Fuhua; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Yixiao; Du, Jinglei; Guo, Yongkang; Du, Chunlei

    2005-02-01

    Diffractive gratings, such as 1 grating and beam sampling grating (BSG), are used in the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) driver because of their high diffractive efficiency. Under high power laser condition, it demands that near fields of the diffractive gratings, mainly affected by input laser energy and beam modulation, must be less than their damage threshold, otherwise the diffractive gratings will be damaged. In this paper, Fourier modal method based on the rigorous electromagnetic theory is introduced to rapidly and accurately analyze the distribution of near fields of the diffractive gratings. Its physical concept is clear and concise, and computation cost is small. Through numerical simulation, it indicates that the results calculated by Fourier modal method are accurate and effective, compared with those calculated by other method. The near fields of 1 grating used in final optical system of ICF driver are obtained. In addition, fabrication errors effects on the near field modulation are simulated. It shows that the sidewall slope errors are the main cause of optical field modulation. With theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, it is useful to understand mechanism of damage and help how to control fabrication process errors of the optical elements used in the optical system of ICF.

  10. Neutron flux assessment of a neutron irradiation facility based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztejnberg Gonçalves-Carralves, M L; Miller, M E

    2015-12-01

    Neutron generators based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion were considered for the design of a neutron irradiation facility for explanted organ Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) that could be installed in a health care center as well as in research areas. The chosen facility configuration is "irradiation chamber", a ~20×20×40 cm(3) cavity near or in the center of the facility geometry where samples to be irradiated can be placed. Neutron flux calculations were performed to study different manners for improving scattering processes and, consequently, optimize neutron flux in the irradiation position. Flux distributions were assessed through numerical simulations of several models implemented in MCNP5 particle transport code. Simulation results provided a wide spectrum of combinations of net fluxes and energy spectrum distributions. Among them one can find a group that can provide thermal neutron fluxes per unit of production rate in a range from 4.1·10(-4) cm(-2) to 1.6·10(-3) cm(-2) with epithermal-to-thermal ratios between 0.3% and 13% and fast-to-thermal ratios between 0.01% to 8%. Neutron generators could be built to provide more than 10(10) n s(-1) and, consequently, with an arrangement of several generators appropriate enough neutron fluxes could be obtained that would be useful for several BNCT-related irradiations and, eventually, for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma viscosity with mass transport in spherical inertial confinement fusion implosion simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E. L.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Joglekar, A. S. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ortega, M. I. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Moll, R. [University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Fenn, D. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduces the need for artificial viscosity to maintain numerical stability in the Lagrangian formulation and also modifies the flux-limiting needed for electron thermal conduction.

  12. Studies of light ion beam for inertial confinement fusion by induction adder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Imasaki, K.; Yasuda, Y.; Yugami, N.; Akiba, T.; Tubakimoto, K.; Zakou, A.; Nakai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Light ion beams for the energy drive for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research have been studied on a super high voltage generation system (SHVS) using an inductive voltage adder system. A simple analysis implied the capability of the output voltage of several tens of MV. This system has a feasibility of acceleration of ions heavier than proton. The two-stage charge stripping ion diode is considered a SHVS diode. This diode reduces the size of the induction adder module and extends the possible power range in operation. A prototype SHVS, which consists of eight stages of induction cavities (4MV, 40kA, 100ns) powered by a Reiden IV pulse power machine has been constructed. The first ion diode experiments on the induction adder were performed with the beam extraction type ion diode (B r applied magnetic field). The injection plasma ion source was used to control the diode impedance and then the diode voltage. The time delay of ion current turn-on was reduced from 15-20 ns to less than 5 ns by this ion source. (author)

  13. Hydrodynamic modelling of the shock ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The shock ignition concept in inertial confinement fusion uses an intense power spike at the end of an assembly laser pulse. The key features of shock ignition are the generation of a high ablation pressure, the shock pressure amplification by at least a factor of a hundred in the cold fuel shell and the shock coupling to the hot-spot. In this thesis, new semi-analytical hydrodynamic models are developed to describe the ignitor shock from its generation up to the moment of fuel ignition. A model is developed to describe a spherical converging shock wave in a pre-heated hot spot. The self-similar solution developed by Guderley is perturbed over the shock Mach number Ms ≥≥1. The first order correction accounts for the effects of the shock strength. An analytical ignition criterion is defined in terms of the shock strength and the hot-spot areal density. The ignition threshold is higher when the initial Mach number of the shock is lower. A minimal shock pressure of 20 Gbar is needed when it enters the hot-spot. The shock dynamics in the imploding shell is then analyzed. The shock is propagating into a non inertial medium with a high radial pressure gradient and an overall pressure increase with time. The collision with a returning shock coming from the assembly phase enhances further the ignitor shock pressure. The analytical theory allows to describe the shock pressure and strength evolution in a typical shock ignition implosion. It is demonstrated that, in the case of the HiPER target design, a generation shock pressure near the ablation zone on the order of 300-400 Mbar is needed. An analysis of experiments on the strong shock generation performed on the OMEGA laser facility is presented. It is shown that a shock pressure close to 300 Mbar near the ablation zone has been reached with an absorbed laser intensity up to 2 * 10 15 W:cm -2 and a laser wavelength of 351 nm. This value is two times higher than the one expected from collisional laser absorption only

  14. Maximizing 1D “like” implosion performance for inertial confinement fusion science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, John L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-15

    While the march towards achieving indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion at the NIF has made great progress, the experiments show that multi-dimensional effects still dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seed by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of ICF implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. To this end, LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a 1D implosion platform where 1D means high yield over 1D clean calculations. Taking advantage of the properties of beryllium capsules, a high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed. The higher drive efficiency for beryllium enables larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry at the expense of drive. Smaller capsules with a high adiabat drive are expected to reduce the convergence and thus increase predictability. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the initial mass in the hot spot can be controlled via the target fielding temperature which changes the liquid vapor pressure. Varying the initial hot spot mass via the vapor pressure controls the implosion convergence and minimizes the need to vaporize the dense fuel layer during the implosion to achieve ignition relevant hot spot densities. The last method is double shell targets. Unlike hot spot ignition, double shells ignite volumetrically. The inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. Radiation trapping and the longer confinement times relax the conditions required to ignite the fuel. Key challenges for double shell targets are coupling the momentum of the outer shell to

  15. High-Energy-Density-Physics Studies for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.

    2017-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of the static, transport, and optical properties of high-energy-density (HED) plasmas is essential for reliably designing and understanding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In the warm-dense-matter regime routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, many-body strong-coupling and quantum electron degeneracy effects play an important role in determining plasma properties. The past several years have witnessed intense efforts to assess the importance of the microphysics of ICF targets, both theoretically and experimentally. On the theory side, first-principles methods based on quantum mechanics have been applied to investigate the properties of warm, dense plasmas. Specifically, self-consistent investigations have recently been performed on the equation of state, thermal conductivity, and opacity of a variety of ICF ablators such as polystyrene (CH), beryllium, carbon, and silicon over a wide range of densities and temperatures. In this talk, we will focus on the most-recent progress on these ab initio HED physics studies, which generally result in favorable comparisons with experiments. Upon incorporation into hydrocodes for ICF simulations, these first-principles ablator-plasma properties have produced significant differences over traditional models in predicting 1-D target performance of ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944. *In collaboration with L. A. Collins, T. R. Boehly, G. W. Collins, J. D. Kress, and V. N. Goncharov.

  16. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  17. Dense plasma chemistry of hydrocarbons at conditions relevant to planetary interiors and inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Dominik

    2017-10-01

    Carbon-hydrogen demixing and subsequent diamond precipitation has been predicted to strongly participate in shaping the internal structure and evolution of icy giant planets like Neptune and Uranus. The very same dense plasma chemistry is also a potential concern for CH plastic ablator materials in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments where similar conditions are present during the first compression stage of the imploding capsule. Here, carbon-hydrogen demixing may enhance the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in the following compression stages. First experiments applying dynamic compression and ultrafast in situ X-ray diffraction at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source demonstrated diamond formation from polystyrene (CH) at 150 GPa and 5000 K. Very recent experiments have now investigated the influence of oxygen, which is highly abundant in icy giant planets on the phase separation process. Compressing PET (C5H4O2) and PMMA(C5H8O2), we find again diamond formation at pressures above 150 GPa and temperatures of several thousand kelvins, showing no strong effect due to the presence of oxygen. Thus, diamond precipitation deep inside icy giant planets seems very likely. Moreover, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was added to the platform, which determines an upper limit for the diamond particle size, while the width of the diffraction features provides a lower limit. We find that diamond particles of several nanometers in size are formed on a nanosecond timescale. Finally, spectrally resolved X-ray scattering is used to scale amorphous diffraction signals and allows for determining the amount of carbon-hydrogen demixing inside the compressed samples even if no crystalline diamond is formed. This whole set of diagnostics provides unprecedented insights into the nanosecond kinetics of dense plasma chemistry.

  18. The potential role of electric fields and plasma barodiffusion on the inertial confinement fusion databasea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, S. C.; Bellei, C.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-05-01

    The generation of strong, self-generated electric fields (GV/m) in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) capsules has been reported [Rygg et al., Science 319, 1223 (2008); Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225001 (2008)]. A candidate explanation for the origin of these fields based on charge separation across a plasma shock front was recently proposed [Amendt et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51 124048 (2009)]. The question arises whether such electric fields in imploding capsules can have observable consequences on target performance. Two well-known anomalies come to mind: (1) an observed ≈2× greater-than-expected deficit of neutrons in an equimolar D3He fuel mixture compared with hydrodynamically equivalent D [Rygg et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)] and DT [Herrmann et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056312 (2009)] fuels, and (2) a similar shortfall of neutrons when trace amounts of argon are mixed with D in indirect-drive implosions [Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. A new mechanism based on barodiffusion (or pressure gradient-driven diffusion) in a plasma is proposed that incorporates the presence of shock-generated electric fields to explain the reported anomalies. For implosions performed at the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], the (low Mach number) return shock has an appreciable scale length over which the lighter D ions can diffuse away from fuel center. The depletion of D fuel is estimated and found to lead to a corresponding reduction in neutrons, consistent with the anomalies observed in experiments for both argon-doped D fuels and D3He equimolar mixtures. The reverse diffusional flux of the heavier ions toward fuel center also increases the pressure from a concomitant increase in electron number density, resulting in lower stagnation pressures and larger imploded cores in agreement with gated, self-emission, x-ray imaging data.

  19. Single and nested tungsten-wire-array dynamics and applications to inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Wire array z-pinches show great promise as x-ray sources for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The double z-pinch hohlraum, for example, has produced capsule radiation drive symmetric to within 3%. This ICF concept will require that each of two 20-mm-diam arrays scale to x-ray powers ˜1 PW, to drive high-yield (>0.2 GJ) capsules to ignition. High-yield fusion will also require a temporally shaped radiation pulse to drive a low-entropy capsule implosion. Recently, improved understanding of high current (11-19 MA) single and nested wire-array dynamics has enabled significant progress towards these goals. As at lower currents, a single wire array (and both the outer and inner arrays of a nested system) shows a wire ablation phase, axial modulation of the ablation rate, a larger ablation rate for larger diameter wires, trailing mass and trailing current. These processes and others produce a broad mass profile that may impact the optimization of x-ray output for single and nested arrays. Our new insights into wire array physics have led to 20-mm-diam single and nested arrays with peak powers of 150-190 TW at implosion times of 55-90 ns, increased from 60-120 TW at 95-110 ns, improving power scaling. Radiation pulse shapes required for 3-shock isentropic compression of high-yield ICF capsules have also been demonstrated with nested wire arrays operating in current-transfer mode. In collaboration with: D.B. Sinars, R.A. Vesey, E.M. Waisman, W.A. Stygar, D.E. Bliss, S.V. Lebedev, J.P. Chittenden, P.V. Sasorov, R.W. Lemke, E.P. Yu, B.B. Afeyan, G.R. Bennett, M.G. Mazarakis, M.R. Lopez, M.E. Savage, J.L. Porter, T.A. Mehlhorn.

  20. Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: Heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Blink, J.A.; Curlander, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant design for the Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and the results are presented. The Pulse Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar about11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li 17 Pb 83 coolant, which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5-m-thick plenum of droplets around a 8-m-diameter inner chamber. The bell jar and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17-m-diameter pool of Li 17 Pb 83 coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops, each with a flow rate of 5.5 m 3 /s, are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. Liquid metal is pumped to the top of the pool, where it flows downward through eight vertical steam generators. Double-walled tubes are used in the steam generators to assure tritium containment without intermediate heat transfer loops. Each pump is a mixed flow type and has a required NPSH of 3.4 m, a speed of 278 rpm, and an impeller diameter of 1.2 m. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. The design minimizes the total cost (heat exchanger area plus pumping) for the plant lifetime. The power required for the pumps is 36 MWe. Each resulting steam generator is 12 m high and 1.6 m in diameter, with 2360 tubes. The steam generators and pumps fit easily in the pool between the reactor chamber and the pool wall

  1. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, Brian M., E-mail: bmhaines@lanl.gov; Fincke, James R.; Shah, Rahul C.; Boswell, Melissa; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Gore, Robert A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Klein, Andreas; Rundberg, Robert S.; Steinkamp, Michael J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Grim, Gary P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Forrest, Chad J.; Silverstein, Kevin; Marshall, Frederic J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a “CD Mixcap,” is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employ any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  2. VISTA -- A Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Application Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, C D

    2005-03-31

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an ideal technology to power self-contained single-stage piloted (manned) spacecraft within the solar system because of its inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses (i.e., high exhaust velocities). These technological advantages are retained when ICF is utilized with a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. We started with Rod Hyde's 1983 description of an ICF-powered engine concept using a magnetic thrust chamber, and conducted a more detailed systems study to develop a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on ICF technology projected to be available in the first half of the 21st century. The results include an entirely new conical spacecraft conceptual design utilizing near-existing radiator technology. We describe the various vehicle systems for this new concept, estimate the missions performance capabilities for general missions to the planets within the solar system, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. For this mission, we show that roundtrips totaling {ge}145 days are possible with advanced DT fusion technology and a total (wet) spacecraft mass of about 6000 metric tons. Such short-duration missions are advantageous to minimize the known cosmic-radiation hazards to astronauts, and are even more important to minimize the physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity. These ICF-powered missions are considerably faster than those available using chemical or nuclear-electric-propulsion technologies with minimum-mass vehicle configurations. VISTA also offers onboard artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the known hazards and physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. We emphasize, however, that the degree

  3. On the Utility of Antiprotons as Drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, L J; Orth, C D; Tabak, M

    2003-10-20

    By contrast to the large mass, complexity and recirculating power of conventional drivers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), antiproton annihilation offers a specific energy of 90MJ/{micro}g and thus a unique form of energy packaging and delivery. In principle, antiproton drivers could provide a profound reduction in system mass for advanced space propulsion by ICF. We examine the physics underlying the use of antiprotons ({bar p}) to drive various classes of high-yield ICF targets by the methods of volumetric ignition, hotspot ignition and fast ignition. The useable fraction of annihilation deposition energy is determined for both {bar p}-driven ablative compression and {bar p}-driven fast ignition, in association with 0-D and 1-D target burn models. Thereby, we deduce scaling laws for the number of injected antiprotons required per capsule, together with timing and focal spot requirements. The kinetic energy of the injected antiproton beam required to penetrate to the desired annihilation point is always small relative to the deposited annihilation energy. We show that heavy metal seeding of the fuel and/or ablator is required to optimize local deposition of annihilation energy and determine that a minimum of {approx}3x10{sup 15} injected antiprotons will be required to achieve high yield (several hundred megajoules) in any target configuration. Target gains - i.e., fusion yields divided by the available p - {bar p} annihilation energy from the injected antiprotons (1.88GeV/{bar p}) - range from {approx}3 for volumetric ignition targets to {approx}600 for fast ignition targets. Antiproton-driven ICF is a speculative concept, and the handling of antiprotons and their required injection precision - temporally and spatially - will present significant technical challenges. The storage and manipulation of low-energy antiprotons, particularly in the form of antihydrogen, is a science in its infancy and a large scale-up of antiproton production over present supply

  4. Laser - driven high - energy ions and their application to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The acceleration of high-energy ion beams (up to several tens of MeV per nucleon) following the interaction of short and intense laser pulses with solid targets has been one of the most important results of recent laser-plasma research [1]. The acceleration is driven by relativistic electrons, which acquire energy directly from the laser pulse and set up extremely large (∼TV/m) space charge fields at the target interfaces. The properties of laser-driven ion beams (high brightness and laminarity, high-energy cut-off, ultrashort burst duration) distinguish them from lower energy ions accelerated in earlier experiments at moderate laser intensities, and compare favourably with those of 'conventional' accelerator beams. In view of these properties, laser-driven ion beams can be employed in a number of innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. We will discuss in particular aspects of interest to their application in an Inertial Confinement Fusion context. Laser-driven protons are indeed being considered as a possible trigger for Fast Ignition of a precompressed fuel.[2] Recent results relating to the optimization of beam energy and focusing will be presented. These include the use of laser-driven impulsive fields for proton beam collimation and focusing [3], and the investigation of acceleration in presence of finite-scale plasma gradient. Proposed target developments enabling proton production at high repetition rate will also be discussed. Another important area of application of proton beams is diagnostic use in a particle probing arrangement for detection of density non-homogeneities [4] and electric/magnetic fields [5]. We will discuss the use of laser-driven proton beams for the diagnosis of magnetic and electric fields in planar and hohlraum targets and for the detection of fields associated to relativistic electron propagation through dense matter, an issue of high relevance for electron driven Fast Ignition. [1] M

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-12-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D

  6. Temperature dependence of parametric instabilities in the context of the shock-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, Stefan A.; Riconda, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, Feb (2015), e6 ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : inertial confinement fusion * shock ignition * laser-plasma interaction * parametric instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  7. Fabrication of cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion targets using target free-fall technique. Report No. 2-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Murphy, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Techniques for fabricating cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets (i.e., spherical shells containing a uniform layer of DT ice) are investigated using target free-fall concept. Detection and characterization of the moving targets are effected by optoelectronic means, of which the principal is an RF ac-interferometer. This interferometer system demonstrates, for the first time, the speed capabilities of the phase-modulation ac-interferometry. New techiques developed for handling, holding, launching, and transporting targets are also described. Results obtained at both room and cryogenic temperatures are presented

  8. An Overview of the Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and High-Energy-Density Physics Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division

    2016-07-15

    The Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and Science Programs engage in a vigorous array of experiments, theory, and modeling. We use the three major High Energy Density facilities, NIF, Omega, and Z to perform experiments. These include opacity, radiation transport, hydrodynamics, ignition science, and burn experiments to aid the ICF and Science campaigns in reaching their stewardship goals. The ICF program operates two nuclear diagnostics at NIF, the neutron imaging system and the gamma reaction history instruments. Both systems are being expanded with significant capability enhancements.

  9. Threshold bubble chamber for measurement of knock-on DT neutron tails from magnetic and inertial confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.K.; Zaveryaev, V.S.; Trusillo, S.V.

    1996-07-01

    We propose a new open-quotes thresholdclose quotes bubble chamber detector for measurement of knock-on neutron tails. These energetic neutrons result from fusion reactions involving energetic fuel ions created by alpha knock-on collisions in tokamak and other magnetic confinement experiments, and by both alpha and neutron knock-on collisions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The energy spectrum of these neutrons will yield information on the alpha population and energy distribution in tokamaks, and on alpha target physics and ρR measurements in ICF experiments. The bubble chamber should only detect neutrons with energies above a selectable threshold energy controlled by the bubble chamber pressure. The bubble chamber threshold mechanism, detection efficiency, and proposed applications to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments will be discussed

  10. Magnetic discharge accelerating diode for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators based on inertial confinement of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskij, K. I.; Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Shatokhin, V. L.; Isaev, A. A.; Martynenko, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with magnetic discharge diode module with inertial electrostatic ions confinement for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators. The basis of the design is geometry with the central hollow cathode surrounded by the outer cylindrical anode and electrodes made of permanent magnets. The induction magnitude about 0.1-0.4 T in the central region of the discharge volume ensures the confinement of electrons in the space of hollow (virtual) cathode and leads to space charge compensation of accelerated ions in the centre. The research results of different excitation modes in pulsed high-voltage discharge are presented. The stable form of the volume discharge preserveing the shape and amplitude of the pulse current in the pressure range of 10-3-10-1 Torr and at the accelerating voltage up to 200 kV was observed.

  11. Threshold bubble chamber for measurement of knock-on DT neutron tails from magnetic and inertial confinement experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. K.; Zaveryaev, V. S.; Trusillo, S. V.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new "threshold" bubble chamber detector for measurement of knock-on neutron tails. These energetic neutrons result from fusion reactions involving energetic fuel ions created by alpha knock-on collisions in tokamak and other magnetic confinement experiments, and by both alpha and neutron knock-on collisions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The energy spectrum of these neutrons will yield information on the alpha population and energy distribution in tokamaks, and on alpha target physics and ρR measurements in ICF experiments. The bubble chamber should only detect neutrons with energies above a selectable threshold energy controlled by the bubble chamber pressure. The bubble chamber threshold mechanism, detection efficiency, and proposed applications to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and National Ignition Facility experiments will be discussed.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, M. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  13. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  14. Smoothing by spectral dispersion using random phase modulation for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulations of beam smoothing using random phase modulation and grating dispersion are presented. Spatial spectra of the target illumination show that significantly improved smoothing at low spatial frequency is achieved while maintaining uniform intensity in the laser amplifier

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  16. Inertial confinement fusion. Quarterly report, July--September 1993: Volume 3, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, R.A.; Murphy, P.W.; Schleich, D.P. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following research: Diode-pumped solid- state-laser driver for inertial fusion energy power plants; Longitudinal beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion accelerators; Design of the ion sources for heavy ion fusion; Measurement of electron density in laser-produced plasma with a soft x-ray moire deflectometer; and Analysis of weakly nonlinear three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth.

  17. HYPERFUSE: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.) that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  18. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-01

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot "mix" may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields—not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or "grains" of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. We describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulations and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.

  19. Modeling Stimulated Raman Scattering in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Plasmas for National Ignition Facility Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, A. V.; Shaw, J. G.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.

    2017-10-01

    In the plasmas of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the coupling of laser power to the target plasma is strongly influenced by the laser-plasma interaction (LPI) processes driven by multiple crossing laser beams. For the plasma parameters relevant to the conditions of the experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the threshold of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is usually well exceeded because of the large scale length of the plasma density, making the study of SRS vital for the NIF ICF program. The SRS evolution starts as a convective or absolute instability, and the nonlinear saturation is determined by the ion-acoustic perturbations and kinetic effects. The LPI processes of cross-beam energy transfer and two-plasmon decay also drive the ion-acoustic modes and their interplay with SRS is analyzed. This work was supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Development and characterization of a Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion target concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, Michael E.; Vesey, Roger A.; Porter, John L. Jr.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Fehl, David L.; Gilliland, Terrance L.; Hanson, David L.; McGurn, John S.; Reynolds, Paul G.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Seamen, Hans; Spielman, Rick B.; Struve, Ken W.; Stygar, William A.; Simpson, Walter W.; Torres, Jose A.; Wenger, David F.; Hammer, James H.; Rambo, Peter W.; Peterson, Darrell L.

