#### Sample records for ii statistical transformation

1. Statistics II essentials

Milewski, Emil G

2012-01-01

REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

2. Explorations in statistics: the log transformation.

Curran-Everett, Douglas

2018-06-01

Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This thirteenth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the log transformation, an established technique that rescales the actual observations from an experiment so that the assumptions of some statistical analysis are better met. A general assumption in statistics is that the variability of some response Y is homogeneous across groups or across some predictor variable X. If the variability-the standard deviation-varies in rough proportion to the mean value of Y, a log transformation can equalize the standard deviations. Moreover, if the actual observations from an experiment conform to a skewed distribution, then a log transformation can make the theoretical distribution of the sample mean more consistent with a normal distribution. This is important: the results of a one-sample t test are meaningful only if the theoretical distribution of the sample mean is roughly normal. If we log-transform our observations, then we want to confirm the transformation was useful. We can do this if we use the Box-Cox method, if we bootstrap the sample mean and the statistic t itself, and if we assess the residual plots from the statistical model of the actual and transformed sample observations.

3. Acceleration transforms and statistical kinetic models

LuValle, M.J.; Welsher, T.L.; Svoboda, K.

1988-01-01

For a restricted class of problems a mathematical model of microscopic degradation processes, statistical kinetics, is developed and linked through acceleration transforms to the information which can be obtained from a system in which the only observable sign of degradation is sudden and catastrophic failure. The acceleration transforms were developed in accelerated life testing applications as a tool for extrapolating from the observable results of an accelerated life test to the dynamics of the underlying degradation processes. A particular concern of a physicist attempting to interpreted the results of an analysis based on acceleration transforms is determining the physical species involved in the degradation process. These species may be (a) relatively abundant or (b) relatively rare. The main results of this paper are a theorem showing that for an important subclass of statistical kinetic models, acceleration transforms cannot be used to distinguish between cases a and b, and an example showing that in some cases falling outside the restrictions of the theorem, cases a and b can be distinguished by their acceleration transforms

4. On Quantum Statistical Inference, II

Barndorff-Nielsen, O. E.; Gill, R. D.; Jupp, P. E.

2003-01-01

Interest in problems of statistical inference connected to measurements of quantum systems has recently increased substantially, in step with dramatic new developments in experimental techniques for studying small quantum systems. Furthermore, theoretical developments in the theory of quantum measurements have brought the basic mathematical framework for the probability calculations much closer to that of classical probability theory. The present paper reviews this field and proposes and inte...

5. Statistical phenomena - experiments results. II

Schnell, W.

1977-01-01

The stochastic cooling of proton and antiproton beams is discussed. Stochastic cooling is the gradual reduction of emittance of a coasting beam by a feedback system, sensing and correcting the statistical fluctuations of the beam's position or momentum. The correction at every turn can be partial or complete. Transverse and longitudinal emittance of the beam are considered and the systems designed to cool the beams are described. (B.D.)

6. Logarithmic transformed statistical models in calibration

Zeis, C.D.

1975-01-01

A general type of statistical model used for calibration of instruments having the property that the standard deviations of the observed values increase as a function of the mean value is described. The application to the Helix Counter at the Rocky Flats Plant is primarily from a theoretical point of view. The Helix Counter measures the amount of plutonium in certain types of chemicals. The method described can be used also for other calibrations. (U.S.)

7. Statistical transformation and the interpretation of inpatient glucose control data.

Saulnier, George E; Castro, Janna C; Cook, Curtiss B

2014-03-01

To introduce a statistical method of assessing hospital-based non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) inpatient glucose control. Point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) data from hospital non-ICUs were extracted for January 1 through December 31, 2011. Glucose data distribution was examined before and after Box-Cox transformations and compared to normality. Different subsets of data were used to establish upper and lower control limits, and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts were constructed from June, July, and October data as examples to determine if out-of-control events were identified differently in nontransformed versus transformed data. A total of 36,381 POC-BG values were analyzed. In all 3 monthly test samples, glucose distributions in nontransformed data were skewed but approached a normal distribution once transformed. Interpretation of out-of-control events from EWMA control chart analyses also revealed differences. In the June test data, an out-of-control process was identified at sample 53 with nontransformed data, whereas the transformed data remained in control for the duration of the observed period. Analysis of July data demonstrated an out-of-control process sooner in the transformed (sample 55) than nontransformed (sample 111) data, whereas for October, transformed data remained in control longer than nontransformed data. Statistical transformations increase the normal behavior of inpatient non-ICU glycemic data sets. The decision to transform glucose data could influence the interpretation and conclusions about the status of inpatient glycemic control. Further study is required to determine whether transformed versus nontransformed data influence clinical decisions or evaluation of interventions.

8. CPS Transformation of Flow Information, Part II

Damian, D.; Danvy, Olivier

2003-01-01

consider the administrative reductions of a Plotkin-style transformation into Continuation-Passing Style (CPS), and how they affect the result of a constraint-based control-flow analysis and, in particular, the least element in the space of solutions. We show that administrative reductions preserve...... the least solution. Preservation of least solutions solves a problem that was left open in Palsberg and Wand's article ‘CPS Transformation of Flow Information.’ Together, Palsberg and Wand's article and the present article show how to map in linear time the least solution of the flow constraints...... of a program into the least solution of the flow constraints of the CPS counterpart of this program, after administrative reductions. Furthermore, we show how to CPS transform control-flow information in one pass....

9. Statistical Study of Transformation Changes in the Ukrainian Economy

O. V.

2017-12-01

Full Text Available The article deals with the economic diagnostics of some important macroeconomic indicators of Ukraine that will reveal the nature and speed of the economic transformation. During the period of 2003–2007, the Ukrainian economy grew at an impressive pace. However, at present, the country is undergoing a period of serious trials, it needs to address structural problems that endanger long-term economic growth. The way out of the current situation should be the realization of the potential for growth of advanced sectors and increase of productivity across the national economy. Special attention should be paid to the transition from extractive institutions to inclusive ones. Key factors in accelerating the Ukrainian economy are more vigorous fight against corruption and investment attraction. A set of institutional variables is proposed, which allows for a more thorough assessment of the nature of economic transformation in Ukraine and detection of such deviations – transformation of the national economy occurs at different speeds. Along with the traditional shifts in the structure of GDP (the dominating share of services, there’s still insignificant statistical effect of such important institutional categories as the level of political globalization, the control of corruption, the level of property rights protection, the rule of law, and the level of social globalization.

10. Digital Modulation Identification Model Using Wavelet Transform and Statistical Parameters

P. Prakasam

2008-01-01

Full Text Available A generalized modulation identification scheme is developed and presented. With the help of this scheme, the automatic modulation classification and recognition of wireless communication signals with a priori unknown parameters are possible effectively. The special features of the procedure are the possibility to adapt it dynamically to nearly all modulation types, and the capability to identify. The developed scheme based on wavelet transform and statistical parameters has been used to identify M-ary PSK, M-ary QAM, GMSK, and M-ary FSK modulations. The simulated results show that the correct modulation identification is possible to a lower bound of 5 dB. The identification percentage has been analyzed based on the confusion matrix. When SNR is above 5 dB, the probability of detection of the proposed system is more than 0.968. The performance of the proposed scheme has been compared with existing methods and found it will identify all digital modulation schemes with low SNR.

11. A Statistical Study of Interplanetary Type II Bursts: STEREO Observations

Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Magdalenic, J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kruparova, O.; Szabo, A.

2017-12-01

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the primary cause of the most severe and disruptive space weather events such as solar energetic particle (SEP) events and geomagnetic storms at Earth. Interplanetary type II bursts are generated via the plasma emission mechanism by energetic electrons accelerated at CME-driven shock waves and hence identify CMEs that potentially cause space weather impact. As CMEs propagate outward from the Sun, radio emissions are generated at progressively at lower frequencies corresponding to a decreasing ambient solar wind plasma density. We have performed a statistical study of 153 interplanetary type II bursts observed by the two STEREO spacecraft between March 2008 and August 2014. These events have been correlated with manually-identified CMEs contained in the Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service (HELCATS) catalogue. Our results confirm that faster CMEs are more likely to produce interplanetary type II radio bursts. We have compared observed frequency drifts with white-light observations to estimate angular deviations of type II burst propagation directions from radial. We have found that interplanetary type II bursts preferably arise from CME flanks. Finally, we discuss a visibility of radio emissions in relation to the CME propagation direction.

12. Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity. II.

2005-09-01

The special relativity laws emerge as one-parameter (light speed) generalizations of the corresponding laws of classical physics. These generalizations, imposed by the Lorentz transformations, affect both the definition of the various physical observables (e.g., momentum, energy, etc.), as well as the mathematical apparatus of the theory. Here, following the general lines of [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056125 (2002)], we show that the Lorentz transformations impose also a proper one-parameter generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The obtained relativistic entropy permits us to construct a coherent and self-consistent relativistic statistical theory, preserving the main features of the ordinary statistical theory, which is recovered in the classical limit. The predicted distribution function is a one-parameter continuous deformation of the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and has a simple analytic form, showing power law tails in accordance with the experimental evidence. Furthermore, this statistical mechanics can be obtained as the stationary case of a generalized kinetic theory governed by an evolution equation obeying the H theorem and reproducing the Boltzmann equation of the ordinary kinetics in the classical limit.

13. Canonical transformations in problems of quantum statistical mechanics

Sankovich, D.P.

1985-01-01

The problem of general canonical transformations in quantum systems possessing a classical analog is considered. The main role plays the Weyl representation of dynamic variables of the quantum system considered. One managed to build a general diagram of canonical transformations in a quantum case and to develop a method for reducing one or another operator to the simplest canonical form. In this case the procedure, being analogous to the Poincare-Birkhof normalization based on the Lie series theory, occurs

14. Statistical ensembles and molecular dynamics studies of anisotropic solids. II

Ray, J.R.; Rahman, A.

1985-01-01

We have recently discussed how the Parrinello--Rahman theory can be brought into accord with the theory of the elastic and thermodynamic behavior of anisotropic media. This involves the isoenthalpic--isotension ensemble of statistical mechanics. Nose has developed a canonical ensemble form of molecular dynamics. We combine Nose's ideas with the Parrinello--Rahman theory to obtain a canonical form of molecular dynamics appropriate to the study of anisotropic media subjected to arbitrary external stress. We employ this isothermal--isotension ensemble in a study of a fcc→ close-packed structural phase transformation in a Lennard-Jones solid subjected to uniaxial compression. Our interpretation of the Nose theory does not involve a scaling of the time variable. This latter fact leads to simplifications when studying the time dependence of quantities

15. A Critical Understanding and Transformation of an Introductory Statistics Course

Magalhães, Marcos Nascimento; Magalhães, Maria Cecilia Camargo

2014-01-01

In this paper, we report on the impact of four activities and two interviews on the organization of an introductory statistics course attended by future mathematics teachers at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activities were designed to enhance students' learning and collaborative knowledge construction, based on Vygotsky's…

16. Continuous unitary transformation approach to pairing interactions in statistical physics

T.Domański

2008-06-01

Full Text Available We apply the flow equation method to the study of the fermion systems with pairing interactions which lead to the BCS instability signalled by the appearance of the off-diagonal order parameter. For this purpose we rederive the continuous Bogoliubov transformation in a fashion of renormalization group procedure where the low and high energy sectors are treated subsequently. We further generalize this procedure to the case of fermions interacting with the discrete boson mode. Andreev-type interactions are responsible for developing a gap in the excitation spectrum. However, the long-range coherence is destroyed due to strong quantum fluctuations.

17. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2015-02-13

Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

18. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

Marill, Keith A

2004-01-01

The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

19. Fe(II)-induced transformation from ferrihydrite to lepidocrocite and goethite

Liu Hui; Li Ping; Zhu Meiying; Wei Yu; Sun Yuhan

2007-01-01

The transformation of Fe(II)-adsorbed ferrihydrite was studied. Data tracking the formation of products as a function of pH, temperature and time is presented. The results indicate that trace of Fe(II) adsorbed on ferrihydrite can accelerate its transformation obviously. The products are lepidocrocite and/or goethite and/or hematite, which is different from those without Fe(II). That is, Fe(II) not only accelerates the transformation of ferrihydrite but also leads to the formation of lepidocrocite by a new path. The behavior of Fe(II) is shown in two aspects-catalytic dissolution-reprecipitation and catalytic solid-state transformation. The results indicate that a high temperature and a high pH(in the range from 5 to 9) are favorable to solid-state transformation and the formation of hematite, while a low temperature and a low pH are favorable to dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism and the formation of lepidocrocite. Special attentions were given to the formation mechanism of lepidocrocite and goethite. - Graphical abstract: Fe(II)-adsorbed ferrihydrite can rapidly transform into lepidocrocite or/and goethite or/and hematite. Which product dominates depends on the transformation conditions of ferrihydrite such as temperature, pH, reaction time, etc. In the current system, there exist two transformation mechanisms. One is dissolution/reprecipitation and the other is solid-state transformation. The transformation mechanisms from Fe(II)-adsorbed ferrihydrite to lepidocrocite and goethite were investigated

20. Statistical transformation and the interpretation of inpatient glucose control data from the intensive care unit.

Saulnier, George E; Castro, Janna C; Cook, Curtiss B

2014-05-01

Glucose control can be problematic in critically ill patients. We evaluated the impact of statistical transformation on interpretation of intensive care unit inpatient glucose control data. Point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) data derived from patients in the intensive care unit for 2011 was obtained. Box-Cox transformation of POC-BG measurements was performed, and distribution of data was determined before and after transformation. Different data subsets were used to establish statistical upper and lower control limits. Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts constructed from April, October, and November data determined whether out-of-control events could be identified differently in transformed versus nontransformed data. A total of 8679 POC-BG values were analyzed. POC-BG distributions in nontransformed data were skewed but approached normality after transformation. EWMA control charts revealed differences in projected detection of out-of-control events. In April, an out-of-control process resulting in the lower control limit being exceeded was identified at sample 116 in nontransformed data but not in transformed data. October transformed data detected an out-of-control process exceeding the upper control limit at sample 27 that was not detected in nontransformed data. Nontransformed November results remained in control, but transformation identified an out-of-control event less than 10 samples into the observation period. Using statistical methods to assess population-based glucose control in the intensive care unit could alter conclusions about the effectiveness of care processes for managing hyperglycemia. Further study is required to determine whether transformed versus nontransformed data change clinical decisions about the interpretation of care or intervention results. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

1. Transformation (normalization) of slope gradient and surface curvatures, automated for statistical analyses from DEMs

Csillik, O.; Evans, I. S.; Drăguţ, L.

2015-03-01

Automated procedures are developed to alleviate long tails in frequency distributions of morphometric variables. They minimize the skewness of slope gradient frequency distributions, and modify the kurtosis of profile and plan curvature distributions toward that of the Gaussian (normal) model. Box-Cox (for slope) and arctangent (for curvature) transformations are tested on nine digital elevation models (DEMs) of varying origin and resolution, and different landscapes, and shown to be effective. Resulting histograms are illustrated and show considerable improvements over those for previously recommended slope transformations (sine, square root of sine, and logarithm of tangent). Unlike previous approaches, the proposed method evaluates the frequency distribution of slope gradient values in a given area and applies the most appropriate transform if required. Sensitivity of the arctangent transformation is tested, showing that Gaussian-kurtosis transformations are acceptable also in terms of histogram shape. Cube root transformations of curvatures produced bimodal histograms. The transforms are applicable to morphometric variables and many others with skewed or long-tailed distributions. By avoiding long tails and outliers, they permit parametric statistics such as correlation, regression and principal component analyses to be applied, with greater confidence that requirements for linearity, additivity and even scatter of residuals (constancy of error variance) are likely to be met. It is suggested that such transformations should be routinely applied in all parametric analyses of long-tailed variables. Our Box-Cox and curvature automated transformations are based on a Python script, implemented as an easy-to-use script tool in ArcGIS.

2. The discrete Painleve II equations: Miura and auto-Baecklund transformations

Carstea, A S; Ramani, A; Willox, R; Grammaticos, B

2003-01-01

We present Miura transformations for all discrete Painleve II equations known to date. We then use these Miuras to derive special solutions in terms of discrete Airy functions and to construct auto-Baecklund transformations for the discrete Painleve equations. These transformations are then used to generate rational solutions. Some new forms of d-P II and d-P 34 are obtained as well

3. An analysis of distribution transformer failure using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS software

María Gabriela Mago Ramos

2012-05-01

Full Text Available A methodology was developed for analysing faults in distribution transformers using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS; it consisted of organising and creating of database regarding failed equipment, incorporating such data into the processing programme and converting all the information into numerical variables to be processed, thereby obtaining descriptive statistics and enabling factor and discriminant analysis. The research was based on information provided by companies in areas served by Corpoelec (Valencia, Venezuela and Codensa (Bogotá, Colombia.

4. Box-Cox transformation of firm size data in statistical analysis

Chen, Ting Ting; Takaishi, Tetsuya

2014-03-01

Firm size data usually do not show the normality that is often assumed in statistical analysis such as regression analysis. In this study we focus on two firm size data: the number of employees and sale. Those data deviate considerably from a normal distribution. To improve the normality of those data we transform them by the Box-Cox transformation with appropriate parameters. The Box-Cox transformation parameters are determined so that the transformed data best show the kurtosis of a normal distribution. It is found that the two firm size data transformed by the Box-Cox transformation show strong linearity. This indicates that the number of employees and sale have the similar property as a firm size indicator. The Box-Cox parameters obtained for the firm size data are found to be very close to zero. In this case the Box-Cox transformations are approximately a log-transformation. This suggests that the firm size data we used are approximately log-normal distributions.

5. Box-Cox transformation of firm size data in statistical analysis

Chen, Ting Ting; Takaishi, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

Firm size data usually do not show the normality that is often assumed in statistical analysis such as regression analysis. In this study we focus on two firm size data: the number of employees and sale. Those data deviate considerably from a normal distribution. To improve the normality of those data we transform them by the Box-Cox transformation with appropriate parameters. The Box-Cox transformation parameters are determined so that the transformed data best show the kurtosis of a normal distribution. It is found that the two firm size data transformed by the Box-Cox transformation show strong linearity. This indicates that the number of employees and sale have the similar property as a firm size indicator. The Box-Cox parameters obtained for the firm size data are found to be very close to zero. In this case the Box-Cox transformations are approximately a log-transformation. This suggests that the firm size data we used are approximately log-normal distributions

6. Automating Exams for a Statistics Course: II. A Case Study.

Michener, R. Dean; And Others

A specific application of the process of automating exams for any introductory statistics course is described. The process of automating exams was accomplished by using the Statistical Test Item Collection System (STICS). This system was first used to select a set of questions based on course requirements established in advance; afterward, STICS…

7. Statistical Assessment of the Effectiveness of Transformation Change (by Case of Singapore

Zhuravlyov

2017-02-01

Full Text Available In studies of economic transformations and their statistical assessment, the causality of processes specific to economic relations and development of institutions is overlooked. The article is devoted to the important topic of statistical assessment of the transformations effectiveness. The case of Singapore is taken because it is an Asian country demonstrating the essential role of the institutional environment in the national economy transformations. The regression analysis of the impact of institutional factors on economic growth in Singapore is made using 17 indicators: civil freedoms, corruption, economic freedom, economic globalization, spending on education, use of energy, share of women at labor market, fiscal freedom, price for fuel, PPP, effectiveness of public administration, level of consumption, Human Development Index, Internet users, life expectancy, unemployment, openness of trade. Economic interpretation of the statistical assessment of economic transformations in Singapore is as follows: quality of the institutional environment (control of corruption, economic freedom, supremacy of law etc. has critical importance for economic development in Singapore; the increasing spending on education has positive effects for economic growth in Singapore; economic growth in Singapore has high positive correlation with energy consumption.

8. Objective scoring of transformed foci in BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay by statistical image descriptors.

Urani, C; Corvi, R; Callegaro, G; Stefanini, F M

2013-09-01

In vitro cell transformation assays (CTAs) have been shown to model important stages of in vivo carcinogenesis and have the potential to predict carcinogenicity in humans. Advantages of CTAs are their ability of revealing both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens while reducing both experimental costs and the number of animals used. The endpoint of the CTA is foci formation, and requires classification under light microscopy based on morphology. Thus current limitations for the wide adoption of the assay partially depend on a fair degree of subjectivity in foci scoring. An objective evaluation may be obtained after separating foci from background monolayer in the digital image, and quantifying values of statistical descriptors which are selected to capture eye-scored morphological features. The aim of this study was to develop statistical descriptors to be applied to transformed foci of BALB/c 3T3, which cover foci size, multilayering and invasive cell growth into the background monolayer. Proposed descriptors were applied to a database of 407 foci images to explore the numerical features, and to illustrate open problems and potential solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

9. Braid group, knot theory and statistical mechanics II

Yang Chen Ning

1994-01-01

The present volume is an updated version of the book edited by C N Yang and M L Ge on the topics of braid groups and knot theory, which are related to statistical mechanics. This book is based on the 1989 volume but has new material included and new contributors.