    2001-01-01

    Initial experiments to study the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept of Hammer, Tabak, and Porter [Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)] are described. The relationship between measured pinch power, hohlraum temperature, and secondary hohlraum coupling ('hohlraum energetics') is well understood from zero-dimensional semianalytic, and two-dimensional view factor and radiation magnetohydrodynamics models. These experiments have shown the highest x-ray powers coupled to any Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum (26±5 TW), indicating the concept could scale to fusion yields of >200 MJ. A novel, single-sided power feed, double-pinch driven secondary that meets the pinch simultaneity requirements for polar radiation symmetry has also been developed. This source will permit investigation of the pinch power balance and hohlraum geometry requirements for ICF relevant secondary radiation symmetry, leading to a capsule implosion capability on the Z accelerator [Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)

  1. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified

  2. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct open-quotes Onsite Supportclose quotes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA

  3. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D 2 or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments

  4. High-efficiency targets for high-gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the induced spatial incoherence (ISI) technique, which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh--Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh--Taylor instability, pellets using (1)/(4) μm laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150--200) may produce energy gains as high as 200--250

  5. Modifications of the laser beam coherence inertial confinement fusion plasmas; Modifications des proprietes de coherence des faisceaux laser dans les plasmas de fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grech, M

    2007-06-15

    Inertial confinement fusion by laser requires smoothed laser beam with well-controlled coherence properties. Such beams are made of many randomly distributed intensity maxima: the so-called speckles. As the laser beam propagates through plasma its temporal and spatial coherence can be reduced. This phenomenon is called plasma induced smoothing. For high laser intensities, instabilities developing independently inside the speckles are responsible for the coherence loss. At lower intensities, only collective effects, involving many speckles, can lead to induced smoothing. This thesis is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study of these mechanisms. Accounting for the partially incoherent behavior of the laser beams requires the use of statistical description of the laser-plasma interaction. A model is developed for the multiple scattering of the laser light on the self-induced density perturbations that is responsible for a spreading of the temporal and spatial spectra of the transmitted light. It also serves as a strong seed for the instability of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering that induces both, angular spreading and red-shift of the transmitted light. A statistical model is developed for this instability. A criterion is obtained that gives a laser power (below the critical power for filamentation) above which the instability growth is important. Numerical simulations with the interaction code PARAX and an experiment performed on the ALISE laser facility confirm the importance of these forward scattering mechanisms in the modification of the laser coherence properties. (author)

  6. Contribution to the theoretical and numerical study of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Trach-Minh

    1983-01-01

    After an overview of problems faced for numerical simulations of inertial fusion, this research thesis reports the study of the behaviour of suprathermal ions by using the transport equation as model. The problem is then to find an appropriate numerical method to solve this equation, inspired by well known methods related to the transport of neutral particles (photons and neutrons) which however cannot be directly applied. The calculation scheme is introduced in an existing hydrodynamic code. Models are then proposed to take the partial ionisation of some materials into account in the target thermodynamics and in the slowing down of fast ions. In the next part, the author discusses the ion transport equation, and the calculation of the different coefficients which characterise their interaction with particles of the host medium. Problems faced for numerical processing are addressed. The coupling of ion transport calculation model with a hydrodynamic code is described. Effects of alphas transport during target ignition are analysed, as well as the penetration of external ion beams during the compression phase

  7. Research in the US on heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1986-10-01

    The US study of high-energy multigap accelerators to produce large currents of heavy ions for inertial fusion is centered on the single-pass induction linac method. The large technology base associated with multigap accelerators for high-energy physics gives confidence that high efficiency, high repetition rate, and good availability can be achieved, and that the path from scientific demonstration to commercial realization can be a smooth one. In an induction linac driver, multiple (parallel) ion beams are accelerated through a sequence of pulsed transformers. Crucial to the design is the manipulation of electric fields to amplify the beam current during acceleration. A proof-of-principle induction linac experiment (MBE-4) is underway and has begun the first demonstration of current amplification, control of the bunch ends, and the acceleration of multiple beams. A recently completed experiment, called the Single Beam Transport Experiment has shown that we can now count on more freedom to design an alternating-gradient quadrupole focusing channel to transport much higher ion-beam currents than formerly believed possible. A recent Heavy Ion Fusion System Assessment (HIFSA) has shown that a substantial cost saving results from use of multiply-charged ions, and that a remarkably broad range of options exist for viable power-plant designs. The driver cost at 3 to 4 MJ could be $200/joule or less, and the cost of electricity in the range of 50 to 55 mills/kWhr

  8. Present status of direct drive inertial confinement fusion research at ILE Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Nakai, Sadao

    1993-01-01

    The activities of direct drive implosion experiments at ILE of Osaka Univ. are focused on the planar- and spherical-target experiments relating to Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the implosion experiments of cryogenic targets with low density plastic foam shell overcoated by a solid plastic layer. In the spherical shell target implosions a very early x-ray emission (refer as pre-emission hereafter) has been observed at the center of the target. The appearance of the pre-emission is related to the illumination nonuniformity. The appearance time of the pre-emission, the electron temperature of the source plasma of the pre-emission and the possibility of Rayleigh-Taylor instability have been studied experimentally to understand the mechanism of the pre-emission. Shell break up by Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been concluded to be the most probable mechanism of the pre-emission

  9. Diagnostic technique for measuring fusion reaction rate for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Shen Guang-III prototype laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Peng Xiao-Shi; Liu Shen-Ye; Xu Tao; Kang Dong-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A study is conducted using a two-dimensional simulation program (Lared-s) with the goal of developing a technique to evaluate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in a neutron fusion reaction region. Two peaks of fusion reaction rate are simulated by using a two-dimensional simulation program (Lared-s) and confirmed by the experimental results. A neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) system is developed with a high temporal resolution of ∼ 30 ps at the Shen Guang-III (SG-III) prototype laser facility in China, to measure the fusion reaction rate history. With the shape of neutron reaction rate curve and the spherical harmonic function in this paper, the degree of Rayleigh-Taylor growth and the main source of the neutron yield in our experiment can be estimated qualitatively. This technique, including the diagnostic system and the simulation program, may provide important information for obtaining a higher neutron yield in implosion experiments of inertial confinement fusion

  10. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  11. Hot-spot dynamics and deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Umansky, M.; Lobatchev, V.; Goncharov, V.N.; McCrory, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model for the deceleration phase of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules is derived by solving the conservation equations for the hot spot. It is found that heat flux leaving the hot spot goes back in the form of internal energy and pdV work of the material ablated off the inner shell surface. Though the hot-spot temperature is reduced by the heat conduction losses, the hot-spot density increases due to the ablated material in such a way that the hot-spot pressure is approximately independent of heat conduction. For direct-drive National Ignition Facility-like capsules, the ablation velocity off the shell inner surface is of the order of tens μm/ns, the deceleration of the order of thousands μm/ns2, and the density-gradient scale length of the order a few μm. Using the well-established theory of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability, it is shown that the growth rates of the deceleration phase instability are significantly reduced by the finite ablative flow and the unstable spectrum exhibits a cutoff for mode numbers of about l≅90

  12. Contributions to the stability analysis of self-similar supersonic heat waves related to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastugue, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Exact self-similar solutions of gas dynamics equations with nonlinear heat conduction for semi-infinite slabs of perfect gases are used for studying the stability of flows in inertial confinement fusion. Both the similarity solutions and their linear perturbations are computed with a multi domain Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method, allowing us to account for, without any other approximation, compressibility and unsteadiness. Following previous results (Clarisse et al., 2008; Lombard, 2008) representative of the early ablation of a target by a nonuniform laser flux (electronic conduction, subsonic heat front downstream of a quasi-perfect shock front), we explore here other configurations. For this early ablation phase, but for a nonuniform incident X-radiation (radiative conduction), we study a compressible and a weakly compressible flow. In both cases, we recover the behaviours obtained for compressible flows with electronic heat conduction with a maximal instability for a zero wavenumber. Besides, the spectral method is extended to compute similarity solutions taking into account the supersonic heat wave ahead of the shock front. Based on an analysis of the reduced equations singularities (infinitely stiff front), this method allows us to describe the supersonic heat wave regime proper to the initial irradiation of the target and to recover the ablative solutions which were obtained under a negligible fore-running heat wave approximation. (author) [fr

  13. Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. II. Tolerance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Guy R.; Folta, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Two example ultrahigh-spatial resolution laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray microscope designs for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research have been described [Appl. Opt. 40, 4570 (2001)]. Here details of fabrication, assembly, and optical surface errors that are characteristic of present state-of-the-art superpolished multilayer-coated spherical mirrors are given. They indicate that good image qualities can be expected; in particular, <0.5-μm spatial resolution at very high x-ray energies (up to 25 keV) appears to be feasible. Existing ICF imaging diagnostics approach ∼2 μm spatial at low (<2 keV) energy. The improvement in resolution compared with that of other grazing-incidence devices is attributed to a fortuitous residual on-axis aberration dependence on short wavelengths; recent advances in mirror fabrication, including a new thin-film deposition technique to correct figure errors precisely in one dimension; and novel design. For even higher resolution, a means of creating precise aspherical mirrors of spheric-quality microroughness may be possible by use of the same deposition technique

  14. The LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] Program: Progress toward ignition in the Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Batha, S.H.; Bernat, T.P.; Bibeau, C.; Cable, M.D.; Caird, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Campbell, J.H.; Coleman, L.W.; Cook, R.C.; Correll, D.L.; Darrow, C.B.; Davis, J.I.; Drake, R.P.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Ellis, R.J.; Glendinning, S.G.; Haan, S.W.; Haendler, B.L.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hatchett, S.P.; Hermes, G.L.; Hunt, J.P.; Kania, D.R.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Kruer, W.L.; Kyrazis, D.T.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Letts, S.A.; Lindl, J.D.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Mauger, G.J.; Montgomery, D.S.; Munro, D.H.; Murray, J.R.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.T.; Remington, B.R.; Ress, D.B.; Speck, D.R.; Suter, L.J.; Tietbohl, G.L.; Thiessen, A.R.; Trebes, J.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Turner, R.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Wallace, R.J.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Woodworth, J.G.; Young, P.M.; Ze, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made substantial progress in target physics, target diagnostics, and laser science and technology. In each area, progress required the development of experimental techniques and computational modeling. The objectives of the target physics experiments in the Nova laser facility are to address and understand critical physics issues that determine the conditions required to achieve ignition and gain in an ICF capsule. The LLNL experimental program primarily addresses indirect-drive implosions, in which the capsule is driven by x rays produced by the interaction of the laser light with a high-Z plasma. Experiments address both the physics of generating the radiation environment in a laser-driven hohlraum and the physics associated with imploding ICF capsules to ignition and high-gain conditions in the absence of alpha deposition. Recent experiments and modeling have established much of the physics necessary to validate the basic concept of ignition and ICF target gain in the laboratory. The rapid progress made in the past several years, and in particular, recent results showing higher radiation drive temperatures and implosion velocities than previously obtained and assumed for high-gain target designs, has led LLNL to propose an upgrade of the Nova laser to 1.5 to 2 MJ (at 0.35 μm) to demonstrate ignition and energy gains of 10 to 20 -- the Nova Upgrade

  15. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  16. Vapor condensation on the surface of a liquid blanket jet in an inertial-confinement fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Inoue, Akira; Fujinuma, Hajime; Tsukui, Jun.

    1991-01-01

    As the fundamental study on lithium jet cooling of an inertial-confinement fusion reactor, the experiment was performed to investigate for the steady condensation of saturated steam on a vertical downward water jet. The experimental parameters were the nozzle diameter of 3 and 5 mm, the jet length of 60∼316 mm, the outlet velocity of 2∼12 m/s, the outlet temperature of 30∼70degC, and the pressure of 0.03∼0.44 MPa, which corresponds to the Reynolds number of 1.35 x 10 4 ∼2.71 x 10 5 and the Prandtl number of 1.0∼5.2. As the Reynolds number or the jet length is increased, the Stanton number decreases and then increases again. As the steam pressure is increased, it increases monotonously. These characteristics of condensation heat transfer have been classical into four regions based on the criteria for jet break-up and surface disturbance, or entrainment. The empirical correlations for the Stanton number have been obtained for these regions, and the validity was confirmed by comparing them with the previous correlations. (author)

  17. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.

    2017-07-01

    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  18. Density-Functional-Theory-Based Equation-of-State Table of Beryllium for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y. H.; Hu, S. X.

    2017-10-01

    Beryllium has been considered a superior ablator material for inertial confinement fusion target designs. Based on density-functional-theory calculations, we have established a wide-range beryllium equation-of-state (EOS) table of density ρ = 0.001 to ρ = 500 g/cm3 and temperature T = 2000 to 108 K. Our first-principles equation-of-state (FPEOS) table is in better agreement with widely used SESAMEEOS table (SESAME2023) than the average-atom INFERNOmodel and the Purgatoriomodel. For the principal Hugoniot, our FPEOS prediction shows 10% stiffer behavior than the last two models at maximum compression. Comparisons between FPEOS and SESAMEfor off-Hugoniot conditions show that both the pressure and internal energy differences are within 20% between two EOS tables. By implementing the FPEOS table into the 1-D radiation-hydrodynamics code LILAC, we studied the EOS effects on beryllium target-shell implosions. The FPEOS simulation predicts up to an 15% higher neutron yield compared to the simulation using the SESAME2023 EOS table. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  20. Development of an inertial confinement fusion platform to study charged-particle-producing nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Forrest, C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hohenberger, M.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R. M.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Craxton, R. S.; Dearborn, D.; Farrell, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Garcia, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hale, G.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hohensee, M.; Holunga, D. M.; Hoppe, M.; Janezic, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Knauer, J. P.; Kohut, T. R.; Lahmann, B.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Masse, L.; McEvoy, A.; McKenty, P.; McNabb, D. P.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T. G.; Paris, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pino, J.; Radha, P. B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Robey, H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rosse, B.; Rubery, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Sanchez, J.; Schmitt, M.; Schoff, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Seka, W.; Sio, H.; Stoeckl, C.; Tipton, R. E.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a platform to study astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions using inertial-confinement fusion implosions on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser facilities, with a particular focus on optimizing the implosions to study charged-particle-producing reactions. Primary requirements on the platform are high yield, for high statistics in the fusion product measurements, combined with low areal density, to allow the charged fusion products to escape. This is optimally achieved with direct-drive exploding pusher implosions using thin-glass-shell capsules. Mitigation strategies to eliminate a possible target sheath potential which would accelerate the emitted ions are discussed. The potential impact of kinetic effects on the implosions is also considered. The platform is initially employed to study the complementary T(t,2n)α, T(3He,np)α and 3He(3He,2p)α reactions. Proof-of-principle results from the first experiments demonstrating the ability to accurately measure the energy and yields of charged particles are presented. Lessons learned from these experiments will be used in studies of other reactions. The goals are to explore thermonuclear reaction rates and fundamental nuclear physics in stellar-like plasma environments, and to push this new frontier of nuclear astrophysics into unique regimes not reachable through existing platforms, with thermal ion velocity distributions, plasma screening, and low reactant energies.

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Characterization of Negative Deuterium Ion Distributions in a Gridded Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Eric C.

    This work extends the recent (2008) UW-Madison discovery of a substantial current of negative deuterium ions produced in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion device. Investigation was carried out both through empirical measurement and computational modeling. Measurements of the negative ion current were performed with a compact Faraday cup mounted on motion stages to produce radial and azimuthal spatial profiles of the negative ion current density in an IEC device. The azimuthal profiles represent the first spatially resolved measurements of the shape of a 'plasma jet' produced by perturbations in the electrostatic potential at the cathode of the IEC device. Further, these measurements confirm the existence of these jets at low pressure when they are not observable by light emission. This work demonstrates that the magnitude of the negative ion current and the profile of the plasma jet are dependent on the potential and current supplied to the IEC device cathode. A comparison of the production of negative ions by a single reaction versus a chain of reactions was carried out by deriving the analog to the mean free path for a sequence of reactions. This analysis can be adapted to a variety of applications if it is useful to know the length scale of a chain of reactions occurs in. The capability to simulate the production and propagation of negative ion current was added to the UW-IEC modeling program, Volterra Integral Code for Transport in Electrostatic Reactors (VICTER). This 1D code predicts the negative ion energy spectrum at all radii in the IEC device. Comparing trends in measurements and VICTER simulations was utilized to validate elements of the VICTER code. VICTER was further utilized to understand the relative importance of the reactions that produce negative ions in an IEC device and illustrate how the energy spectrum evolves as negative ions travel through the IEC device.

  2. On the importance of minimizing "coast-time" in x-ray driven inertially confined fusion implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Callahan, D. A.; Landen, O.; Patel, P. K.; Springer, P. T.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kline, J.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Moore, A.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J. D.; Widmann, K.

    2017-09-01

    By the time an inertially confined fusion (ICF) implosion has converged a factor of 20, its surface area has shrunk 400 × , making it an inefficient x-ray energy absorber. So, ICF implosions are traditionally designed to have the laser drive shut off at a time, toff, well before bang-time, tBT, for a coast-time of t coast = t B T - t o f f > 1 ns. High-foot implosions on NIF showed a strong dependence of many key ICF performance quantities on reduced coast-time (by extending the duration of laser power after the peak power is first reached), most notably stagnation pressure and fusion yield. Herein we show that the ablation pressure, pabl, which drives high-foot implosions, is essentially triangular in temporal shape, and that reducing tcoast boosts pabl by as much as ˜ 2 × prior to stagnation thus increasing fuel and hot-spot compression and implosion speed. One-dimensional simulations are used to track hydrodynamic characteristics for implosions with various coast-times and various assumed rates of hohlraum cooling after toff to illustrate how the late-time conditions exterior to the implosion can impact the fusion performance. A simple rocket model-like analytic theory demonstrates that reducing coast-time can lead to a ˜ 15 % higher implosion velocity because the reduction in x-ray absorption efficiency at late-time is somewhat compensated by small ( ˜ 5 % - 10 %) ablator mass remaining. Together with the increased ablation pressure, the additional implosion speed for short coast-time implosions can boost the stagnation pressure by ˜ 2 × as compared to a longer coast-time version of the same implosion. Four key dimensionless parameters are identified and we find that reducing coast-time to as little as 500 ps still provides some benefit. Finally, we show how the high-foot implosion data is consistent with the above mentioned picture.

  3. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loomis Eric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY, which sent a ∼1.25Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα − 2.76keV backlighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump.

  4. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  5. Cryogenic Hydrogen Fuel for Controlled Inertial Confinement Fusion (Cryogenic Target Factory Concept Based on FST-Layering Method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R.; Koshelev, I. E.; Krokhin, O. N.; Nikitenko, A. I.; Osipov, I. E.

    2017-12-01

    A central element of a power plant based on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a target with cryogenic hydrogen fuel that should be delivered to the center of a reactor chamber with a high accuracy and repetition rate. Therefore, a cryogenic target factory (CTF) is an integral part of any ICF reactor. A promising way to solve this problem consists in the FST layering method developed at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI). This method (rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets) is unique, having no analogs in the world. The further development of FST-layering technologies is implemented in the scope of the LPI program for the creation of a modular CTF and commercialization of the obtained results. In this report, we discuss our concept of CTF (CTF-LPI) that exhibits the following distinctive features: using a FST-layering technology for the elaboration of an in-line production of cryogenic targets, using an effect of quantum levitation of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in magnetic field for noncontacting manipulation, transport, and positioning of the free-standing cryogenic targets, as well as in using a Fourier holography technique for an on-line characterization and tracking of the targets flying into the reactor chamber. The results of original experimental and theoretical investigations performed at LPI indicate that the existing and developing target fabrication capabilities and technologies can be applied to ICF target production. The unique scientific, engineering, and technological base developed in Russia at LPI allows one to make a CTFLPI prototype for mass production of targets and delivery thereof at the required velocity into the ICF reactor chamber.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997 - September 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''On-site Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  7. Experimental study of the initial conditions of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the ablation front in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, Barthelemy

    2015-01-01

    Numerous designs and experiments in the domain of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) show that, in both direct and indirect drive approaches, one of the main limitations to reach the ignition is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI). It may lead to shell disruption and performance degradation of spherically imploding targets. Thus, the understanding and the control of the initial conditions of the RTI is of crucial importance for the ICF program. In this thesis, we present an experimental and theoretical study of the initial conditions of the ablative RTI in direct drive, by means of two experimental campaigns performed on the OMEGA laser facility (LLE, Rochester). The first campaign consisted in studying the laser-imprinted ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) which starts at the beginning of the interaction and seeds the ablative RTI. We set up an experimental configuration that allowed to measure for the first time the temporal evolution of the laser-imprinted ablative RMI. The experimental results have been interpreted by a theoretical model and numerical simulations performed with the hydrodynamic code CHIC. We show that the best way to control the ablative RMI is to reduce the laser intensity inhomogeneities. This can be achieved with targets covered by a layer of a low density foam. Thus, in the second campaign, we studied for the first time the effect of underdense foams on the growth of the ablative RTI. A layer of low density foam was placed in front of a plastic foil, and the perturbation was imprinted by an intensity modulated laser beam. Experimental data are presented: backscattered laser energy, target dynamic obtained by side-on self emission measurement, and face-on radiographs showing the effect of the foams on the target areal density modulations. These data were interpreted using the CHIC code and the laser-plasma interaction code PARAX. We show that the foams noticeably reduce the amplitude of the laser intensity inhomogeneities and the

  8. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-01-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B 11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B 11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B 11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants

  9. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang, Weiyan; tu He, Xia

    2009-03-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either "direct "or "in-direct x-ray driven" type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of "chirped" lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of "fast ignition (FI)" to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed "block ignition" (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter "clusters" of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p

  10. Modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering near the critical-density surface in the plasmas of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximov, A.V.; Myatt, J.; Seka, W.; Short, R.W.; Craxton, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 The nonlinear propagation of laser beams, smoothed by spatial and temporal bandwidth, near the critical density surface of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets has been modeled. The interplay between filamentation and forward and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is described in the presence of light reflected from the critical density surface and high absorption of light near the critical density. The spectrum of backscattered light develops a red shift due to SBS, which can be seeded by the reflection of light from the critical surface. The intensity of backscattered light decreases moderately as the bandwidth of smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) is increased

  11. Intensity limits for propagation of 0.527 μm laser beams through large-scale-length plasmas for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, C.; Divol, L.; Froula, D.H.; Gregori, G.; Jones, O.; Kirkwood, R.K.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Meezan, N.B.; Moody, J.D.; Sorce, C.; Suter, L.J.; Glenzer, S.H.; Bahr, R.; Seka, W.

    2005-01-01

    We have established the intensity limits for propagation of a frequency-doubled (2ω, 527 nm) high intensity interaction beam through an underdense large-scale-length plasma. We observe good beam transmission at laser intensities at or below 2x10 14 W/cm 2 and a strong reduction at intensities up to 10 15 W/cm 2 due to the onset of parametric scattering instabilities. We show that temporal beam smoothing by spectral dispersion allows a factor of 2 higher intensities while keeping the beam spray constant, which establishes frequency-doubled light as an option for ignition and burn in inertial confinement fusion experiments

  12. The HiPER project for inertial confinement fusion and some experimental results on advanced ignition schemes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batani, D.; Koenig, M.; Baton, S.; Perez, F.; Gizzi, L.A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Honrubia, J.; Antonelli, L.; Morace, A.; Volpe, L.; Santos, J.; Schurtz, G.; Hulin, S.; Kozlová, Michaela; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 12 (2011), s. 1-13 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : HiPER Project * PALS * laser-plasma coupling * fast electrons * inertial fusion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2011

  13. Development of surface perturbation target and thin silicon foil target used to research Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bin; Sun Qi; Huang Yaodong; Shen Jun; Wu Guangming; Wang Jue

    2004-01-01

    The developments of the surface perturbation target and the thin silicon foil target used to research Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the resolved experiments of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are carried out. Based on the laser interference process combined with the figure-transfer process, the surface perturbation target with sine modulated perturbation is gotten, the wavelength is in the range of 20-100 μm and the amplitude is several micrometers. The thin silicon foil within the thickness about 3-4 μm is prepared by semiconductor process together with heavy-doped self-stop etching. Combined with ion beam etching, the check or the stripe patterns are transferred to the surface of thin silicon foils, and then the silicon grating foil is obtained

  14. Effect of the laser wavelength: A long story of laser-plasma interaction physics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Teller Medal Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) relies on the use of high-energy laser beams to compress and ignite a the1monuclear fuel with the ultimate goal of producing energy. Fusion is the holy grail of energy sources-combining abundant fuel with no greenhouse gas emissions, minimal waste products and a scale that can meet mankind's long-term energy demands. The quality and the efficiency of the coupling of the laser beams with the target are an essential step towards the success of laser fusion. A long-te1m program on laser-plasma interaction physics has been pursued to understand the propagation and the coupling of laser pulses in plasmas for a wide range of parameters.

  15. Effect of the laser wavelength: A long story of laser-plasma interaction physics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Teller Medal Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labaune Christine

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF relies on the use of high-energy laser beams to compress and ignite a thermonuclear fuel with the ultimate goal of producing energy. Fusion is the holy grail of energy sources–combining abundant fuel with no greenhouse gas emissions, minimal waste products and a scale that can meet mankind's long-term energy demands. The quality and the efficiency of the coupling of the laser beams with the target are an essential step towards the success of laser fusion. A long-term program on laser-plasma interaction physics has been pursued to understand the propagation and the coupling of laser pulses in plasmas for a wide range of parameters.

  16. FM-to-AM modulations induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in inertial confinement fusion laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Dongxia; Guo, Huaiwen; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Bowang; Zhong, Wei; Deng, Wu

    2018-02-01

    We report on frequency to amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) conversion induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in a complex laser system. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that when weak residual reflected pulses stack on the main pulse, the spectral intensity changes in the stacked region, which then converts to obvious AM. This kind of FM-to-AM effect often occurs in the tail of the pulse and cannot be eliminated by common compensation methods, which even enhance the modulation depth. Furthermore, the actual intensity modulation frequency and depth induced by the residual reflection stack are much higher and deeper than observed on the oscilloscope, which is harmful for safe operation of the laser facility and the driving power balance during inertial confinement fusion. To eliminate this kind of FM-to-AM effect, any possible on-axis and near-axis residual reflection in laser systems must be avoided.

  17. Using ensembles of simulations to find high-fidelity post-shot models of inertial confinement implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Ryan; Field, John E.; Spears, Brian; Thomas, Cliff A.

    2016-10-01

    The inertial confinement fusion program at the National Ignition Facility is performing subscale experiments for a variety of implosion designs. Successful designs, those with experiments that are similar to postshot simulation, will be fielded at larger scale. This work supports the program's effort by establishing high fidelity post-shot simulations matching all experimental observables: scalar data, such as the neutron yield and areal densities; vector data, such as flange nuclear activation diagnostics; and image data, such as time-dependent x-ray self-emission images. We will present a metric for measuring the nearness of postshot simulations to experiments. In particular, we will emphasize area-based (as opposed to contour-based) image analysis metrics (e.g., Zernike moments) for comparison of x-ray self-emission images. The postshot metrics and methodology will be applied to the Big Foot implosion design as an example.

  18. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  19. The HiPER project for inertial confinement fusion and some experimental results on advanced ignition schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batani, D.; Koenig, M.; Baton, S.; Perez, F.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Honrubia, J.; Antonelli, L.; Morace, A.; Volpe, L.; Santos, J.; Schurtz, G.; Hulin, S.; Ribeyre, X.; Fourment, C.; Nicolai, P.; Vauzour, B.; Gremillet, L.; Nazarov, W.; Pasley, J.; Richetta, M.; Lancaster, K.; Spindloe, Ch; Tolley, M.; Neely, D.; Kozlová, M.; Nejdl, J.; Rus, B.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Dorchies, F.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the goals and some of the results of experiments conducted within the Working Package 10 (Fusion Experimental Programme) of the HiPER Project. These experiments concern the study of the physics connected to 'advanced ignition schemes', i.e. the fast ignition and the shock ignition approaches to inertial fusion. Such schemes are aimed at achieving a higher gain, as compared with the classical approach which is used in NIF, as required for future reactors, and make fusion possible with smaller facilities. In particular, a series of experiments related to fast ignition were performed at the RAL (UK) and LULI (France) Laboratories and studied the propagation of fast electrons (created by a short-pulse ultra-high-intensity beam) in compressed matter, created either by cylindrical implosions or by compression of planar targets by (planar) laser-driven shock waves. A more recent experiment was performed at PALS and investigated the laser-plasma coupling in the 1016 W cm-2 intensity regime of interest for shock ignition.

  20. Heat transfer at microscopic level in a MHD fractional inertial flow confined between non-isothermal boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib Anwar, Muhammad; Rasheed, Amer

    2017-07-01

    Heat transfer through a Forchheimer medium in an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) developed differential-type fluid flow is analyzed numerically in this study. The boundary layer flow is modeled with the help of the fractional calculus approach. The fluid is confined between infinite parallel plates and flows by motion of the plates in their own plane. Both the plates have variable surface temperature. Governing partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions are solved by employing a finite-difference scheme to discretize the fractional time derivative and finite-element discretization for spatial variables. Coefficients of skin friction and local Nusselt numbers are computed for the fractional model. The flow behavior is presented for various values of the involved parameters. The influence of different dimensionless numbers on skin friction and Nusselt number is discussed by tabular results. Forchheimer medium flows that involve catalytic converters and gas turbines can be modeled in a similar manner.

  1. Using Wave-Based Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Simulations to Improve the Ray-Based Models Used in Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Shaw, J. G.; Myatt, J. F.

    2017-10-01

    Ray-based models of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) are used in radiation-hydrodynamics codes to calculate laser-energy deposition for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. In direct-drive ICF, calculations suggest that CBET is responsible for a 10% to 20% reduction in laser energy absorption. In indirect drive, ray-based calculations predict full pump depletion of the outer cone beams. Ray-based CBET models require artificial limiters to give quantitative agreement with experimental observables. The recent development of a 3-D wave-based solver (LPSE CBET) that does not rely on the paraxial or eikonal approximations allows the limitations of ray-based CBET models to be studied at conditions relevant to laser-driven ICF. The accuracy of ray-based CBET models is limited by uncertainties in the approximations used to account for the experimental realities of beam speckle, polarization smoothing, and interactions at caustics. A physics-based technique is proposed for including the effect of beam speckle in existing ray-based models that gives excellent agreement with the wave-based calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  2. The potential of imposed magnetic fields for enhancing ignition probability and fusion energy yield in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Ho, D. D.-M.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Rhodes, M. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Blackfield, D. T.; Hawkins, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the potential that imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under implosion compression may relax the conditions required for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This may allow the attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation [Doeppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. Results of detailed two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction, and potential stabilization of higher-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are found to be around 50 T. Given that the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamics, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to further assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to ICF ignition and burn on NIF.

  3. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a “low-foot” drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF

  4. Exact self-similar solutions of unsteady ablation flows in inertial confinement fusion; Solutions exactes autosemblables d'ecoulements d'ablation instationnaires en fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudesocque-Dubois, C.; Gauthier, S.; Clarisse, J.M

    2007-07-01

    We exhibit and detail the properties of exact self-similar solutions for inviscid compressible ablative flows in slab symmetry with nonlinear heat conduction relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). These solutions have been found after several contributions over the last four decades. We first derived the set of ODEs that governs the self-similar solutions by using the invariance of the Euler's equations with nonlinear heat conduction under the two-parameter Lie group symmetry. A sub-family that leaves the density invariant is detailed since this is the most relevant case for ICF. A physical analysis of these unsteady ablation flows is then provided where the associated dimensionless numbers (Mach, Froude and P let numbers) are calculated. Finally we show that these solutions do not satisfy the constraints of the low Mach number approximation that means that ablation fronts generated within the framework of the present hypotheses (electronic conduction, growing heat flux at the boundary, etc.) cannot be approximated by a steady quasi-incompressible flow as it is often assumed in ICF. Two particular solutions of this family have been recently used for studying stability properties of ablation fronts, since they are representative of the flows that should be reached on the future French Laser MegaJoule. (authors)

  5. A review on ab initio studies of static, transport, and optical properties of polystyrene under extreme conditions for inertial confinement fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Boehly, T. R.; Ding, Y. H.; Radha, P. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Karasiev, V. V.; Collins, G. W.; Regan, S. P.; Campbell, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Polystyrene (CH), commonly known as "plastic," has been one of the widely used ablator materials for capsule designs in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Knowing its precise properties under high-energy-density conditions is crucial to understanding and designing ICF implosions through radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. For this purpose, systematic ab initio studies on the static, transport, and optical properties of CH, in a wide range of density and temperature conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 103 to 4 × 106 K), have been conducted using quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations based on the density functional theory. We have built several wide-ranging, self-consistent material-properties tables for CH, such as the first-principles equation of state, the QMD-based thermal conductivity (κQMD) and ionization, and the first-principles opacity table. This paper is devoted to providing a review on (1) what results were obtained from these systematic ab initio studies; (2) how these self-consistent results were compared with both traditional plasma-physics models and available experiments; and (3) how these first-principles-based properties of polystyrene affect the predictions of ICF target performance, through both 1-D and 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. In the warm dense regime, our ab initio results, which can significantly differ from predictions of traditional plasma-physics models, compared favorably with experiments. When incorporated into hydrocodes for ICF simulations, these first-principles material properties of CH have produced significant differences over traditional models in predicting 1-D/2-D target performance of ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. Finally, we will discuss the implications of these studies on the current small-margin ICF target designs using a CH ablator.

  6. Numerical study and modeling of hydrodynamic instabilities in the context of inertial confinement fusion in the presence of self-generated magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of inertial confinement fusion we investigate effects of magnetic fields on the development in the linear regime of two hydrodynamic instabilities: Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using ideal magnetohydrodynamics and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in both acceleration and deceleration stages. Direct numerical simulations with a linear perturbation code enable us to confirm the stabilizing effect of the component of the magnetic field along the perturbations wave vector. The amplitude doesn't grow linearly in time but experiences oscillations instead. The compressibility taken into account in the code does not affect predictions given by an already existing impulsive and incompressible model. As far as Rayleigh-Taylor instability is concerned we study the effects of self-generated magnetic fields that arise from the development of the instability itself. In the acceleration stage we perform two dimensional simulations in planar geometry. We show that magnetic fields of about 1 T can be generated and that the instability growth transits more rapidly into nonlinear growth with the enhancement of the development of the third harmonic. We also propose an adaptation of an existing model that aims at studying thermal conductivity anisotropy effects, to take into account the effects of the self-generated magnetic fields on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate. Finally, in the deceleration stage, we perform two dimensional simulations in cylindrical geometry that take into account self-generation of magnetic fields due to the instability development. It reveals magnetic fields of about several thousands of Teslas that are not strong enough though to affect the instability behavior. (author) [fr

  7. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Inertial confinement fusion neutron images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disdier, L.; Rouyer, A.; Lantuejoul, I.; Landoas, O.; Bourgade, J.L.; Sangster, T.C.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Lerche, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    At the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], 14-MeV neutron images are acquired with a 20-μm resolution and a large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using penumbral and ring apertures. The two aperture types produce coded images of the source that are unfolded using a similar autocorrelation method. The techniques provide comparable images for various deuterium-tritium filled target implosions, with glass and plastic (CH) shells. SNR analysis reveals that the annular (ring) technique will achieve a good image quality at the 10-μm resolution level with the planned upgrade of our novel detector. The detector is an array of 85-μm-diam capillary tubes filled with a liquid scintillator. Its resolution is limited to 650 μm by the track length of the elastically scattered recoil protons. Replacing the hydrogen in the scintillator with deuterium improves detector spatial resolution to 325 μm, and makes high source resolution achievable. The readout design provides an efficient light collection of the scintillation photons by relaying the image through a fiber optic taper. Improved efficiency produces images with better SNR. Also, the increased detector sensitivity allows single event recording of 2.45-MeV neutron interactions. For the first time ever, we show neutron images of deuterium filled, warm, and cryogenic target implosions

  9. Inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.G.; Bohachevsky, I.O.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of reactor cavity concepts, drivers, and energy conversion mechanisms are being considered to realize commercial applications of ICF. Presented in this paper are: (1) a review of reactor concepts with estimates of practically achievable pulse repetition rates; (2) a survey of drivers with estimates of the requirements on reactor conditions imposed by beam propagation characteristics; and (3) an assessment of compatible driver-reactor combinations

  10. Nuclear fission with inertial confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarev, D G

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of initiating the explosive fission reaction in a small quantity of fissile material through the heavy ions beam from the powerful accelerator-driver, developed for realization of the thermonuclear synthesis in the deuterium-tritium cylindrical targets with the direct ignition, is considered. The consequences of applying this method in the nuclear engineering are discussed

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D2 or deuterium

  12. Magnetic and inertial CTR: present status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the successes of controlled fusion research in both inertial confinement and magnetic confinement are described. The possibilities of scaled-up experiments are also discussed with respect to cost and economics

  13. Heavy ion accelerators for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbia, C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle accelerators are used for accelerating the elementary, stable and separable constituents of matters to relativistic speed. These beams are of fundamental interest in the study on the ultimate constituents of matters and their interaction. Particle accelerators are the most promising driver for the fusion power reactors based on inertial confinement. The principle of inertial confinement fusion, radiation driven indirect drive, the accelerator complex and so on are described. (K.I.)

  14. Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  15. Study of high gain spherical shell ICF targets containing uniform layers of liquid deuterium tritium fuel. A numericial model for analyzing thermal layering of liquid mixtures of hydrogen isotopes inside a spherical inertial confinement fusion target: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.M.; Kim, Kyekyoon

    1994-05-01

    A numerical model has been developed to describe the thermally induced behavior of a liquid layer of hydrogen isotopes inside a spherical Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target and to calculate the far-field temperature gradient which will sustain a uniform liquid layer. This method is much faster than the trial-and-error method previously employed. The governing equations are the equations of continuity, momentum, energy, mass diffusion-convection, and conservation of the individual isotopic species. Ordinary and thermal diffusion equations for the diffusion of fluxes of the species are included. These coupled equations are solved by a finite-difference method using upwind schemes, variable mesh, and rigorous boundary conditions. The solution methodology unique to the present problem is discussed in detail. in particular, the significance of the surface tension gradient driven flows (also called Marangoni flows) in forming uniform liquid layers inside ICF targets is demonstrated. Using the theoretical model, the values of the externally applied thermal gradients that give rise to uniform liquid layers of hydrogen inside a cryogenic spherical-shell ICF target are calculated, and the results compared with the existing experimental data

  16. Inertial squirmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Ardekani, A.

    2012-10-01

    Although the propulsion of micro-organisms has been extensively studied in the literature, current studies have mainly focused on their propulsion in the absence of inertia. Here in this paper, we quantify the effects of convective inertial forces in the limit of small, but nonzero, Reynolds number regime. We analytically quantify the role of inertia on swimming speed, energy expenditure, and flow signature of an archetypal swimming model "squirmer". Our results suggest that pushers, generating thrust behind their body, have a competitive advantage in swimming due to higher motility in the inertial regime. In contrast, those organisms that generate thrust in front of their body, pullers, have more efficient foraging in the inertial regime compared to their counterparts in the Stokes regime. Inertia enhances the swimming speed of a pusher swimmer and hinders it for a puller, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant millimeter- to centimeter-size organisms living in oceans and lakes.

  17. Direct-indirect mixed implosion mode in heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Someya, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to realize an effective implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity on a fuel target must be suppressed less than a few percent. In this study, a direct-indirect mixture implosion mode is proposed and discussed in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. On the other hand, the HIB illumination non-uniformity depends strongly on a target displacement dz from the center of a fusion reactor chamber. In a direct-driven implosion mode, dz of ∼20 μm was tolerable, and in an indirect-implosion mode, dz of ∼100 μm was allowable. In the direct-indirect mixture mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer, the radiation transport is expected to smooth the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. Two-dimensional implosion simulations are performed, and show that the HIB illumination non-uniformity is well smoothed in the direct-indirect mixture target. Our simulation results present that a large pellet displacement of approximately a few hundred microns is allowed in order to obtain a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF

  18. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  19. Installation alignment of a multi-beam ICF target illumination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.; Stahl, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Target illumination systems for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments require precise alignment of a multitude of mirrors, usually spherically arranged around the ICF target. The mechanical support structure for these mirrors generally consists of a large space frame with many voids. This makes direct alignment or boresighting impossible, since alignment instruments and references cannot be placed at the coordinate centers representing the mirror arrays or focal points. Nevertheless, the structural members must be accurately aligned during the assembly phase, to provide the focusing precision required by the completed illumination system. This paper describes the techniques used to assemble and align the Antares Laser space frame where a total of 48 mirrors fold and focus 24 laser beams onto the ICF target, within a 7.3 meter space frame. The alignment procedures described use optical tooling and test techniques supplemented by surveying instruments and auxiliary devices, as required by the unique geometry of the space frame

  20. Transport properties of inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issanova, M.K.; Kodanova, S.K.; Ramazanov, T.S. [IETP, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper the transport properties of non-isothermal dense deuterium-tritium plasmas were studied. Based on the effective interaction potentials between particles, the Coulomb logarithm for a two-temperature nonisothermal dense plasma was obtained. These potentials take into consideration long-range multi-particle screening effects and short-range quantum-mechanical effects in two-temperature plasmas. Transport processes in such plasmas were studied using the Coulomb logarithm. The obtained results were compared with the theoretical works of other authors and with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. NOVA laser facility for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1983-11-30

    The NOVA laser consists of ten beams, capable of concentrating 100 to 150 kJ of energy (in 3 ns) and 100 to 150 TW of power (in 100 ps) on experimental targets by 1985. NOVA will also be capable of frequency converting the fundamental laser wavelength (1.05 ..mu..m) to its second (0.525 ..mu..m) or third (0.35 ..mu..m) harmonic. This additional capability (80 to 120 kJ at 0.525 ..mu..m, 40 to 70 kJ at 0.35 ..mu..m) was approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1982. These shorter wavelengths are much more favorable for ICF target physics. Current construction status of the NOVA facility, intended for completion in the autumn of 1984, will be presented.

  2. NOVA laser facility for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The NOVA laser consists of ten beams, capable of concentrating 100 to 150 kJ of energy (in 3 ns) and 100 to 150 TW of power (in 100 ps) on experimental targets by 1985. NOVA will also be capable of frequency converting the fundamental laser wavelength (1.05 μm) to its second (0.525 μm) or third (0.35 μm) harmonic. This additional capability (80 to 120 kJ at 0.525 μm, 40 to 70 kJ at 0.35 μm) was approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1982. These shorter wavelengths are much more favorable for ICF target physics. Current construction status of the NOVA facility, intended for completion in the autumn of 1984, will be presented

  3. Magnetic and inertial confinement fusion - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the status of ICF which output is given in terms of number of emitted neutrons and fusion energy as a function of the estimated input energy from the implosion driver. Results from the highest energy laser experiments are summarised. The theoretical targets and the proposed upgrades of NOVA, GEKKO and OMEGA are also shown. The promised ICF paradise will therefore be approached through a process of interpolation between two known extremes. The objectives of this experiment was to produce more than one MW of fusion power in a controlled way, to demonstrate the technology related to tritium usage tritium injection, its tracking, monitoring/recovery and to establish safe procedures for handling tritium in compliance with the regulatory requirements. (A.B)

  4. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation

  5. Continuous Electrode Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA recognizes within its roadmaps (specifically TA 3.1.6) that development of aneutronic fusion (such as p-11B) reactors with direct energy conversion (>80%)...

  6. Materials program plan for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, A.; Hall, B.O.; Harkness, S.D.; Maiya, P.S.; Rechtin, M.D.; Li, C.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The effect of the irradiation environment on the microstructure of materials is studied. A major part of the initial activity in this area will be aimed toward evaluating the importance of pulse effects on microstructural development. The development effort that is necessary to cope with the high cycle loading of the first wall structure is studied. The loading pulses are expected to range from 1 to 20 per second (3 x 10/sup 7/ to 6 x 10/sup 8//year), thus creating a high cycle fatigue problem for any long-lived first wall structure. The interrelationship between specimen and component testing is a major issue in this section. Static mechanical property requirements are also considered here. Lithium compatibility is treated. The final section integrates the conclusions reached in the body of the report into a unified strategy that suggests a particular effort level to support major program milestones.

  7. Scaling laws for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion yield due to a spherically expanding burning front in a compressed fuel pellet is obtained. The pellet gain and beam energy for a laser system and an ion or electron beam driven system are compared. The results suggest an interesting possibility for heavy-ion fusion with driver parameters far below those usually considered

  8. Reactor design considerations for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The most challenging reactor design consideration is protection of the cavity wall from the various energy forms as released by the pellet and as affected by the reaction-chamber phenomena. These phenomena depend on both the design and the yield of the pellet, as well as on ambient conditions in the chamber at the time of the pellet microexplosion. The effects on pellet energy-release mechanisms of various reaction chamber atmosphere options are summarized

  9. Materials program plan for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, A.; Hall, B.O.; Harkness, S.D.; Maiya, P.S.; Rechtin, M.D.; Li, C.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The effect of the irradiation environment on the microstructure of materials is studied. A major part of the initial activity in this area will be aimed toward evaluating the importance of pulse effects on microstructural development. The development effort that is necessary to cope with the high cycle loading of the first wall structure is studied. The loading pulses are expected to range from 1 to 20 per second (3 x 10 7 to 6 x 10 8 /year), thus creating a high cycle fatigue problem for any long-lived first wall structure. The interrelationship between specimen and component testing is a major issue in this section. Static mechanical property requirements are also considered here. Lithium compatibility is treated. The final section integrates the conclusions reached in the body of the report into a unified strategy that suggests a particular effort level to support major program milestones

  10. Heavy ion beams for inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlove, T.F.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-05-01

    The United States' program in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is described in this paper, with emphasis on the studies of the use of intense high energy beams of heavy ions to provide the power and energy needed to initiate thermonuclear burn. Preliminary calculations of the transport of intense ion beams in an electrostatic quadrupole focussing structure are discussed.