10. Statistical models of a gas diffusion electrode: II. Current resistent

Proksch, D B; Winsel, O W

1965-07-01

The authors describe an apparatus for measuring the flow resistance of gas diffusion electrodes which is a mechanical analog of the Wheatstone bridge for measuring electric resistance. The flow resistance of a circular DSK electrode sheet, consisting of two covering layers and a working layer between them, was measured as a function of the gas pressure. While the pressure first was increased and then decreased, a hysteresis occurred, which is discussed and explained by a statistical model of a porous electrode.

11. Hysteresis and Power-Law Statistics during temperature induced martensitic transformation

Paul, Arya; Sengupta, Surajit; Rao, Madan

2011-01-01

We study hysteresis in temperature induced martensitic transformation using a 2D model solid exhibiting a square to rhombic structural transition. We find that upon quenching, the high temperature square phase, martensites are nucleated at sites having large non-affineness and ultimately invades the whole of the high temperature square phase. On heating the martensite, the high temperature square phase is restored. The transformation proceeds through avalanches. The amplitude and the time-duration of these avalanches exhibit power-law statistics both during heating and cooling of the system. The exponents corresponding to heating and cooling are different thereby indicating that the nucleation and dissolution of the product phase follows different transformation mechanism.

Becattini, F.; Ferroni, L.

2004-01-01

We present a Monte Carlo calculation of the micro-canonical ensemble of the ideal hadron-resonance gas including all known states up to a mass of about 1.8 GeV and full quantum statistics. The micro-canonical average multiplicities of the various hadron species are found to converge to the canonical ones for moderately low values of the total energy, around 8 GeV, thus bearing out previous analyses of hadronic multiplicities in the canonical ensemble. The main numerical computing method is an importance sampling Monte Carlo algorithm using the product of Poisson distributions to generate multi-hadronic channels. It is shown that the use of this multi-Poisson distribution allows for an efficient and fast computation of averages, which can be further improved in the limit of very large clusters. We have also studied the fitness of a previously proposed computing method, based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm, for event generation in the statistical hadronization model. We find that the use of the multi-Poisson distribution as proposal matrix dramatically improves the computation performance. However, due to the correlation of subsequent samples, this method proves to be generally less robust and effective than the importance sampling method. (orig.)

13. Stable transformation of Hi-II maize using the particle inflow gun

O'Kennedy, MM

1998-04-01

Full Text Available Focuses on the transformation of the embryogenic type II callus, initiated from cultured immature zygotic embryos of the maize line Hi-II, by microprojectile bombardment using a particle inflow gun. Use of the plasmid pAHC25; Tissue culture...

14. CPS Transformation of Flow Information, Part II: Administrative Reductions

Damian, Daniel; Danvy, Olivier

2001-01-01

the least solution. Preservation of least solutions solves a problem that was left open in Palsberg and Wand's article ‘CPS Transformation of Flow Information.’ Together, Palsberg and Wand's article and the present article show how to map in linear time the least solution of the flow constraints...

15. Sequestration of chelated copper by structural Fe(II): Reductive decomplexation and transformation of Cu{sup II}-EDTA

He, Hongping [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Deli, E-mail: wudeli@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao, Linghui [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Luo, Cong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, GA 30332 (United States); Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Yalei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2016-05-15

Highlights: • Structural Fe(II) was found to reveal high sequestration potential in various chelated copper. • Chelated copper was reduced to Cu(0) and Cu{sub 2}O by =Fe(II), whcih was oxidized to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O. • Both electron transfer and surface =Fe(II) were found to be crucial during chelated copper reduction. • The indispensible role of reductive decomplexation was identified in chelated copper sequestration. - Abstract: Chelated coppers, such as Cu{sup II}-EDTA, are characteristically refractory and difficult to break down because of their high stability and solubility. Cu{sup II}–EDTA sequestration by structural Fe(II) (=Fe(II)) was investigated intensively in this study. Up to 101.21 mgCu(II)/gFe(II) was obtained by =Fe(II) in chelated copper sequestration under near neutral pH condition (pH 7.70). The mechanism of Cu{sup II}-EDTA sequestration by =Fe(II) was concluded as follows: 3Cu{sup II}–EDTA + 7=Fe(II) + 9H{sub 2}O → Cu(0) ↓ + Cu{sub 2}O ↓ (the major product) + 2Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O ↓ + 3Fe{sup II}–EDTA +14H{sup +} Novel results strongly indicate that Cu{sup II} reductive transformation induced by surface =Fe(II) was mainly responsible for chelated copper sequestration. Cu(0) generation was initially facilitated, and subsequent reduction of Cu(II) into Cu(I) was closely combined with the gradual increase of ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential). Cu-containing products were inherently stable, but Cu{sub 2}O would be reoxidized to Cu(II) with extra-aeration, resulting in the release of copper, which was beneficial to Cu reclamation. Concentration diminution of Cu{sup II}–EDTA within the electric double layer and competitive adsorption were responsible for the negative effects of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}. By generating vivianite, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} was found to decrease surface =Fe(II) content. This study is among the first ones to identify the indispensible role of reductive decomplexation in chelated copper

16. EMPIRE-II statistical model code for nuclear reaction calculations

Herman, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

2001-12-15

EMPIRE II is a nuclear reaction code, comprising various nuclear models, and designed for calculations in the broad range of energies and incident particles. A projectile can be any nucleon or Heavy Ion. The energy range starts just above the resonance region, in the case of neutron projectile, and extends up to few hundreds of MeV for Heavy Ion induced reactions. The code accounts for the major nuclear reaction mechanisms, such as optical model (SCATB), Multistep Direct (ORION + TRISTAN), NVWY Multistep Compound, and the full featured Hauser-Feshbach model. Heavy Ion fusion cross section can be calculated within the simplified coupled channels approach (CCFUS). A comprehensive library of input parameters covers nuclear masses, optical model parameters, ground state deformations, discrete levels and decay schemes, level densities, fission barriers (BARFIT), moments of inertia (MOMFIT), and {gamma}-ray strength functions. Effects of the dynamic deformation of a fast rotating nucleus can be taken into account in the calculations. The results can be converted into the ENDF-VI format using the accompanying code EMPEND. The package contains the full EXFOR library of experimental data. Relevant EXFOR entries are automatically retrieved during the calculations. Plots comparing experimental results with the calculated ones can be produced using X4TOC4 and PLOTC4 codes linked to the rest of the system through bash-shell (UNIX) scripts. The graphic user interface written in Tcl/Tk is provided. (author)

17. A comprehensive statistical classifier of foci in the cell transformation assay for carcinogenicity testing.

Callegaro, Giulia; Malkoc, Kasja; Corvi, Raffaella; Urani, Chiara; Stefanini, Federico M

2017-12-01

The identification of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals is currently mainly based on animal studies. The in vitro Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) are a promising alternative to be considered in an integrated approach. CTAs measure the induction of foci of transformed cells. CTAs model key stages of the in vivo neoplastic process and are able to detect both genotoxic and some non-genotoxic compounds, being the only in vitro method able to deal with the latter. Despite their favorable features, CTAs can be further improved, especially reducing the possible subjectivity arising from the last phase of the protocol, namely visual scoring of foci using coded morphological features. By taking advantage of digital image analysis, the aim of our work is to translate morphological features into statistical descriptors of foci images, and to use them to mimic the classification performances of the visual scorer to discriminate between transformed and non-transformed foci. Here we present a classifier based on five descriptors trained on a dataset of 1364 foci, obtained with different compounds and concentrations. Our classifier showed accuracy, sensitivity and specificity equal to 0.77 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84. The presented classifier outperforms a previously published model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Fast Algorithm for Computing the Discrete Hartley Transform of Type-II

Mounir Taha Hamood

2016-06-01

Full Text Available The generalized discrete Hartley transforms (GDHTs have proved to be an efficient alternative to the generalized discrete Fourier transforms (GDFTs for real-valued data applications. In this paper, the development of direct computation of radix-2 decimation-in-time (DIT algorithm for the fast calculation of the GDHT of type-II (DHT-II is presented. The mathematical analysis and the implementation of the developed algorithm are derived, showing that this algorithm possesses a regular structure and can be implemented in-place for efficient memory utilization.The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and the computational complexity is calculated for different transform lengths. A comparison between this algorithm and existing DHT-II algorithms shows that it can be considered as a good compromise between the structural and computational complexities.

19. Kinetics of Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of 6-line ferrihydrite under anaerobic flow conditions

Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Marcus, M.A.; Bargar, J.R.

2010-04-01

The readsorption of ferrous ions produced by the abiotic and microbially-mediated reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides drives a series of transformations of the host minerals. To further understand the mechanisms by which these transformations occur and their kinetics within a microporous flow environment, flow-through experiments were conducted in which capillary tubes packed with ferrihydrite-coated glass spheres were injected with inorganic Fe(II) solutions under circumneutral pH conditions at 25 C. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to identify the secondary phase(s) formed and to provide data for quantitative kinetic analysis. At concentrations at and above 1.8 mM Fe(II) in the injection solution, magnetite was the only secondary phase formed (no intermediates were detected), with complete transformation following a nonlinear rate law requiring 28 hours and 150 hours of reaction at 18 and 1.8 mM Fe(II), respectively. However, when the injection solution consisted of 0.36 mM Fe(II), goethite was the predominant reaction product and formed much more slowly according to a linear rate law, while only minor magnetite was formed. When the rates are normalized based on the time to react half of the ferrihydrite on a reduced time plot, it is apparent that the 1.8 mM and 18 mM input Fe(II) experiments can be described by the same reaction mechanism, while the 0.36 input Fe(II) experiment is distinct. The analysis of the transformation kinetics suggest that the transformations involved an electron transfer reaction between the aqueous as well as sorbed Fe(II) and ferrihydrite acting as a semiconductor, rather than a simple dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. A transformation mechanism involving sorbed inner sphere Fe(II) alone is not supported, since the essentially equal coverage of sorption sites in the 18 mM and 1.8 mM Fe(II) injections cannot explain the difference in the transformation rates observed.

20. Lagrangian single-particle turbulent statistics through the Hilbert-Huang transform.

Huang, Yongxiang; Biferale, Luca; Calzavarini, Enrico; Sun, Chao; Toschi, Federico

2013-04-01

The Hilbert-Huang transform is applied to analyze single-particle Lagrangian velocity data from numerical simulations of hydrodynamic turbulence. The velocity trajectory is described in terms of a set of intrinsic mode functions C(i)(t) and of their instantaneous frequency ω(i)(t). On the basis of this decomposition we define the ω-conditioned statistical moments of the C(i) modes, named q-order Hilbert spectra (HS). We show that such quantities have enhanced scaling properties as compared to traditional Fourier transform- or correlation-based (structure functions) statistical indicators, thus providing better insights into the turbulent energy transfer process. We present clear empirical evidence that the energylike quantity, i.e., the second-order HS, displays a linear scaling in time in the inertial range, as expected from a dimensional analysis. We also measure high-order moment scaling exponents in a direct way, without resorting to the extended self-similarity procedure. This leads to an estimate of the Lagrangian structure function exponents which are consistent with the multifractal prediction in the Lagrangian frame as proposed by Biferale et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 064502 (2004)].

1. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

2012-01-01

Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

2. Discrimination of handlebar grip samples by fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis and statistics

Zeyu Lin

2017-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, the authors presented a study on the discrimination of handlebar grip samples, to provide effective forensic science service for hit and run traffic cases. 50 bicycle handlebar grip samples, 49 electric bike handlebar grip samples, and 96 motorcycle handlebar grip samples have been randomly collected by the local police in Beijing (China. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR was utilized as analytical technology. Then, target absorption selection, data pretreatment, and discrimination of linked samples and unlinked samples were chosen as three steps to improve the discrimination of FTIR spectrums collected from different handlebar grip samples. Principal component analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve were utilized to evaluate different data selection methods and different data pretreatment methods, respectively. It is possible to explore the evidential value of handlebar grip residue evidence through instrumental analysis and statistical treatments. It will provide a universal discrimination method for other forensic science samples as well.

3. On the Eulerian-Lagrangian Transform in the Statistical Theory of Turbulence

Wandel, C. F:; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

1962-01-01

"Fundamental Problems in Turbulence" Conference Paper (see Abstr. 1962A024007). Two important types of probing of a turbulent velocity field droarr/dtoarr = voarr (voarr constant) and the Lagrangian probing defined by droarr/dtoarr = roarr (roarr t). Explicit expressions are derived for the trans......"Fundamental Problems in Turbulence" Conference Paper (see Abstr. 1962A024007). Two important types of probing of a turbulent velocity field droarr/dtoarr = voarr (voarr constant) and the Lagrangian probing defined by droarr/dtoarr = roarr (roarr t). Explicit expressions are derived...... for the transformation of autocorrelations and power spectra obtained by Eulerian and Lagrangian probing in the case of fully developed isotropic and homogeneous turbulence. The derivations are based on a statistical representation of the turbulent velocity field using the results of the equilibrium theory of turbulence....... The Taylor (1921) hypothesis is verified in the limit of high probing velocities. The Hay-Pasquill (1960) conjecture relating the Lagrangian and Eulerian power spectra results as an approximation to the transformation equations. Application of the results to the theory of turbulent diffusion is indicated....

4. Kinetics of transformation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane by Fe(II) in cement slurries

Jung, Bahngmi; Batchelor, Bill

2009-01-01

This study examines the applicability of the iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (DS/S-Fe(II)) process to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), which is one of common chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) of concern at contaminated sites. DS/S-Fe(II) combines contaminant degradation by Fe(II) and immobilization by the hydration reactions of Portland cement. The transformation of 1,1,1-TCA by Fe(II) in 10% Portland cement slurries was studied using a batch slurry reactor system. The effects of Fe(II) dose, pH, and initial concentration of 1,1,1-TCA on the kinetics of 1,1,1-TCA degradation were evaluated. Degradation of 1,1,1-TCA in cement slurries including Fe(II) was very rapid and could be described by a pseudo-first-order rate law. The half-lives for 1,1,1-TCA were measured between 0.4 and 5 h when Fe(II) dose ranged from 4.9 to 39.2 mM. The pseudo-first-order rate constant increased with pH to a maximum near pH 12.5. A saturation rate equation was able to predict degradation kinetics over a wide range of target organic concentrations and at higher Fe(II) doses. The major transformation product of 1,1,1-TCA in mixtures of Fe(II) and cement was 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), which indicates that degradation occurred by a hydrogenolysis pathway. A small amount of ethane was observed. The conversion of 1,1,1-TCA to ethane was better described by a parallel reaction model than by a consecutive reaction model

5. M(II)-dipyridylamide-based coordination frameworks (M=Mn, Co, Ni): Structural transformation

Tzeng, Biing-Chiau; Selvam, TamilSelvi; Tsai, Miao-Hsin

2016-11-15

A series of 1-D double-zigzag (([M(papx){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}){sub n}; M=Mn, x=s (1), x=o (3); M=Co, x=s (4), x=o (5); M=Ni, x=s (6), x=o (7)) and 2-D polyrotaxane ([Mn(paps){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sub n} (2)) frameworks were synthesized by reactions of M(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (M=Mn, Co, and Ni) with papx (paps, N,N’-bis(pyridylcarbonyl)-4,4’-diaminodiphenylthioether; papo, N,N’-bis(pyridylcarbonyl)-4,4’-diaminodiphenyl ether), which have been isolated and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. Based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) experiments, heating the double-zigzag frameworks underwent structural transformation to give the respective polyrotaxane ones. Moreover, grinding the solid samples of the respective polyrotaxanes in the presence of moisture also resulted in the total conversion to the original double-zigzag frameworks. In this study, we have successfully extended studies to Mn{sup II}, Co{sup II}, and Ni{sup II} frameworks from the previous Zn{sup II}, Cd{sup II}, and Cu{sup II} ones, and interestingly such structural transformation is able to be proven experimentally by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies as well. - Graphical abstract: 1-D double-zigzag and 2-D polyrotaxane frameworks of M(II)-papx (x=s, o; M=Mn, Co, Ni) frameworks can be interconverted by heating and grinding in the presence of moiture, and such structural transformation has be proven experimentally by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

6. Sources of Safety Data and Statistical Strategies for Design and Analysis: Transforming Data Into Evidence.

Ma, Haijun; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Izem, Rima; Marchenko, Olga V; Jiang, Qi

2018-03-01

Safety evaluation is a key aspect of medical product development. It is a continual and iterative process requiring thorough thinking, and dedicated time and resources. In this article, we discuss how safety data are transformed into evidence to establish and refine the safety profile of a medical product, and how the focus of safety evaluation, data sources, and statistical methods change throughout a medical product's life cycle. Some challenges and statistical strategies for medical product safety evaluation are discussed. Examples of safety issues identified in different periods, that is, premarketing and postmarketing, are discussed to illustrate how different sources are used in the safety signal identification and the iterative process of safety assessment. The examples highlighted range from commonly used pediatric vaccine given to healthy children to medical products primarily used to treat a medical condition in adults. These case studies illustrate that different products may require different approaches, and once a signal is discovered, it could impact future safety assessments. Many challenges still remain in this area despite advances in methodologies, infrastructure, public awareness, international harmonization, and regulatory enforcement. Innovations in safety assessment methodologies are pressing in order to make the medical product development process more efficient and effective, and the assessment of medical product marketing approval more streamlined and structured. Health care payers, providers, and patients may have different perspectives when weighing in on clinical, financial and personal needs when therapies are being evaluated.

7. Mobile Digital Applications for Farmers to Transform Agriculture Statistics from the Bottom Up

Brown, M. E.; Grace, K.; Sahajpal, R.; Nagol, J. R.

2017-12-01

As the global population continues to grow and become more wealthy, the amount of food humanity consumes should also grow, particularly in low income countries that are currently consuming significantly less per capita than is optimal. Reducing yield gaps in low income regions can increase overall agricultural production and pull populations conducting subsistence agriculture in rural areas out of poverty. Investment in the transformation of agricultural value chain to include low income farmers can have significant positive impacts on communities and individuals participating, as well as the resilience of the food system itself. A major obstacle to improving the effectiveness of policies and interventions in the rural agriculture sector is a lack of information about the socio-economic, agricultural production and environmental conditions experienced by farmers as they participate in agriculture. There is a significant lack of high quality statistics that can be used to develop effective agricultural development programs. In today's world of online mapping software, accurate global positioning systems that allow instant, affordable location retrieval and growing mobile connectivity, what is needed is community- or even field-level information. Given the enormous geographic, economic and cultural diversity of even small countries, why settle for national statistics? The kind of information that is needed is at the field and farmer level, not the country level. This paper reviews ways geospatial and information technology can be used to generate farmer-specific information across all countries participating in agriculture.

8. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

Usman, M.; Abdelmoula, M.; Hanna, K.

2012-01-01

The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe II and OH – in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ∼9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, δ, of magnetite (Fe 3−δ O 4 ) generated from F (δ∼0.04) and L (δ∼0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (δ∼0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe II species with goethite. Highlights: ► Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe II to form magnetite. ► Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ► Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ► Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ► Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

9. Photo-induced transformations of mercury(II) species in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

Deng Lin, E-mail: dlwhu@163.com [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Fu Dafang [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2009-05-30

The effects of algae (i.e., Chlorella vulgaris), Fe(III), humic substances, and pH on the photoreduction of Hg(II) under the irradiation of metal halide lamps ({lambda} {>=} 365 nm, 250 W) were investigated in this paper. The photoreduction rate of Hg(II) was found to increase with the increasing concentration of algae, Fe(III), and humic substances. The cooperation action of Fe(III) and humic substances accelerated the photoreduction of Hg(II). When the initial concentration of Hg(II) was in the range of 0.0-200.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} with initial algae concentrations 7.0 x 10{sup 9} cells L{sup -1} at pH 7.0, the initial photoreduction rate of Hg(II) could be expressed by the equation: -dC{sub Hg(II)}/dt = 0.65 x [C{sub Hg(II)}]{sup 0.39} with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9912. The study on the photochemical process in terms of total mercury mass balance revealed that more than 40.86% of Hg(II) from the algal suspension was reduced to volatile metallic mercury. This paper discussed the photoreduction mechanism of Hg(II) in the presence of algae. This research will provide information for predicting the photoreduction of Hg(II) in the real environment. It will be helpful for understanding the photochemical transformation of Hg(II) and the formation of DGM in natural water in the presence of algae complexes. It will also be helpful for providing new methods to deal with heavy metal pollution.

10. Photo-induced transformations of mercury(II) species in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

Deng Lin; Fu Dafang; Deng Nansheng

2009-01-01

The effects of algae (i.e., Chlorella vulgaris), Fe(III), humic substances, and pH on the photoreduction of Hg(II) under the irradiation of metal halide lamps (λ ≥ 365 nm, 250 W) were investigated in this paper. The photoreduction rate of Hg(II) was found to increase with the increasing concentration of algae, Fe(III), and humic substances. The cooperation action of Fe(III) and humic substances accelerated the photoreduction of Hg(II). When the initial concentration of Hg(II) was in the range of 0.0-200.0 μg L -1 with initial algae concentrations 7.0 x 10 9 cells L -1 at pH 7.0, the initial photoreduction rate of Hg(II) could be expressed by the equation: -dC Hg(II) /dt = 0.65 x [C Hg(II) ] 0.39 with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9912. The study on the photochemical process in terms of total mercury mass balance revealed that more than 40.86% of Hg(II) from the algal suspension was reduced to volatile metallic mercury. This paper discussed the photoreduction mechanism of Hg(II) in the presence of algae. This research will provide information for predicting the photoreduction of Hg(II) in the real environment. It will be helpful for understanding the photochemical transformation of Hg(II) and the formation of DGM in natural water in the presence of algae complexes. It will also be helpful for providing new methods to deal with heavy metal pollution.

11. Transforming criticality control methods for EBR-II fuel handling during reactor decommissioning

Eberle, C.S.; Dean, E.M.; Angelo, P.L.

1995-01-01

A review of the Department of Energy (DOE) request to decommission the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) was conducted in order to develop a scope of work and analysis method for performing the safety review of the facility. Evaluation of the current national standards, DOE orders, EBR-II nuclear safeguards and criticality control practices showed that a decommissioning policy for maintaining criticality safety during a long term fuel transfer process did not exist. The purpose of this research was to provide a technical basis for transforming the reactor from an instrumentation and measurement controlled system to a system that provides both physical constraint and administrative controls to prevent criticality accidents. Essentially, this was done by modifying the reactor core configuration, reactor operations procedures and system instrumentation to meet the safety practices of ANS-8.1-1983. Subcritical limits were determined by applying established liquid metal reactor methods for both the experimental and computational validations

12. Redox characterization of the Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite

Jones, Adele M.; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David

2017-12-01

The reduction potential of Fe(II)-Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide systems provides an important control on the biogeochemical cycling of redox-sensitive elements such as carbon and nitrogen as well as trace metals and organic contaminants in natural systems. As such, an in-depth understanding of the factors controlling the reduction potential of such systems is critical to predicting the likely transformation, transport and fate of these species in natural and perturbed environments. In this study the mineralogy and reduction potential of ferrihydrite suspensions at pH 6.50 and pH 7.00 were determined over the course of their Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation to lepidocrocite and goethite using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and mediated electrochemical approaches. The measured reduction potentials were compared to those of analogous Fe(II)-Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide suspensions reacted for 5 min containing pure ferrihydrite (Fh), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (Gt). The reduction potentials of the pure Fe(II)-Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide suspensions were, respectively, +47.5, -13.5 and -122.3 mV vs. SHE at pH 6.5, and -22.9, -84.1 and -189.7 mV vs. SHE at pH 7. These values are in good agreement with reduction potentials calculated using the Nernst equation and reported thermodynamic solubility products indicating that these suspensions had reached equilibrium within 5 min. The reduction potential of the pH 6.50 Fe(II)-ferrihydrite suspension decreased from +47.4 mV to -126.4 mV over a week, and from -20.1 mV to -188.4 mV (all vs. SHE) after 24 h at pH 7. The changes in reduction potential over time matched well to those calculated from the relative proportion of each pure Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide present suggesting that Fe3+ activity was influenced by the mix of iron oxides present rather than the most insoluble solid species. Finally, evidence is provided that adsorbed Fe(II) has the capacity to reduce a significantly larger fraction of a reducible species than the aqueous Fe(II

13. Heteroscedastic Tests Statistics for One-Way Analysis of Variance: The Trimmed Means and Hall's Transformation Conjunction

Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

2005-01-01

To deal with nonnormal and heterogeneous data for the one-way fixed effect analysis of variance model, the authors adopted a trimmed means method in conjunction with Hall's invertible transformation into a heteroscedastic test statistic (Alexander-Govern test or Welch test). The results of simulation experiments showed that the proposed technique…

14. Statistics

Hayslett, H T

1991-01-01

Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

15. The transformation of ordinal scale for parametric statistic analysis on dental health questionnaire

2009-03-01

Full Text Available Background: Questioner Measurement is very customize, it means that researchers make very individual based on the aim of the research. Frequently, the results of questioner measurements are numeric rank and index or both of them. Numeric rank and index are categorical data. Beside of validity and reliability problems, they have analytical problems as well. So, they need transformation to scale type (ratio, interval data in order to minimize their problems. Purpose: This article reviews the effectiveness of two type data transformation in dental health research measurement. reviews: There are two type data transformations, i.e. interval equivalency and sum of rating transformation method. Conclusion: Interval equivalency transformation method is more effective for the data come from index, and sum of rating transformation method is more effective for the data come from numeric rank.

16. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Shi, Lei; Rothenberger, Alexander

2015-01-01

Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide

17. Islamic Educational Transformation through Inmate Social Interaction at Palu Correctional Facility Class II A, Central Sulawesi

Yusra

2017-06-01

Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.

18. Numerical computation of the discrete Fourier transform and its applications in the statistic processing of experimental data

1977-06-01

The Integral Fourier Transform has a large range of applications in such areas as communication theory, circuit theory, physics, etc. In order to perform discrete Fourier Transform the Finite Fourier Transform is defined; it operates upon N samples of a uniformely sampled continuous function. All the properties known in the continuous case can be found in the discrete case also. The first part of the paper presents the relationship between the Finite Fourier Transform and the Integral one. The computing of a Finite Fourier Transform is a problem in itself since in order to transform a set of N data we have to perform N 2 ''operations'' if the transformation relations are used directly. An algorithm known as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) reduces this figure from N 2 to a more reasonable Nlog 2 N, when N is a power of two. The original Cooley and Tuckey algorithm for FFT can be further improved when higher basis are used. The price to be paid in this case is the increase in complexity of such algorithms. The recurrence relations and a comparation among such algorithms are presented. The key point in understanding the application of FFT resides in the convolution theorem which states that the convolution (an N 2 type procedure) of the primitive functions is equivalent to the ordinar multiplication of their transforms. Since filtering is actually a convolution process we present several procedures to perform digital filtering by means of FFT. The best is the one using the segmentation of records and the transformation of pairs of records. In the digital processing of signals, besides digital filtering a special attention is paid to the estimation of various statistical characteristics of a signal as: autocorrelation and correlation functions, periodiograms, density power sepctrum, etc. We give several algorithms for the consistent and unbiased estimation of such functions, by means of FFT. (author)

19. The Morse code effect: A crystal-crystal transformation observed in gel-grown lead (II) oxalate crystals

Lisgarten, J. N.; Marks, J. A.

2018-05-01

This paper reports on an unusual crystal-crystal transformation phenomenon, which we have called the Morse Code Effect, based on the change in appearance of lead(II) oxalate crystals grown in agarose gels.

20. Construction of type-II Bäcklund transformation for the mKdV hierarchy

Gomes, J F; Retore, A L; Zimerman, A H

2015-01-01

From an algebraic construction of the mKdV hierarchy we observe that the space component of the Lax operator plays the role of a universal algebraic object. This fact induces the universality of a gauge transformation that relates two field configurations of a given member of the hierarchy. Such gauge transformation generates the Bäcklund transformation (BT). In this paper we propose a systematic construction of BT for the entire mKdV hierarchy from the known type-II BT of the sinh-Gordon theory. We explicitly construct the BT of the first few integrable models associated to positive and negative grade-time evolutions. Solutions of these transformations for several cases describing the transition from vacuum–vacuum and the vacuum to one-soliton solutions which determines the value for the auxiliary field and the Bäcklund parameter respectively, independently of the model. The same follows for the scattering of two one-soliton solutions. The resultant delay is determined by a condition independent of the model considered. (paper)

1. Statistically based reevaluation of PISC-II round robin test data

Heasler, P.G.; Taylor, T.T.; Doctor, S.R.

1993-05-01

This report presents a re-analysis of an international PISC-II (Programme for Inspection of Steel Components, Phase 2) round-robin inspection results using formal statistical techniques to account for experimental error. The analysis examines US team performance vs. other participants performance,flaw sizing performance and errors associated with flaw sizing, factors influencing flaw detection probability, performance of all participants with respect to recently adopted ASME Section 11 flaw detection performance demonstration requirements, and develops conclusions concerning ultrasonic inspection capability. Inspection data were gathered on four heavy section steel components which included two plates and two nozzle configurations

2. Statistics

Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

3. In Situ Monitoring and Modeling of the Solution-Mediated Polymorphic Transformation of Rifampicin: From Form II to Form I.

Guo, Nannan; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Na; Xiao, Yan; Huang, Jingjing; Guo, Yanmei; Zong, Shuyi; Hao, Hongxun

2018-01-01

In this article, the solution-mediated polymorphic transformation of rifampicin was investigated and simulated in 3 solvents at 30°C. The solid-state form I and form II of rifampicin was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To explore the relative stability, solubility data of form I and form II of rifampicin in butan-1-ol were determined using a dynamical method. In addition, Raman spectroscopy and focused beam reflectance measurement were used to in situ monitor the transformation of rifampicin from form II to form I. The liquid state concentration of rifampicin was measured by UV spectroscopic method. To investigate the effect of solvent on transformation, the transformation experiments were carried out in 3 solvents. Furthermore, a mathematical model was built to describe the kinetics of dissolution, nucleation, and growth processes during transformation by using experimental data. By combination of experimental and simulation results, it was found that the transformation process of rifampicin is controlled by dissolution of form II in heptane, whereas the transformation in hexane and octane was firstly controlled by dissolution of solid-state form and then controlled by growth of form I. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4. The statistical mind in modern society. The Netherlands 1850-1940. Volume II: statistics and scientific work

Stamhuis, I.H.; Klep, P.M.M.; Maarseveen, J.G.S.J. van

2008-01-01

In the period 1850-1940 statistics developed as a new combination of theory and practice. A wide range of phenomena were looked at in a novel way and this statistical mindset had a pervasive influence in contemporary society. This development of statistics is closely interlinked with the process of

5. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N

1999-01-01

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...

6. Statistics

2005-01-01

For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

7. Statistics

2001-01-01

For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

8. Statistics

2000-01-01

For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

9. Statistics

1999-01-01

For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

10. Fukunaga-Koontz feature transformation for statistical structural damage detection and hierarchical neuro-fuzzy damage localisation

Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

2017-07-01

Considering jointly damage sensitive features (DSFs) of signals recorded by multiple sensors, applying advanced transformations to these DSFs and assessing systematically their contribution to damage detectability and localisation can significantly enhance the performance of structural health monitoring systems. This philosophy is explored here for partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) of acceleration responses. They are interrogated with the help of the linear discriminant analysis based on the Fukunaga-Koontz transformation using datasets of the healthy and selected reference damage states. Then, a simple but efficient fast forward selection procedure is applied to rank the DSF components with respect to statistical distance measures specialised for either damage detection or localisation. For the damage detection task, the optimal feature subsets are identified based on the statistical hypothesis testing. For damage localisation, a hierarchical neuro-fuzzy tool is developed that uses the DSF ranking to establish its own optimal architecture. The proposed approaches are evaluated experimentally on data from non-destructively simulated damage in a laboratory scale wind turbine blade. The results support our claim of being able to enhance damage detectability and localisation performance by transforming and optimally selecting DSFs. It is demonstrated that the optimally selected PACCs from multiple sensors or their Fukunaga-Koontz transformed versions can not only improve the detectability of damage via statistical hypothesis testing but also increase the accuracy of damage localisation when used as inputs into a hierarchical neuro-fuzzy network. Furthermore, the computational effort of employing these advanced soft computing models for damage localisation can be significantly reduced by using transformed DSFs.

11. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

2018-04-01

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

12. Relationship between increasing concentrations of two carcinogens and statistical image descriptors of foci morphology in the cell transformation assay.

Callegaro, Giulia; Corvi, Raffaella; Salovaara, Susan; Urani, Chiara; Stefanini, Federico M

2017-06-01

Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) have long been proposed for the identification of chemical carcinogenicity potential. The endpoint of these in vitro assays is represented by the phenotypic alterations in cultured cells, which are characterized by the change from the non-transformed to the transformed phenotype. Despite the wide fields of application and the numerous advantages of CTAs, their use in regulatory toxicology has been limited in part due to concerns about the subjective nature of visual scoring, i.e. the step in which transformed colonies or foci are evaluated through morphological features. An objective evaluation of morphological features has been previously obtained through automated digital processing of foci images to extract the value of three statistical image descriptors. In this study a further potential of the CTA using BALB/c 3T3 cells is addressed by analysing the effect of increasing concentrations of two known carcinogens, benzo[a]pyrene and NiCl 2 , with different modes of action on foci morphology. The main result of our quantitative evaluation shows that the concentration of the considered carcinogens has an effect on foci morphology that is statistically significant for the mean of two among the three selected descriptors. Statistical significance also corresponds to visual relevance. The statistical analysis of variations in foci morphology due to concentration allowed to quantify morphological changes that can be visually appreciated but not precisely determined. Therefore, it has the potential of providing new quantitative parameters in CTAs, and of exploiting all the information encoded in foci. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

13. Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water

2009-01-01

Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 ], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO 3 ) and α-PbO 2 and β-PbO 2 was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

14. Statistics

2003-01-01

For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

15. Statistics

2004-01-01

For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

16. Statistics

2000-01-01

For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

17. Metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation as a way of forming novel Ni(II)− and Cu(II)−salicylaldimine structures

Wu, Jing-Yun, E-mail: jyunwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Tsai, Chi-Jou; Chang, Ching-Yun; Wu, Yung-Yuan

2017-02-15

A Zn(II)−salicylaldimine complex [Zn(L{sup salpyca})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1, where H{sub 2}L{sup salpyca}=4-hydroxy-3-(((pyridin-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)benzoic acid), with a one-dimensional (1D) chain structure, has been successfully converted to a discrete Ni(II)−salicylaldimine complex [Ni(L{sup salpyca})(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}] (2) and an infinite Cu(II)−salicylaldimine complex ([Cu(L{sup salpyca})]·3H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) through a metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation process. However, such processes do not worked by Mn(II) and Co(II) ions. Solid-state structure analyses reveal that complexes 1–3 form comparable coordinative or supramolecular zigzag chains running along the crystallographic [201] direction. In addition, replacing Zn(II) ion by Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions caused changes in coordination environment and sphere of metal centers, from a 5-coordinate intermediate geometry of square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal in 1 to a 6-coordinate octahedral geometry in 2, and to a 4-coordiante square planar geometry in 3. This study shows that metal-ion exchange serves as a very efficient way of forming new coordination complexes that may not be obtained through direct synthesis. - Graphical abstract: A Zn(II)−salicylaldimine zigzag chain has been successfully converted to a Ni(II)−salicylaldimine supramolecular zigzag chain and a Cu(II)−salicylaldimine coordinative zigzag chain through metal-ion exchange induced structural transformations, which is not achieved by Mn(II) and Co(II) ions.

18. Transformation

Bock, Lars Nicolai

2011-01-01

Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

19. TRANSFORMATION

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

20. TRANSFORMER

Baker, W.R.

1959-08-25

Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

1. Statistical inference for extended or shortened phase II studies based on Simon's two-stage designs.

Zhao, Junjun; Yu, Menggang; Feng, Xi-Ping

2015-06-07

Simon's two-stage designs are popular choices for conducting phase II clinical trials, especially in the oncology trials to reduce the number of patients placed on ineffective experimental therapies. Recently Koyama and Chen (2008) discussed how to conduct proper inference for such studies because they found that inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan used. In particular, they proposed an inference method for studies when the actual second stage sample sizes differ from planned ones. We consider an alternative inference method based on likelihood ratio. In particular, we order permissible sample paths under Simon's two-stage designs using their corresponding conditional likelihood. In this way, we can calculate p-values using the common definition: the probability of obtaining a test statistic value at least as extreme as that observed under the null hypothesis. In addition to providing inference for a couple of scenarios where Koyama and Chen's method can be difficult to apply, the resulting estimate based on our method appears to have certain advantage in terms of inference properties in many numerical simulations. It generally led to smaller biases and narrower confidence intervals while maintaining similar coverages. We also illustrated the two methods in a real data setting. Inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan. Reported P-values, point estimates and confidence intervals for the response rate are not usually adjusted for the design's adaptiveness. Proper statistical inference procedures should be used.

2. Analyses of statistical transformations of row data describing free proline concentration in sugar beet exposed to drought

Putnik-Delić Marina I.

2010-01-01

Full Text Available Eleven sugar beet genotypes were tested for their capacity to tolerate drought. Plants were grown in semi-controlled conditions, in the greenhouse, and watered daily. After 90 days, water deficit was imposed by the cessation of watering, while the control plants continued to be watered up to 80% of FWC. Five days later concentration of free proline in leaves was determined. Analysis was done in three replications. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 9.0, Minitab 15, and R2.11.1. Differences between genotypes were statistically processed by Duncan test. Because of nonormality of the data distribution and heterogeneity of variances in different groups, two types of transformations of row data were applied. For this type of data more appropriate in eliminating nonormality was Johnson transformation, as opposed to Box-Cox. Based on the both transformations it may be concluded that in all genotypes except for 10, concentration of free proline differs significantly between treatment (drought and the control.

3. Proteolytic activation transforms heparin cofactor II into a host defense molecule.

Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Tollefsen, Douglas M; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

2013-06-15

The abundant serine proteinase inhibitor heparin cofactor II (HCII) has been proposed to inhibit extravascular thrombin. However, the exact physiological role of this plasma protein remains enigmatic. In this study, we demonstrate a previously unknown role for HCII in host defense. Proteolytic cleavage of the molecule induced a conformational change, thereby inducing endotoxin-binding and antimicrobial properties. Analyses employing representative peptide epitopes mapped these effects to helices A and D. Mice deficient in HCII showed increased susceptibility to invasive infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with a significantly increased cytokine response. Correspondingly, decreased levels of HCII were observed in wild-type animals challenged with bacteria or endotoxin. In humans, proteolytically cleaved HCII forms were detected during wounding and in association with bacteria. Thus, the protease-induced uncovering of cryptic epitopes in HCII, which transforms the molecule into a host defense factor, represents a previously unknown regulatory mechanism in HCII biology and innate immunity.

4. Preparation of electrochromic thin films by transformation of manganese(II) carbonate

Stojkovikj, Sasho; Najdoski, Metodija; Koleva, Violeta; Demiri, Sani

2013-10-01

A new chemical bath method for deposition of manganese(II) carbonate thin film on electroconductive FTO glass substrates is designed. The homogeneous thin films with thickness in the range of 70 to 500 nm are deposited at about 98 °C from aqueous solution containing urea and MnCl2. The chemical process is based on a low temperature hydrolysis of the manganese complexes with urea. Three types of films are under consideration: as-deposited, annealed and electrochemically transformed thin films. The structure of the films is studied by XRD, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical and optical properties are examined in eight different electrolytes (neutral and alkaline) and the best results are achieved in two component aqueous solution of 0.1 M KNO3 and 0.01 M KOH. It is established that the as-deposited MnCO3 film undergoes electrochemically transformation into birnessite-type manganese(IV) oxide films, which exhibit electrochromic color changes (from bright brown to pale yellow and vice versa) with 30% difference in the transmittance of the colored and bleached state at 400 nm.

5. Transforming a Business Statistics Course with Just-in-Time Teaching

Bangs, Joann

2012-01-01

This paper describes changing the way a business statistics course is taught through the use of just-in-time teaching methods. Implementing this method allowed for more time in the class to be spent focused on problem solving, resulting in students being able to handle more difficult problems. Students' perceptions of the just-in-time assignments…

6. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

2017-10-01

Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

7. Statistical properties of many-particle spectra. IV. New ensembles by Stieltjes transform methods

Pandey, A.

1981-01-01

New Gaussian matrix ensembles, with arbitrary centroids and variances for the matrix elements, are defined as modifications of the three standard ones: GOE, GUE and GSE. The average density and two-point correlation function are given in the general case in terms of the corresponding Stieltjes transforms, first used by Pastur for the density. It is shown for the centroid-modified ensemble K+αH that when the operator K preserves the underlying symmetries of the standard ensemble H, then, as the magnitude of α grows, the transition of the fluctuations to those of H is very rapid and discontinuous in the limit of asymptotic dimensionality. Corresponding results are found for other ensembles. A similar Dyson result for the effects of the breaking of a model symmetry on the fluctuations is generalized to any model symmetry, as well as to the fundamental symmetries such as time-reversed invariance

8. The transformation of ferrihydrite in the presence of trace Fe(II): The effect of the anionic media

Liu Hui; Guo Hui; Li Ping; Wei Yu

2008-01-01

The transformation from ferrihydrite to various iron oxides and iron oxyhydroxides has been given much attention not only in environmental science and geochemistry but also in biology and material science. This laboratory study attempted to investigate Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite in sulfate-rich medium. The results indicate that the transformation in sulfate-rich medium differs from that in Cl - medium in the species, the amount and the morphology of products and transformation rate. Lepidocrocite is a main ingredient in the product in Cl - medium at room temperature (RT), while goethite is the only product in SO 4 2- medium at RT. Goethite particles obtained in Cl - medium are star-like but rod-like in SO 4 2- medium. The transformation rate in the latter medium is obviously slower than that in the former medium. The formation of lepidocrocite depends on both the ionic strength of the system and the dissolution rate of ferrihydrite. - Graphical abstract: Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite in sulfate-rich medium was studied. Lepidocrocite is a main ingredient in the product in Cl - medium at room temperature (RT), while goethite is the only product in SO 4 2- medium. Goethite particles obtained in Cl - medium are star-like but rod-like in SO 4 2- medium

9. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

Schmidt, Tobias M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Worseck, Gabor [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hennawi, Joseph F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Crighton, Neil H. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lukić, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oñorbe, Jose, E-mail: tschmidt@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)

2017-10-17

The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of t{sub Q} > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

10. Investigating the effect of ascorbate on the Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of the poorly crystalline iron mineral ferrihydrite.