  11. Hotsphere illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Hoang, Duyen; Liu, Shibin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes at all spatial and temporal scales. Importance of hotspheres- environment with abundant high microbial activity- i.e.: rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores, spermosphere and hyphasphere calls for spatially explicit methods to illuminate distribution of microbial activities (Kuzyakov and Blagodatskaya, 2015). Zymography technique has previously been adapted to visualize the spatial dynamics of enzyme activities in rhizosphere. Here, we further developed soil zymography to obtain a higher resolution of enzyme activities by enabling direct contact of substrate-saturated membranes with soil. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in various hotspheres. We calculated and compared percentage of enzymatic hotspots of four hotspheres: Spermosphere, rhizosphere, detritusphere and biopores. Spatial distribution of activities of two enzymes: β-glucosidase and phosphatase were analyzed in the spermosphere and rhizosphere of maize and lentil. Zymography has been done 3 days (spermosphere), 14 days (rhizosphere) after sowing. Further, manure was placed on surface of rhizoboxes to visualize spatio-temporal distribution of the enzyme activities in detritusphere after 25 days. Biopores were produced by earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) in transparent boxes for 2 weeks and enzyme distribution were measured by zymography thereafter. The developed in situ direct soil zymography visualized the heterogeneity of enzyme activities along and across the roots. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance along the root demonstrated plant specific patterns of enzyme distribution: it was uniform and homogenous along the lentil roots, whereas the enzyme activities in maize rhizosphere were higher at the apical or proximal root parts. For the first time were applied "spatial point pattern analysis" to determine

  12. Inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewed is the present status of the inertial confinement energy (IFE) research. The highlights of the IFE presentations are as follows. Toward demonstrating ignition and burning of imploded plasmas, ignition facilities of mega jule class blue laser system are under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the CEA laboratory of Bordeaux. The central ignition by both indirect drive and direct drive will be explored by the middle of 2010's. A new ignition concept so called 'fast ignition' has also been investigated intensively in the last two years. Peta watt level (1PW∼0.1PW output) CPA lasers have been used for heating solid targets and imploded plasmas. With 50J∼500J/psec pulses, solid targets are found to be heated up to 300eV. They were measured by X-ray spectroscopy, neutron energy spectrum, and so on. Summarized are also researches on simulation code developments, target design and fabrication, heavy ion beam fusion, Z-pinch based X-ray source, and laser driver technology. (author)

  13. Design and fabrication of binary optical element for ICF target uniform illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Guofan; Yan Yingbai; Tan Qiaofeng; Zhai Jinhui; Zheng Xuezhe; Wu Minxian

    1999-01-01

    In the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system, rigorous requirements of target illumination are requested, such as top flat, steep edge, low side lobes and high light efficiency. Binary optical element (BOE) is a very important approach to realize the above requirements. A hybrid algorithm, GLUSA (Global/local united search algorithm), was developed for designing phases of the BOE. The simulated results showed that BOE arrays applied can decrease the sensitivity of the input phase and amplitude distortion. A 16-phase-level BOE was manufactured by a pattern generator, photolithography and ion-etching sequentially. Based on the optical Computerized Tomography (CT), a measurement system for two-dimensional intensity distribution has been set up. Experiment results declare that the focal spot of the BOE obtained has the expected intensity envelope, but a gap still exists between the experiment result and the designed value

  14. Hotsphere illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes at all spatial and temporal scales. Importance of the hotspheres such as rhizosphere, detritusphere, porosphere (including drilosphere and biopores), hyphasphere and spermosphere, calls for spatially explicit methods to illuminate distribution of microbial activities in these hotspheres (Kuzyakov and Blagodatskaya, 2015). Zymography technique has previously been adapted to visualize the spatial dynamics of enzyme activities in rhizosphere (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2014). Here, we further developed soil zymography to obtain a higher resolution of enzyme activities by enabling direct contact of substrate-saturated membranes with soil. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in various hotspheres. We calculated and compared percentage of enzymatic hotspots of five hotspheres: spermosphere, rhizosphere, detritusphere, drilosphere and biopores. Spatial distribution of activities of two enzymes: β-glucosidase and leucine amino peptidase were analyzed in the spermosphere, rhizosphere and detritusphere of maize and lentil. Zymography has been done 3 days (spermosphere), 14 days (rhizosphere) after sowing and 21 days after cutting plant (detritusphere). Spatial resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application fluorogenically labelled substrates on the soil surface. Such improvement enabled to visualize enzyme distribution of mycorrhiza hypha on the rhizobox surface. Further, to visualize the 2D distribution of the enzyme activities in porosphere, we placed earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris), (drilosphere) and ground beetle species Platynus dorsalis Pont. (Coleoptera; Carabidae), (biopore), in transparent boxes for 2weeks. The developed in situ zymography visualized the heterogeneity of enzyme activities along and across the roots. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance along the

  15. Micromachined Precision Inertial Instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najafi, Khalil

    2003-01-01

    This program focuses on developing inertial-grade micromachined accelerometers and gyroscopes and their associated electronics and packaging for use in a variety of military and commercial applications...

  16. Inertial navigation without accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M.

    The Kennedy-Thorndike (1932) experiment points to the feasibility of fiber-optic inertial velocimeters, to which state-of-the-art technology could furnish substantial sensitivity and accuracy improvements. Velocimeters of this type would obviate the use of both gyros and accelerometers, and allow inertial navigation to be conducted together with vehicle attitude control, through the derivation of rotation rates from the ratios of the three possible velocimeter pairs. An inertial navigator and reference system based on this approach would probably have both fewer components and simpler algorithms, due to the obviation of the first level of integration in classic inertial navigators.

  17. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-01-01

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R ampersand D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work

  18. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  19. Fibre illumination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Source: EP2426402A The invention relates to a fibre illumination module and system for the collection and delivery of daylight for illumination purposes. The fibre illumination module comprises a plurality of collector elements, each collector element comprising an input fibre having a first end......-directional arrangement. The fibre illumination system comprises a fibre illumination module of the above-mentioned type. By the invention, daylight may be exploited for the illumination of remote interior spaces of buildings in order to save energy, and improve the well-being of users in both housing and working...

  20. Quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.

    1976-07-01

    The main topics of these lectures are: phenomenological approach to quark confinement, standard Lagrangian of hadrondynamics, Lagrangian field theory and quark confinement, classical soliton solutions in a simple model, quantization of extended systems, colour charge screening and quantization on a lattice and remarks on applications. A survey of the scientific publications listed according to the topics until 26 March 1976 is supplemented. (BJ) [de

  1. The Physics of Inertial Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S

    2004-01-01

    The growing effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, with the upcoming new MJ class laser facilities, NIF in USA and LMJ in France, and the upgraded MJ z-pinch ZR facility in the USA, makes the appearance of this book by Atzeni and Meyer-ter-Vehn very timely. This book is an excellent introduction for graduate or masters level students and for researchers just entering the field. It is written in a very pedagogical way with great attention to the basic understanding of the physical processes involved. The book should also be very useful to researchers already working in the field as a reference containing many key formulas from different relevant branches of physics; experimentalists will especially appreciate the presence of 'ready-to-use' numerical formulas written in convenient practical units. The book starts with a discussion of thermonuclear reactions and conditions required to achieve high gain in ICF targets, emphasizing the importance of high compression of the D-T fuel, and compares the magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion approaches. The next few chapters discuss in detail the basic concepts of ICF: the hydrodynamics of a spherically imploding capsule, ignition and energy gain. This is followed by a thorough discussion of the physics of thermal waves, ablative drive and hydrodynamic instabilities, with primary focus on the Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The book also contains very useful chapters discussing the properties of hot dense matter (ionization balance, equation of state and opacity) and the interaction of laser and energetic ion beams with plasma. The book is based on and reflects the research interests of the authors and, more generally, the European activity in this area. This could explain why, in my opinion, some topics are covered in less detail than they deserve, e.g. the chapter on hohlraum physics is too brief. On the other hand, the appearance in the book of an interesting chapter on the concept of

  2. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of @@@drivers@@@ for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  3. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  4. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  5. Inertial fusion energy development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Hogan, W.J.; Nakai, S.; Rozanov, V.B.; Velarde, G.

    1995-01-01

    The research and development strategy for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is delineated. The development strategy must indicate how commercial IFE power can be made available in the first part of the next century, by which is meant that a Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) will have shown that in commercial operation IFE power plants can satisfy the requirements of public and employee safety, acceptably low impact on the environment, technical performance, reliability, maintainability and economic competitiveness. The technical issues associated with the various required demonstrations for each of the subsystems of the power plant (target, driver, reaction chamber, and remainder of plant (ROP) where the tritium for future targets is extracted and thermal energy is converted into electricity) are listed. The many developments required to make IFE commercially available can be oriented towards a few major demonstrations. These demonstrations do not necessarily each need separate facilities. The goals of these demonstrations are: (i) ignition demonstration, to show ignition and thermonuclear burn in an ICF target and determine the minimum required driver conditions; (ii) high gain demonstration, to show adequate driver efficiency-gain product; (iii) engineering demonstrations, to show high pulse rate operations in an integrated system and to choose the best designs of the various reactor systems; (iv) commercial demonstrations, to prove safe, environmentally benign, reliable, economic, near-commercial operation. In this document the present status of major inertial confinement research activities is summarized including a table of the major operating or planned facilities. The aspects involved in each of the required demonstrations are discussed. Also, for each of the subsystems mentioned above the technical developments that are needed are discussed. The document ends with a discussion of the two existing detailed IFE development plans, by the United States and Japan. 9

  6. Novel ureteroscope illumination designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Peller, Joseph A.; Trammell, Susan R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    Limitations of current ureteroscope illumination configurations include presence of shadows and hot spots in images, further degraded by stone debris during laser lithotripsy, which may result in a decrease in stone ablation efficiency, increase in surgical operation time, and potential collateral tissue trauma. Previous studies have reported accidental ureteral tissue perforation from Nitinol stone basket wires during Holmium laser lithotripsy, due in part to poor visibility. Although saline irrigation is routinely used during ureteroscopy to flush stone debris and improve visibility, sub-optimal illumination may still compound these problems. Current illumination geometries and sources are inadequate to produce necessary uniform illumination for optimal visibility and safety during ureteroscopy. By moving away from single and double point source geometry and towards a ring configuration, illumination becomes more uniform in both axes, reducing shadows and increasing depth discernibility. Uric acid and calcium oxalate based stones were chosen for illumination and reflection spectroscopy. Porcine ureters were used as soft tissue samples for comparison. The percent difference in reflection between ureter and stones was greater than 40% for the wavelength ranges of 470-540 nm, and 600-700 nm, making these spectral regions most suitable for high contrast illumination, possibly through narrow band imaging techniques via multiple laser sources and/or optical filters. These improved ureteroscope illumination designs and approaches may potentially reduce complications due to limited visibility during laser lithotripsy and hence increase patient safety.

  7. New amplifying laser concept for inertial fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourou, G A; Hulin, D; Labaune, C; Galvanauskas, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new amplifying laser concept designed to produce high energy in either short or long pulses using coherent or incoherent addition of few millions fibers. These are called respectively CAN for Coherent Amplification Network and FAN for Fiber Amplification Network. The fibers would be large core or Large Mode Area (LMA) which have demonstrated up to 10, mJ output energy per fiber 1 . Such a system could meet the driver criteria of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plants based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), in particular high efficiency and high repetition rate

  8. Magnetic and inertial fusion status and development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D.; Storm, E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled fusion, pursued by investigators in both the magnetic and inertial confinement research programs, continues to be a strong candidate as an intrinsically safe and virtually inexhaustible long-term energy source. We describe the status of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion in terms of the accomplishments made by the research programs for each concept. The improvement in plasma parameters (most frequently discussed in terms of the Tn tau product of ion temperature, T, density, n, and confinement time, tau) can be linked with the construction and operation of experimental facilities. The scientific progress exhibited by larger scale fusion experiments within the US, such as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Fusion Test Reactor for magnetic studies and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Nova laser for inertial studies, has been optimized by the theoretical advances in plasma and computational physics. Both TFTR and Nova have exhibited ion temperatures in excess of 10 keV at confinement parameters of n tau near 10 13 cm -3 . sec. At slightly lower temperatures (near a few keV), the value of n tau has exceeded 10 14 cm -3 . sec in both devices. Near-term development plans in fusion research include experiments within the US, Europe, and Japan to improve the plasma performance to reach conditions where the rate of fusion energy production equals or exceeds the heating power incident upon the plasma. 9 refs., 7 figs

  9. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  10. Mapping in inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) [i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)] is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., [M,L] = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs

  11. Conceptual design study on inertial confinement reactor ''SENRI-II''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ouura, H.

    1983-01-01

    Design features of a laser fusion reactor concept SENRI-II are reviewed and discussed. A conceptual design study of the ICF reactor SENRI-II (an advanced design of SENRI-I) has been carried out over 2 years in the Research Committee of ICF Reactors, Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. While the ICF reactor SENRI-I utilized a magnetic field to guide and control an inner liquid lithium flow, SENRI-II is designed to use porous metal as the liquid lithium flow guide. In the design of SENRI-II, a metal porous lithium blanket serves as the protection of a wall against fusion products and as wall per se. Because of the separation of these two functions, a high power density can be attained

  12. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li 2 O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li 2 O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li 2 O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive

  13. Indirectly driven, high convergence inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Lerche, R.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of high convergence indirectly driven implosions has been done with the Nova Laser Fusion facility. These implosions were well characterized by a variety of measurements; computer models are in good agreement. The imploded fuel areal density was measured using a technique based on secondary neutron spectroscopy. At capsule convergences of 24:1, comparable to what is required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules, these capsules achieved fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 . Independent measurements of density, burn duration, and ion temperature gave nτθ=1.7±0.9x10 14 keV s/cm 3

  14. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.

    1996-01-01

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 ; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction 2 H( 3 H,n) 4 He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measurement results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Validating Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) predictive capability using perturbed capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mark; Magelssen, Glenn; Tregillis, Ian; Hsu, Scott; Bradley, Paul; Dodd, Evan; Cobble, James; Flippo, Kirk; Offerman, Dustin; Obrey, Kimberly; Wang, Yi-Ming; Watt, Robert; Wilke, Mark; Wysocki, Frederick; Batha, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Achieving ignition on NIF is a monumental step on the path toward utilizing fusion as a controlled energy source. Obtaining robust ignition requires accurate ICF models to predict the degradation of ignition caused by heterogeneities in capsule construction and irradiation. LANL has embarked on a project to induce controlled defects in capsules to validate our ability to predict their effects on fusion burn. These efforts include the validation of feature-driven hydrodynamics and mix in a convergent geometry. This capability is needed to determine the performance of capsules imploded under less-than-optimum conditions on future IFE facilities. LANL's recently initiated Defect Implosion Experiments (DIME) conducted at Rochester's Omega facility are providing input for these efforts. Recent simulation and experimental results will be shown.

  16. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  17. Progress in the shock-ignition inertial confinement fusion concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theobald, W.; Casner, A.; Nora, R.; Ribeyre, X.; Lafon, M.; Anderson, K. S.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu; Gotchev, O. V.; Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Perkins, L. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Schurtz, G.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2013-01-01

    Shock-ignition experiments with peak laser intensities of ∼8 x 10 15 W/cm 2 were performed. D 2 -filled plastic shells were compressed on a low adiabat by 40 of the 60 OMEGA beams. The remaining 20 beams were delayed and tightly focused onto the imploding shell to generate a strong shock. Up to 35% backscattering of laser energy was measured at the highest intensity. Hard x-ray measurements reveal a relatively low hot-electron temperature of ∼40 keV, independent of intensity and spike onset time. (authors)

  18. Liquid jet experiments: relevance to inertial confinement fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    In order to try to find a reactor design which offered protection against neutron damage, studies were undertaken at LLNL (the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) of self-healing, renewable liquid-wall reactor concepts. In conjuction with these studies, were done a seris of small-scale aer jet experiments were done over the past several years at UCD (University of California, Davis Campus) to simulate the behavior of liquid lithium (or lithium-lead) jets in these liquid-wall fusion reactor concepts. Extropolating the results of these small-scale experiments to the large-scale lithium jets, tentatively concluded that the lithium jet can be re-established after the microexplosion, and with careful design the jets should not breakup due to instabilities during the relatively quiscent period between MICROEXPLOSIONS

  19. Development of the cascade inertial-confinement-fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade, originally conceived as a football-shaped, steel-walled reactor containing a Li 2 O granule blanket, is now envisaged as a double-cone-shaped reactor containing a two-layered (three-zone) flowing blanket of BeO and LiAlO 2 granules. Average blanket exit temperature is 1670 0 K and gross plant efficiency (net thermal conversion efficiency) using a Brayton cycle is 55%. The reactor has a low-activation SiC-tiled wall. It rotates at 50 rpm, and the granules are transported to the top of the heat exchanger using their peripheral speed; no conveyors or lifts are required. The granules return to the reactor by gravity. After considerable analysis and experimentation, we continue to regard Cascade as a promising reactor concept with the advantages of safety, efficiency, and low activation

  20. Performance of the Cascade inertial-confinement-fusion conceptual reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A 4.5-m-radius rotating fusion reactor made of silicon carbide and containing a moving 1-m-thick lithium-ceramic granular blanket can produce 3000 MW/sub t/. The blanket operates at high temperature (>1200 K) leading to gross plant efficiencies of up to 60% using a combined helium-gas turbine (Brayton cycle) with a vapor bottoming cycle

  1. Fast electron transport study for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touati, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport in solids and dense plasmas is presented. It is based on the two first angular moments of the relativistic kinetic equation completed with the Minerbo maximum angular entropy closure. It takes into account collective effects with the self-generated electromagnetic fields as well as collisional effects with the slowing down of the electrons in collisions with plasmons, bound and free electrons and their angular scattering on both ions and electrons. This model allows for fast computations of relativistic electron beam transport while describing the kinetic distribution function evolution. Despite the loss of information concerning the angular distribution of the electron beam, the model reproduces analytical estimates in the academic case of a collimated and monoenergetic electron beam propagating through a warm and dense Hydrogen plasma and hybrid PIC simulation results in a realistic laser-generated electron beam transport in a solid target. The model is applied to the study of the emission of Kα photons in laser-solid experiments and to the generation of shock waves. (author) [fr

  2. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, October-December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.

    1997-01-01

    The articles in this issue report progress on: Supernova Hydrodynamics Experiments on the Nova Laser; Characterization of Laser-Driven Shock Waves Using Interferometry; Absolute Equation of State Measurements of Compressed Liquid Deuterium Using Nova; Low-Density-Foam Shells; Tetrahedral Hohlraums; The Rosseland Mean Opacity of a Composite Material at High Temperatures.

  3. Double-shell inertial confinement fusion target fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, C.W.; Lorensen, L.E.; Weinstein, B.W.

    1980-08-26

    First generation hemishells, from which spherical shells are constructed, were fabricated by micromachining coated mandrels and by molding. The remachining of coated mandrels are described in detail. Techniques were developed for coating the microsized mandrels with polymeric and metallic materials by methods including conformal coating, vapor deposition, plasma polymerization and thermoforming. Micropositioning equipment and bonding techniques have also been developed to assemble the hemishells about a fuel pellet maintaining a spherical concentricity of better than 2 ..mu..m and voids in the hemishell bonding line of a few hundred angstroms or less.

  4. Closing summary for inertial confinement fusion, diodes and beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The progress since BEAMS'83 has been very encouraging. The experiments and theories are of significantly higher quality than we have seen in the past. The problems that have been identified in our fields are now being solved. Scientific comradery is improving and more scientists from different countries are working to complement their associates on similar projects in other countries. The papers presented at this conference have been much more substantial scientifically than in the past and indicate the maturation of our discipline

  5. Development of the cascade inertial-confinement-fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Caqscade, originally conceived as a football-shaped, steel-walled reactor containing a Li 2 O granule blanket, is now envisaged as a double-cone-shaped reactor containing a two-layered (three-zone) flowing blanket of BeO and LiAlO 2 granules. Average blanket exit temperature is 1670 K and gross plant efficiency (net thermal conversion efficiency) using a Brayton cycle is 55%. The reactor has a low-activation SiC-tiled wall. It rotates at 50 rpm, and the granules are transported to the top of the heat exchanger using their peripheral speed; no conveyors or lifts are required. The granules return to the reactor by gravity. After considerable analysis and experimentation, we continue to regard Cascade as a promising reactor concept with the advantages of safety, efficiency, and low activation

  6. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  7. Illuminating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  8. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  9. Heavy-ion accelerator research for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers a most attractive long-term solution to the problem of future energy supplies: The fuel is virtually inexhaustible and the fusion reaction is notably free of long-lived radioactive by-products. Also, because the fuel is in the form of a plasma, there is no solid fuel core that could melt down. The DOE supports two major fusion research programs to exploit these virtues, one based on magnetic confinement and a second on inertial confinement. One part of the program aimed at inertial fusion is known as Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, or HIFAR. In this booklet, the aim is to place this effort in the context of fusion research generally, to review the brief history of heavy-ion fusion, and to describe the current status of the HIFAR program

  10. Inertial fusion energy - research at the University of Alberta and a proposed Alberta/Canada Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosejevs, R.; Offenberger, A.A.; Singh, S.; Tsui, Y.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Fusion Energy is being pursued internationally using a number of different approaches from magnetic confinement energy to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recently there has been significant advancement in inertial confinement fusion using laser drivers with the expectation of the demonstration of large fusion yield within the next year or two opening the path to engineering of fusion reactors based on high energy laser drivers. The Laser Plasma Research group at the University of Alberta has been involved in inertial fusion energy (IFE) research for the past few decades. The current status of IFE and the activities of the University of Alberta Research group in this area is reviewed. Funding of IFE related research in Canada has been very limited and Canada has fallen behind in this area. Given the major developments occurring internationally it is time to increase activities in Canada. A plan for an expanded Alberta/Canadian program in IFE in the near future is discussed. (author)

  11. Fibre illumination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    the proximal end of the collection optics into the first end of the input fibre, each collector element having a principal axis for the collection of light defining an optical axis of the collector element. The optical axes of the collector elements are arranged in a radially outward pointing multi......Source: EP2426402A The invention relates to a fibre illumination module and system for the collection and delivery of daylight for illumination purposes. The fibre illumination module comprises a plurality of collector elements, each collector element comprising an input fibre having a first end...... and a second end, and a collection optics, the collection optics being configured to receive light incident on a distal end of the collection optics, to transfer at least partially the incident light to a proximal end of the collection optics, and to couple at least partially the transferred light from...

  12. Ellipticus CW Illumination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    3.2.1 Wormhole feed concept ................................................................................................5 3.2.2 Resistive Loading... Wormhole Feed concept for Ellipticus .....................................................................5 Figure 7. Ellipticus Resistive Loading...Illuminator at Patuxent River NAS. 3.2.1 Wormhole feed concept. The method chosen for driving the radiat- ing gap at the top of the antenna was what Dr

  13. Microwave Quantum Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    6Department of Computer Science & York Centre for Quantum Technologies, University of York , York YO10 5GH, United Kingdom Quantum illumination is a quantum...Lehnert, Science 342, 710 (2013). [30] S. G. Hofer, W. Wieczorek, M. Aspelmeyer, and K. Ham - merer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 052327 (2011). [31] T. A. Palomaki, J

  14. Heavy ion inertial fusion - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1983-09-01

    Energetic heavy ions represent an alternative to laser light and light ions as ''drivers'' for supplying energy for inertial confinement fusion. To induce ignition of targets containing thermonuclear fuel, an energy of several megajoules has to be focused on to a target with radius a few millimetres in a time of some tens of nanoseconds. Serious study of the use of heavy ion drivers for producing useful power in this way has been underway for seven years, though funding has been at a low level. In this paper the requirements for targets, accelerator, and reactor vessel for containing the thermonuclear explosion are surveyed, and some of the problems to be solved before the construction of a power station can realistically be contemplated are discussed. (author)

  15. Inertial thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Oomura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Norio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the durability of the first wall. Constitution: A reactor cavity for performing inertial thermofusion is defined within a vessel of a thermonuclear reactor, and the first wall of a tubular structure flowing coolants for taking out thermonuclear energy generated in the reactor cavity as the heat energy to the outside of the reactor is disposed, in which jet nozzles are disposed to the inside of the first wall that pulse-width jet coolants to form coolant membranes on the inner circumferential surface of the first wall to thereby surround the fire ball by the membrane of the coolants. Thus, the energy of the fire ball can be reduced by the membrane of the coolants, whereby the thermal loads and impact loads to the first wall can be moderated to substantially increase the working life and improve the safety of the first wall for which the greatest stress load is expected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong

  17. Magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n ∼1.5X10 20 m -3 ). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO 2 interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 μs) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong energetic particle

  18. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...... the light illuminance data on a data recording device of the motorized service vehicle. The outdoor luminaire receives may use the light illuminance data to set or adjust a light illuminance of the controllable light source....

  19. New results on structure of low beta confinement Polywell cusps simulated by comsol multiphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahdavipour

    Full Text Available The Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC is one of the ways for fusion approaches. It is one of the various methods which can be used to confine hot fusion plasma. The advantage of IEC is that the IEC experiments could be done in smaller size facilities than ITER or NIF, costing less money and moving forward faster. In IEC fusion, we need to trap adequate electrons to confine the desired ion density which is needed for a fusion reactor. Polywell is a device which uses the magnetic cusp system and traps the required amount of electrons for fusion reactions. The purpose of this device is to create a virtual cathode in order to achieve nuclear fusion using inertial electrostatic confinement (Miley and Krupakar Murali, 2014. In this paper, we have simulated the low beta Polywell. Then, we examined the effects of coil spacing, coils current, electron injection energy on confinement time. Keywords: Low beta confinement, Polywell, IEC, Comsol multiphysics

  20. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactors. The first of three volumes briefly discusses the following: Introduction; Key objectives, requirements, and assumptions; Systems modeling and trade studies; Prometheus-L reactor plant design overview; Prometheus-H reactor plant design overview; Key technical issues and R ampersand D requirements; Comparison of IFE designs; and study conclusions

  1. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R ampersand D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description

  2. Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Design Studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactor. This third of three three volumes discusses the following topics: Driver system definition; vacuum system; fuel processing systems (FPS); cavity design and analysis; heat transport and thermal energy conversion; balance of plant systems; remote maintenance systems; safety and environment; economics; and comparison of IFE designs

  3. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  4. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactors. The first of three volumes briefly discusses the following: Introduction; Key objectives, requirements, and assumptions; Systems modeling and trade studies; Prometheus-L reactor plant design overview; Prometheus-H reactor plant design overview; Key technical issues and R&D requirements; Comparison of IFE designs; and study conclusions.