Xiao, Wei; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

2018-05-09

The inorganic core of the iron storage protein, ferritin, is recognized as being analogous to the poorly crystalline iron mineral, ferrihydrite (Fh). Fh is also abundant in soils where it is central to the redox cycling of particular soil contaminants and trace elements. In geochemical circles, it is recognized that Fh can undergo Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation to form more crystalline iron minerals, vastly altering the reactivity of the iron oxide and, in some cases, the redox poise of the system. Of relevance to both geochemical and biological systems, we investigate here if the naturally occurring reducing agent, ascorbate, can effect such an Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of Fh at 25 °C and circumneutral pH. The transformation of ferrihydrite to possible secondary Fe(III) mineralization products was quantified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, with supporting data obtained using X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Whilst the amount of Fe(II) formed in the presence of ascorbate has resulted in Fh transformation in previous studies, no transformation of Fh to more crystalline Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides was observed in this study. Further experiments indicated this was due to the ability of ascorbate to inhibit the formation of goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite. The manner in which ascorbate associated with Fh was investigated using FTIR and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The majority of ascorbate was found to adsorb to the Fh surface under anoxic conditions but, under oxic conditions, ascorbate was initially adsorbed then became incorporated within the Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide structure (i.e., co-precipitated) over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

11. Crack growth in non-homogeneous transformable ceramics. Part II : Crack deflection

Stam, Geert; Giessen, Erik van der

1996-01-01

Crack growth in transformation toughened ceramics is studied using a micromechanics based continuum model which accounts for both dilatant and shear transformation strain components. In the computations, the transformable phase is taken to be distributed non-homogeneously in order to model Zirconia

12. Research methodology in dentistry: Part II — The relevance of statistics in research

2012-01-01

The lifeline of original research depends on adept statistical analysis. However, there have been reports of statistical misconduct in studies that could arise from the inadequate understanding of the fundamental of statistics. There have been several reports on this across medical and dental literature. This article aims at encouraging the reader to approach statistics from its logic rather than its theoretical perspective. The article also provides information on statistical misuse in the Journal of Conservative Dentistry between the years 2008 and 2011 PMID:22876003

13. Transform Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes. Volume II. Logical Design and Implementation.

1982-11-01

i A. nE aib’ = a(bJ) ; j=0, 1, ... , n-l (2-8) i=01 Similarly, the inverse transform is obtained by interpolation of the polynomial a(z) from its n...with the transform so that either a forward or an inverse transform may be used to encode. The only requirement is that tie reverse of the encoding... inverse transform of the received sequence is the polynomial sum r(z) = e(z) + a(z), where e(z) is the inverse transform of the error polynomial E(z), and a

14. Microarray analysis of altered gene expression in murine fibroblasts transformed by nickel(II) to nickel(II)-resistant malignant phenotype

Kowara, Renata; Karaczyn, Aldona; Cheng, Robert Y.S.; Salnikow, Konstantin; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S.

2005-01-01

B200 cells are Ni(II)-transformed mouse BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts displaying a malignant phenotype and increased resistance to Ni(II) toxicity. In an attempt to find genes whose expression has been altered by the transformation, the Atlas Mouse Stress/Toxicology cDNA Expression Array (Clontech Laboratories, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) was used to analyze the levels of gene expression in both parental and Ni(II)-transformed cells. Comparison of the results revealed a significant up- or downregulation of the expression of 62 of the 588 genes present in the array (approximately 10.5%) in B200 cells. These genes were assigned to different functional groups, including transcription factors and oncogenes (9/14; fractions in parentheses denote the number of up-regulated versus the total number of genes assigned to this group), stress and DNA damage response genes (11/12), growth factors and hormone receptors (6/9), metabolism (7/7), cell adhesion (2/7), cell cycle (3/6), apoptosis (3/4), and cell proliferation (2/3). Among those genes, overexpression of beta-catenin and its downstream targets c-myc and cyclin D1, together with upregulated cyclin G, points at the malignant character of B200 cells. While the increased expression of glutathione (GSH) synthetase, glutathione-S-transferase A4 (GSTA4), and glutathione-S-transferase theta (GSTT), together with high level of several genes responding to oxidative stress, suggests the enforcement of antioxidant defenses in Ni-transformed cells

15. Measuring individual significant change on the Beck Depression Inventory-II through IRT-based statistics.

Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.

2013-01-01

Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual

16. Second-order statistics of colour codes modulate transformations that effectuate varying degrees of scene invariance and illumination invariance.

Mausfeld, Rainer; Andres, Johannes

2002-01-01

We argue, from an ethology-inspired perspective, that the internal concepts 'surface colours' and 'illumination colours' are part of the data format of two different representational primitives. Thus, the internal concept of 'colour' is not a unitary one but rather refers to two different types of 'data structure', each with its own proprietary types of parameters and relations. The relation of these representational structures is modulated by a class of parameterised transformations whose effects are mirrored in the idealised computational achievements of illumination invariance of colour codes, on the one hand, and scene invariance, on the other hand. Because the same characteristics of a light array reaching the eye can be physically produced in many different ways, the visual system, then, has to make an 'inference' whether a chromatic deviation of the space-averaged colour codes from the neutral point is due to a 'non-normal', ie chromatic, illumination or due to an imbalanced spectral reflectance composition. We provide evidence that the visual system uses second-order statistics of chromatic codes of a single view of a scene in order to modulate corresponding transformations. In our experiments we used centre surround configurations with inhomogeneous surrounds given by a random structure of overlapping circles, referred to as Seurat configurations. Each family of surrounds has a fixed space-average of colour codes, but differs with respect to the covariance matrix of colour codes of pixels that defines the chromatic variance along some chromatic axis and the covariance between luminance and chromatic channels. We found that dominant wavelengths of red-green equilibrium settings of the infield exhibited a stable and strong dependence on the chromatic variance of the surround. High variances resulted in a tendency towards 'scene invariance', low variances in a tendency towards 'illumination invariance' of the infield.

17. Statistical Decision Support Tools for System-Oriented Runway Management, Phase II

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The feasibility of developing a statistical decision support system for traffic flow management in the terminal area and runway load balancing was demonstrated in...

18. Inverse scattering transform method and soliton solutions for Davey-Stewartson II equation

Arkadiev, V.A.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Polivanov, M.C.

1989-01-01

The inverse scattering method for Davey-Stewartson II (DS-II) equation including both soliton and continuous spectrum solutions is developed. The explicit formulae for N-soliton solutions are given. Note that our solitons decrease as |z| -2 with z tending to infinity. (author). 8 refs

19. Abiotic and microbial interactions during anaerobic transformations of Fe(II and NOx-

Flynn ePicardal

2012-03-01

Full Text Available Microbial Fe(II oxidation using NO3- as the terminal electron acceptor (nitrate-dependent Fe(II oxidation; NDFO has been studied for over 15 years. Although there are reports of autotrophic isolates and stable enrichments, many of the bacteria capable of NDFO are known organotrophic NO3- -reducers that require the presence of an organic, primary substrate, e.g., acetate, for significant amounts of Fe(II oxidation. Although the thermodynamics of Fe(II oxidation are favorable when coupled to either NO3- or NO2- reduction, the kinetics of abiotic Fe(II oxidation by NO3- are relatively slow except under special conditions. NDFO is typically studied in batch cultures containing millimolar concentrations of Fe(II, NO3-, and the primary substrate. In such systems, NO2- is often observed to accumulate in culture media during Fe(II oxidation. Compared to NO3-, abiotic reactions of biogenic NO2- and Fe(II are relatively rapid. The kinetics and reaction pathways of Fe(II oxidation by NO2- are strongly affected by medium composition and pH, reactant concentration, and the presence of Fe(II-sorptive surfaces, e.g., Fe(III oxyhydroxides and cellular surfaces. In batch cultures, the combination of abiotic and microbial Fe(II oxidation can alter product distribution and, more importantly, results in the formation of intracellular precipitates and extracellular Fe(III oxyhydroxide encrustations that apparently limit further cell growth and Fe(II oxidation. Unless steps are taken to minimize or account for potential abiotic reactions, results of microbial NDFO studies can be obfuscated by artifacts of the chosen experimental conditions, the use of inappropriate analytical methods, and the resulting uncertainties about the relative importance of abiotic and microbial reactions.In this manuscript, abiotic reactions of NO3- and NO2- with aqueous Fe2+, chelated Fe(II, and solid-phase Fe(II are reviewed along with factors that can influence overall NDFO reac

20. On the propagation of a charged particle beam in a random medium. II: Discrete binary statistics

Promraning, G.C.; Prinja, A.K.

1995-01-01

The authors consider the linear transport of energetic charged particles through a background stochastic mixture consisting of two immiscible fluids or solids. The transport model used is the continuous slowing down description in the straight ahead approximation. Under the assumption of homogeneous Markovian mixing statistics and separable (in space and energy) stopping powers with a common energy dependence, the problem of finding the ensemble averaged intensity and dose is reduced to simple quadrature. The use of the Liouville master equation offers an alternate approach to this problem, and leads to an exact differential equations whose solutions give the ensemble-averaged intensity and dose. This master equation approach applies to inhomogeneous Markovian statistics as well as non-separable stopping powers. Both treatments can be extended, in an approximate way, to non-Markovian statistics. Typical numerical results are given, contrasting this stochastic treatment with the standard treatment which ignores the stochastic nature of the problem. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

1. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

Khanderi, Jayaprakash

2015-03-01

Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

2. Introduction to modern theoretical physics. Volume II. Quantum theory and statistical physics

Harris, E.G.

1975-01-01

The topics discussed include the history and principles, some solvable problems, and symmetry in quantum mechanics, interference phenomena, approximation methods, some applications of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, relativistic wave equations, quantum theory of radiation, second quantization, elementary particles and their interactions, thermodynamics, equilibrium statistical mechanics and its applications, the kinetic theory of gases, and collective phenomena

3. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys - II. Analysis of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey

Helbig, P; Marlow, D; Quast, R; Wilkinson, PN; Browne, IWA; Koopmans, LVE

We present constraints on the cosmological constant lambda(0) from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this is the largest gravitational lens survey which has been analysed, cosmological constraints are only comparable to those from optical

4. Statistical Average of Spin Operators for Calculation of Three-Component Magnetization (II): Solution of Equation

Wang Huaiyu; Long Yao; Chen Nanxian

2006-01-01

In this paper, the solution of Chebyshev equation with its argument being greater than 1 is obtained. The initial value of the derivative of the solution is the expression of magnetization, which is valid for any spin quantum number S. The Chebyshev equation is transformed from an ordinary differential equation obtained when we dealt with Heisenberg model, in order to calculate all three components of magnetization, by many-body Green's function under random phase approximation. The Chebyshev functions with argument being greater than 1 are discussed. This paper shows that the Chebyshev polynomials with their argument being greater than 1 have their physical application.

5. Dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints. II. Local-symmetry transformations

Chitaia, N.P.; Gogilidze, S.A.; Surovtsev, Y.S.

1997-01-01

In the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian formalism by Dirac, local symmetries of dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints are investigated. The method of constructing the generator of local-symmetry transformations is presented both for theories with an algebra of constraints of a special form (a majority of the physically interesting theories) and in the general case without restrictions on the algebra of constraints. It is proven that second-class constraints do not contribute to the transformation law of the local symmetry entirely stipulated by all the first-class constraints. A mechanism of the occurrence of higher derivatives of coordinates and group parameters in the symmetry transformation law in Noether close-quote s second theorem is elucidated. In the latter case it is shown that the obtained transformations of symmetry are canonical in the extended (by Ostrogradsky) phase space. It is thereby shown that in the general case the degeneracy of theories with first- and second-class constraints is due to their invariance under local-symmetry transformations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

6. Absence of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor is associated with poorer prognosis in HER2-negative breast tumours

Paiva, C E; Drigo, S A; Rosa, F E

2010-01-01

BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-signalling pathway in breast carcinomas (BCs) remained elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of TGF-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF-betaRII) expression levels in t...

7. Statistical Analysis of Partial Discharge Characteristics in Transformer Oil at the “Point-Plane” Electrode at Alternating Voltage

Korobeynikov S.M.

2017-08-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problems related to measuring and analyzing the characteristics of partial discharges which are the main instrument for oil-filled high-voltage electrical equipment diagnosing. The experiments on recording of partial discharges in transformer oil have been carried out in the “point-plane” electrode system at alternating current. The instantaneous voltage and the apparent charge have been measured depending on the root-mean-square voltage and the phase angle of partial discharges. This paper aimes at carrying out a statistical analysis of the obtained experimental results, in particular, the construction of a parametric probabilistic model of the dependence of the partial discharge inception voltage distribution on the value of the root-mean-square voltage. It differs from usual discharges which occur in liquid dielectric materials in case of sharp inhomogeneous electrode system. It has been suggested that discharges of a different type are the discharges in gas bubbles that occur when partial discharges in a liquid emerge. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the number of such discharges increases with increasing the root-mean-square voltage value. It is the main novelty of this paper. This corresponds to the nature of the occurrence of such discharges. After rejecting the observations corresponding to discharges in gas bubbles, a parametric probabilistic model has been constructed. The model obtained makes it possible to determine the probability of partial discharge occurrence in a liquid at a given value of the instantaneous voltage depending on the root-mean-square voltage.

8. Characterization of statistical prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): II. Application to dose reduction

Lauzier, Pascal Thériault; Chen Guanghong

2013-01-01

Purpose: The ionizing radiation imparted to patients during computed tomography exams is raising concerns. This paper studies the performance of a scheme called dose reduction using prior image constrained compressed sensing (DR-PICCS). The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of a statistical model of x-ray detection in the DR-PICCS framework and its impact on spatial resolution. Methods: Both numerical simulations with known ground truth and in vivo animal dataset were used in this study. In numerical simulations, a phantom was simulated with Poisson noise and with varying levels of eccentricity. Both the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and the PICCS algorithms were used to reconstruct images. In PICCS reconstructions, the prior image was generated using two different denoising methods: a simple Gaussian blur and a more advanced diffusion filter. Due to the lack of shift-invariance in nonlinear image reconstruction such as the one studied in this paper, the concept of local spatial resolution was used to study the sharpness of a reconstructed image. Specifically, a directional metric of image sharpness, the so-called pseudopoint spread function (pseudo-PSF), was employed to investigate local spatial resolution. Results: In the numerical studies, the pseudo-PSF was reduced from twice the voxel width in the prior image down to less than 1.1 times the voxel width in DR-PICCS reconstructions when the statistical model was not included. At the same noise level, when statistical weighting was used, the pseudo-PSF width in DR-PICCS reconstructed images varied between 1.5 and 0.75 times the voxel width depending on the direction along which it was measured. However, this anisotropy was largely eliminated when the prior image was generated using diffusion filtering; the pseudo-PSF width was reduced to below one voxel width in that case. In the in vivo study, a fourfold improvement in CNR was achieved while qualitatively maintaining sharpness

9. Robust statistics for deterministic and stochastic gravitational waves in non-Gaussian noise. II. Bayesian analyses

Allen, Bruce; Creighton, Jolien D.E.; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Romano, Joseph D.

2003-01-01

In a previous paper (paper I), we derived a set of near-optimal signal detection techniques for gravitational wave detectors whose noise probability distributions contain non-Gaussian tails. The methods modify standard methods by truncating or clipping sample values which lie in those non-Gaussian tails. The methods were derived, in the frequentist framework, by minimizing false alarm probabilities at fixed false detection probability in the limit of weak signals. For stochastic signals, the resulting statistic consisted of a sum of an autocorrelation term and a cross-correlation term; it was necessary to discard 'by hand' the autocorrelation term in order to arrive at the correct, generalized cross-correlation statistic. In the present paper, we present an alternative derivation of the same signal detection techniques from within the Bayesian framework. We compute, for both deterministic and stochastic signals, the probability that a signal is present in the data, in the limit where the signal-to-noise ratio squared per frequency bin is small, where the signal is nevertheless strong enough to be detected (integrated signal-to-noise ratio large compared to 1), and where the total probability in the non-Gaussian tail part of the noise distribution is small. We show that, for each model considered, the resulting probability is to a good approximation a monotonic function of the detection statistic derived in paper I. Moreover, for stochastic signals, the new Bayesian derivation automatically eliminates the problematic autocorrelation term

10. Verification of COMDES-II Systems Using UPPAAL with Model Transformation

Xu, Ke; Pettersson, Paul; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

2008-01-01

in a timed multitasking environment, modal continuous operation combining reactive control behavior with continuous data processing, etc., by following the principle of separation-of-concerns. In the paper we present a transformational approach to the formal verification of both timing and reactive behaviors...

11. Formation and Transformation of Iron Oxide-Kaolinite Associations in the Presence of Iron(II)

Wei, S.Y.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; Tan, W.F.; Koopal, L.K.

2011-01-01

Iron oxide-kaolinite associations are important components of tropical and subtropical soils and have significant influence on the physical and chemical properties of soils. In this study, the formation and transformation of Fe oxide-kaolinite associations as a function of pH, temperature, and time

12. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lairmore, Michael D. [University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Martinez, Ernest [Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lüscher, Bernhard [Institute of Biochemistry, Klinikum, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Robson, Craig N. [Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Cell and Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Harrod, Robert, E-mail: rharrod@smu.edu [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States)

2015-02-15

The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

13. Statistical inferences with jointly type-II censored samples from two Pareto distributions

2017-08-01

In the several fields of industries the product comes from more than one production line, which is required to work the comparative life tests. This problem requires sampling of the different production lines, then the joint censoring scheme is appeared. In this article we consider the life time Pareto distribution with jointly type-II censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) and the corresponding approximate confidence intervals as well as the bootstrap confidence intervals of the model parameters are obtained. Also Bayesian point and credible intervals of the model parameters are presented. The life time data set is analyzed for illustrative purposes. Monte Carlo results from simulation studies are presented to assess the performance of our proposed method.

14. Parameter sampling capabilities of sequential and simultaneous data assimilation: II. Statistical analysis of numerical results

Fossum, Kristian; Mannseth, Trond

2014-01-01

We assess and compare parameter sampling capabilities of one sequential and one simultaneous Bayesian, ensemble-based, joint state-parameter (JS) estimation method. In the companion paper, part I (Fossum and Mannseth 2014 Inverse Problems 30 114002), analytical investigations lead us to propose three claims, essentially stating that the sequential method can be expected to outperform the simultaneous method for weakly nonlinear forward models. Here, we assess the reliability and robustness of these claims through statistical analysis of results from a range of numerical experiments. Samples generated by the two approximate JS methods are compared to samples from the posterior distribution generated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, using four approximate measures of distance between probability distributions. Forward-model nonlinearity is assessed from a stochastic nonlinearity measure allowing for sufficiently large model dimensions. Both toy models (with low computational complexity, and where the nonlinearity is fairly easy to control) and two-phase porous-media flow models (corresponding to down-scaled versions of problems to which the JS methods have been frequently applied recently) are considered in the numerical experiments. Results from the statistical analysis show strong support of all three claims stated in part I. (paper)

15. Chapter two: Phenomenology of tsunamis II: scaling, event statistics, and inter-event triggering

Geist, Eric L.

2012-01-01

Observations related to tsunami catalogs are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. An examination of scaling relationships between earthquake size (as expressed by scalar seismic moment and mean slip) and tsunami size (as expressed by mean and maximum local run-up and maximum far-field amplitude) indicates that scaling is significant at the 95% confidence level, although there is uncertainty in how well earthquake size can predict tsunami size (R2 ~ 0.4-0.6). In examining tsunami event statistics, current methods used to estimate the size distribution of earthquakes and landslides and the inter-event time distribution of earthquakes are first reviewed. These methods are adapted to estimate the size and inter-event distribution of tsunamis at a particular recording station. Using a modified Pareto size distribution, the best-fit power-law exponents of tsunamis recorded at nine Pacific tide-gauge stations exhibit marked variation, in contrast to the approximately constant power-law exponent for inter-plate thrust earthquakes. With regard to the inter-event time distribution, significant temporal clustering of tsunami sources is demonstrated. For tsunami sources occurring in close proximity to other sources in both space and time, a physical triggering mechanism, such as static stress transfer, is a likely cause for the anomalous clustering. Mechanisms of earthquake-to-earthquake and earthquake-to-landslide triggering are reviewed. Finally, a modification of statistical branching models developed for earthquake triggering is introduced to describe triggering among tsunami sources.

16. A saponification-triggered gelation of ester-based Zn(II) complex through conformational transformations.

Kumar, Ashish; Dubey, Mrigendra; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Daya Shankar

2014-09-11

Novel saponification-triggered gelation in an ester-based bis-salen Zn(II) complex (1) is described. Strategic structural modifications induced by NaOH in 1 tune the dipolar-/π-interactions leading to J-aggregation and the creation of an inorganic gel material (IGM), which has been established by photophysical, DFT and rheological studies.

17. A Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Wave-Electron Correlations Observed by the CHARM II Auroral Sounding Rocket

Dombrowski, M. P.; Labelle, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; Bounds, S. R.; Kaeppler, S. R.

2014-12-01

Langmuir-mode electron plasma waves are frequently observed by spacecraft in active plasma environments such as the ionosphere. Ionospheric Langmuir waves may be excited by the bump-on-tail instability generated by impinging beams of electrons traveling parallel to the background magnetic field (B). The Correlation of High-frequencies and Auroral Roar Measurement (CHARM II) sounding rocket was launched into a substorm at 9:49 UT on 17 February 2010, from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The primary instruments included the University of Iowa Wave-Particle Correlator (WPC), the Dartmouth High-Frequency Experiment (HFE), several charged particle detectors, low-frequency wave instruments, and a magnetometer. The HFE is a receiver system which effectively yields continuous (100% duty cycle) electric-field waveform measurements from 100 kHz to 5 MHz, and which had its detection axis aligned nominally parallel to B. The HFE output was fed on-payload to the WPC, which uses a phase-locked loop to track the incoming wave frequency with the most power, then sorting incoming electrons at eight energy levels into sixteen wave-phase bins. CHARM II encountered several regions of strong Langmuir wave activity throughout its 15-minute flight, and the WPC showed wave-lock and statistically significant particle correlation distributions during several time periods. We show results of an in-depth analysis of the CHARM II WPC data for the entire flight, including statistical analysis of correlations which show evidence of direct interaction with the Langmuir waves, indicating (at various times) trapping of particles and both driving and damping of Langmuir waves by particles. In particular, the sign of the gradient in particle flux appears to correlate with the phase relation between the electrons and the wave field, with possible implications for the wave physics.

18. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. II. Statistical correlation analysis

Torres-Guzmán, José C.; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

2016-05-01

We present a statistical analysis of Liesegang-type patterns formed in a gaseous HCl-NH3 system by ammonium chloride precipitation along glass tubes, as described in Paper I [J. C. Torres-Guzmán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174701 (2016)] of this work. We focus on the detection and characterization of short and long-range correlations within the non-stationary sequence of apparently irregular precipitation bands. To this end we applied several techniques to estimate spatial correlations stemming from different fields, namely, linear auto-correlation via the power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and methods developed in the context of random matrix theory (RMT). In particular RMT methods disclose well pronounced long-range correlations over at least 40 bands in terms of both, band positions and intensity values. By using a variant of the DFA we furnish proof of the nonlinear nature of the detected long-range correlations.

19. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

2013-10-21

In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

20. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

2013-01-01

In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (∼15–20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate K i and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final K i parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion

1. Influence of Rotational Transform and Magnetic Shear on the Energy Content of TJ-II Plasmas

Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Castejon, F.; Jimenez, J. A.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Pastor, I.

2002-01-01

In the magnetic configuration scans performed in TJ-II stellarator, low plasma energy content is found to be related to the presence of low order rational surfaces within the confinement region in low plasma density experiments. Plasma currents of about-1 kA (mainly bootstrap driven) can substantially increase the magnetic shear in TJ-II and under these conditions the confinement is no longer deteriorated by low order rational surfaces. Experiments with higher plasma currents (OH induced currents up to +/-10 kA) show a non-symmetric dependence on the sign of the magnetic shear. Preliminary results show a substantial improvement of the confinement in the case of negative plasma current, while minor changes are observed in the plasma energy content when positive current is induced in magnetic configurations that in vacuum exclude low order rational surfaces. (Author) 12 refs

2. Influence of Rotational Transform and Magnetic Shear on the Energy Content of TJ-II Plasmas

Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Castejon, F.; Jimenez, J. A.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Pastor, I.

2002-07-01

In the magnetic configuration scans performed in TJ-II stellarator, low plasma energy content is found to be related to the presence of low order rational surfaces within the confinement region in low plasma density experiments. Plasma currents of about-1 kA (mainly bootstrap driven) can substantially increase the magnetic shear in TJ-II and under these conditions the confinement is no longer deteriorated by low order rational surfaces. Experiments with higher plasma currents (OH induced currents up to +/-10 kA) show a non-symmetric dependence on the sign of the magnetic shear. Preliminary results show a substantial improvement of the confinement in the case of negative plasma current, while minor changes are observed in the plasma energy content when positive current is induced in magnetic configurations that in vacuum exclude low order rational surfaces. (Author) 12 refs.

3. Minimal agent based model for financial markets II. Statistical properties of the linear and multiplicative dynamics

Alfi, V.; Cristelli, M.; Pietronero, L.; Zaccaria, A.

2009-02-01

We present a detailed study of the statistical properties of the Agent Based Model introduced in paper I [Eur. Phys. J. B, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2009-00028-4] and of its generalization to the multiplicative dynamics. The aim of the model is to consider the minimal elements for the understanding of the origin of the stylized facts and their self-organization. The key elements are fundamentalist agents, chartist agents, herding dynamics and price behavior. The first two elements correspond to the competition between stability and instability tendencies in the market. The herding behavior governs the possibility of the agents to change strategy and it is a crucial element of this class of models. We consider a linear approximation for the price dynamics which permits a simple interpretation of the model dynamics and, for many properties, it is possible to derive analytical results. The generalized non linear dynamics results to be extremely more sensible to the parameter space and much more difficult to analyze and control. The main results for the nature and self-organization of the stylized facts are, however, very similar in the two cases. The main peculiarity of the non linear dynamics is an enhancement of the fluctuations and a more marked evidence of the stylized facts. We will also discuss some modifications of the model to introduce more realistic elements with respect to the real markets.

4. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7 SPECTROSCOPIC M DWARF CATALOG. II. STATISTICAL PARALLAX ANALYSIS

Bochanski, John J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; West, Andrew A.

2011-01-01

We present a statistical parallax analysis of low-mass dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We calculate absolute r-band magnitudes (M r ) as a function of color and spectral type and investigate changes in M r with location in the Milky Way. We find that magnetically active M dwarfs are intrinsically brighter in M r than their inactive counterparts at the same color or spectral type. Metallicity, as traced by the proxy ζ, also affects M r , with metal-poor stars having fainter absolute magnitudes than higher metallicity M dwarfs at the same color or spectral type. Additionally, we measure the velocity ellipsoid and solar reflex motion for each subsample of M dwarfs. We find good agreement between our measured solar peculiar motion and previous results for similar populations, as well as some evidence for differing motions of early and late M-type populations in U and W velocities that cannot be attributed to asymmetric drift. The reflex solar motion and the velocity dispersions both show that younger populations, as traced by magnetic activity and location near the Galactic plane, have experienced less dynamical heating. We introduce a new parameter, the independent position altitude (IPA), to investigate populations as a function of vertical height from the Galactic plane. M dwarfs at all types exhibit an increase in velocity dispersion when analyzed in comparable IPA subgroups.

5. Prototype evaluation of transformation toughened blast resistant naval hull steels: Part II

Saha, A.; Jung, J.; Olson, G. B.

2007-07-01

Application of a systems approach to computational materials design led to the theoretical design of a transformation toughened ultratough high-strength plate steel for blast-resistant naval hull applications. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (C v > 85 ft-lbs or 115 J corresponding to K Id≥ 200 ksi.in1/2 or 220 MPa.m1/2) at strength levels of 150 180 ksi (1,030 1,240 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A continuous casting process was simulated by slab casting the prototype alloy as a 1.75‧‧ (4.45 cm) plate. Consistent with predictions, compositional banding in the plate was limited to an amplitude of 6 7.5 wt% Ni and 3.5 5 wt% Cu. Examination of the oxide scale showed no evidence of hot shortness in the alloy during hot working. Isothermal transformation kinetics measurements demonstrated achievement of 50% bainite in 4 min at 360 °C. Hardness and tensile tests confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1,100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 65% in Charpy energy. Predicted Cu particle number densities and the heterogeneous nucleation of optimal stability high Ni 5 nm austenite on nanometer-scale copper precipitates in the multi-step tempered samples was confirmed using three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis. Charpy impact tests and fractography demonstrate ductile fracture with C v > 80 ft-lbs (108 J) down to -40 °C, with a substantial toughness peak at 25 °C consistent with designed transformation toughening behavior. The properties demonstrated in this first

6. The University of Salamanca under Philip II in statistic data La Universidad de Salamanca bajo Felipe II en estadísticas

Francisco Javier ALEJO MONTES

2013-07-01

7. Statistical mechanics of the self-gravitating gas: II. Local physical magnitudes and fractal structures

Vega, H.J. de; Sanchez, N.

2002-01-01

We complete our study of the self-gravitating gas by computing the fluctuations around the saddle point solution for the three statistical ensembles (grand canonical, canonical and microcanonical). Although the saddle point is the same for the three ensembles, the fluctuations change from one ensemble to the other. The zeroes of the small fluctuations determinant determine the position of the critical points for each ensemble. This yields the domains of validity of the mean field approach. Only the S-wave determinant exhibits critical points. Closed formulae for the S- and P-wave determinants of fluctuations are derived. The local properties of the self-gravitating gas in thermodynamic equilibrium are studied in detail. The pressure, energy density, particle density and speed of sound are computed and analyzed as functions of the position. The equation of state turns out to be locally p(r→ )=Tρ V (r→ ) as for the ideal gas. Starting from the partition function of the self-gravitating gas, we prove in this microscopic calculation that the hydrostatic description yielding locally the ideal gas equation of state is exact in the N=∞ limit. The dilute nature of the thermodynamic limit (N∼L→∞ with N/L fixed) together with the long range nature of the gravitational forces play a crucial role in obtaining such ideal gas equation. The self-gravitating gas being inhomogeneous, we have PV/[NT]=f(η)≤1 for any finite volume V. The inhomogeneous particle distribution in the ground state suggests a fractal distribution with Haussdorf dimension D, D is slowly decreasing with increasing density, 1< D<3. The average distance between particles is computed in Monte Carlo simulations and analytically in the mean field approach. A dramatic drop at the phase transition is exhibited, clearly illustrating the properties of the collapse

8. Statistics of the derivatives of complex signal derived from Riesz transform and its application to pseudo-Stokes vector correlation for speckle displacement measurement

Zhang, Shun; Yang, Yi; Hanson, Steen Grüner

2015-01-01

for the superiority of the proposed PSVC technique, we study the statistical properties of the spatial derivatives of the complex signal representation generated from the Riesz transform. Under the assumption of a Gaussian random process, a theoretical analysis for the pseudo Stokes vector correlation has been...... provided. Based on these results, we show mathematically that PSVC has a performance advantage over conventional intensity-based correlation technique....

9. Robust alignment of chromatograms by statistically analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation.

Zhang, Mingjing; Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng; Zhan, Dejian

2015-03-01

Retention time shift is one of the most challenging problems during the preprocessing of massive chromatographic datasets. Here, an improved version of the moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation algorithm is presented to perform nonlinear and robust alignment of chromatograms by analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window procedure. The shifts matrix in retention time can be estimated by fast Fourier transform cross-correlation with a moving window procedure. The refined shift of each scan point can be obtained by calculating the mode of corresponding column of the shifts matrix. This version is simple, but more effective and robust than the previously published moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation method. It can handle nonlinear retention time shift robustly if proper window size has been selected. The window size is the only one parameter needed to adjust and optimize. The properties of the proposed method are investigated by comparison with the previous moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation and recursive alignment by fast Fourier transform using chromatographic datasets. The pattern recognition results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry dataset of metabolic syndrome can be improved significantly after preprocessing by this method. Furthermore, the proposed method is available as an open source package at https://github.com/zmzhang/MWFFT2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

10. Colours of minor bodies in the outer solar system. II. A statistical analysis revisited

Hainaut, O. R.; Boehnhardt, H.; Protopapa, S.

2012-10-01

We present an update of the visible and near-infrared colour database of Minor Bodies in the Outer Solar System (MBOSSes), which now includes over 2000 measurement epochs of 555 objects, extracted from over 100 articles. The list is fairly complete as of December 2011. The database is now large enough to enable any dataset with a large dispersion to be safely identified and rejected from the analysis. The selection method used is quite insensitive to individual outliers. Most of the rejected datasets were observed during the early days of MBOSS photometry. The individual measurements are combined in a way that avoids possible rotational artifacts. The spectral gradient over the visible range is derived from the colours, as well as the R absolute magnitude M(1,1). The average colours, absolute magnitude, and spectral gradient are listed for each object, as well as the physico-dynamical classes using a classification adapted from Gladman and collaborators. Colour-colour diagrams, histograms, and various other plots are presented to illustrate and investigate class characteristics and trends with other parameters, whose significances are evaluated using standard statistical tests. Except for a small discrepancy for the J-H colour, the largest objects, with M(1,1) < 5, are indistinguishable from the smaller ones. The larger ones are slightly bluer than the smaller ones in J-H. Short-period comets, Plutinos and other resonant objects, hot classical disk objects, scattered disk objects and detached disk objects have similar properties in the visible, while the cold classical disk objects and the Jupiter Trojans form two separate groups of their spectral properties in the visible wavelength range. The well-known colour bimodality of Centaurs is confirmed. The hot classical disk objects with large inclinations, or large orbital excitations are found to be bluer than the others, confirming a previously known result. Additionally, the hot classical disk objects with a

11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-MEDIATED IN-PLANTA TRANSFORMATION OF INDONESIAN MAIZE USING pIG121Hm-Cs PLASMID CONTAINING nptII AND hpt GENES

Edy Listanto

2017-05-01

Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. productivity in Indonesia is challenged to be increased using genetic engineering. Recent advances in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in-planta transforma-tion makes it possible to transform maize with low cost, and simple method. This study aimed to confirm pIG121Hm-Cs plasmid in A. tumefaciens, and to estimate the efficiency level of  A. tumefaciens-mediated in-planta transformation of Indonesian maize by using pIG121Hm-Cs plasmid containing nptII and hpt genes. A series of studies were conducted including confirmation of gene construct of pIG121Hm-Cs plasmid in A. tumefaciens, transformation of four maize lines through A. tumefaciens-mediated in-planta technique, acclimatization of transformant plants and molecular analysis of selected plants using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The pIG121Hm-Cs plasmid was confirmed via PCR analysis using specific primers of nptII and hpt genes and resulted 700 bp and 500 bp for fragments of nptII and hpt, respectively. After selection, acclimatization and molecular analysis steps, the efficiency levels of transformation of four maize lines were low, ranging from 3.8% to 12.8%. The level of transformation efficiency of ST-27 line was the highest accounting for 12.8% of 45 planted embryos on selection medium based on PCR analysis using specific primer for nptII gene. Overall, A. tumefaciens-mediated in planta transformation on maize floral pistil in this study proved to be successful and rapid. Therefore, this enhanced transformation method will be beneficial for Indonesian maize genetic engineering.

12. Epileptic Seizure Detection based on Wavelet Transform Statistics Map and EMD Method for Hilbert-Huang Spectral Analyzing in Gamma Frequency Band of EEG Signals

Morteza Behnam

2015-08-01

Full Text Available Seizure detection using brain signal (EEG analysis is the important clinical methods in drug therapy and the decisions before brain surgery. In this paper, after signal conditioning using suitable filtering, the Gamma frequency band has been extracted and the other brain rhythms, ambient noises and the other bio-signal are canceled. Then, the wavelet transform of brain signal and the map of wavelet transform in multi levels are computed. By dividing the color map to different epochs, the histogram of each sub-image is obtained and the statistics of it based on statistical momentums and Negentropy values are calculated. Statistical feature vector using Principle Component Analysis (PCA is reduced to one dimension. By EMD algorithm and sifting procedure for analyzing the data by Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF and computing the residues of brain signal using spectrum of Hilbert transform and Hilbert – Huang spectrum forming, one spatial feature based on the Euclidian distance for signal classification is obtained. By K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifier and by considering the optimal neighbor parameter, EEG signals are classified in two classes, seizure and non-seizure signal, with the rate of accuracy 76.54% and with variance of error 0.3685 in the different tests.

13. Generalised model-independent characterisation of strong gravitational lenses. II. Transformation matrix between multiple images

Wagner, J.; Tessore, N.

2018-05-01

We determine the transformation matrix that maps multiple images with identifiable resolved features onto one another and that is based on a Taylor-expanded lensing potential in the vicinity of a point on the critical curve within our model-independent lens characterisation approach. From the transformation matrix, the same information about the properties of the critical curve at fold and cusp points can be derived as we previously found when using the quadrupole moment of the individual images as observables. In addition, we read off the relative parities between the images, so that the parity of all images is determined when one is known. We compare all retrievable ratios of potential derivatives to the actual values and to those obtained by using the quadrupole moment as observable for two- and three-image configurations generated by a galaxy-cluster scale singular isothermal ellipse. We conclude that using the quadrupole moments as observables, the properties of the critical curve are retrieved to a higher accuracy at the cusp points and to a lower accuracy at the fold points; the ratios of second-order potential derivatives are retrieved to comparable accuracy. We also show that the approach using ratios of convergences and reduced shear components is equivalent to ours in the vicinity of the critical curve, but yields more accurate results and is more robust because it does not require a special coordinate system as the approach using potential derivatives does. The transformation matrix is determined by mapping manually assigned reference points in the multiple images onto one another. If the assignment of the reference points is subject to measurement uncertainties under the influence of noise, we find that the confidence intervals of the lens parameters can be as large as the values themselves when the uncertainties are larger than one pixel. In addition, observed multiple images with resolved features are more extended than unresolved ones, so that

14. Hypergeometric continuation of divergent perturbation series: II. Comparison with Shanks transformation and Padé approximation

Sanders, Sören; Holthaus, Martin

2017-01-01

We explore in detail how analytic continuation of divergent perturbation series by generalized hypergeometric functions is achieved in practice. Using the example of strong-coupling perturbation series provided by the two-dimensional Bose–Hubbard model, we compare hypergeometric continuation to Shanks and Padé techniques, and demonstrate that the former yields a powerful, efficient and reliable alternative for computing the phase diagram of the Mott insulator-to-superfluid transition. In contrast to Shanks transformations and Padé approximations, hypergeometric continuation also allows us to determine the exponents which characterize the divergence of correlation functions at the transition points. Therefore, hypergeometric continuation constitutes a promising tool for the study of quantum phase transitions. (paper)

15. Hypergeometric continuation of divergent perturbation series: II. Comparison with Shanks transformation and Padé approximation

Sanders, Sören; Holthaus, Martin

2017-11-01

We explore in detail how analytic continuation of divergent perturbation series by generalized hypergeometric functions is achieved in practice. Using the example of strong-coupling perturbation series provided by the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we compare hypergeometric continuation to Shanks and Padé techniques, and demonstrate that the former yields a powerful, efficient and reliable alternative for computing the phase diagram of the Mott insulator-to-superfluid transition. In contrast to Shanks transformations and Padé approximations, hypergeometric continuation also allows us to determine the exponents which characterize the divergence of correlation functions at the transition points. Therefore, hypergeometric continuation constitutes a promising tool for the study of quantum phase transitions.

16. Non-Porous Iron(II)-Based Sensor: Crystallographic Insights into a Cycle of Colorful Guest-Induced Topotactic Transformations.

Rodríguez-Jiménez, Santiago; Feltham, Humphrey L C; Brooker, Sally

2016-11-21

Materials capable of sensing volatile guests at room temperature by an easily monitored set of outputs are of great appeal for development as chemical sensors of small volatile organics and toxic gases. Herein the dinuclear iron(II) complex, [Fe II 2 (L) 2 (CH 3 CN) 4 ](BF 4 ) 4 ⋅2 CH 3 CN (1) [L=4-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(3-pyridazinyl)-5-pyridyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole], is shown to undergo reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations upon exposure to vapors of different guests: 1 (MeCN)⇌2 (EtOH)→3 (H 2 O)⇌1 (MeCN). Whilst 1 and 2 remain dimetallic, SCSC to 3 involves conversion to a 1D polymeric chain (due to a change in L bridging mode), which, remarkably, can undergo SCSC de-polymerization, reforming dimetallic 1. Additionally, SC-XRD studies of two ordered transient forms, 1TF3 and 2TF3, confirm that guest exchange occurs by diffusion of the new guests into the non-porous lattices as the old guests leave. These reversible SCSC events also induce color and magnetic responses. Indeed dark red 1 is spin crossover active (T 1/2 ↓ 356 K; T 1/2 ↑ 369 K), whilst orange 2 and yellow 3 remain high spin. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

17. Evidence for modulation of pericryptal sheath myofibroblasts in rat descending colon by Transforming Growth Factor β and Angiotensin II.