  5. Illumination and radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Shanhui; Raman, Aaswath Pattabhi; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden

    2018-03-20

    Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to providing and/or controlling electromagnetic radiation. As may be implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus includes a first structure that contains an object, and a second structure that is transparent at solar wavelengths and emissive in the atmospheric electromagnetic radiation transparency window. The second structure operates with the first structure to pass light into the first structure for illuminating the object, and to radiatively cool the object while preserving the object's color.

  6. Overview of Safety and Environmental Issues for Inertial Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, S. J.; Brereton, S. J.; Perlado, J. M.; Seki, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Tobin, M. T.

    1997-06-01

    This paper summarizes safety and environmental issues of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE): inventories, effluents, maintenance, accident safety, waste management, and recycling. The fusion confinement approach among inertial and magnetic options affects how the fusion reaction is maintained and which materials surround the reaction chamber. The target fill technology has a major impact on the target factory tritium inventory. IFE fusion reaction chambers usually employ some means to protect the first structural wall from fusion pulses. This protective fluid or granular bed also moderates and absorbs most neutrons before they reach the first structural wall. Although the protective fluid activates, most candidate fluids have low activation hazard. Hands-on maintenance seems practical for the driver, target factory, and secondary coolant systems; remote maintenance is likely required for the reaction chamber, primary coolant, and vacuum exhaust cleanup systems. The driver and fuel target facility are well separated from the main reaction chamber.

  7. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Quinn O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  8. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  9. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs

  10. Progress in inertial fusion research at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO 2 laser system delivering up to 6kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO 2 experiments in the tens-of-kJ regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40kJ of CO 2 laser light on target. (author)

  11. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  12. Microscopy using randomized speckle illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep M.; Shinde, Anant; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) that the lateral resolution by a factor of two beyond the classical diffraction limit is achieved using spatially structured illumination in wide-field fluorescence microscope. In the state of art SIM systems, grating patterns are generally generated by physical gratings or by spatial light modulators such as digital micro mirrors (DMD), liquid crystal displays (LCD). In this study, using a combination of LCD and ground glasses, size controlled randomized speckle patterns are generated as an illumination source for the microscope. Proof of concept of using speckle illumination in SIM configuration is tested by imaging fixed BPAE cells.

  13. Inertial forces and physics teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Martinez, J.M.; Pontes Pedrajas, A.

    1996-01-01

    An epistemological and didactic analysis about inertial forces and the role of validity of Newton's Laws seen from several reference systems is performed. On the basis of considerations fulfilled, a discussion about the necessity of introducing these topics in the curriculum of physics teaching at different levels is also carried out. (Author) 21 refs

  14. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  15. Reactor potential of the magnetically insulated inertial fusion (MICF) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, T.; Galbraith, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) scheme is examined with regard to its potential as a power-producing reactor. This approach combines the favorable aspects of both magnetic and inertial fusions in that physical containment of the plasma is provided by a metallic shell while thermal insulation of its energy is provided by a strong, self-generated magnetic field. The plasma is created at the core of the target as a result of irradiation of the fuel-coated inner surface by a laser beam that enters through a hole in the spherical shell. The instantaneous magnetic field is generated by the current loops formed by the laser-heated, laser-ablated electrons, and preliminary experimental results at Osaka University have confirmed the presence of such a field. These same experiments have also yielded a Lawson parameter of about 5x10 12 cm -3 sec, and because of these unique properties, the plasma lifetimes in MICF have been shown to be about two orders of magnitude longer than conventional, pusher type inertial fusion schemes. In this paper a quasi one dimensional, time dependent set of particle and energy balance equations for the thermal species, namely, electrons, ions and thermal alphas which also allows for an appropriate set of fast alpha groups is utilized to assess the reactor prospects of a DT-burning MICF system. (author) [pt

  16. Resolving Fast, Confined Diffusion in Bacteria with Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David J; Tuson, Hannah H; Biteen, Julie S

    2016-05-24

    By following single fluorescent molecules in a microscope, single-particle tracking (SPT) can measure diffusion and binding on the nanometer and millisecond scales. Still, although SPT can at its limits characterize the fastest biomolecules as they interact with subcellular environments, this measurement may require advanced illumination techniques such as stroboscopic illumination. Here, we address the challenge of measuring fast subcellular motion by instead analyzing single-molecule data with spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) with a focus on measurements of confined motion. Our SPT and STICS analysis of simulations of the fast diffusion of confined molecules shows that image blur affects both STICS and SPT, and we find biased diffusion rate measurements for STICS analysis in the limits of fast diffusion and tight confinement due to fitting STICS correlation functions to a Gaussian approximation. However, we determine that with STICS, it is possible to correctly interpret the motion that blurs single-molecule images without advanced illumination techniques or fast cameras. In particular, we present a method to overcome the bias due to image blur by properly estimating the width of the correlation function by directly calculating the correlation function variance instead of using the typical Gaussian fitting procedure. Our simulation results are validated by applying the STICS method to experimental measurements of fast, confined motion: we measure the diffusion of cytosolic mMaple3 in living Escherichia coli cells at 25 frames/s under continuous illumination to illustrate the utility of STICS in an experimental parameter regime for which in-frame motion prevents SPT and tight confinement of fast diffusion precludes stroboscopic illumination. Overall, our application of STICS to freely diffusing cytosolic protein in small cells extends the utility of single-molecule experiments to the regime of fast confined diffusion without requiring advanced

  17. Laser-driven magnetized liner inertial fusion on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnak, D. H.; Davies, J. R.; Betti, R.; Bonino, M. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; Regan, S. P.; Sefkow, A. B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Weis, M. R.; Chang, P.-Y.

    2017-05-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) combines the compression of fusion fuel, a hallmark of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), with strongly magnetized plasmas that suppress electron heat losses, a hallmark of magnetic fusion. It can reduce the traditional velocity, pressure, and convergence ratio requirements of ICF. The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept being studied at the Z Pulsed-Power Facility is a key target concept in the U.S. ICF Program. Laser-driven MagLIF is being developed on OMEGA to test the scaling of MagLIF over a range of absorbed energy of the order of 1 kJ on OMEGA to 500 kJ on Z. It is also valuable as a platform for studying the key physics of MIF. An energy-scaled point design has been developed for OMEGA that is roughly 10 × smaller in linear dimensions than Z MagLIF targets. A 0.6-mm-outer-diameter plastic cylinder filled with 2.4 mg/cm3 of D2 is placed in a ˜10-T axial magnetic field, generated by a Magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system, the cylinder is compressed by 40 OMEGA beams, and the gas fill is preheated by a single OMEGA beam propagating along the axis. Preheating to >100 eV and axially uniform compression over 0.7 mm have been demonstrated, separately, in a series of preparatory experiments that meet our initial expectations. The preliminary results from the first integrated experiments combining magnetization, compression, and preheat demonstrating a roughly 2 x increase in the neutron yield will be reported here for the first time.

  18. OF INERTIAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargsjan Akop Egishovich

    2012-10-01

    The article describes the motion of the construction foundation slab as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom on the surface of the inertial linearly deformable semi-space. The dynamic mechanical model of the base is presented as six pairs of parallel-connected springs and dampers that characterize the rigidity of the base subjected to ultimate forces (three forces alongside the axes and three moments in relation to the axes.

  19. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-09-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  20. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-01-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  1. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents

  2. Inertial objects in complex flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Rayhan; Ho, George; Cavas, Samuel; Bao, Jialun; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    Chaotic Advection and Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents both describe stirring and transport in complex and time-dependent flows, but FTLE analysis has been largely limited to either purely kinematic flow models or high Reynolds number flow field data. The neglect of dynamic effects in FTLE and Lagrangian Coherent Structure studies has stymied detailed information about the role of pressure, Coriolis effects and object inertia. We present results of laboratory and numerical experiments on time-dependent and multi-gyre Stokes flows. In the lab, a time-dependent effectively two-dimensional low Re flow is used to distinguish transport properties of passive tracer from those of small paramagnetic spheres. Companion results of FTLE calculations for inertial particles in a time-dependent multi-gyre flow are presented, illustrating the critical roles of density, Stokes number and Coriolis forces on their transport. Results of Direct Numerical Simulations of fully resolved inertial objects (spheroids) immersed in a three dimensional (ABC) flow show the role of shape and finite size in inertial transport at small finite Re. We acknowledge support of NSF DMS-1418956.

  3. Laser sources for object illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, G.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  4. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.; Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H.

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or ''drive'' inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology

  5. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  6. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  7. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  8. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  9. Elastic membranes in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H

    2016-07-01

    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Algorithms for Art Gallery Illumination

    OpenAIRE

    Ernestus, Maximilian; Friedrichs, Stephan; Hemmer, Michael; Kokemüller, Jan; Kröller, Alexander; Moeini, Mahdi; Schmidt, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The art gallery problem (AGP) is one of the classical problems in computational geometry. It asks for the minimum number of guards required to achieve visibility coverage of a given polygon. The AGP is well-known to be NP-hard even in restricted cases. In this paper, we consider the AGP with fading (AGPF): A polygonal region is to be illuminated with light sources such that every point is illuminated with at least a global threshold, light intensity decreases over distance, and we seek to min...

  11. D2 Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Patrick; Gido, Joseph; Carroll, Joseph

    1993-06-01

    The D2 Hypervelocity Projectile is a Strategic Defense Initiative sponsored technology program that is designed to provide low endo-atmospheric, kinetic kill defense against strategic reentry vehicles. The D2 program is funded through the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (SSDC) in Huntsville, AL and contracted through the U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. In GFY 93 the program began an integration and flight demonstration phase with the Hypervelocity Fire Control System (HVFC) and the Solid Propellant Electro Thermal Chemical (SPETC) launcher. The Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) necessary to perform the autopilot and guidance data gathering must be extremely small, lightweight and shock hardened. The IMU is comprised of three Honeywell GG1308 miniature Ring Laser Gyros (RLG), and three Endevco 7290-M19 miniature silicon accelerometers. The IMU has self-contained high voltage Power Supply (HVPS) processor and memory electronics providing a complete stand alone, three axis measurement package. This Inertial Cluster Assembly (ICA) is then packaged into a cylindrical housing, approximately 1.9 inches in diameter and 1.3 inches in length.

  12. Illumination design for semiconductor backlight inspection and application extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Rutherford, Todd; Hart, Darcy

    2013-09-01

    High speed strobe based illumination scheme is one of the most critical factors for high throughput semiconductor defect inspection applications. HB LEDs are always the first and best options for such applications due to numerous unique advantages such as excellent spatial and temporal stability, fast responding time, large and linear intensity dynamic range and no heat issue for the extremely low duty cycle applications. For some applications where a large area is required to be illuminated simultaneously, it remains a great challenge to efficiently package a large amount of HB-LEDs in a highly confined 3D space, to generate a seamless illuminated area with high luminance efficiency and spatial uniformity. A novel 3D structured collimation lens is presented in this paper. The non-circular edge shape reduces the intensity drop at the channel boundaries, while the secondary curvatures on the top of the collimator lens efficiently guides the light into desired angular space. The number of the edges and the radius of the top surface curvature are control parameters for the system level performance and the manufacture cost trade-off. The proposed 3D structured LED collimation lens also maintains the benefits of traditional LED collimation lens such as coupling efficiency and mold manufacture capability. The applications can be extended into other non-illumination area like parallelism measurement and solar panel concentrator etc.

  13. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  14. Empirical evidence for inertial mass anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Siemieniec, G.

    1985-01-01

    A several attempts at measuring the possible deviations from inertial mass isotropy caused by a non-uniform distribution of matter are reviewed. A simple model of the inertial mass anisotropy and the results of the currently performed measurements concerning this effect are presented. 34 refs. (author)

  15. On-body inertial sensor location recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Goaied, Salma; Baten, Christian T.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and past research: In previous work we presented an algorithm for automatically identifying the body segment to which an inertial sensor is attached during walking [1]. Using this method, the set-up of inertial motion capture systems becomes easier and attachment errors are avoided. The

  16. Illuminant estimation in multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haris Ahmad; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve; Laligant, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    With the advancement in sensor technology, the use of multispectral imaging is gaining wide popularity for computer vision applications. Multispectral imaging is used to achieve better discrimination between the radiance spectra, as compared to the color images. However, it is still sensitive to illumination changes. This study evaluates the potential evolution of illuminant estimation models from color to multispectral imaging. We first present a state of the art on computational color constancy and then extend a set of algorithms to use them in multispectral imaging. We investigate the influence of camera spectral sensitivities and the number of channels. Experiments are performed on simulations over hyperspectral data. The outcomes indicate that extension of computational color constancy algorithms from color to spectral gives promising results and may have the potential to lead towards efficient and stable representation across illuminants. However, this is highly dependent on spectral sensitivities and noise. We believe that the development of illuminant invariant multispectral imaging systems will be a key enabler for further use of this technology.

  17. Illuminance Flow Estimation by Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, S.M.; Pont, S.C.; Koenderink, J.J.; Zisserman, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the estimation of illuminance flow using Histograms of Oriented Gradient features (HOGs). In a regression setting, we found for both ridge regression and support vector machines, that the optimal solution shows close resemblance to the gradient based structure tensor (also known as

  18. Multiple-illumination photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Quinn M.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    Previously we described the potential for multiple illumination photoacoustic tomography to provide quantitative reconstructions, however this work used only simulated data. We have developed a custom photoacoustic-ultrasound tomography system capable of multiple illuminations and parallel acquisition from a 256 element 5 MHz transducer ring array with 8-cm diameter. The multiple illumination scheme uses a free-space light delivery geometry where a rotational stage scans a pulsed laser beam onto different incident locations around the sample. For each illumination location a photoacoustic image is reconstructed using a modified backprojection algorithm. Images from different source locations have the potential to be combined to form an improved deep-tissue image using our previously developed iterative algorithms. We complement the photoacoustic imaging data with unique ultrasound imaging data. Most previous ultrasound tomography methods have used migration algorithms, iterative ray-based analysis, wave-equation modeling, or frequency-based algorithms that all demand large amounts of data and computational power. We propose a new UST method that offers isotropic resolution, provides scattering contrast, as well as the potential for measuring ultrasound scattering anisotropy and decoupling density and compressibility contributions. The imaging system is driven by a Verasonics scan engine and programmed for both ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging modes. Resolution has been measured to be 150 μm for ultrasound and 200 μm for photoacoustic images. Imaging capabilities are demonstrated on phantoms with custom-tailored ultrasound scattering and optical properties, as well as in murine models.

  19. Ultra-Compact Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Garrett

    2017-10-01

    A unique, linear dual-beam configuration with an internal volume of 144 cc was simulated and operated. Deuteron ion paths were simulated using Mathematica and the electric field distribution was optimized relative to convergence density, potential well efficiency, and confinement time. The resulting cathode design is a departure from conventional systems, with gradual conical surfaces. The simulated trajectories correlated well to the observed operation, evidenced by two principle factors. First, the high transparency of the cathode due to the focused beams allowed for >1 kW operation without duration-limiting temperature rise. Second, when compared to inertial electrostatic configurations, the constructed device achieved record steady-state D-D fusion rates per internal volume including 3.7E +4 fusions/sec/cc at 52 kV applied potential and 28 mTorr operating pressure.

  20. The confinement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, E.

    1985-01-01

    Confinement of quarks is sometimes taken as some kind of dogma in the contemporary theory of strong interactions - quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD). Scientists should not be content with that. What is meant by ''permanent confinement'' should be formulated more precisely to see whether the theory has this property or not. The author looks at some possible interpretations of ''confinement'' and their shortcomings and then turns to the most widely used rather pragmatic definition based on the somewhat unphysical notion of infinitely heavy external sources. He describes what is known about the problem and tries to bring into focus some aspects that are insufficiently understood in his opinion

  1. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  2. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, January-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes research and development effort in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program, including absorption measurements with an integrating sphere, generation of high CO 2 -laser harmonics in the backscattered light from laser plasmas, and the effects of hydrogen target contamination on the hot-electron temperature and transport. The development of new diagnostics is outlined and measurements taken with a proximity-focused x-ray streak camera are presented. High gain in phase conjugation using germanium was demonstrated, data were obtained on retropulse isolation by plasmas generated from metal shutters, damage thresholds for copper mirrors at high fluences were characterized, and phase conjugation in the ultraviolet was demonstrated. Significant progress in the characterization of targets, new techniques in target coating, and important advances in the development of low-density, small-cell-size plastic foam that permit highly accurate machining to any desired shape are presented. The results of various fusion reactor system studies are summarized

  3. Diagnosing Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated DD fusion neutron yields above 1012 and effective confinement of charged fusion products by the flux-compressed magnetic field signaled by >1010 secondary DT neutrons. The neutron diagnostics are complemented by an extensive suite of visible and x-ray diagnostics providing power, imaging, and spectroscopic data. This talk will present analyses of emission and absorption features from the imploding and stagnating plasma that provide a consistent picture of the magnetic drive and the temperatures, densities, mix, and gradients in the fuel and liner at stagnation. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes research and development effort in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program, including absorption measurements with an integrating sphere, generation of high CO/sub 2/-laser harmonics in the backscattered light from laser plasmas, and the effects of hydrogen target contamination on the hot-electron temperature and transport. The development of new diagnostics is outlined and measurements taken with a proximity-focused x-ray streak camera are presented. High gain in phase conjugation using germanium was demonstrated, data were obtained on retropulse isolation by plasmas generated from metal shutters, damage thresholds for copper mirrors at high fluences were characterized, and phase conjugation in the ultraviolet was demonstrated. Significant progress in the characterization of targets, new techniques in target coating, and important advances in the development of low-density, small-cell-size plastic foam that permit highly accurate machining to any desired shape are presented. The results of various fusion reactor system studies are summarized.

  5. Status of light ion inertial fusion research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Barker, R.J.; Colombant, D.G.; Goldstein, S.A.; Meger, R.A.; Mosher, D.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the use of high-brightness proton beams, extracted from axial pinch-reflex diodes mounted on the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Gamble II generator, to study light ion inertial fusion. Topics covered include the modular approach, ion beam brightness studies, light-ion beam transport, final focusing, the single diode approach, the inductive storage approach, an energy loss experiment, and future plans. Analysis of a modular inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system using axial pinch-reflex diodes shows that an operational window for transport of light-ion species exists. A proof-of-principle experiment for the required final focusing cell was conducted on Gamble II. Preliminary experiments using vacuum inductive storage and plasma opening switches have demonstrated factorof-three pulse compressions, with corresponding power and voltage multiplications for pulse durations of interest to PBFA II. The stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured in other experiments. It is demonstrated that about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the deuteron beam is focused on the target to about .25 MA/cm 2 . Includes 6 diagrams

  6. COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOODIN, D.T; NOBILE, A; SCHROEN, D.G; MAXWELL, J.L; RICKMAN, W.S

    2004-03-01

    A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE

  7. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  8. The confining trailing string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)

    2014-02-19

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  9. Solitons and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swieca, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of two recent developments in quantum field theory are discussed. First, related with 'extended particles' such as soliton, kink and the 't Hooft monopole. Second, with confinement of particles which are realized in the Schwinger model [pt

  10. Low cost inertial measuring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnick, Drew A.

    A concept being explored is the use of an inexpensive IMU (inertial measuring unit) with the GPS (Global Positioning System). An inexpensive IMU can meet many of the same functional requirements as the high-accuracy system, with the exception of long-term position. For example, some applications for instrumenting a reference frame are antenna stability, satellite acquisition (including GPS), platform stability, flight stabilization, and heading information. The acceleration data could still be integrated to find velocity and position; however, this position information would only be used for a period of minutes. For example, to provide continuous navigation during a GPS blockage due to buildings, wing blockage during a maneuver, etc. The author presents the capabilities of a unit of this type which was developed for the US Army.

  11. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  12. Structural Correction of Inertial System Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonovs-Bogdanovs Pjotrs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inertial system errors in case of using the new structural correction method have been determined. Inertial system errors, which determine the kinematic parameters of aircraft movement, are finally generated in the computing circuit. This is the part of inertial system structure which is presented as a closed loop with a feedback. The forward circuit of the main loop consists of several velocity and distance integrators connected in series. Accelerometer signal corrections are calculated in the feedback loop. New corrective circuits have been introduced to the inertial system structure. And the errors of the changed system have been determined. The structural corrective circuits got signals from exterior onboard navigation systems. The conducted research has shown that the use of structural corrective circuits in some cases leads to a considerable decrease of inertial system errors. It means that the new structural method of inertial system correction provides positive results. Further research of inertial system errors should be conducted for the case of its full structure.

  13. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  14. Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones for Curriculum Experiments of Inertial Navigation Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Qingjiang; Li, You; Li, Qingli; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Inertial technology has been used in a wide range of applications such as guidance, navigation, and motion tracking. However, there are few undergraduate courses that focus on the inertial technology. Traditional inertial navigation systems (INS) and relevant testing facilities are expensive and complicated in operation, which makes it inconvenient and risky to perform teaching experiments with such systems. To solve this issue, this paper proposes the idea of using smartphones, which are ubi...

  15. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  16. Haptic perception of gravitational and inertial masstt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Mass can be perceived in different ways: statically, through gravitational cues; dynamically, through inertial cues; or a combination of both. This article investigates the relationship between these modes of perception. In three different experiments, subjects matched masses that were held

  17. MEMS inertial sensors with integral rotation means.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Stewart M.

    2003-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of inertial micro-sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) has advanced to the point where they are displacing the more traditional sensors in many size, power, and/or cost-sensitive applications. A factor limiting the range of application of inertial micro-sensors has been their relatively poor bias stability. The incorporation of an integral sensitive axis rotation capability would enable bias mitigation through proven techniques such as indexing, and foster the use of inertial micro-sensors in more accuracy-sensitive applications. Fabricating the integral rotation mechanism in MEMS technology would minimize the penalties associated with incorporation of this capability, and preserve the inherent advantages of inertial micro-sensors.

  18. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  19. Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

    2013-09-05

    Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by detecting unmodified switched-on lamps in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-03

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  1. Improving Inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by Detecting Unmodified Switched-on Lamps in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM. The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  2. Hand Pose Estimation by Fusion of Inertial and Magnetic Sensing Aided by a Permanent Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortier, Henk G; Antonsson, Jacob; Schepers, H Martin; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Veltink, Peter H

    2015-09-01

    Tracking human body motions using inertial sensors has become a well-accepted method in ambulatory applications since the subject is not confined to a lab-bounded volume. However, a major drawback is the inability to estimate relative body positions over time because inertial sensor information only allows position tracking through strapdown integration, but does not provide any information about relative positions. In addition, strapdown integration inherently results in drift of the estimated position over time. We propose a novel method in which a permanent magnet combined with 3-D magnetometers and 3-D inertial sensors are used to estimate the global trunk orientation and relative pose of the hand with respect to the trunk. An Extended Kalman Filter is presented to fuse estimates obtained from inertial sensors with magnetic updates such that the position and orientation between the human hand and trunk as well as the global trunk orientation can be estimated robustly. This has been demonstrated in multiple experiments in which various hand tasks were performed. The most complex task in which simultaneous movements of both trunk and hand were performed resulted in an average rms position difference with an optical reference system of 19.7±2.2 mm whereas the relative trunk-hand and global trunk orientation error was 2.3±0.9 and 8.6±8.7 deg respectively.

  3. An Army Illumination Model (AAIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Research Laboratory: WSMR, NM, 2007 (DTIC No. ADA474479). 14. Gouveia, M. J.; Cianciolo, M. E.; Higgins, G. J. Night Vision Goggles Operations Weather ...Natural Illumination Under Realistic Weather Conditions, ILUMA; ASL-TR-0221-21; EOSAEL 87, Vol 21; U.S. Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory: WSMR...22.567 17.100 535000 Nepal Kathmandu 27.700 85.317 724096 Netherlands Amsterdam 52.350 4.900 1208091 New Zealand Auckland –36.917 174.783 397974

  4. Quantum Illumination with Noiseless Linear Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng-Li; Wang -Kun; Guo Jian-Sheng; Shi Jian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum illumination, that is, quantum target detection, is to detect the potential target with two-mode quantum entangled state. For a given transmitted energy, the quantum illumination can achieve a target-detection probability of error much lower than the illumination scheme without entanglement. We investigate the usefulness of noiseless linear amplification (NLA) for quantum illumination. Our result shows that NLA can help to substantially reduce the number of quantum entangled states collected for joint measurement of multi-copy quantum state. Our analysis on the NLA-assisted scheme could help to develop more efficient schemes for quantum illumination. (paper)

  5. Confinement contains condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have common...... evidence and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment....

  6. Confinement for More Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe K.; Elsayed, Mohamed; Kossack, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy are employed to study the molecular dynamics and effective free volume of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in the bulk state and when confined in unidirectional nanopores with average diameters of 4, 6, and 8 nm. Enhanced α...

  7. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial fusion, astrophysical plasma and flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V; Modestov, M; Akkerman, V; Eriksson, L-E

    2007-01-01

    Previous results are reviewed and new results are presented on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confined fusion, flames and supernovae including gravitational and thermonuclear explosion mechanisms. The instability couples micro-scale plasma effects to large-scale hydrodynamic phenomena. In inertial fusion the instability reduces target compression. In supernovae the instability produces large-scale convection, which determines the fate of the star. The instability is often accompanied by mass flux through the unstable interface, which may have either a stabilizing or a destabilizing influence. Destabilization happens due to the Darrieus-Landau instability of a deflagration front. Still, it is unclear whether the instabilities lead to well-organized large-scale structures (bubbles) or to relatively isotropic turbulence (mixing layer)

  8. Understanding fuel magnetization and mix using secondary nuclear reactions in magneto-inertial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P F; Knapp, P F; Hansen, S B; Gomez, M R; Hahn, K D; Sinars, D B; Peterson, K J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Awe, T J; Harding, E; Jennings, C A; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Cuneo, M E; Geissel, M; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Herrmann, M C; Hess, M H; Johns, O; Lamppa, D C; Martin, M R; McBride, R D; Porter, J L; Robertson, G K; Rochau, G A; Rovang, D C; Ruiz, C L; Savage, M E; Smith, I C; Stygar, W A; Vesey, R A

    2014-10-10

    Magnetizing the fuel in inertial confinement fusion relaxes ignition requirements by reducing thermal conductivity and changing the physics of burn product confinement. Diagnosing the level of fuel magnetization during burn is critical to understanding target performance in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) implosions. In pure deuterium fusion plasma, 1.01 MeV tritons are emitted during deuterium-deuterium fusion and can undergo secondary deuterium-tritium reactions before exiting the fuel. Increasing the fuel magnetization elongates the path lengths through the fuel of some of the tritons, enhancing their probability of reaction. Based on this feature, a method to diagnose fuel magnetization using the ratio of overall deuterium-tritium to deuterium-deuterium neutron yields is developed. Analysis of anisotropies in the secondary neutron energy spectra further constrain the measurement. Secondary reactions also are shown to provide an upper bound for the volumetric fuel-pusher mix in MIF. The analysis is applied to recent MIF experiments [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z Pulsed Power Facility, indicating that significant magnetic confinement of charged burn products was achieved and suggesting a relatively low-mix environment. Both of these are essential features of future ignition-scale MIF designs.

  9. Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E

  10. Physics and technology of inertial fusion energy targets chambers and drivers. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The third IAEA Technical Meeting on Physics and Technology of Inertial Fusion Energy Targets and Chambers took place 11-13 October 2004 in the Yousung Hotel Daejon, Republic of Korea. The first meeting was held in Madrid, Spain, 7-9 June 2000, and the second one in San Diego, California, 17-19 June 2002. Nuclear fusion has the promise of becoming an abundant energy source with good environmental compatibility. Excellent progress has been made in controlled nuclear fusion research on both magnetic and inertial approaches for plasma confinement. The IAEA plays a pro-active role to catalyze innovation and enhance worldwide commitment to fusion. This is done by creating awareness of the different concepts of magnetic as well as inertial confinement. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) supports the IAEA in the development of strategies to enhance fusion research in Member States. As part of the recommendations, a technical meeting on the physics and technology of inertial fusion energy (IFE) was proposed in one of the council meetings. The objective of the technical meeting was to contribute to advancing the understanding of targets and chambers for all proposed inertial fusion energy power plant designs. The topics to be covered were: Target design and physics, chamber design and physics, target fabrication injection and Tritium handling, assessment of safety, environment and economy aspect of IFE. It was recognized by the International Advisory Committee that the scope of the meeting should also include fusion drivers. The presentations of the meeting included target and chamber physics and technology for all proposed IFE plant concepts (laser driven, heavy-ion driven, Z-pinches, etc.). The final Research Coordination Meeting of the Coordinated Research Project on Elements of Power Plant Design for Inertial Fusion Energy, including further new results and achievements, followed the technical meeting. Twenty-nine participants from 12 countries participated

  11. Investigating the performance of reconstruction methods used in structured illumination microscopy as a function of the illumination pattern's modulation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, H.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Preza, C.

    2016-03-01

    Surpassing the resolution of optical microscopy defined by the Abbe diffraction limit, while simultaneously achieving optical sectioning, is a challenging problem particularly for live cell imaging of thick samples. Among a few developing techniques, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) addresses this challenge by imposing higher frequency information into the observable frequency band confined by the optical transfer function (OTF) of a conventional microscope either doubling the spatial resolution or filling the missing cone based on the spatial frequency of the pattern when the patterned illumination is two-dimensional. Standard reconstruction methods for SIM decompose the low and high frequency components from the recorded low-resolution images and then combine them to reach a high-resolution image. In contrast, model-based approaches rely on iterative optimization approaches to minimize the error between estimated and forward images. In this paper, we study the performance of both groups of methods by simulating fluorescence microscopy images from different type of objects (ranging from simulated two-point sources to extended objects). These simulations are used to investigate the methods' effectiveness on restoring objects with various types of power spectrum when modulation frequency of the patterned illumination is changing from zero to the incoherent cut-off frequency of the imaging system. Our results show that increasing the amount of imposed information by using a higher modulation frequency of the illumination pattern does not always yield a better restoration performance, which was found to be depended on the underlying object. Results from model-based restoration show performance improvement, quantified by an up to 62% drop in the mean square error compared to standard reconstruction, with increasing modulation frequency. However, we found cases for which results obtained with standard reconstruction methods do not always follow the same trend.

  12. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  13. Innovative confinement concepts workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Innovative Confinement Concepts Workshop occurred in California during the week preceding the Second Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. An informal report was made to the Second Symposium. A summary of the Workshop concluded that some very promising ideas were presented, that innovative concept development is a central element of the restructured US DOE. Fusion Energy Sciences program, and that the Workshop should promote real scientific progress in fusion

  14. Energy confinement in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, M.; Singer, C.

    1986-08-01

    A straightforward generalization is made of the ohmic heating energy confinement scalings of Pfeiffer and Waltz and Blackwell et. al. The resulting model is systematically calibrated to published data from limiter tokamaks with ohmic, electron cyclotron, and neutral beam heating. With considerably fewer explicitly adjustable free parameters, this model appears to give a better fit to the available data for limiter discharges than the combined ohmic/auxiliary heating model of Goldston

  15. Confined exciton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Clivia M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In this work, the exciton is considered as a sensor of the electronic and optical properties of materials such as semiconductors, which have size compared to the exciton De Broglie wavelength, approximately 20 nm, depending on the semiconductor. Examples of electron-phonon, electron-electron, photon-electron, exciton-polariton, phonon-plasmon, are presented, under different confinement conditions such as quantum wells, superlattices

  16. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions.

  17. Real time global illumination using the GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination is an important factor when striving for photo realism in computergraphics. This thesis describes why this is the case, and why global illumination is considered acomplex problem to solve. The problem becomes even more demanding when considering realtime purposes. Resent research has proven it possible to produce global illumination in realtime. Therefore the subject of this thesis is to compare and evaluate a number of those methods. An implementation is presented based o...

  18. Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones for Curriculum Experiments of Inertial Navigation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Niu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inertial technology has been used in a wide range of applications such as guidance, navigation, and motion tracking. However, there are few undergraduate courses that focus on the inertial technology. Traditional inertial navigation systems (INS and relevant testing facilities are expensive and complicated in operation, which makes it inconvenient and risky to perform teaching experiments with such systems. To solve this issue, this paper proposes the idea of using smartphones, which are ubiquitous and commonly contain off-the-shelf inertial sensors, as the experimental devices. A series of curriculum experiments are designed, including the Allan variance test, the calibration test, the initial leveling test and the drift feature test. These experiments are well-selected and can be implemented simply with the smartphones and without any other specialized tools. The curriculum syllabus was designed and tentatively carried out on 14 undergraduate students with a science and engineering background. Feedback from the students show that the curriculum can help them gain a comprehensive understanding of the inertial technology such as calibration and modeling of the sensor errors, determination of the device attitude and accumulation of the sensor errors in the navigation algorithm. The use of inertial sensors in smartphones provides the students the first-hand experiences and intuitive feelings about the function of inertial sensors. Moreover, it can motivate students to utilize ubiquitous low-cost sensors in their future research.

  19. Uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Uniformity of illumination of spherical laser fusion targets is calculated for eight, twelve, and twenty beams arranged according to the symmetry of the Platonic solids. Uniformity is optimized by varying the f/no. of ideal aberration-free lenses, amount of beam overlap, and the shape of the spatial beam profile. The numerical results show twenty-beam illumination to be slightly better than twelve-beam illumination, with eight beams running a poor third. Refractive energy losses due to nonorthogonal illumination and the implications for the design of a practical laser fusion reactor are discussed

  20. Anisotropic Density Estimation in Global Illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars

    2009-01-01

    and bias in estimates. Good results are obtained by the use of anisotropic filtering. Two methods handles the most common cases; filtering illumination reflected from object surfaces. One methods extends filtering to the temporal domain and one performs filtering on illumination from participating media......Density estimation employed in multi-pass global illumination algorithms gives cause to a trade-off problem between bias and noise. The problem is seen most evident as blurring of strong illumination features. This thesis addresses the problem, presenting four methods that reduce both noise...

  1. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF). Dynamic application of atomic and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Yuuki

    1995-01-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; 1) so-called cold fusion (CF), 2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and 3) accelerator-based D-T(D) neutron source. Details of the LCF reactor physics require dynamics of atomic data as well as nuclear data; interaction of ions with matters in solid and the problems of radiation damage. (author)

  2. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF ROTATING, PRESSURE-CONFINED, POLYTROPIC GAS DISKS WITH VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c eff of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c eff and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.

  3. Hadrosynthesis and Quark Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satz Helmut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multihadron production in high energy collisions, from e+e− annihilation to heavy ion interactions, shows remarkable thermal behaviour, specified by a universal “Hagedorn” temperature. We argue that this hadronic radiation is formed by tunnelling through the event horizon of colour confinement, i.e., that it is the QCD counterpart of Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes. It is shown to be emitted at a universal temperature TH ≃ (σ/2π1/2, where σ denotes the string tension. Since the event horizon does not allow information transfer, the radiation is thermal “at birth”.

  4. Confinement and 4-manifolds

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In this talk I will survey a connection between two very challenging problems, one in physics and one in math. The physics problem involves quantitative understanding of confinement in a system with least amount of supersymmetry that has been studied so far and that has a wide range of applications, from semi-realistic string models to qualitatively new examples of gauge-gravity duality. Surprisingly, the rich physics of this system translates into incredibly rich mathematics of the only remaining unsolved case of the Poincare conjecture.

  5. 29 CFR 1918.92 - Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.92 Illumination. (a) Walking, working, and climbing areas. Walking, working, and climbing areas shall be illuminated. Unless...

  6. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...

  7. Illumination correction in psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    An approach to automatically correct illumination problems in dermatological images is presented. The illumination function is estimated after combining the thematic map indicating skin-produced by an automated classification scheme- with the dermatological image data. The user is only required t...

  8. Inertial frames and breakthrough propulsion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2017-09-01

    The term ;Breakthrough Propulsion Physics; comes from the NASA project by that name which examined non-rocket space drives, gravity control, and faster-than-light travel. The focus here is on space drives and the related unsolved physics of inertial frames. A ;space drive; is a generic term encompassing any concept for using as-yet undiscovered physics to move a spacecraft instead of existing rockets, sails, or tethers. The collective state of the art spans mostly steps 1-3 of the scientific method: defining the problem, collecting data, and forming hypotheses. The key issues include (1) conservation of momentum, (2) absence of obvious reaction mass, and (3) the net-external thrusting requirement. Relevant open problems in physics include: (1) the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, (2) coupling of gravitation to the other fundamental forces, and (3) the nature of the quantum vacuum. Rather than following the assumption that inertial frames are an immutable, intrinsic property of space, this paper revisits Mach's Principle, where it is posited that inertia is relative to the distant surrounding matter. This perspective allows conjectures that a space drive could impart reaction forces to that matter, via some as-yet undiscovered interaction with the inertial frame properties of space. Thought experiments are offered to begin a process to derive new hypotheses. It is unknown if this line of inquiry will be fruitful, but it is hoped that, by revisiting unsolved physics from a propulsion point of view, new insights will be gained.

  9. CHAOTIC DUFFING TYPE OSCILLATOR WITH INERTIAL DAMPING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Kirvaitis, Raimundas

    2009-01-01

    A novel Duffing-Holmes type autonomous chaotic oscillator is described. In comparison with the well-known non-autonomous Duffing-Holmes circuit it lacks the external periodic drive, but includes two extra linear feedback sub-circuits, namely a direct positive feedback loop, and an inertial negati...

  10. Automated Driftmeter Fused with Inertial Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    dynamics range. Fortunately, both of these concerns are easily satisfied with today’s ring laser gyro (RLG) or fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) technology...22 FOG fiber optic gyroscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 KF Kalman filter...The motivation of this research is to address the use of bearing-only measurements taken by an optical sensor to aid an Inertial Navigation System

  11. Adaptive optics compensation using active illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Charles; Barclay, Herbert T.; Kansky, Jan E.; Murphy, Daniel V.; Primmerman, Charles A.

    1998-09-01

    We have conducted atmospheric compensation experiments using active illumination for both adaptive-optics and tracking. Tests were performed in support of the Air Force's Airborne Laser program. The tests utilized the 5.4-km horizontal propagation range at the Lincoln Laboratory Firepond facility. The adaptive-optics beacon was provided by actively illuminating the target with a multibeam laser illuminator. A second multibeam laser illuminator was used to provide a beacon for an imaging tracker. Experiments were conducted using two different adaptive-optics illuminator configurations, as well as with point-source beacons. Data were collected over a range of atmospheric conditions. Results from these tests have helped to provide a performance benchmark for the Airborne Laser program.

  12. Quark Confinement and Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…

  13. Confinement from correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Leonard; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2013-08-01

    We compute the Polyakov loop potential in Yang-Mills theory from the fully dressed primitively divergent correlation functions only. This is done in a variety of functional approaches ranging from functional renormalization group equations over Dyson-Schwinger equations to two-particle irreducible functionals. We present a confinement criterion that links the infrared behavior of propagators and vertices to the Polyakov loop expectation value. The present work extends the works of [J. Braun , Phys. Lett. B 684, 262 (2010)PYLBAJ0370-2693; F. Marhauser and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:0812.1144; J. Braun , Eur. Phys. J. C 70, 689 (2010)EPCFFB1434-6044] to general functional methods and sharpens the confinement criterion presented there. The computations are based on the thermal correlation functions in the Landau gauge calculated in [L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5440; L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5429; L. Fister, Ph.D. thesis, Heidelberg University, 2012].

  14. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  15. Growth rates of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    A simple procedure is developed to determine the Froude number Fr, the effective power index for thermal conduction ν, the ablation-front thickness L 0 , the ablation velocity V a , and the acceleration g of laser-accelerated ablation fronts. These parameters are determined by fitting the density and pressure profiles obtained from one-dimensional numerical simulations with the analytic isobaric profiles of Kull and Anisimov [Phys. Fluids 29, 2067 (1986)]. These quantities are then used to calculate the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability using the theory developed by Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4665 (1996)]. The complicated expression of the growth rate (valid for arbitrary Froude numbers) derived by Goncharov et al. is simplified by using reasonably accurate fitting formulas. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nostrand, M.C.; Carr, C.W.; Liao, Z.M.; Honig, J.; Spaeth, M.L.; Manes, K.R.; Johnson, M.A.; Adams, J.J.; Cross, D.A.; Negres, R.A.; Widmayer, C.C.; Williams, W.H.; Matthews, M.J.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Kegelmeyer, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  17. Beam wavefront control of a thermal inertia laser for inertial confinement fusion application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjun, Dai; Dongxia, Hu; Wei, Zhou; Junpu, Zhao; Feng, Jing; Zeping, Yang; Kun, Zhang; Xuejun, Jiang; Wu, Deng; Runchang, Zhao; Zhitao, Peng; Bin, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A novel scheme to correct aberration of each beam from the front-end to the target point in a thermal inertia laser (TIL) is presented. Each beam contains a deformable mirror (DM) with an aperture of 70 mm x 70 mm at the injection of the main amplifier and a Hartman-Shack (HS) sensor in a parameter diagnostic unit (PDU). A temporary HS sensor for measuring the static aberration of each beam with 1 Hz source is placed at the target point. The sensor will be removed from the target point during the main single shot, so we transfer the results measured at the target point to the sensors in the PDU. Dynamic aberration can also be measured by the HS sensor in the PDU during the single shot. In this way, we need not calibrate the aberration of the PDU, and aberration of each beam can be corrected by the DM with the HS sensor in the PDU. We demonstrate that with this scheme the divergence angle of the TIL pulses can be improved from 100 to less than 60 murad with a focal length of 2200 mm and beam size of 290 mm x 290 mm, which meets the requirement of a TIL.

  18. Ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-08-04

    As shown elsewhere an ablatively imploded shell is hydrodynamically unstable, the dominant instability being the well known Rayleigh-Taylor instability with growth rate {gamma} = {radical}Akg where k = 2{pi}/{lambda} is the wave number, g is the acceleration and A the Attwood number ({rho}{sub hi} {minus} {rho}{sub lo})/({rho}{sub hi} + {rho}{sub lo}) where {rho}{sub hi} is the density of the heavier fluid and {rho}{sub lo} is the density of the lighter fluid. A theoretical understanding of ablative stabilization has gradually evolved, confirmed over the last five years by experiments. The linear growth is very well understood with excellent agreement between experiment and simulation for planar geometry with wavelengths in the region of 30--100{mu}m. There is an accurate, albeit phenomenological dispersion relation. The non-linear growth has been measured and agrees with calculations. In this lecture, the authors go into the fundamentals of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the experimental measurements that show it is stabilized sufficiently by ablation in regimes relevant to ICF.

  19. Development of CO2 and KrF gas lasers as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Several different driver systems are currently under development in the national ICF program. Los Alamos has traditionally emphasized gas laser systems because of their intrinsic high average power capability and ease of operation. This paper will review the status of activities in both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and krypton fluoride (KrF) development at the Laboratory

  20. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nostrand, M C; Carr, C W; Liao, Z M; Honig, J; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Johnson, M A; Adams, J J; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Matthews, M J; Jancaitis, K S; Kegelmeyer, L M

    2010-12-20

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  1. Stable propagation of light-ion beam in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Murakami, H.

    1996-01-01

    The stabilization mechanism of the filamentation instability for a light ion beam (LIB) penetrating plasma is investigated. For the stabilization of the filamentation instability, external magnetic field which is parallel to the direction of the light ion beam propagation is applied. Linear growth rates of filamentation instabilities in a light ion beam-plasma system with an external magnetic field were obtained by means of a dispersion relation. Numerical simulations were carried out using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The stabilizing mechanism of the filamentation instability is described. The theory and simulation comparisons illustrate the results. (author). 1 tab., 1 fig., 10 refs

  2. Light-ion inertial confinement fusion research at Naval Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Colombant, D.G.; Barker, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    High-brightness proton beams (0.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm 2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of >=10 TW.cm - 2 .rad - 2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equatorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominantly azimuthally symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% increase in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about 0.25 MA.cm - 2 . Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>or approx. 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport plasma-filled magnetic focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  3. Tritium breeding in DT-DD hybrid pellet for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko; Kawata, Shigeo; Niu, Keishiro.

    1983-06-01

    The phenomenology of thermonuclear burn with a secondary reaction is investigated by using a method of numerical simulation for a DT-DD hybrid pellet with a high density. The simulation is carried out by use of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic Lagrangian code, showing the capability of tritium breeding in the hybrid pellet. The breeding ratio in the pellet is clarified to be able to exceed unity when the following two conditions are satisfied. 1) The amount of tritium is remarkably less than the amount of deuterium initially stored in the pellet, so that the amount of tritium produced by DD reactions is beyond the initial amount of tritium. 2) The pellet has a so high temperature and a so high rhoR, that the amount of tritium does not decrease anomalously through the secondary DT reaction, because the rate of DT reactions decreases as the temperature increases above 70 keV. (author)

  4. Inertial confinement fusion. Quarterly report, July--September 1995, Volume 5, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The 1990 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) final report recommended proceeding with the construction of a 1- to 2-MJ Nd-doped glass laser designed to achieve ignition in the laboratory (a laser originally called the Nova Upgrade, but now called the National Ignition Facility, or NIF, and envisioned as a national user facility). As a prerequisite, the report recommended completion of a series of target physics objectives on the Nova laser in use at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Meeting these objectives, which were called the Nova Technical Contract (NTC), would demonstrate (the Academy committee believed) that the physics of ignition targets was understood well enough that the laser requirements could be accurately specified. Completion of the NTC objectives was given the highest priority in the NAS report. The NAS committee also recommended a concentrated effort on advanced target design for ignition. As recommended in the report, completion of these objectives has been the joint responsibility of LLNL and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the articles in this issue of the ICF Quarterly were written jointly by scientists from both institutions. Several of the NTC objectives required the completion of improvements to Nova`s power balance and pointing accuracy and of new diagnostics and new target fabrication capabilities. These improvements were called {open_quotes}Precision Nova{close_quotes} and are documented. The original NTC objectives have been largely met. This Introduction summarizes those objectives and their motivation in the context of the requirements for ignition. The articles that follow describe the NIF ignition target designs and summarize the principal accomplishments in the various elements of the NTC.

  5. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, D.J.; Luckhardt, R.; Moyer, S.; Armentrout, C.J.; Downs, R.L.; Moncur, K. (eds.)

    1990-02-28

    This report discusses: Cryogenic technology; polymer shell fabrication; glass shell fabrication and characterization; coating technology; development of characterization techniques; laser technology; and plasma research and instrumentation.