Pedley Kevin C

2002-02-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Absorption of water and Na+ in descending colonic crypts is dependent on the barrier function of the surrounding myofibroblastic pericryptal sheath. Here the effects of high and low Na+ diets and exposure to whole body ionising radiation on the growth and activation of the descending colonic pericryptal myofibroblasts are evaluated. In addition the effect of a post-irradiation treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor Captopril was investigated. Methods The levels of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1, ACE, collagen type IV, transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1, OB cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin in both descending colon and caecum were evaluated, using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, in rats fed on high and low Na+ diets (LS. These parameters were also determined during 3 months post-irradiation with 8Gy from a 60Co source in the presence and absence of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Captopril. Results Increases in AT1 receptor (135.6% ± 18.3, P Conclusions These results demonstrate an activation of descending colonic myofibroblasts to trophic stimuli, or irradiation, which can be attenuated by Captopril, indicative of local trophic control by angiotensin II and TGF-β release.

18. Structural transformations of sVI tert-butylamine hydrates to sII binary hydrates with methane.

Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

2009-10-22

Binary clathrate hydrates with methane (CH(4), 4.36 A) and tert-butylamine (t-BuNH(2), 6.72 A) as guest molecules were synthesized at different molar concentrations of t-BuNH(2) (1.00-9.31 mol %) with methane at 7.0 MPa and 250 K, and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Raman microscopy. A structural transformation from sVI to sII of t-BuNH(2) hydrate was clearly observed on pressurizing with methane. The PXRD showed sII signatures and the remnant sVI signatures were insignificant, implying the metastable nature of sVI binary hydrates. Raman spectroscopic data on these binary hydrates suggest that the methane molecules occupy the small cages and vacant large cages. The methane storage capacity in this system was nearly doubled to approximately 6.86 wt % for 5.56 mol % > t-BuNH(2) > 1.0 mol %.

19. Synthesis of new electroactive polymers by ion-exchange replacement of Mg(II) by 2H+ or Zn(II) cations inside Mg(II) polyporphine film, with their subsequent electrochemical transformation to condensed-structure materials

Konev, Dmitry V.; Devillers, Charles H.; Lizgina, Ksenia V.; Zyubina, Tatiana S.; Zyubin, Alexander S.; Maiorova- Valkova, Larisa A.; Vorotyntsev, Mikhail A.

2014-01-01

It has been demonstrated that the treatment of the magnesium polyporphine of type I, pMgP-I, by trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile may be used to replace initial central Mg(II) cations inside the monomeric macrocycle units by protons, to get a new electroactive polymer, “free-base polyporphine of type I”, pH 2 P-I. In its turn, these inserted protons may be replaced by Zn(II) cations via the film treatment with zinc acetate in organic solvent, to get another new electroactive polymer, “zinc polyporphine of type I”, pZnP-I. These changes of central ions inside monomer units manifest themselves by characteristic modifications of their electroactive properties as well as of UV–visible and IR spectra. Similar to the magnesium polyporphine of type I, pMgP-I, studied in our previous paper (Electrochim. Acta, 2010, 55, 6703) both new polymers are subject to an irreversible electrooxidative transformation into the corresponding polyporphines of type II, pH 2 P-II and pZnP-II. All these polyporphines of type II demonstrate a very broad range of their redox activity, without any potential interval of non-electroactivity. It means that they represent electroactive polymers with a zero-width band gap in the neutral state of the polymer and the Fermi level is located into a broad electronic band for a wide range of the positive and negative oxidation states. Expected molecular structures of all these polymers are discussed

20. Stability of monomeric Cro variants: Isoenergetic transformation of a type I' to a type II' beta-hairpin by single amino acid replacements.

Mollah, A K M M; Stennis, Rhonda L; Mossing, Michael C

2003-05-01

The thermodynamic stabilities of three monomeric variants of the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor that differ only in the sequence of two amino acids at the apex of an engineered beta-hairpin have been determined. The sequences of the turns are EVK-XX-EVK, where the two central residues are DG, GG, and GT, respectively. Standard-state unfolding free energies, determined from circular dichroism measurements as a function of urea concentration, range from 2.4 to 2.7 kcal/mole, while those determined from guanidine hydrochloride range from 2.8 to 3.3 kcal/mole for the three proteins. Thermal denaturation yields van't Hoff unfolding enthalpies of 36 to 40 kcal /mole at midpoint temperatures in the range of 53 to 58 degrees C. Extrapolation of the thermal denaturation free energies with heat capacities of 400 to 600 cal/mole deg gives good agreement with the parameters determined in denaturant titrations. As predicted from statistical surveys of amino acid replacements in beta-hairpins, energetic barriers to transformation from a type I' turn (DG) to a type II' turn (GT) can be quite small.

1. Transforming growth factor beta receptor II polymorphisms are associated with Kawasaki disease

Yu Mi Choi

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Purpose : Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in the differentiation of striated cells and remodeling of coronary arteries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of this gene are associated with Marfan syndrome and sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular remodeling and T cell activation of TGFBR2 gene suggest that the TGFBR2 gene SNPs are related to the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD and coronary artery lesion (CAL. Methods : The subjects were 105 patients with KD and 500 healthy adults as controls. Mean age of KD group was 32 months age and 26.6% of those had CAL. We selected TGFBR2 gene SNPs from serum and performed direct sequencing. Results : The sequences of the eleven SNPs in the TGFBR2 gene were compared between the KD group and controls. Three SNPs (rs1495592, rs6550004, rs795430 were associated with development of KD (P=0.019, P=0.026, P=0.016, respectively. One SNP (rs1495592 was associated with CAL in KD group (P=0.022. Conclusion : Eleven SNPs in TGFBR2 gene were identified at that time the genome wide association. But, with the change of the data base, only six SNPs remained associated with the TGFBR2 gene. One of the six SNPs (rs6550004 was associated with development of KD. One SNP associated with CAL (rs1495592 was disassociated from the TGFBR2 gene. The other five SNPs were not functionally identified, but these SNPs are notable because the data base is changing. Further studies involving larger group of patients with KD are needed.

2. Transformation impacts of dissolved and solid phase Fe(II) on trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in an iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) mixed column system: a mathematical model.

Bae, Yeunook; Kim, Dooil; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Singhal, Naresh; Park, Jae-Woo

2012-12-01

In this research, we conducted trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in a column filled with iron and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and developed a mathematical model to investigate the critical reactions between active species in iron/IRB/contaminant systems. The formation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) in this system with IRB and zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe(0)) coated with a ferric iron (Fe(III)) crust significantly affected TCE reduction and IRB respiration in various ways. This study presents a new framework for transformation property and reducing ability of both dissolved (Fe(II)(dissolved)) and solid form ferrous iron (Fe(II)(solid)). Results showed that TCE reduction was strongly depressed by Fe(II)(solid) rather than by other inhibitors (e.g., Fe(III) and lactate), suggesting that Fe(II)(solid) might reduce IRB activation due to attachment to IRB cells. Newly exposed Fe(0) from the released Fe(II)(dissolved) was a strong contributor to TCE reduction compared to Fe(II)(solid). In addition, our research confirmed that less Fe(II)(solid) production strongly supported long-term TCE reduction because it may create an easier TCE approach to Fe(0) or increase IRB growth. Our findings will aid the understanding of the contributions of iron media (e.g., Fe(II)(solid), Fe(II)(dissolved), Fe(III), and Fe(0)) to IRB for decontamination in natural groundwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. Stability, occurence and step morphology of polymorphs and polytypes of stearic acid. II. Mono-lamella step morphology and composite polymorphic/polytypic transformation

Inaoka, Kimio; Kobayashi, Masamichi; Okada, Masakazu; Sato, Kiyotaka

1988-02-01

Surface step morphology of three structural modifications of stearic acid, B(mon), B(orth II) and C(mon), was observed by replica method (TEM). The characteristic simple and interlaced patterns were observed for monoclinic and pseudo-orthorhombic polytypes, respectively. The observation on the C crystals which were transformed from B(orth II) or B(mon) enabled to detect two different modes of lattice displacement involved in composite polymorphic-polytypic transformations from B to C. B(mon) → C(mon) was found to be caused by a collective inclination of the molecules within the lamellar plane followed by the deformation of the subcell of the aliphatic chain, keeping the symmetry-axis unchanged. In contrast, B(orth II) → C(mon) occurs via an alternate rotation of the long-chain molecules in the adjacent lamellae around the c-axis of B(orth II) prototype, keeping the subcell arrangements unchanged. This means that the polytypic structure of a double-layer type was not preserved during the composite B(orth II) → C(mon) transformation. This peculiarity was discussed in terms of the interlamellar instability of a postulated double-layered polytype of the C polymorph.

4. Built-Up Area Detection from High-Resolution Satellite Images Using Multi-Scale Wavelet Transform and Local Spatial Statistics

Chen, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Gao, J.; Yuan, Y.; Lv, Z.

2018-04-01

Recently, built-up area detection from high-resolution satellite images (HRSI) has attracted increasing attention because HRSI can provide more detailed object information. In this paper, multi-resolution wavelet transform and local spatial autocorrelation statistic are introduced to model the spatial patterns of built-up areas. First, the input image is decomposed into high- and low-frequency subbands by wavelet transform at three levels. Then the high-frequency detail information in three directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are extracted followed by a maximization operation to integrate the information in all directions. Afterward, a cross-scale operation is implemented to fuse different levels of information. Finally, local spatial autocorrelation statistic is introduced to enhance the saliency of built-up features and an adaptive threshold algorithm is used to achieve the detection of built-up areas. Experiments are conducted on ZY-3 and Quickbird panchromatic satellite images, and the results show that the proposed method is very effective for built-up area detection.

5. Statistical downscaling of historical monthly mean winds over a coastal region of complex terrain. II. Predicting wind components

Kamp, Derek van der [University of Victoria, Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Curry, Charles L. [Environment Canada University of Victoria, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Monahan, Adam H. [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada)

2012-04-15

A regression-based downscaling technique was applied to monthly mean surface wind observations from stations throughout western Canada as well as from buoys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean over the period 1979-2006. A predictor set was developed from principal component analysis of the three wind components at 500 hPa and mean sea-level pressure taken from the NCEP Reanalysis II. Building on the results of a companion paper, Curry et al. (Clim Dyn 2011), the downscaling was applied to both wind speed and wind components, in an effort to evaluate the utility of each type of predictand. Cross-validated prediction skill varied strongly with season, with autumn and summer displaying the highest and lowest skill, respectively. In most cases wind components were predicted with better skill than wind speeds. The predictive ability of wind components was found to be strongly related to their orientation. Wind components with the best predictions were often oriented along topographically significant features such as constricted valleys, mountain ranges or ocean channels. This influence of directionality on predictive ability is most prominent during autumn and winter at inland sites with complex topography. Stations in regions with relatively flat terrain (where topographic steering is minimal) exhibit inter-station consistencies including region-wide seasonal shifts in the direction of the best predicted wind component. The conclusion that wind components can be skillfully predicted only over a limited range of directions at most stations limits the scope of statistically downscaled wind speed predictions. It seems likely that such limitations apply to other regions of complex terrain as well. (orig.)

6. In vitro antibacterial activity of oxide and non-oxide bioceramics for arthroplastic devices: II. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Boschetto, Francesco; Toyama, Nami; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Bock, Ryan M; McEntire, Bryan J; Adachi, Tetsuya; Marin, Elia; Zhu, Wenliang; Mazda, Osam; Bal, B Sonny; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

2018-04-30

The metabolic response of Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) bacteria to bioceramic substrates was probed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Oxide zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) and non-oxide silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates were tested. Bacteria exposed to silica glass substrates were used as a control. S. epidermidis, a major cause of periprosthetic infections, was screened to obtain a precise time-lapse knowledge of its molecular composition and to mechanistically understand its interaction with different substrates. At the molecular level, the structure of proteins, lipids, nucleic acid, and aromatic amino acids evolved with time in response to different substrates. In combination with statistical validation and local pH measurements, a chemical lysis mechanism was spectroscopically observed in situ on the Si3N4 substrates. Utilization of FTIR in this study avoided fluorescence noise which occurred while probing the ZTA samples with Raman spectroscopy in a companion paper. The substrate-driven dynamics of polysaccharide and peptide variations in the bacterial cell wall, peculiar to Si3N4 bioceramics, are elucidated.

7. Transformation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids/Esters to Corresponding Keto Fatty Acids/Esters by Aerobic Oxidation with Pd(II)/Lewis Acid Catalyst.

Senan, Ahmed M; Zhang, Sicheng; Zeng, Miao; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

2017-08-16

Utilization of renewable biomass to partly replace the fossil resources in industrial applications has attracted attention due to the limited fossil feedstock with the increased environmental concerns. This work introduced a modified Wacker-type oxidation for transformation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, in which Cu 2+ cation was replaced with common nonredox metal ions, that is, a novel Pd(II)/Lewis acid (LA) catalyst. It was found that adding nonredox metal ions can effectively promote Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, even much better than Cu 2+ , and the promotional effect is highly dependent on the Lewis acidity of added nonredox metal ions. The improved catalytic efficiency is attributed to the formation of heterobimetallic Pd(II)/LA species, and the oxidation mechanism of this Pd(II)/LA catalyst is also briefly discussed.

8. Anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework

Lee, Li-Wei [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Min [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 107, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lu, Kuang-Lieh [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

2016-07-15

A Cd(II)–organic framework {[Cd_2(tpim)_4(SO_4)(H_2O)_2]·(SO_4)·21H_2O}{sub n} (1) was synthesized by reacting CdSO{sub 4}·8/3H{sub 2}O and 2,4,5-tri(4-pyridyl)imidazole (tpim) under hydrothermal conditions. A structural analysis showed that compound 1 adopts a layered structure in which the [Cd(tpim){sub 2}]{sub n} chains are linked by sulfate anions. These 2D layers are further packed into a 3D supramolecular framework via π–π interactions. The structure contains two types of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, i.e., bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, the latter of which are included in the large channels of the framework. Compound 1 exhibits interesting anion exchange behavior. In the presence of SCN{sup −} anions, both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in 1 were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands to form a 1D species [Cd(tpim){sub 2}(SCN){sub 2}] (1A), in which the SCN{sup –} moieties function as a monodentate ligand. On the other hand, when compound 1 was ion exchanged with N{sub 3}{sup −} anions in aqueous solution, the bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} moieties remained intact, and only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were replaced by N{sub 3}{sup −} anions. The gas adsorption behavior of the activated compound 1 was also investigated. - Highlights: • An interesting anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework is reported. • The sulfate-incorporated 2D layer compound exhibits very different anion exchange behavior with respect to SCN{sup −} and N{sub 3}{sup −}. • Both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in the 2D structure were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands, resulting in the formation of a 1D species. However, in the case of N{sub 3}{sup −} anions, only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in the structure was replaced.

9. Biological removal of nickel (II by Bacillus sp. KL1 in different conditions: optimization by Taguchi statistical approach

Taran Mojtaba

2015-09-01

Full Text Available Bioremediation is the removal of heavy-metals such as nickel (Ni using microorganisms and has been considered as an important field in the biotechnology. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms exhibiting bioremediation activities and their optimization to treat polluted wastewaters is a vital and difficult task in remediation technologies. In this study, investigation was carried out to isolate Ni (II remediating microbial strains from soils contaminated with municipal solid waste leachate. Furthermore, Taguchi design of experiments were used to evaluate the influence of concentration, pH, temperature, and time on bioremediation of Ni (II using isolated bacteria. This study concluded that Bacillus sp. KL1 is a Ni (II-resistant strain and had Ni (II bioremediation activity. The highest bioremediation of Ni (II was observed as 55.06% after 24 h at 30ºC, pH 7, and 100 ppm concentration. Moreover, it was also observed that concentration is the most effective factor in the bioremediation process. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that bacteria isolated from soils contaminated with garbage leachate have the Bacillus sp. KL1 bacteria which can efficiently uptake and eliminate Ni (II from contaminated sites and thus makes it possible to treat heavy-metal containing wastewaters in industry by using this microorganism at optimized conditions.

10. Surface reaction of SnII on goethite (α-FeOOH): surface complexation, redox reaction, reductive dissolution, and phase transformation.

Dulnee, Siriwan; Scheinost, Andreas C

2014-08-19

To elucidate the potential risk of (126)Sn migration from nuclear waste repositories, we investigated the surface reactions of Sn(II) on goethite as a function of pH and Sn(II) loading under anoxic condition with O2 level redox state and surface structure were investigated by Sn K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), goethite phase transformations were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The results demonstrate the rapid and complete oxidation of Sn(II) by goethite and formation of Sn(IV) (1)E and (2)C surface complexes. The contribution of (2)C complexes increases with Sn loading. The Sn(II) oxidation leads to a quantitative release of Fe(II) from goethite at low pH, and to the precipitation of magnetite at higher pH. To predict Sn sorption, we applied surface complexation modeling using the charge distribution multisite complexation approach and the XAS-derived surface complexes. Log K values of 15.5 ± 1.4 for the (1)E complex and 19.2 ± 0.6 for the (2)C complex consistently predict Sn sorption across pH 2-12 and for two different Sn loadings and confirm the strong retention of Sn(II) even under anoxic conditions.

11. A Conditional Fourier-Feynman Transform and Conditional Convolution Product with Change of Scales on a Function Space II

Dong Hyun Cho

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Using a simple formula for conditional expectations over continuous paths, we will evaluate conditional expectations which are types of analytic conditional Fourier-Feynman transforms and conditional convolution products of generalized cylinder functions and the functions in a Banach algebra which is the space of generalized Fourier transforms of the measures on the Borel class of L2[0,T]. We will then investigate their relationships. Particularly, we prove that the conditional transform of the conditional convolution product can be expressed by the product of the conditional transforms of each function. Finally we will establish change of scale formulas for the conditional transforms and the conditional convolution products. In these evaluation formulas and change of scale formulas, we use multivariate normal distributions so that the conditioning function does not contain present positions of the paths.

12. Zn(II)- and Cu(II)-induced non-fibrillar aggregates of amyloid-beta (1-42) peptide are transformed to amyloid fibrils, both spontaneously and under the influence of metal chelators.

Tõugu, Vello; Karafin, Ann; Zovo, Kairit; Chung, Roger S; Howells, Claire; West, Adrian K; Palumaa, Peep

2009-09-01

Aggregation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides is a central phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease. Zn(II) and Cu(II) have profound effects on Abeta aggregation; however, their impact on amyloidogenesis is unclear. Here we show that Zn(II) and Cu(II) inhibit Abeta(42) fibrillization and initiate formation of non-fibrillar Abeta(42) aggregates, and that the inhibitory effect of Zn(II) (IC(50) = 1.8 micromol/L) is three times stronger than that of Cu(II). Medium and high-affinity metal chelators including metallothioneins prevented metal-induced Abeta(42) aggregation. Moreover, their addition to preformed aggregates initiated fast Abeta(42) fibrillization. Upon prolonged incubation the metal-induced aggregates also transformed spontaneously into fibrils, that appear to represent the most stable state of Abeta(42). H13A and H14A mutations in Abeta(42) reduced the inhibitory effect of metal ions, whereas an H6A mutation had no significant impact. We suggest that metal binding by H13 and H14 prevents the formation of a cross-beta core structure within region 10-23 of the amyloid fibril. Cu(II)-Abeta(42) aggregates were neurotoxic to neurons in vitro only in the presence of ascorbate, whereas monomers and Zn(II)-Abeta(42) aggregates were non-toxic. Disturbed metal homeostasis in the vicinity of zinc-enriched neurons might pre-dispose formation of metal-induced Abeta aggregates, subsequent fibrillization of which can lead to amyloid formation. The molecular background underlying metal-chelating therapies for Alzheimer's disease is discussed in this light.

13. Electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clays. Role in U and Hg(II) transformations

Scherer, Michelle [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

2016-08-31

During this project, we investigated Fe electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. We used selective chemical extractions, enriched Fe isotope tracer experiments, computational molecular modeling, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that structural Fe(III) in clay minerals is reduced by aqueous Fe(II) and that electron transfer occurs when Fe(II) is sorbed to either basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral. Findings from highly enriched isotope experiments suggest that up to 30 % of the Fe atoms in the structure of some clay minerals exhanges with aqueous Fe(II). First principles calculations using a small polaron hopping approach suggest surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature in a nontronite clay mineral and are consistent with temperature dependent Mössbauer data Fast electron mobility suggests that electrons may be able to conduct through the mineral fast enough to enable exchange of Fe between the aqueous phase and clay mineral structure. over the time periods we observed. Our findings suggest that Fe in clay minerals is not as stable as previously thought.

14. Statistical optics

Goodman, J. W.

This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.

15. Non-affine deformation in microstructure selection in solids II: Elastoplastic theory for the dynamics of solid state transformations

Paul, Arya; Bhattacharya, Jayee; Sengupta, Surajit [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Calcutta 700 098 (India); Rao, Madan [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

2008-09-10

We study the nucleation dynamics of a model solid state transformation and the criterion for microstructure selection. Using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we had shown that the dynamics of the solid is accompanied by the creation of transient non-affine zones (NAZ), which evolve with the rapidly moving transformation front. Guided by our MD results, we formulate a dynamical continuum theory of solid state transformation, which couples the elastic strain to the non-affine deformation. We demonstrate that our elastoplastic description recovers all qualitative features of the MD simulation. We construct a dynamical phase diagram for microstructure selection, including regimes where martensite or ferrite obtains, in addition to making several testable predictions.