  6. Adiabatic Quasi-Spherical Compressions Driven by Magnetic Pressure for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic implosion of a high-Z quasi-spherical shell filled with DT fuel by the 20-MA Z accelerator can heat the fuel to near-ignition temperature. The attainable implosion velocity on Z, 13-cm/micros, is fast enough that thermal losses from the fuel to the shell are small. The high-Z shell traps radiation losses from the fuel, and the fuel reaches a high enough density to reabsorb the trapped radiation. The implosion is then nearly adiabatic. In this case the temperature of the fuel increases as the square of the convergence. The initial temperature of the fuel is set by the heating of an ion acoustic wave to be about 200-eV after a convergence of 4. To reach the ignition temperature of 5-keV an additional convergence of 5 is required. The implosion dynamics of the quasi-spherical implosion is modeled with the 2-D radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. LASNEX shows an 8-mm diameter quasi-spherical tungsten shell on Z driving 6-atmospheres of DT fuel nearly to ignition at 3.5-keV with a convergence of 20. The convergence is limited by mass flow along the surface of the quasi-spherical shell. With a convergence of 20 the final spot size is 400-microm in diameter

  7. LIBRA - a light ion beam inertial confinement fusion reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Bruggink, D.

    1989-01-01

    The LIBRA light ion beam fusion commercial reactor study is a self-consistent conceptual design of a 330 MWe power plant with an accompanying economic analysis. Fusion targets are imploded by 4 MJ shaped pulses of 30 MeV Li ions at a rate of 3 Hz. The target gain is 80, leading to a yield of 320 MJ. The high intensity part of the ion pulse is delivered by 16 diodes through 16 separate z-pinch plasma channels formed in 100 torr of helium with trace amounts of lithium. The blanket is an array of porous flexible silicon carbide tubes with Li 17 Pb 83 flowing downward through them. These tubes (INPORT units) shield the target chamber wall from both neutron damage and the shock overpressure of the target explosion. The target chamber is a right circular cylinder, 8.7 meters in diameter. The target chamber is 'self-pumped' by the target explosion generated overpressure into a surge tank partially filled with liquid that surrounds the target chamber. This scheme refreshes the chamber at the desired 3 Hz frequency without excessive pumping demands. The blanket multiplication is 1.2 and the tritium breeding ratio is 1.4. The direct capital cost of LIBRA is estimated to be $2200/kWe. (author)

  8. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, January--March 1993. Volume 3, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, P.A. [ed.

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: High Fluence Third Harmonic Generation; Ultraviolet Induced Transient Absorption in KDP and Its Influence on Fourth Harmonic Frequency Conversion; Relativistic Semiclassical Atomic Transition Rates; Verification of OPAL Opacity Code Predictions for Conditions of Astrophysical Interest; Solid Hydrogen Surfaces; Large Aperture Sol-Gel Random Phase Plates for Beam Smoothing on Nova; and Neutron Time-of-Flight Ion Temperature Diagnostic for Nova.

  9. Near and long term pulse power requirements for laser driven inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboraory, major emphasis has been placed upon the development of large, ND:glass laser systems in order to address the basic physics issues associated with light driven fusion targets. A parallel program is directed toward the development of lasers which exhibit higher efficiencies and shorter wavelengths and are thus more suitable as drivers for fusion power plants. This paper discusses the pulse power technology which has been developed to meet the near and far term needs of the laser fusion program at Livermore

  10. Light ion ignitors for inertial confinement fusion: progress toward proof-of-principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Kuswa, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    From the inception of the REB effort, it was recognized that light ion beams offered substantial advantages as an ICF driver, and as the pulse power driver program progressed the possibilities of using light ion beams became increasingly evident. Because of the rapid progress made in the available power in these light ion beams, their superior target deposition characteristics, the fact that nonrelativistic ion beams can readily be bunched by a factor of 2 to 4, and the favorable scaling relations leading toward reactor levels, Sandia shifted its ICF emphasis from electrons to ions in 1979. The progress which has been made toward proof-of-principle using light ion ignitors, as well as the remaining problems, will be detailed in this paper

  11. Synthesis of low density foam shells for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattaud, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the fabrication process of low density foam shells and the sharp control of their shape (diameter, thickness, density, sphericity, non-concentricity). During this PhD we focused on the non-concentricity criterion which has to be lower than 1%. The shells are synthesized using a microencapsulation process leading to a double emulsion and followed by a thermal polymerization at 60 C. According to the literature, three major parameters, the density of the three phases, the deformations of the shells along the process and the kinetics of the polymerization have a direct influence on the shells non-concentricity. The results obtained showed that when the density gap between the internal water phase and the organic phase increases, the TMPTMA shells non-concentricity improves. A density gap of 0.078 g.cm -3 at 60 C, leads to an average non-concentricity of 2.4% with a yield of shells of 58%. It was also shown that the synthesis process can be considered as reproducible. While using the same internal water phase, equivalent non-concentricity results are obtained using either a straight tube, a tube with areas of constriction or a short wound tube. The time required to fix the shell's shape is at least 20 minutes with thermal polymerization. So, it seems that the time spent by the shells inside the rotating flask allows the centering of the internal water phase inside the organic phase, whatever the circulation process used. In order to get higher polymerization rates and to avoid destabilization phenomena, we then focused our study on photo polymerization. When the synthesis is performed using a UV lamp with an efficient light intensity, the shells have a slightly higher thickness than the shells synthesized by thermal polymerization. Moreover, a really higher yield, around 80%, is achieved with UV polymerization. However, the average non-concentricity of the shells synthesized lays around 20%, which is really high compared to the 2.4% average non-concentricity obtained with thermal polymerization. It would be interesting to expose the shells to UV light at different times after collection in order to study the influence of the agitation time on the shells non-concentricity. (author) [fr

  12. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A B; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; McCluskey, M; Mastrosimone, D; Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  13. X-Ray Radiography of Laser-Driven Shocks for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, A.; Radha, P. B.; Edgell, D. H.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Shvydky, A.

    2017-10-01

    Side-on x-ray radiography of shock waves transiting through the planar plastic ablator and cryogenic fuel layer will be used to study shock timing, shock coalescence, shock breakout, and hydrodynamic mixing at the ablator-fuel interface. The injection of ablator material into the fuel can potentially compromise implosion target performance. The difference in refractive indices of the ablator and the fuel can be exploited to image shocks transiting the interface. An experiment to probe the ablator-fuel interface and a postprocessor to the hydrodynamic code DRACO that uses refraction enhanced imaging to view shocks are presented. The advantages of this technique to view shocks are explored and additional applications such as viewing the spatial location of multiple shocks, or the evolution of nonuniformity on shock fronts are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. A novel design for scintillator-based neutron and gamma imaging in inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, Verena; Cutler, Theresa; Danly, Chris; Madden, Amanda; Merrill, Frank; Tybo, Josh; Volegov, Petr; Wilde, Carl

    2017-10-01

    The LANL Advanced Imaging team has been providing reliable 2D neutron imaging of the burning fusion fuel at NIF for years, revealing possible multi-dimensional asymmetries in the fuel shape, and therefore calling for additional views. Adding a passive imaging system using image plate techniques along a new polar line of sight has recently demonstrated the merit of 3D neutron image reconstruction. Now, the team is in the process of designing a new active neutron imaging system for an additional equatorial view. The design will include a gamma imaging system as well, to allow for the imaging of carbon in the ablator of the NIF fuel capsules, constraining the burning fuel shape even further. The selection of ideal scintillator materials for a position-sensitive detector system is the key component for the new design. A comprehensive study of advanced scintillators has been carried out at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and the OMEGA Laser Facility in Rochester, NY. Neutron radiography using a fast-gated CCD camera system delivers measurements of resolution, light output and noise characteristics. The measured performance parameters inform the novel design, for which we conclude the feasibility of monolithic scintillators over pixelated counterparts.

  15. Off-Hugoniot characterization of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-05-01

    The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign, a glow- discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple- shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile [1]. We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) and compare with GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP.

  16. Cost reduction possibilities for a heavy-ion accelerator for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Sims, J.R.; Henke, M.D.; Harris, D.B.; Dudziak, D.J.; Phillips, N.R.

    1987-10-01

    A design was produced for a single module in a cost-optimized accelerator appropriate for a commercial heavy-ion power plant. The goal of the study was to determine if the cost of the accelerator module could be reduced through design options, selection of materials, and manufacturing techniques. Independent cost estimates were obtained for the three main components of the module, and cost reductions of 20% from the cost calculated by the heavy-ion accelerator design/cost-minimization computer code LIACEP were identified. 3 refs., 23 figs

  17. Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray-microscope optimization for inertial-confinement-fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Priedhorsky, W.C.

    1983-05-01

    Analytic approximations have been used to optimize single-channel and four-channel Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) x-ray microscopes in three ways: (I) for best effective solid angle at best resolution, (II) for best effective solid angle at a given resolution worse than the best; and (III) for best effective solid angle at a specified breadth of field. All optimizations are also made consistent with clean channel response, to ensure that any high-energy second peak will be small compared with the primary channel response. This is achieved at a sacrifice of effective solid angle. We describe a cross-talk aberration not previously recognized in K-B x-ray microscopes. The analytic approximations presented in this paper, which desribe the optical and constructional parameter of optimized K-B x-ray microscopes, are intended to allow scaling and localization in parameter space from which detailed numerical calculations can be used to fine-tune a microscope design

  18. Temperature and displacement transients in inertial confinement fusion first-walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.O.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    A quasi-analytic general model is developed for determination of temperature response and displacement damage in materials exposed to bursts of thermonuclear radiations. Temperature response can be determined for any time or position. Materials are assessed, using the model, which might be employed for dry first walls, collectors, laser mirrors, or other exposed reactor components. The resulting magnitude and temporal distribution of temperature and displacement production show that effects on material micro-structure must be treated in a dynamic fashion

  19. Linear induction accelerator for charge-neutralized ion beams in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishchev, O.V.; Golota, V.I.; Karas, V.I.; Kiyashko, V.A.; Kornilov, E.A.; Sigov, Yu.S.; Silaev, I.I.; Fainberg, Ya.B.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental, analytical, and numerical studies of the physical processes that occur in a high-current ion induction accelerator (the ion linac IINDUS). The experiments were performed in a module of the IINDUS accelerator consisting of an injector of gaseous or metallic ions and two induction sections with magnetically insulated cusps in the accelerator gaps filled with plasma. The following ion beam parameters were found: 2-3 kA, 0.5 MeV, 0.5 μs. The two most dangerous instabilities effecting beam quality were studied. These are the high-frequency beam-plasma instability and the filamentation instability. A nonlinear analytical theory of charge neutralization of a high-current ion beam in magnetically insulated accelerating gaps is presented. In order to develop diagnostics for high-current beams of accelerated particles the amplitude and shape of the acoustic pulse excited in a metal target by the particles have been studied theoretically and experimentally as functions of the beam parameters. The possibility of practical application of this acceleration in ICF has been studied using a 2.5-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic code to simulate the processes of acceleration, charge neutralization, and stability of the ion beam in the accelerating channel. The results provide evidence in favor of the prospects for this direction of research. 70 refs., 13 figs

  20. The National Ignition Facility - applications for inertial fusion energy and high-energy-density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Research in inertial fusion sciences and applications worldwide is making dramatic progress. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the US and the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) in France are being built to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. Experiments that have been done on current Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities in the US and around the world have demonstrated that the drive characteristics required for ignition are now well understood and a new plan for inertial fusion energy development has been put together by the community. Besides examining the conditions necessary for fusion ignition, targets were designed without fusion capsules. Equilibrium temperatures of hundreds of electron volts and megabar pressures were used to study astrophysical processes and measure equations of states at these extreme conditions. Recent studies of laser-matter interactions with femtosecond lasers have revealed some startling new phenomena due to the ability to achieve irradiances >1020 W cm-2. This paper will review recent results in fusion and high energy density science achieved by high intensity lasers at LLNL and will look ahead to what may achieved on NIF. (author)

  1. Recirculating induction accelerators for inertial fusion: Prospects and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The US is developing the physics and technology of induction accelerators for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion. The recirculating induction accelerator repeatedly passes beams through the same set of accelerating and focusing elements, thereby reducing both the length and gradient of the accelerator structure. This promises an attractive driver cost, if the technical challenges associated with recirculation can be met. Point designs for recirculator drivers were developed in a multi-year study by LLNL, LBNL, and FM Technologies, and that work is briefly reviewed here. To validate major elements of the recirculator concept, we are developing a small (4-5-m diameter) prototype recirculator which will accelerate a space-charge-dominated beam of K + ions through 15 laps, from 80 to 320 keV and from 2 to 8 mA. Transverse beam confinement is effected via permanent-magnet quadrupoles; bending is via electric dipoles. This ''Small Recirculator'' is being developed in a build-and-test sequence of experiments. An injector, matching section, and linear magnetic channel using seven half-lattice periods of permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses are operational. A prototype recirculator half-lattice period is being fabricated. This paper outlines the research program, and presents initial experimental results

  2. Magnetized Inertial Fusion (MIF) Research at the Shiva Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James; Grabowski, C.; Domonkos, M.; Ruden, E. L.; Amdahl, D. J.; White, W. M.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.

    2015-11-01

    The AFRL Shiva Star capacitor bank (1300 μF, up to 120 kV) used typically at 4 to 5 MJ stored energy, 10 to 15 MA current, 10 μs current rise time, has been used to drive metal shell (solid liner) implosions for compression of axial magnetic fields to multi-megagauss levels, suitable for compressing magnetized plasmas to MIF conditions. MIF approaches use magnetic field to reduce thermal conduction relative to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF substantially reduces required implosion speed and convergence. Using profiled thickness liner enables large electrode apertures and field-reversed configuration (FRC) injection. Using a longer capture region, FRC trapped flux lifetime was made comparable to implosion time and an integrated compression test was conducted. The FRC was radially compressed a factor of ten, to 100x density >1018 cm-3 (a world FRC record), but temperatures were only 300-400 eV, compared to intended several keV. Compression to megabar pressures was inferred by the observed liner rebound, but the heating rate during the first half of the compression was less than the normal FRC decay rate. Principal diagnostics were soft x-ray imaging, soft x-ray diodes, and neutron measurements. This work has been supported by DOE-OFES.

  3. Indoor inertial navigation application for smartphones with Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Ł.; Tarapata, G.

    2015-09-01

    Inertial navigation is widely used by the military, in logistics and sailing. In mobile devices, inertial sensors are mostly used as a support for GPS and Wi-Fi-based navigation systems. Inertial-based navigation might prove useful on mobile devices running Android OS. At present, in spite of the accelerometer sensor's precision having been greatly improved, as well as the devices' computing power continuously rising, inertial navigation's precision still suffers. For smartphones, the key solution seems to be the usage of sensor fusion and signal smart filtering, both discussed in this paper. The paper also describes implementation of inertial navigation in Android devices, their analysis as well as test results.

  4. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Pearce

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K, all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  5. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  6. Relativistic self focussing of laser beams at fast ignitor inertial fusion with volume ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, F.; Castillo, R.; Hora, H.

    1999-01-01

    The alternative to the magnetic confinement fusion is inertial fusion energy mostly using lasers as drivers for compression and heating of pellets with deuterium and tritium fuel. Following the present technology of lasers with pulses of some megajoules energy and nanosecond duration, a power station for very low cost energy production (and without the problems of well erosion of magnetic confinement) could be available within 15 to 20 years. For the pellet compression, the scheme of spark ignition was mostly applied but its numerous problems with asymmetries and instabilities may be overcome by the alternative scheme of high gain volume ignition. This is a well established option of inertial fusion energy with lasers where a large range of possible later improvements is implied with respect to laser technology or higher plasma compression leading to energy production of perhaps five times below the present lowest level cost from fission reactors. A further improvement may be possible by the recent development of lasers with picosecond pulse duration using the fast igniter scheme which may reach even higher fusion gains with laser pulse energies of some 100 kilojoules

  7. Section 1. Confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Major experimental and theoretical results achieved by the Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory during FY 1975 gave the greatest encouragement to date that the ultimate goal of a deuterium-tritium-fueled mirror reactor can be reached. In the experimental program, the year was characterized by unusually important physics results from the 2XIIB experiment and by significant steps in the plan to change the Baseball II mode of operation. The stabilization of ion-cyclotron instabilities in the 2XIIB experiment by the introduction of an auxiliary warm plasma permitted the buildup of a high-temperature, high-density plasma with an n tau parameter an order of magnitude larger than the 2XII experiment.I In the Baseball II experiment, preliminary tests and computer predictions indicated that a dense, transient, target plasma can be created by laser irradiation of a pellet in midflight through the center of the Baseball confinement zone

  8. Confinement effects in sesquioxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, B. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Dujardin, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ledoux, G. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: ledoux@pcml.univ-lyon1.fr; Louis, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Tillement, O. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 du CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, 10 rue A.M. Ampere 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Perriat, P. [Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR 5510 du CNRS, INSA de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    When the size of a particle is decreased to nano-scales, confinement effects induce strong changes. The luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been studied as a function of both the temperature and the size of the nanoparticles. Two consequences of the small sizes in Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} are observed. First the linewidth of the Eu{sup 3+} transitions are inhomogeneously broadened at low temperature, and second the population of the ground and the first excited state of Eu{sup 3+} as a function of temperature differs depending on the size: at low temperatures, the smaller the particles, the less populated the first excited state is. The explanation of this second phenomenon could be the absence of very low-energy phonons in small particles.

  9. Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion. An Integrated Approach. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The IAEA has continuously demonstrated its commitment to supporting the development of safe and environmentally clean nuclear fusion energy. Statistics show that at the current rate of energy consumption, fusion energy would remain an inexhaustible energy source for humankind for millions of years. Furthermore, some of the existing and foreseen risks - such as nuclear waste disposal and rising greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels - can also be reduced. In the quest for fusion energy, two main lines of research and development are currently being pursued worldwide, namely the inertial and the magnetic confinement fusion concepts. For both approaches, the IAEA has conducted coordinated research activities focusing on specific physics and technological issues relevant the establishment of the knowledge base and foundation for the design and construction of fusion power plants. This report describes the recent research and technological developments and challenges in inertial fusion energy within the framework of such a coordinated research effort. The coordinated research project on Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: An Integrated Approach was initiated in 2006 and concluded in 2010. The project involved experts and institutions from 16 Member States, addressing issues relevant to advancing inertial fusion energy research and development in its practical applications. The key topics addressed include: (i) high repetition rate, low cost, high efficiency ignition drivers; (ii) beam-matter/beam-plasma interaction related to inertial fusion target physics; (iii) target fusion chamber coupling and interface; and (iv) integrated inertial fusion power plant design. Participants in this coordinated research project have contributed 17 detailed research and technology progress reports of work performed at national and international levels. This report compiles all these reports while highlighting the various achievements.

  10. Minimizing scatter-losses during pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam J.; Awe, Thomas J.; Bliss, David E.; Glinsky, Michael E.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher; Kimmel, Mark W.; Knapp, Patrick; Lewis, Sean M.; Peterson, Kyle; Schollmeier, Marius; Schwarz, Jens; Shores, Jonathon E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Smith, Ian C.; Speas, C. Shane; Vesey, Roger A.; Weis, Matthew R.; Porter, John L.

    2018-02-01

    The size, temporal and spatial shape, and energy content of a laser pulse for the pre-heat phase of magneto-inertial fusion affect the ability to penetrate the window of the laser-entrance-hole and to heat the fuel behind it. High laser intensities and dense targets are subject to laser-plasma-instabilities (LPI), which can lead to an effective loss of pre-heat energy or to pronounced heating of areas that should stay unexposed. While this problem has been the subject of many studies over the last decades, the investigated parameters were typically geared towards traditional laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with densities either at 10% and above or at 1% and below the laser's critical density, electron temperatures of 3-5 keV, and laser powers near (or in excess of) 1 × 1015 W/cm2. In contrast, Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010) and Slutz and Vesey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 025003 (2012)] currently operates at 5% of the laser's critical density using much thicker windows (1.5-3.5 μm) than the sub-micron thick windows of traditional ICF hohlraum targets. This article describes the Pecos target area at Sandia National Laboratories using the Z-Beamlet Laser Facility [Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2421 (2005)] as a platform to study laser induced pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets, and the related progress for Sandia's MagLIF program. Forward and backward scattered light were measured and minimized at larger spatial scales with lower densities, temperatures, and powers compared to LPI studies available in literature.

  11. On-skin liquid metal inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Matija; Ladd, Collin; Ma, Siyuan; Holbery, Jim; Tröster, Gerhard

    2017-09-26

    A wireless on-skin inertial sensor based on free-moving liquid metal is introduced. The inertial sensor comprises a eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) droplet that modulates the capacitance between two electrodes. The capacitive output of the sensor is connected to a planar coil to form an LC resonator whose resonant frequency can be read out wirelessly. Liquid metal electrodes and the coil are fabricated on a 20 μm thick silicone membrane, which can stretch up to 600%, using spray-deposition of eGaIn. The moving droplet is encapsulated on the opposite side of the membrane using spray-deposition of Dragon Skin 10 silicone. The output characteristics, electrical simulations of the capacitance, and dynamic characteristics of the sensor are shown. The sensor is used for measuring tilt angles and recording arm gestures.

  12. A novel visual-inertial monocular SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Xu, Li; Liu, JiangGuo

    2018-02-01

    With the development of sensors and computer vision research community, cameras, which are accurate, compact, wellunderstood and most importantly cheap and ubiquitous today, have gradually been at the center of robot location. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) using visual features, which is a system getting motion information from image acquisition equipment and rebuild the structure in unknown environment. We provide an analysis of bioinspired flights in insects, employing a novel technique based on SLAM. Then combining visual and inertial measurements to get high accuracy and robustness. we present a novel tightly-coupled Visual-Inertial Simultaneous Localization and Mapping system which get a new attempt to address two challenges which are the initialization problem and the calibration problem. experimental results and analysis show the proposed approach has a more accurate quantitative simulation of insect navigation, which can reach the positioning accuracy of centimeter level.

  13. Color constancy by characterization of illumination chromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, Jarno T.

    2011-05-01

    Computational color constancy algorithms play a key role in achieving desired color reproduction in digital cameras. Failure to estimate illumination chromaticity correctly will result in invalid overall colour cast in the image that will be easily detected by human observers. A new algorithm is presented for computational color constancy. Low computational complexity and low memory requirement make the algorithm suitable for resource-limited camera devices, such as consumer digital cameras and camera phones. Operation of the algorithm relies on characterization of the range of possible illumination chromaticities in terms of camera sensor response. The fact that only illumination chromaticity is characterized instead of the full color gamut, for example, increases robustness against variations in sensor characteristics and against failure of diagonal model of illumination change. Multiple databases are used in order to demonstrate the good performance of the algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art color constancy algorithms.

  14. Overhead guide sign retroreflectivity and illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Roadway guide sign visibility during darkness is fundamental to driver safety, especially elderly drivers. Guide : sign visibility can be improved by external sign illumination or the use of retroreflective sheeting on signs. Because : energy conserv...

  15. Iterative Adaptive Sampling For Accurate Direct Illumination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donikian, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new multipass algorithm, Iterative Adaptive Sampling, for efficiently computing the direct illumination in scenes with many lights, including area lights that cause realistic soft shadows...

  16. Catalyzed reactions at illuminated semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrighton, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Many desirable minority carrier chemical redox processes are too slow to compete with e - -h + recombination at illuminated semiconductor/liquid electrolyte junction interfaces. Reductions of H 2 O to H 2 or CO 2 to compounds having C--H bonds are too slow to compete with e - -h + recombination at illuminated p-type semiconductors, for example. Approaches to improve the rate of the desired processes involving surface modification techniques are described. Photoanodes are plagued by the additional problem of oxidative decomposition under illumination with > or =E/sub g/ illumination. The photo-oxidation of Cl - , Br - , and H 2 O is considered to illustrate the concepts involved. Proof of concept experiments establish that catalysis can be effective in dramatically improving direct solar fuel production; efficiencies of >10% have been demonstrated

  17. A Global Climatology of Tropospheric Inertial Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Callum; Schultz, David; Vaughan, Geraint

    2018-01-01

    A climatology of tropospheric inertial instability is constructed using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis at 250, 500, and 850 hPa. For each level, two criteria are used. The first criterion is the traditional criterion of absolute vorticity that is opposite in sign to the local Coriolis parameter. The second criterion, referred to as the gradient criterion, is the traditional criterion with an added term incorporating flow curvature. Both criteria ...

  18. Alternative schemes for the inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, University Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405, Talence (France); Mima, K., E-mail: tikhonchuk@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The advanced target designs are requiring a lower laser energy for ignition and promising higher energy gains. Two approaches are under development within the European inertial fusion energy project HiPER: the fast ignition scheme with energetic electrons and the shock ignition scheme. The fundamental physical issues and major experimental works related to the alternative ignition schemes as well as the reactor designs are discussed.

  19. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as an infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  20. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  1. Capturing inertial particle transport in turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Harry; Lawrie, Andrew; Szalai, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The natural world is replete with examples of particle advection; mankind is both a beneficiary from and sufferer of the consequences. As such, the study of inertial particle dynamics, both aerosol and bubble, is vitally important. In many interesting examples such as cloud microphysics, sedimentation, or sewage transport, many millions of particles are advected in a relatively small volume of fluid. It is impossible to model these processes computationally and simulate every particle. Instead, we advect the probability density field of particle positions allowing unbiased sampling of particle behaviour across the domain. Given a 3-dimensional space discretised into cubes, we construct a transport operator that encodes the flow of particles through the faces of the cubes. By assuming that the dynamics of the particles lie close to an inertial manifold, it is possible to preserve the majority of the inertial properties of the particles between the time steps. We demonstrate the practical use of this method in a pair of instances: the first is an analogue to cloud microphysics- the turbulent breakdown of Taylor Green vortices; the second example is the case of a turbulent jet which has application both in sewage pipe outflow and pesticide spray dynamics. EPSRC.

  2. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition remains an interesting but challenging computer vision open problem. Poor illumination is considered as one of the major issue, since illumination changes cause large variation in the facial features. To resolve this, illumination normalization preprocessing techniques are employed in this paper to enhance the face recognition rate. The methods such as Histogram Equalization (HE, Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC, Normalization chain and Modified Homomorphic Filtering (MHF are used for preprocessing. Owing to great success, the texture features are commonly used for face recognition. But these features are severely affected by lighting changes. Hence texture based models Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs are experimented under different lighting conditions. In this paper, illumination invariant face recognition technique is developed based on the fusion of illumination preprocessing with local texture descriptors. The performance has been evaluated using YALE B and CMU-PIE databases containing more than 1500 images. The results demonstrate that MHF based normalization gives significant improvement in recognition rate for the face images with large illumination conditions.

  3. Spiritual Art: A Study of Illuminated Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kateb

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Illumination can be seen as a collection of exquisite and novel designs that painters and illumination-workers use to make religious, scientific, cultural, historical, and other collections of work beautiful. The professionals of illumination use these techniques in books to beautifully virtualize the golden pages of the eternal literature and the religious texts of their homeland. In this way, the sides and margins of the pages are decorated with designs of Islimi (arabesque branches, stems, flowers, and Cathay (Khataei leaves. Illuminations like paintings have various schools and periods, such as the Seljuk, Bukhara, Timurid, Safavid, Qajar schools, with further branches within each school. The illuminations of different periods represent the states and spirits of those eras. However, the illustrated paintings have been performed in the primary state in each school and era with some minor differences in colors and designs, and it can be said that the basis of the illustrated designs are three geometric shapes of the square, circle and triangle, and the combination of these three shapes. In this article, we try to study illumination drawings in terms of the spiritual dimension and its effect on the soul and psych. Furthermore; we will study the spiritual nature of the motifs in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the spirit of Islamic art.

  4. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  5. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  6. Illumination compensation in ground based hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Alexander; Underwood, James

    2017-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has emerged as an important tool for analysing vegetation data in agricultural applications. Recently, low altitude and ground based hyperspectral imaging solutions have come to the fore, providing very high resolution data for mapping and studying large areas of crops in detail. However, these platforms introduce a unique set of challenges that need to be overcome to ensure consistent, accurate and timely acquisition of data. One particular problem is dealing with changes in environmental illumination while operating with natural light under cloud cover, which can have considerable effects on spectral shape. In the past this has been commonly achieved by imaging known reference targets at the time of data acquisition, direct measurement of irradiance, or atmospheric modelling. While capturing a reference panel continuously or very frequently allows accurate compensation for illumination changes, this is often not practical with ground based platforms, and impossible in aerial applications. This paper examines the use of an autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) to gather high resolution hyperspectral imaging data of crops under natural illumination. A process of illumination compensation is performed to extract the inherent reflectance properties of the crops, despite variable illumination. This work adapts a previously developed subspace model approach to reflectance and illumination recovery. Though tested on a ground vehicle in this paper, it is applicable to low altitude unmanned aerial hyperspectral imagery also. The method uses occasional observations of reference panel training data from within the same or other datasets, which enables a practical field protocol that minimises in-field manual labour. This paper tests the new approach, comparing it against traditional methods. Several illumination compensation protocols for high volume ground based data collection are presented based on the results. The findings in this paper are

  7. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  8. Characterization of local turbulence in magnetic confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Milan; Skoric, Milos; Solna, Knut; Antar, Ghassan

    2007-07-01

    A multifractal analysis based on evaluation and interpretation of Large Deviation spectra is applied to plasma edge turbulence data from different devices (MAST and Tore Supra). It is demonstrated that in spite of some universal features there are unique characteristics for each device as well as for different confinement regimes. In the second part of the exposition the issue of estimating the variable power law behavior of spectral densities is addressed. The analysis of this issue is performed using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) as the underlying stochastic model whose parameters are estimated locally in time by wavelet scale spectra. In such a manner information about the inertial range as well as variability of the fBm parameters is obtained giving more information important for understanding edge turbulence and intermittency. (author)

  9. Comparative Design, Scaling, and Control of Appendages for Inertial Reorientation

    OpenAIRE

    Libby, Thomas; Johnson, Aaron M.; Chang-Siu, Evan; Full, Robert J.; Koditschek, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a comparative framework for the design of actuated inertial appendages for planar, aerial reorientation. We define the Inertial Reorientation template, the simplest model of this behavior, and leverage its linear dynamics to reveal the design constraints linking a task with the body designs capable of completing it. As practicable inertial appendage designs lead to morphology that is generally more complex, we advance a notion of "anchoring" whereby a judicious choice of p...

  10. Theory of gravitational-inertial field of universe. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davtyan, O.K.

    1978-01-01

    Application of the equations of the gravitational-inertial field to the problem of free motion in the inertial field (to the cosmologic problem) leads to results according to which (1) all Galaxies in the Universe 'disperse' from each other according to Hubble's law, (2) the 'dispersion' of bodies represents a free motion in the inertial field and Hubble's law represents a law of motion of free body in the inertial field, (3) for arbitrary mean distribution densities of space masses different from zero the space is Lobachevskian. All critical systems (with Schwarzschild radius) are specific because they exist in maximal-inertial and gravitational potentials. The Universe represents a critical system, it exists under the Schwarzschild radius. In high-potential inertial and gravitational fields the material mass in a static state or in motion with deceleration is subject to an inertial and gravitational 'annihilation'. At the maximal value of inertial and gravitational potentials (= c 2 ) the material mass is being completely 'evaporated' transforming into radiation mass. The latter is being concentrated in the 'horizon' of the critical system. All critical systems-black holes-represent geon systems, i.e. local formations of gravitational-electromagnetic radiations, held together by their own gravitational and inertial fields. The Universe, being a critical system, is 'wrapped' in a geon crown. (author)

  11. Magneto-inertial Fusion: An Emerging Concept for Inertial Fusion and Dense Plasmas in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thio, Francis Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is given in terms of its technical rationale, scientific goals, vision, research plans, needs, and the research facilities currently available in support of the program. Magneto-inertial fusion is an emerging concept for inertial fusion and a pathway to the study of dense plasmas in ultrahigh magnetic fields (magnetic fields in excess of 500 T). The presence of magnetic field in an inertial fusion target suppresses cross-field thermal transport and potentially could enable more attractive inertial fusion energy systems. A vigorous program in magnetized high energy density laboratory plasmas (HED-LP) addressing the scientific basis of magneto-inertial fusion has been initiated by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy involving a number of universities, government laboratories and private institutions.

  12. Realtime global illumination using compressed pre-computed indirect illumination textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, Chris; Martin dit Neuville, Antoine; Pedersen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    and added to the direct illumination to produce the total illumination. Depending on the type of image produced, the algorithm allows a camera to move, and even objects to be added or modified at runtime to some extent. Finally, we will see that the amount of data to store and process can also be reduced...

  13. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  14. Assessing confinement in coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Donata Melaku; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umgiesser, Georg; Cucco, Andrea; Ferrarin, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Measures of transport scale in aquatic systems can contribute to the formulation of definitions of indicators of the system's ecological properties. This paper addresses confinement, a specific transport scale proposed by biological scientists as a parameter that can capture and synthesize the principal properties that determine the spatial structure of biological communities in transitional environments. Currently, there is no direct experimental measure of confinement. In this study, a methodology based on the accumulation rate within a lagoon of a passive tracer of marine origin is proposed, the influences of different factors in the calculation of confinement are analyzed, and general recommendations are derived. In particular, we analyze the spatial and the temporal variability of confinement and its sensitivity to the seasonal variability of climatic forcing, the inputs from rivers and the parameterization of the tidal exchanges. The Lagoon of Venice is used as a case study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impurities confined in quantum structures

    CERN Document Server

    Holtz, Per Olof

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of impurities, even in very small concentrations, in a semiconductor can change its optical and electrical properties entirely. This attribute of the semiconductor is utilized in the manifoldness of their applications. In this book, the progress on elucidating the physical properties of impurities confined in quantum structures are reviewed with an emphasis on the experimental aspects. The major results of various kinds of characterization, such as infrared spectroscopy, Raman measurements, luminescence characterization, perturbation spectroscopy and dynamical studies of the confined impurities are reviewed, but also the theoretical basis to calculate the electronic structure of the confined donors and acceptors are presented. This monograph also describes more specific aspects of the confined impurities such as the properties in the high doping regime and the effects of hydrogen passivation.

  16. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.)

    1981-10-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements in the Los Alamos National Laboratory eight-beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target-insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximatey 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on-line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six-beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and x-ray radiation-loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass-laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. New processes for fabricating glass miroballoon x-ray diagnostic targets, the application of high-quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of x-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy-ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase-conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment-vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion-fission hybrid concepts are presented.

  17. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoberne, F.

    1981-10-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO 2 laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements in the Los Alamos National Laboratory eight-beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target-insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximatey 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on-line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six-beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and x-ray radiation-loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass-laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. New processes for fabricating glass miroballoon x-ray diagnostic targets, the application of high-quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of x-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy-ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase-conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment-vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion-fission hybrid concepts are presented

  18. Jason: heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, C.G. Jr.; Dashen, R.F.; Garwin, R.L.; Muller, R.A.; Richter, B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1978-02-01

    A few of the problems in heavy-ion-driven inertial-fusion systems are reviewed. Nothing was found within the scope of this study that would in principle bar such systems from delivering the energy and peak power required to ignite the fuel pellet. Indeed, ion-fusion seems to show great promise, but the conceptual design of ion-fusion systems is still in a primitive state. A great deal of work, mostly theoretical, remains to be done before proceeding with massive hardware development. Conclusions are given about the state of the work

  19. Granular convection driven by shearing inertial forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Liñán, G M; Nahmad-Molinari, Y

    2006-01-01

    Convection velocity measurements in vertically vibrated granular materials are presented. The convection velocity close to the walls grows quadratically with the difference between the maximum and critical, or excess, amplitude (proposed as a dynamic parameter to describe related problems) and it is shown numerically that the average bed-bottom relative velocity during the distancing between them, grows linearly with the squared as well. This is interpreted as the signature of an inertial shearing force or momentum transfer proportional to the bed-container relative velocity, acting mainly during the bed-plate distancing part of each cycle which leads to the formation of the convective flux.

  20. Inertial mass of a superconducting vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, E. M.; Kuklov, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    We show that a large contribution to the inertial mass of a moving superconducting vortex comes from transversal displacements of the crystal lattice. The corresponding part of the mass per unit length of the vortex line is $M_{l} = ({\\rm m}_e^2c^{2}/64{\\pi}{\\alpha}^{2}{\\mu}{\\lambda}_{L}^{4})\\ln({\\lambda}_{L}/{\\xi})$ , where ${\\rm m}_{e}$ is the the bare electron mass, $c$ is the speed of light, ${\\alpha}=e^{2}/{\\hbar}c {\\approx} 1/137$ is the fine structure constant, ${\\mu}$ is the shear mod...

  1. Tolerancing free-form optics for illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timinger, A.; Unterhinninghofen, J.; Junginger, S.; Hofmann, A.

    2011-10-01

    Free form surfaces allow elegant solutions in illumination optics. A complex function of the system can be achieved by a single optical element. Free form elements are usually manufactured by reproduction techniques, such as injection moulding of plastic. Manufacturing tolerances are crucial to maintain the required function while at the same time yielding the lowest possible price. We implemented a Monte Carlo tolerancing method for illumination systems. Tolerances include shape deviations of optical elements and assembly tolerances. In the absence of standards for free form tolerances and illumination optics tolerancing, communication between optics design, manufacturing and testing is often inefficient. In order to enable a highly automated evaluation of part measurement data to assess compliance with tolerances, we developed an approach to combine information from optics design, mechanical construction, manufacturing and testing into one continuous data chain. The research project is granted by the German Ministry of Education and Research.

  2. Content adaptive illumination for Fourier ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Zheng, Guoan; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-12-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently reported technique, for large field-of-view and high-resolution imaging. Specifically, FP captures a set of low-resolution images, under angularly varying illuminations, and stitches them together in the Fourier domain. One of FP's main disadvantages is its long capturing process, due to the requisite large number of incident illumination angles. In this Letter, utilizing the sparsity of natural images in the Fourier domain, we propose a highly efficient method, termed adaptive Fourier ptychography (AFP), which applies content adaptive illumination for FP, to capture the most informative parts of the scene's spatial spectrum. We validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the reported framework, with both simulated and real experiments. Results show that the proposed AFP could shorten the acquisition time of conventional FP, by around 30%-60%.

  3. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier

    2012-02-01

    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  4. Infrared slavery and quark confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, C

    1976-01-01

    The question is considered of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks. Making a specific ansatz for the long- range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (20 refs).

  5. Simulation of Spheromak Evolution and Energy Confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.; Hooper, E.; Cohen, R.; Hill, D.; McLean, H.; Wood, R.; Woodruff, S.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation results are presented that illustrate the formation and decay of a spheromak plasma driven by a coaxial electrostatic plasma gun, and that model the energy confinement of the plasma. The physics of magnetic reconnection during spheromak formation is also illuminated. The simulations are performed with the three-dimensional, time-dependent, resistive magnetohydrodynamic NIMROD code. The dimensional, simulation results are compared to data from the SSPX spheromak experiment at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The simulation results are tracking the experiment with increasing fidelity (e.g., improved agreement with measurements of the magnetic field, fluctuation amplitudes, and electron temperature) as the simulation has been improved in its representations of the geometry of the experiment (plasma gun and flux conserver), the magnetic bias coils, and the detailed time dependence of the current source driving the plasma gun, and uses realistic parameters. The simulations are providing a better understanding of the dominant physics in SSPX, including when the flux surfaces close and the mechanisms limiting the efficiency of electrostatic drive

  6. Illumination engineering design with nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Koshel, R John

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together experts in the field who present material on a number of important and growing topics including lighting, displays, solar concentrators. The first chapter provides an overview of the field of nonimagin and illumination optics. Included in this chapter are terminology, units, definitions, and descriptions of the optical components used in illumination systems. The next two chapters provide material within the theoretical domain, including etendue, etendue squeezing, and the skew invariant. The remaining chapters focus on growing applications. This entire field of

  7. Progress in inertial fusion research at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Paper No. IAEA-CN-38/B-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO 2 laser system delivering up to 6 kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO 2 experiments in the tens-of-kilojoule regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40 kJ of CO 2 laser light on target

  8. Fiber optic probes for tissue illumination in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Reinhold; Beyer, Wolfgang; Friedsam, G.; Jocham, Dieter; Noack, Axel; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert G.; Unsoeld, Eberhard

    1992-08-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and therapy (PDT) require light application devices which enable homogeneous illumination of tissue in hollow organs. Three techniques based on modification of the aperture of single fibers are presented mainly for use in urology and pneumology in combination with rigid and flexible endoscopes. All illumination systems allow for nearly entire illumination of the endoscope's viewing field. A microlens system is used for fluorescence diagnostic purposes in the lung. The system, consisting of two plano convex lenses in a condenser configuration, is attached directly to the fiber. The beam profile is optimized by ray tracing calculations. For fluorescence excitation of the tumormarker Photofrin II in the urinary bladder a 500 micrometers plastic fiber is used. The tip of the fiber is polished to a double cone with angles of 12 degree(s) and 7 degree(s). With this modification the aperture is increased by a factor of two. Photodynamic treatment of confined superficial tumors in the lung was successfully performed with a fused silica fiber coupled to the endoscope in a special adaptive device. In this procedure laserlight at 630 nm is guided through the optics channel of rigid endoscopes. A homogeneous circular illumination pattern is obtained following exactly the deflection angle of the endoscope.

  9. A Review of Quantum Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerade, Jean-Patrick

    2009-12-01

    A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker [1]—henceforth cited as SW—in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell

  10. Gyroscopes for Orientation and Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Marjanović Kavanagh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the main elements of gyro-theodolites and inertial navigation systems are provided. The main function principles of mechanical gyros are explained and the main difficulties in maintenance and sources of errors while measuring with gyros and gyro-theodolites are listed. The principles of RLG and FOG gyros and the principles of inertial navigation are explained. The main differences of a guided platform and a strap-down system are explained. A brief review of mathematical expressions for position coordinate- determination from double integration of acceleration measurements from accelerometers is given. It is indicated on difficulties in INS application during a long time period caused by insufficient knowledge of gravity acceleration due to locally gravity anomalies and gyro-drift. The necessity of INS signal correction using another positioning system like GNSS is pointed out, applying Kalman filter algorithms for interpolation between two measuring points so as position prediction of points which are not measured. 

  11. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  12. Inertial gravity currents from edge drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Mostafa; Zheng, Zhong; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Stone, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Gravity currents are formed due to a density gradient in the horizontal direction between the current and an ambient fluid. In this work, we present theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of the release of a finite volume of fluid instantaneously from the edge of a rectangular domain for high-Reynolds-number flows. The setup is relevant in geophysical and engineering applications such as open channels, and dam-break problems. For the cases we considered, the results indicate that about half of the initial volume exits during an early adjustment period. Then, the inertial gravity current reaches a self-similar phase during which about 40% of its volume drains and its height decreases as τ-2, where τ is a dimensionless time that is derived with the typical gravity wave speed and the horizontal length of the domain. Based on scaling arguments, we reduce the shallow-water PDEs into two nonlinear ODEs, which are then solved analytically. The new self-similar solutions are in good agreement with the performed experiments and direct numerical simulations for various geometries and fluid densities. This study provides new insights into the dynamical behavior of edge drainage flows, particularly during the inertial regime. The simulations were performed on the Della computer clusters of Princeton University.

  13. PREFACE: Water in confined geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Mauro

    2004-11-01

    The study of water confined in complex systems in solid or gel phases and/or in contact with macromolecules is relevant to many important processes ranging from industrial applications such as catalysis and soil chemistry, to biological processes such as protein folding or ionic transport in membranes. Thermodynamics, phase behaviour and the molecular mobility of water have been observed to change upon confinement depending on the properties of the substrate. In particular, polar substrates perturb the hydrogen bond network of water, inducing large changes in the properties upon freezing. Understanding how the connected random hydrogen bond network of bulk water is modified when water is confined in small cavities inside a substrate material is very important for studies of stability and the enzymatic activity of proteins, oil recovery or heterogeneous catalysis, where water-substrate interactions play a fundamental role. The modifications of the short-range order in the liquid depend on the nature of the water-substrate interaction, hydrophilic or hydrophobic, as well as on its spatial range and on the geometry of the substrate. Despite extensive study, both experimentally and by computer simulation, there remain a number of open problems. In the many experimental studies of confined water, those performed on water in Vycor are of particular interest for computer simulation and theoretical studies since Vycor is a porous silica glass characterized by a quite sharp distribution of pore sizes and a strong capability to absorb water. It can be considered as a good candidate for studying the general behaviour of water in hydrophilic nanopores. But there there have been a number of studies of water confined in more complex substrates, where the interpretation of experiments and computer simulation is more difficult, such as in zeolites or in aerogels or in contact with membranes. Of the many problems to consider we can mention the study of supercooled water. It is

  14. Gas solubility in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzar, Alenka; Bratko, Dusan

    2005-12-01

    Measured forces between apolar surfaces in water have often been found to be sensitive to exposure to atmospheric gases despite low gas solubilities in bulk water. This raises questions as to how significant gas adsorption is in hydrophobic confinement, whether it is conducive to water depletion at such surfaces, and ultimately if it can facilitate the liquid-to-gas phase transition in the confinement. Open Ensemble molecular simulations have been used here to determine saturated concentrations of atmospheric gases in water-filled apolar confinements as a function of pore width at varied gas fugacities. For paraffin-like confinements of widths barely exceeding the mechanical instability threshold (spinodal) of the liquid-to-vapor transition of confined water (aqueous film thickness between three and four molecular diameters), mean gas concentrations in the pore were found to exceed the bulk values by a factor of approximately 30 or approximately 15 in cases of N2 and CO2, respectively. At ambient conditions, this does not result in visible changes in the water density profile next to the surfaces. Whereas the barrier to capillary evaporation has been found to decrease in the presence of dissolved gas (Leung, K.; Luzar, A.; and Bratko, D. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 90, 065502), gas concentrations much higher than those observed at normal atmospheric conditions would be needed to produce noticeable changes in the kinetics of capillary evaporation. In simulations, dissolved gas concentrations corresponding to fugacities above approximately 40 bar for N2, or approximately 2 bar for CO2, were required to trigger expulsion of water from a hydrocarbon slit as narrow as 1.4 nm. For nanosized pore widths corresponding to the mechanical instability threshold or above, no significant coupling between adsorption layers at opposing confinement walls was observed. This finding explains the approximately linear increase in gas solubility with inverse confinement width and the

  15. Effect of friction on the performance of inertial slider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inertial mass is kept on three sapphire balls, which are attached to shear piezoelectric material. The behaviour of inertial mass was studied for different input waveforms and different surface conditions that come in contact with the sapphire balls. It was observed that under lubricated conditions the step size was reduced ...

  16. The dynamics of small inertial particles in weakly stratified turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.

    We present an overview of a numerical study on the small-scale dynamics and the large-scale dispersion of small inertial particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles are examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles (with particle-to-fluid density ratio 1Ͽp/Ͽf25) and

  17. Dispersion of (light) inertial particles in stratified turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aartrijk, M.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Armenio, Vincenzo; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Fröhlich, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We present a brief overview of a numerical study of the dispersion of particles in stably stratified turbulence. Three types of particles arc examined: fluid particles, light inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f = \\mathcal{O}(1)$) and heavy inertial particles ($\\rho_p/\\rho_f \\gg 1$). Stratification

  18. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... waterfront facilities” and “large oil transfer facilities.” (a) Working and walking areas shall be illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1...

  19. Illuminating Everyday Performances of Privilege and Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuman, Amy N.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Intercultural Communication, Interracial Communication, Gender and Communication, Introduction to Communication Course (within a unit on culture), and any courses encouraging critical analyses of power. Objectives: This activity will: illuminate the ways in which everyday performances of privilege and resulting oppressions connect with…

  20. Public illumination manual; Manual de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This work aims to guide in the correct choice and usage of the adequate public illumination equipment. It also aims to help the public authorities in terms of the best economical and technical choice, as well as the adequate maintenance of the equipment in order to obtain the most efficiency and safety with minimum costs 22 figs., 11 tabs.