16. Descriptive statistics.

Nick, Todd G

2007-01-01

Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

17. A review of the statistical principles of geochronometry. II. Additional concepts pertinent to radiogenic U-Pb studies

Eglington, B.M.; Harmer, R.E.

1993-01-01

A summary is provided of statistical regression techniques as applied to radiogenic uranium-lead data. The model-dependent nature of U-Pb regression calculations, both for isochrons and errorchrons, is emphasized throughout. Near concordant U-Pb radiogenic data preserve better information about the original age of the samples than do more discordant data, yet most conventional regression techniques assign more importance to the discordant data than to those near concordia. The links between mathematical techniques for regression and conceptual models are highlighted and critically examined and methods illustrated to deal with the discordant data. Comparison of dates from different laboratories or researchers requires that the techniques applied be statistically valid and, in most cases, that the model-dependent assumptions be compatible. This is particularly important for U-Pb radiogenic data where the influence of model-dependent assumptions may have a greater influence than in the case of whole-rock techniques. A consistent approach is proposed for treating data at South African laboratories in order ro facilitate comparison of results. Recommendations are presented as regards the minimum requirements to be met when reporting radiogenic U-Pb isotope data so that future geochronologists may benefit. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

18. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. II. Refined statistical framework and descriptions of systems of special interest

Lissauer, Jack J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Rowe, Jason F.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Borucki, William J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Kolbl, Rea; Agol, Eric; Carter, Joshua A.; Torres, Guillermo; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Star, Kimberly M.; Steffen, Jason H.

2014-01-01

We extend the statistical analysis performed by Lissauer et al. in 2012, which demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) represents true transiting planets, and we develop therefrom a procedure to validate large numbers of planet candidates in multis as bona fide exoplanets. We show that this statistical framework correctly estimates the abundance of false positives already identified around Kepler targets with multiple sets of transit-like signatures based on their abundance around targets with single sets of transit-like signatures. We estimate the number of multis that represent split systems of one or more planets orbiting each component of a binary star system. We use the high reliability rate for multis to validate more than one dozen particularly interesting multi-planet systems herein. Hundreds of additional multi-planet systems are validated in a companion paper by Rowe et al. We note that few very short period (P < 1.6 days) planets orbit within multiple transiting planet systems and discuss possible reasons for their absence. There also appears to be a shortage of planets with periods exceeding a few months in multis.

19. Validation of Kepler's multiple planet candidates. II. Refined statistical framework and descriptions of systems of special interest

Lissauer, Jack J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Rowe, Jason F.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Borucki, William J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Kolbl, Rea [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Carter, Joshua A.; Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Star, Kimberly M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steffen, Jason H., E-mail: Jack.Lissauer@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy/CIERA, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2014-03-20

We extend the statistical analysis performed by Lissauer et al. in 2012, which demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) represents true transiting planets, and we develop therefrom a procedure to validate large numbers of planet candidates in multis as bona fide exoplanets. We show that this statistical framework correctly estimates the abundance of false positives already identified around Kepler targets with multiple sets of transit-like signatures based on their abundance around targets with single sets of transit-like signatures. We estimate the number of multis that represent split systems of one or more planets orbiting each component of a binary star system. We use the high reliability rate for multis to validate more than one dozen particularly interesting multi-planet systems herein. Hundreds of additional multi-planet systems are validated in a companion paper by Rowe et al. We note that few very short period (P < 1.6 days) planets orbit within multiple transiting planet systems and discuss possible reasons for their absence. There also appears to be a shortage of planets with periods exceeding a few months in multis.

20. Scripts for TRUMP data analyses. Part II (HLA-related data): statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Kanda, Junya

2016-01-01

The Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP) made it possible for members of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) to analyze large sets of national registry data on autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, as the processes used to collect transplantation information are complex and differed over time, the background of these processes should be understood when using TRUMP data. Previously, information on the HLA locus of patients and donors had been collected using a questionnaire-based free-description method, resulting in some input errors. To correct minor but significant errors and provide accurate HLA matching data, the use of a Stata or EZR/R script offered by the JSHCT is strongly recommended when analyzing HLA data in the TRUMP dataset. The HLA mismatch direction, mismatch counting method, and different impacts of HLA mismatches by stem cell source are other important factors in the analysis of HLA data. Additionally, researchers should understand the statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, such as competing risk, landmark analysis, and time-dependent analysis, to correctly analyze transplant data. The data center of the JSHCT can be contacted if statistical assistance is required.

1. Post-synthetic transformation of a Zn(ii) polyhedral coordination network into a new supramolecular isomer of HKUST-1.

Chen, Yao; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Zaworotko, Michael J; Zhang, Zhenjie

2017-08-03

A Zn-based porphyrin containing metal-organic material (porphMOM-1) was transformed into a novel Cu-based porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material (porph@HKUST-1-β) via a one-pot post-synthetic modification (PSM) process involving both metal ion exchange and linker installation of trimesic acid. HKUST-1-β is the first example of yao topology and is to our knowledge the first supramolecular isomer of the archetypal coordination network HKUST-1.

2. Abiotic versus biotic iron mineral transformation studied by a miniaturized backscattering Mössbauer spectrometer (MIMOS II), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

Markovski, C.; Byrne, J. M.; Lalla, E.; Lozano-Gorrín, A. D.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Rull, F.; Kappler, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Schröder, C.

2017-11-01

Searching for biomarkers or signatures of microbial transformations of minerals is a critical aspect for determining how life evolved on Earth, and whether or not life may have existed in other planets, including Mars. In order to solve such questions, several missions to Mars have sought to determine the geochemistry and mineralogy on the Martian surface. This research includes the two miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometers (MIMOS II) on board the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, which have detected a variety of iron minerals on Mars, including magnetite (Fe2+Fe3+2O4) and goethite (α-FeO(OH)). On Earth, both minerals can derive from microbiological activity (e.g. through dissimilatory iron reduction of ferrihydrite by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria). Here we used a lab based MIMOS II to characterize the mineral products of biogenic transformations of ferrihydrite to magnetite by the Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens. In combination with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), we observed the formation of magnetite, goethite and siderite. We compared the material produced by biogenic transformations to abiotic samples in order to distinguish abiotic and biotic iron minerals by techniques that are or will be available onboard Martian based laboratories. The results showed the possibility to distinguish the abiotic and biotic origin of the minerals. Mossbauer was able to distinguish the biotic/abiotic magnetite with the interpretation of the geological context (Fe content mineral assemblages and accompanying minerals) and the estimation of the particle size in a non-destructive way. The Raman was able to confirm the biotic/abiotic principal peaks of the magnetite, as well as the organic principal vibration bands attributed to the bacteria. Finally, the XRD confirmed the particle size and mineralogy.

3. Increase of COP for heat transformer in water purification systems. Part II - Without increasing heat source temperature

Romero, R.J.; Siqueiros, J.; Huicochea, A.

2007-01-01

The integration of a water purification system allows a heat transformer to increase the actual coefficient of performance, by the reduction of the amount of heat supplied by unit of heat. A new defined COP called COP WP is proposed for the present system, which considers the fraction of heat recycled. Simulation with proven software compares the performance of the modeling of an absorption heat transformer for water purification (AHTWP) operating with water/lithium bromide, as working fluid-absorbent pair. Plots of enthalpy-based coefficients of performance (COP ET ) and water purification coefficient of performance (COP WP ) are shown against absorber temperature for several thermodynamic operating conditions. The results showed that the proposed (AHTWP) system is capable of increasing the original value of COP ET up to 1.6 times its original value by recycling energy from a water purification system. The proposed COP WP allows increments for COP values from any experimental data for water purification or for any other distillation system integrated to a heat transformer, regardless of actual COP A value or working fluid-absorbent pair

4. Energy, exergy, economic (3E) analyses and multi-objective optimization of vapor absorption heat transformer using NSGA-II technique

Jain, Vaibhav; Sachdeva, Gulshan

2017-01-01

Highlights: • Study includes energy, exergy and economic analyses of absorption heat transformer. • It addresses multi-objective optimization study using NSGA-II technique. • Total annual cost and total exergy destruction are simultaneously optimized. • Results with multi-objective optimized design are more acceptable than other. - Abstract: Present paper addresses the energy, exergy and economic (3E) analyses of absorption heat transformer (AHT) working with LiBr-H 2 O fluid pair. The heat exchangers namely absorber, condenser, evaporator, generator and solution heat exchanger are designed for the size and cost estimation of AHT. Later, the effect of operating variables is examined on the system performance, size and cost. Simulation studies showed a conflict between thermodynamic and economic performance of the system. The heat exchangers with lower investment cost showed high irreversible losses and vice versa. Thus, the operating variables of systems are determined economically as well as thermodynamically by implementing non-dominated sort genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) technique of multi-objective optimization. In present work, if the cost based optimized design is chosen, total exergy destruction is 2.4% higher than its minimum possible value; whereas, if total exergy based optimized design is chosen, total annual cost is 6.1% higher than its minimum possible value. On the other hands, total annual cost and total exergy destruction are only 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively more from their minimum possible values with multi-objective optimized design. Thus, the multi-objective optimized design of the AHT is best outcome than any other single-objective optimized designs.

5. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II: toxicity test results and requirements for statistical power analyses.

Forbes, Valery E; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert

2007-03-01

This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 microg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.

6. THE MATRYOSHKA RUN. II. TIME-DEPENDENT TURBULENCE STATISTICS, STOCHASTIC PARTICLE ACCELERATION, AND MICROPHYSICS IMPACT IN A MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER

Miniati, Francesco

2015-01-01

We use the Matryoshka run to study the time-dependent statistics of structure-formation-driven turbulence in the intracluster medium of a 10 15 M ☉ galaxy cluster. We investigate the turbulent cascade in the inner megaparsec for both compressional and incompressible velocity components. The flow maintains approximate conditions of fully developed turbulence, with departures thereof settling in about an eddy-turnover time. Turbulent velocity dispersion remains above 700 km s –1 even at low mass accretion rate, with the fraction of compressional energy between 10% and 40%. The normalization and the slope of the compressional turbulence are susceptible to large variations on short timescales, unlike the incompressible counterpart. A major merger occurs around redshift z ≅ 0 and is accompanied by a long period of enhanced turbulence, ascribed to temporal clustering of mass accretion related to spatial clustering of matter. We test models of stochastic acceleration by compressional modes for the origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters. The turbulence simulation model constrains an important unknown of this complex problem and brings forth its dependence on the elusive microphysics of the intracluster plasma. In particular, the specifics of the plasma collisionality and the dissipation physics of weak shocks affect the cascade of compressional modes with strong impact on the acceleration rates. In this context radio halos emerge as complex phenomena in which a hierarchy of processes acting on progressively smaller scales are at work. Stochastic acceleration by compressional modes implies statistical correlation of radio power and spectral index with merging cores distance, both testable in principle with radio surveys

7. Aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type II biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals.

De Zutter, N; Audenaert, K; Arroyo-Manzanares, N; De Boevre, M; Van Poucke, C; De Saeger, S; Haesaert, G; Smagghe, G

2016-12-08

Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. These metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the animal kingdom the conversion of DON to DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) via a model system with plant pathogenic aphids. This phase II biotransformation mechanism has only been reported in plants. As the DON-3G metabolite was less toxic for aphids than DON, this conversion is considered a detoxification reaction. Remarkably, English grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) which co-occur with the DON producer Fusarium graminearum on wheat during the development of fusarium symptoms, tolerate DON much better and convert DON to DON-3G more efficiently than pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), the latter being known to feed on legumes which are no host for F. graminearum. Using a non-targeted high resolution mass spectrometric approach, we detected DON-diglucosides in aphids probably as a result of sequential glucosylation reactions. Data are discussed in the light of an eventual co-evolutionary adaptation of S. avenae to DON.

8. Experimental statistics

Natrella, Mary Gibbons

1963-01-01

Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations

9. Statistics of the hubble diagram. II. The form of the luminosity function and density variations with application to quasars

Turner, E.L.

1979-01-01

New techniques for deriving a luminosity function LF and a spatial density distribution rho (r) from magnitude-redshift data are presented. These techniques do not require iterative improvement of an initially guessed solution or the adoption of arbitrary analytic forms; instead, they provide explicit numerical estimates of the LF and rho (r). Thus, sources of systematic uncertainty are eliminated. This is achieved at the cost of an increase in the statistical noise. As in Paper I of this series, it is necessary to assume that the LF does not vary in functional form. An internal test of this assumption is described.These techniques are illustrated by application to a sample of 3 CR and 4C quasars. The radio luminosity function is found to be a steep power law with no features. The optical luminosity function is found to be a shallow power law cut off roughly exponentially above a characteristic luminosity L/sub opt/* (Z) corresponding roughly to M/sub B/=-22-6 log (1+Z) The comoving density evolution is not well fitted by any simple function of 1+Z [e.g., (1+Z) 6 errs by factors as large as approx.5 at some redshifts] but is well represented by an exponential of look-back time. Specific analytic fits and numerical tabulations are given for each of these functions. The constant LF form assumption is found to be a reasonable first approximation for the quasars.Other possible applications of the new methods to problems in extragalactic and stellar astronomy are suggested

10. DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. II. SOUTHERN SKY PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA AND FULL SAMPLE STATISTICS

Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Kastner, Joel H.

2011-01-01

This is the second in a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array observing program aimed at spatially and spectrally resolving the chemical composition of 12 protoplanetary disks. We present data on six Southern sky sources-IM Lup, SAO 206462 (HD 135344b), HD 142527, AS 209, AS 205, and V4046 Sgr-which complement the six sources in the Taurus star-forming region reported previously. CO 2-1 and HCO + 3-2 emission are detected and resolved in all disks and show velocity patterns consistent with Keplerian rotation. Where detected, the emission from DCO + 3-2, N 2 H + 3-2, H 2 CO 3 03 - 2 02 and 4 14 - 3 13 , HCN 3-2, and CN 2 33/4/2 - 1 22/3/1 are also generally spatially resolved. The detection rates are highest toward the M and K stars, while the F star SAO 206462 has only weak CN and HCN emission, and H 2 CO alone is detected toward HD 142527. These findings together with the statistics from the previous Taurus disks support the hypothesis that high detection rates of many small molecules depend on the presence of a cold and protected disk midplane, which is less common around F and A stars compared to M and K stars. Disk-averaged variations in the proposed radiation tracer CN/HCN are found to be small, despite a two orders of magnitude range of spectral types and accretion rates. In contrast, the resolved images suggest that the CN/HCN emission ratio varies with disk radius in at least two of the systems. There are no clear observational differences in the disk chemistry between the classical/full T Tauri disks and transitional disks. Furthermore, the observed line emission does not depend on the measured accretion luminosities or the number of infrared lines detected, which suggests that the chemistry outside of 100 AU is not coupled to the physical processes that drive the chemistry in the innermost few AU.

11. Modelling the continuous cooling transformation diagram of engineering steels using neural networks. Part II. Microstructure and hardness

Wolk, P.J. van der; Wang, J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Sietsma, J.; Zwaag, S. van der [Delft Univ. of Technology, Lab. for Materials Science (Netherlands)

2002-12-01

The neural network model of Van der Wolk et al. (2002) describes the effect of composition on the phase regions of the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram, yet does not consider the fractions of microstructural components and the hardness data that are often quoted in CCT diagrams. In the present paper, the construction of two more neural network models, one for the fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite in the microstructure, and one for the hardness after cooling, using the data of 338 and 412 diagrams, respectively. The accuracy of each model was found to be similar to the expected experimental error; moreover, the models were found to be mutually consistent, although they have been constructed independently. Furthermore, the trends in these properties for alloying elements can be quantified with the models, and are largely in line with metallurgical expectations. (orig.)

12. Fast Fourier transform-based solution of 2D and 3D magnetization problems in type-II superconductivity

2018-05-01

We consider the fast Fourier transform (FFT) based numerical method for thin film magnetization problems (Vestgården and Johansen 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 104001), compare it with the finite element methods, and evaluate its accuracy. Proposed modifications of this method implementation ensure stable convergence of iterations and enhance its efficiency. A new method, also based on the FFT, is developed for 3D bulk magnetization problems. This method is based on a magnetic field formulation, different from the popular h-formulation of eddy current problems typically employed with the edge finite elements. The method is simple, easy to implement, and can be used with a general current–voltage relation; its efficiency is illustrated by numerical simulations.

13. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2014-07-15

Purpose: Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods have been introduced to clinical CT systems and are being used in some clinical diagnostic applications. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally assess the unique spatial resolution characteristics of this nonlinear reconstruction method and identify its potential impact on the detectabilities and the associated radiation dose levels for specific imaging tasks. Methods: The thoracic section of a pediatric phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 or 100 times using a 64-slice clinical CT scanner at four different dose levels [CTDI{sub vol} =4, 8, 12, 16 (mGy)]. Both filtered backprojection (FBP) and MBIR (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for image reconstruction and results were compared with one another. Eight test objects in the phantom with contrast levels ranging from 13 to 1710 HU were used to assess spatial resolution. The axial spatial resolution was quantified with the point spread function (PSF), while the z resolution was quantified with the slice sensitivity profile. Both were measured locally on the test objects and in the image domain. The dependence of spatial resolution on contrast and dose levels was studied. The study also features a systematic investigation of the potential trade-off between spatial resolution and locally defined noise and their joint impact on the overall image quality, which was quantified by the image domain-based channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) detectability index d′. Results: (1) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR depends on both radiation dose level and image contrast level, whereas it is supposedly independent of these two factors in FBP. The axial spatial resolution of MBIR always improved with an increasing radiation dose level and/or contrast level. (2) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR became equivalent to that of FBP at some transitional contrast level, above which MBIR demonstrated superior spatial resolution than

14. Application of machine/statistical learning, artificial intelligence and statistical experimental design for the modeling and optimization of methylene blue and Cd(ii) removal from a binary aqueous solution by natural walnut carbon.

Mazaheri, H; Ghaedi, M; Ahmadi Azqhandi, M H; Asfaram, A

2017-05-10

Analytical chemists apply statistical methods for both the validation and prediction of proposed models. Methods are required that are adequate for finding the typical features of a dataset, such as nonlinearities and interactions. Boosted regression trees (BRTs), as an ensemble technique, are fundamentally different to other conventional techniques, with the aim to fit a single parsimonious model. In this work, BRT, artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) models have been used for the optimization and/or modeling of the stirring time (min), pH, adsorbent mass (mg) and concentrations of MB and Cd 2+ ions (mg L -1 ) in order to develop respective predictive equations for simulation of the efficiency of MB and Cd 2+ adsorption based on the experimental data set. Activated carbon, as an adsorbent, was synthesized from walnut wood waste which is abundant, non-toxic, cheap and locally available. This adsorbent was characterized using different techniques such as FT-IR, BET, SEM, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) and also the determination of oxygen containing functional groups. The influence of various parameters (i.e. pH, stirring time, adsorbent mass and concentrations of MB and Cd 2+ ions) on the percentage removal was calculated by investigation of sensitive function, variable importance rankings (BRT) and analysis of variance (RSM). Furthermore, a central composite design (CCD) combined with a desirability function approach (DFA) as a global optimization technique was used for the simultaneous optimization of the effective parameters. The applicability of the BRT, ANN and RSM models for the description of experimental data was examined using four statistical criteria (absolute average deviation (AAD), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 )). All three models demonstrated good predictions in this study. The BRT model was more precise compared to the other models and this showed

15. Uptake and Release of Cerium During Fe-Oxide Formation and Transformation in Fe(II) Solutions

Nedel, Sorin; Dideriksen, Knud; Christiansen, Bo C.

2010-01-01

Fe-oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and form during Fe(0) corrosion. Depending on redox conditions and solution composition, Fe-oxides such as ferrihydrite, goethite, magnetite, and green rust (GR) may form. These phases typically have high surface area and large affinity for adsorption......(III) release. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Ce(III) adsorbed on magnetite. When Fe-oxides were synthesized by air oxidation of Fe(II) solutions at pH 7, GR(Na,SO4) played a catalytic role in the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by O-2, removing more than 90% of the dissolved Ce. Transmission electron...

16. Dimensional Control and Morphological Transformations of Supramolecular Polymeric Nanofibers Based on Cofacially-Stacked Planar Amphiphilic Platinum(II) Complexes.

Robinson, Matthew E; Nazemi, Ali; Lunn, David J; Hayward, Dominic W; Boott, Charlotte E; Hsiao, Ming-Siao; Harniman, Robert L; Davis, Sean A; Whittell, George R; Richardson, Robert M; De Cola, Luisa; Manners, Ian

2017-09-26

Square-planar platinum(II) complexes often stack cofacially to yield supramolecular fiber-like structures with interesting photophysical properties. However, control over fiber dimensions and the resulting colloidal stability is limited. We report the self-assembly of amphiphilic Pt(II) complexes with solubilizing ancillary ligands based on polyethylene glycol [PEG n , where n = 16, 12, 7]. The complex with the longest solubilizing PEG ligand, Pt-PEG 16 , self-assembled to form polydisperse one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers (diameters fibers of length up to ca. 400 nm. The fiber lengths were dependent on the Pt-PEG 16 complex to seed mass ratio in a manner analogous to a living covalent polymerization of molecular monomers. Moreover, the fiber lengths were unchanged in solution after 1 week and were therefore "static" with respect to interfiber exchange processes on this time scale. In contrast, similarly formed near-uniform fibers of Pt-PEG 12 exhibited dynamic behavior that led to broadening of the length distribution within 48 h. After aging for 4 weeks in solution, Pt-PEG 12 fibers partially evolved into 2D platelets. Furthermore, self-assembly of Pt-PEG 7 yielded only transient fibers which rapidly evolved into 2D platelets. On addition of further fiber-forming Pt complex (Pt-PEG 16 ), the platelets formed assemblies via the growth of fibers selectively from their short edges. Our studies demonstrate that when interfiber dynamic exchange is suppressed, dimensional control and hierarchical structure formation are possible for supramolecular polymers through the use of kinetically controlled seeded growth methods.

17. Surface phase transformations, surface complexation and solubilities of hydroxyapatite in the absence/presence of Cd(II) and EDTA

Viipsi, Karin; Sjöberg, Staffan; Shchukarev, Andrey; Tõnsuaadu, Kaia

2012-01-01

The removal of Cd from aqueous solutions by hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated with and without EDTA being present. Batch experiments were carried out using synthetic hydroxyapatite with Ca/P 1.57 and a specific surface area of 37.5 m 2 /g in the pH range 4–9 (25 °C; 0.1 M KNO 3 ). The surface composition of the solid phases were analysed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The surface layer of HAP was found to undergo a phase transformation with a (Ca + Cd)/P atomic ratio of 1.4 and the involvement of an ion exchange process (Ca 2+ ↔ Cd 2+ ). The amount of Cd removed from the solution increased with increasing pH, reaching ≈100% at pH 9. In the presence of EDTA Cd removal was reduced due to the formation of [CdEDTA] 2− in solution. The solubility of HAP increases in the presence of EDTA at pH values above 5, mainly due to the formation of [CaEDTA] 2− . In contrast to this, the solubility was found to decrease in the presence of Cd 2+ and CdEDTA 2− . Using XPS the formation of a Cd-enriched HAP surface was found, which was interpreted as the formation of a solid solution of the general composition: Ca 8.4-x Cd x (HPO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 4.4 (OH) 0.4 . The information from the chemical analyses and XPS data was used to design an equilibrium model that takes into account dissolution, solution and surface complexation, as well as possible phase transformations. The total concentration of Ca, phosphate, EDTA, and Cd in solution were used in the equilibrium analysis. In the calculations the computer code WinSGW, which is based on the SOLGASWATER algorithm, was used. The following equilibria and compositions of the solid solutions were found to give the best fit to experimental data: logK s (Ca 7.6 Cd 0.8 (HPO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 4.4 (OH) 0.4 (s)+4.8H + ⇋7.6Ca 2+ +0.8Cd 2+ +6HPO 4 2- +0.4H 2 O)=-28.03±0.07. The corresponding value for the composition Ca 5.6 Cd 2.8 (HPO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 4.4 (OH) 0.4 (s) is −27.39 ± 0.06. The proposed model can be used

18. A statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors from supernova SN 1987 A

Krivoruchenko, M.I.

1989-01-01

A detailed statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors on UT 07:35, 2/23'87 is carried out. Distribution functions of the mean scattering angles in the reaction anti υ e p→e + n and υe→υe are constructed with account taken of the multiple Coulomb scattering and the experimental angular errors. The Smirnov and Wald-Wolfowitz run tests are used to test the hypothesis that the angular distributions of events from the two detectors agree with each other. We test with the use of the Kolmogorov and Mises statistical criterions the hypothesis that the recorded events all represent anti υ e p→e + n inelastic scatterings. Then the Neyman-Pearson test is applied to each event in testing the hypothesis anti υ e p→e + n against the alternative υe→υe. The hypotheses that the number of elastic events equals s=0, 1, 2, ... against the alternatives s≠0, 1, 2, ... are tested on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio criterion. The confidence intervals for the number of elastic events are also constructed. The current supernova models fail to give a satisfactory account of the angular distribution data. (orig.)

19. Exact decoupling of the Dirac Hamiltonian. II. The generalized Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation up to arbitrary order

Reiher, Markus; Wolf, Alexander

2004-01-01

In order to achieve exact decoupling of the Dirac Hamiltonian within a unitary transformation scheme, we have discussed in part I of this series that either a purely numerical iterative technique (the Barysz-Sadlej-Snijders method) or a stepwise analytic approach (the Douglas-Kroll-Hess method) are possible. For the evaluation of Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonians up to a pre-defined order it was shown that a symbolic scheme has to be employed. In this work, an algorithm for this analytic derivation of Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonians up to any arbitrary order in the external potential is presented. We discuss how an estimate for the necessary order for exact decoupling (within machine precision) for a given system can be determined from the convergence behavior of the Douglas-Kroll-Hess expansion prior to a quantum chemical calculation. Once this maximum order has been accomplished, the spectrum of the positive-energy part of the decoupled Hamiltonian, e.g., for electronic bound states, cannot be distinguished from the corresponding part of the spectrum of the Dirac operator. An efficient scalar-relativistic implementation of the symbolic operations for the evaluation of the positive-energy part of the block-diagonal Hamiltonian is presented, and its accuracy is tested for ground-state energies of one-electron ions over the whole periodic table. Furthermore, the first many-electron calculations employing sixth up to fourteenth order DKH Hamiltonians are presented

20. Exact decoupling of the Dirac Hamiltonian. II. The generalized Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation up to arbitrary order.

Reiher, Markus; Wolf, Alexander

2004-12-08

In order to achieve exact decoupling of the Dirac Hamiltonian within a unitary transformation scheme, we have discussed in part I of this series that either a purely numerical iterative technique (the Barysz-Sadlej-Snijders method) or a stepwise analytic approach (the Douglas-Kroll-Hess method) are possible. For the evaluation of Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonians up to a pre-defined order it was shown that a symbolic scheme has to be employed. In this work, an algorithm for this analytic derivation of Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonians up to any arbitrary order in the external potential is presented. We discuss how an estimate for the necessary order for exact decoupling (within machine precision) for a given system can be determined from the convergence behavior of the Douglas-Kroll-Hess expansion prior to a quantum chemical calculation. Once this maximum order has been accomplished, the spectrum of the positive-energy part of the decoupled Hamiltonian, e.g., for electronic bound states, cannot be distinguished from the corresponding part of the spectrum of the Dirac operator. An efficient scalar-relativistic implementation of the symbolic operations for the evaluation of the positive-energy part of the block-diagonal Hamiltonian is presented, and its accuracy is tested for ground-state energies of one-electron ions over the whole periodic table. Furthermore, the first many-electron calculations employing sixth up to fourteenth order DKH Hamiltonians are presented. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

1. Identity transformation

Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

2. Statistical mechanics

2015-01-01

Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

3. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations

Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

2014-08-01

Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L1-6) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L1), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L2), o-vanillin(H2L3), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L4), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L5), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L6). H2L1-6 reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L1-6]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR (1H and 13C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed.

4. Exchange coupling transformations in Cu (II) heterospin complexes of “breathing crystals” under structural phase transitions

Morozov, Vitaly A.; Petrova, Marina V.; Lukzen, Nikita N., E-mail: luk@tomo.nsc.ru [International Tomography Center SB RUS, Institutskaya Str. 3a, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2015-08-15

Family of “breathing crystals” is the polymer-chain complexes of Cu(hfac){sub 2} with nitroxides. The polymer chains consist of one-, two- or three-spin clusters. The “breathing crystals” experience simultaneous magnetic and Jahn-Teller type structural phase transitions with change of total cluster spin and drastic change of bond lengths (ca. 10-12%). For the first time the intra-cluster magnetic couplings in ”breathing crystals” have been calculated both by band structure methods GGA + U and hybrid DFT (B3LYP and PBE0) for the isolated exchange clusters. The temperature dependence of the magnetic coupling constant was calculated for two polymer-chain compounds of the “breathing crystal” family - C{sub 21}H{sub 19}CuF{sub 12}N{sub 4}O{sub 6} with the chains containing two-spin clusters and C{sub 22}H{sub 21}CuF{sub 12}N{sub 4}O{sub 6} with the chains of alternating three-spin clusters and one-spin sites. It was found that adding a Hubbard-like parameter not only to the copper 3d electrons but also to the oxygen 2p electrons (GGA + U{sub d} + U{sub p} approach) results in an improved description of exchange coupling in the “breathing crystal” compounds. At the same time treatment of the isolated clusters by a large basis hybrid DFT with high computational cost provides a similar quality fit of the experimental magneto-chemical data as that for the GGA + U{sub d} + U{sub p} band structure calculation scheme. Our calculations also showed that in spite of the abrupt transformation of the magnetic coupling constant under the phase transition, the band gap in the “breathing crystals” remains about the same value with temperature decrease.

5. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P

1998-01-01

Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta......-rII). We have, in other studies, shown that the presence of TGF beta-rII was mandatory for transmitting the growth inhibitory effect of TGF beta. The results showed a statistically significant difference in Dq, i.e. the shoulder width of the survival curve, between cell lines expressing TGF beta......-rII and cell lines which did not express the receptor (P = 0.01). Cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII had a high Dq-value. TGF beta-rII expression did not correlate with any other radiobiological parameters. We suggest that an intact growth inhibitory pathway mediated by the TGF beta-rII may have a significant...

6. Statistical Optics

Goodman, Joseph W.

2000-07-01

The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research

7. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

8. Structural observations of heterometallic uranyl copper(II) carboxylates and their solid-state topotactic transformation upon dehydration.

Olchowka, Jakub; Falaise, Clément; Volkringer, Christophe; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry

2013-02-04

The hydrothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and metallic copper with aromatic polycarboxylic acids gave rise to the formation of five heterometallic UO(2)(2+)-Cu(2+) coordination polymers: (UO(2))Cu(H(2)O)(2)(1,2-bdc)(2) (1; 1,2-bdc = phthalate), (UO(2))Cu(H(2)O)(2)(btec)⋅4 H(2)O (2) and (UO(2))Cu(btec) (2'; btec = pyromellitate), (UO(2))(2)Cu(H(2)O)(4)(mel) (3; mel = mellitate), and (UO(2))(2)O(OH)(2)Cu(H(2)O)(2)(1,3-bdc)⋅H(2)O (4; 1,3-bdc = isophthlalate). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of compound 1 revealed 2D layers of chains of UO(8) and CuO(4)(H(2)O)(2) units that were connected through the phthalate ligands. In compound 2, these sheets were connected to each other through the two additional carboxylate arms of the pyromellitate, thus resulting in a 3D open-framework with 1D channels that trapped water molecules. Upon heating, free and bonded water species (from Cu-OH(2)) were evacuated from the structure. This thermal transition was followed by in situ XRD and IR spectroscopy. Heating induced a solid-state topotactic transformation with the formation of a new set of Cu-O interactions in the crystalline anhydrous structure (2'), in order to keep the square-planar environment around the copper centers. The structure of compound 3 was built up from trinuclear motifs, in which one copper center, CuO(4)(OH(2))(2), was linked to two uranium units, UO(5)(H(2)O)(2). The assembly of this trimer, "U(2)Cu", with the mellitate generated a 3D network. Complex 4 contained a tetranuclear uranyl core of UO(5)(OH)(2) and UO(6)(OH) units that were linked to two copper centers, CuO(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2), which were then connected to each other through isophthalate ligands and U=O-Cu interactions to create a 3D structure. The common structural feature of these different compounds is a bridging oxo group of U=O-Cu type, which is reflected by apical Cu-O distances in the range 2.350(3)-2.745(5) Å. In the case of a shorter Cu-O distance, a slight lengthening

9. Structural observations of heterometallic uranyl copper(II) carboxylates and their solid-state topotactic transformation upon dehydration

Olchowka, Jakub; Falaise, Clement; Volkringer, Christophe; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry

2013-01-01

The hydrothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and metallic copper with aromatic polycarboxylic acids gave rise to the formation of five heterometallic UO 2 2+ -Cu 2+ coordination polymers: (UO 2 )Cu(H 2 O) 2 (1,2-bdc) 2 (1; 1,2-bdc=phthalate), (UO 2 )Cu(H 2 O) 2 (btec).4 H 2 O (2) and (UO 2 )Cu(btec) (2'; btec=pyromellitate), (UO 2 ) 2 Cu(H 2 O) 4 (mel) (3; mel=mellitate), and (UO 2 ) 2 O(OH) 2 Cu(H 2 O) 2 (1,3-bdc).H 2 O (4; 1,3-bdc=isophthlalate). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of compound 1 revealed 2D layers of chains of UO 8 and CuO 4 (H 2 O) 2 units that were connected through the phthalate ligands. In compound 2, these sheets were connected to each other through the two additional carboxylate arms of the pyromellitate, thus resulting in a 3D open-framework with 1D channels that trapped water molecules. Upon heating, free and bonded water species (from Cu-OH 2 ) were evacuated from the structure. This thermal transition was followed by in situ XRD and IR spectroscopy. Heating induced a solid-state topotactic transformation with the formation of a new set of Cu-O interactions in the crystalline anhydrous structure (2'), in order to keep the square-planar environment around the copper centers. The structure of compound 3 was built up from trinuclear motifs, in which one copper center, CuO 4 (OH 2 ) 2 , was linked to two uranium units, UO 5 (H 2 O) 2 . The assembly of this trimer, ''U 2 Cu'', with the mellitate generated a 3D network. Complex 4 contained a tetranuclear uranyl core of UO 5 (OH) 2 and UO 6 (OH) units that were linked to two copper centers, CuO(OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 , which were then connected to each other through isophthalate ligands and U=O-Cu interactions to create a 3D structure. The common structural feature of these different compounds is a bridging oxo group of U=O-Cu type, which is reflected by apical Cu-O distances in the range 2.350(3)-2.745(5) Aa. In the case of a shorter Cu-O distance, a slight

10. Structural observations of heterometallic uranyl copper(II) carboxylates and their solid-state topotactic transformation upon dehydration

Olchowka, Jakub; Falaise, Clement; Volkringer, Christophe; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide (UCCS), UMR CNRS 8181, Universite de Lille Nord de France, USTL-ENSCL, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

2013-02-04

The hydrothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and metallic copper with aromatic polycarboxylic acids gave rise to the formation of five heterometallic UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cu{sup 2+} coordination polymers: (UO{sub 2})Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(1,2-bdc){sub 2} (1; 1,2-bdc=phthalate), (UO{sub 2})Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(btec).4 H{sub 2}O (2) and (UO{sub 2})Cu(btec) (2'; btec=pyromellitate), (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(mel) (3; mel=mellitate), and (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}O(OH){sub 2}Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(1,3-bdc).H{sub 2}O (4; 1,3-bdc=isophthlalate). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of compound 1 revealed 2D layers of chains of UO{sub 8} and CuO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} units that were connected through the phthalate ligands. In compound 2, these sheets were connected to each other through the two additional carboxylate arms of the pyromellitate, thus resulting in a 3D open-framework with 1D channels that trapped water molecules. Upon heating, free and bonded water species (from Cu-OH{sub 2}) were evacuated from the structure. This thermal transition was followed by in situ XRD and IR spectroscopy. Heating induced a solid-state topotactic transformation with the formation of a new set of Cu-O interactions in the crystalline anhydrous structure (2'), in order to keep the square-planar environment around the copper centers. The structure of compound 3 was built up from trinuclear motifs, in which one copper center, CuO{sub 4}(OH{sub 2}){sub 2}, was linked to two uranium units, UO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}. The assembly of this trimer, ''U{sub 2}Cu'', with the mellitate generated a 3D network. Complex 4 contained a tetranuclear uranyl core of UO{sub 5}(OH){sub 2} and UO{sub 6}(OH) units that were linked to two copper centers, CuO(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which were then connected to each other through isophthalate ligands and U=O-Cu interactions to create a 3D structure. The common structural feature of these different compounds is

11. Immature transformed rat islet beta-cells differentially express C-peptides derived from the genes coding for insulin I and II as well as a transfected human insulin gene

Blume, N; Petersen, J S; Andersen, L C

1992-01-01

is induced in the transformed heterogeneous rat islet cell clone, NHI-6F, by transient in vivo passage. During this process a transfected human insulin gene is coactivated with the endogenous nonallelic rat insulin I and II genes. Newly established cultures from NHI-6F insulinomas having a high frequency...

12. In situ martensitic transformation in a ternary MgO-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/ alloy: II, transformation in tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/ precipitates

Lee, R.R.; Heuer, A.H.

1988-01-01

The stress-induced martensitic transformation of t-ZrO/sub 2/ precipitates in a ternary MgO-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/ alloy has been studied in situ in the transmission electron microscope. The transformation occurs autocatalytically and takes place by piecewise growth of two twin-related m-ZrO/sub 2/ variants. Unloading causes retransformation of partially transformed precipitates, but this reverse (m → t) transformation of fully transformed precipitates only occurs on heating. The martensitic transformation in this system is clearly thermoeleastic

13. Natural transformation of chlordecone into 5b-hydrochlordecone in French West Indies soils: statistical evidence for investigating long-term persistence of organic pollutants.

Devault, Damien A; Laplanche, Christophe; Pascaline, Hélène; Bristeau, Sébastien; Mouvet, Christophe; Macarie, Hervé

2016-01-01

Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide whose previous use resulted in an extensive pollution of the environment with severe health effects and social consequences. A closely related compound, 5b-hydrochlordecone (5b-hydroCLD), has been searched for and often detected in environmental matrices from the geographical area where CLD was applied. The current consensus considered that its presence was not the result of a biotic or abiotic dechlorination of CLD in these matrices but rather the consequence of its presence as impurity (synthesis by-product) in the CLD released into the environment. The aim of the present study was to determine if and to what extent degradation of CLD into 5b-hydroCLD occurred in the field. To test this hypothesis, the ratios of 5b-hydroCLD and CLD concentrations in a dataset of 810 soils collected between 2006 and 2012 in Martinique were compared to the ratios measured in 3 samples of the CLD dust commercial formulations applied in the banana fields of French West Indies (FWI) and 1 sample of the technical-grade CLD corresponding to the active ingredient used in such formulations. Soil data were processed with a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for random measurement errors and data censoring. Any pathway of CLD transformation into 5b-hydroCLD occurring over the long term in FWI soils would indeed change the ratio of 5b-hydroCLD/CLD compared to what it was in the initially applied formulations. Results showed a significant increase of the 5b-hydroCLD/CLD ratio in the soils-25 times greater in soil than in commercial formulations-which suggested that natural CLD transformation into 5b-hydroCLD over the long term occurred in these soils. Results from this study may impact future decisions for the remediation of the polluted areas.

14. Functional transforming growth factor-β receptor type II expression by CD4+ T cells in Peyer's patches is essential for oral tolerance induction.

Rebekah S Gilbert

Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that Peyer's patches (PPs play a key role in the induction of oral tolerance. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPs are an important site for Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β signaling and sought to prove that this tissue is of importance in oral tolerance induction. We found that expression of TGF-β type II receptor (TGFβRII by CD4(+ T cells increases and persists in the PPs of normal C57BL/6 mice after either high- or low-dose feeding of OVA when compared to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs and spleen. Approximately one-third of these TGFβRII(+ CD4(+ T cells express the transcription factor Foxp3. Interestingly, the number of TGFβRII(+ CD4(+ T cells in PPs decreased when OVA-fed mice were orally challenged with OVA plus native cholera toxin (CT. In contrast, numbers of TGFβRII(+ CD4(+ T cells were increased in the intestinal lamina propria (iLP of these challenged mice. Further, these PP CD4(+ TGFβRII(+ T cells upregulated Foxp3 within 2 hours after OVA plus CT challenge. Mice fed PBS and challenged with OVA plus CT did not reveal any changes in TGFβRII expression by CD4(+ T cells. In order to test the functional property of TGFβRII in the induction of oral tolerance, CD4dnTGFβRII transgenic mice, in which TGFβRII signaling is abrogated from all CD4(+ T cells, were employed. Importantly, these mice could not develop oral tolerance to OVA. Our studies show a critical, dose-independent, role for TGFβRII expression and function by CD4(+ T cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, further underlining the vital role of PPs in oral tolerance.

15. Differential Regulation of Smad3 and of the Type II Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor in Mitosis: Implications for Signaling

Hirschhorn, Tal; Barizilay, Lior; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

2012-01-01

16. Statistics & probaility for dummies

Rumsey, Deborah J

2013-01-01

Two complete eBooks for one low price! Created and compiled by the publisher, this Statistics I and Statistics II bundle brings together two math titles in one, e-only bundle. With this special bundle, you'll get the complete text of the following two titles: Statistics For Dummies, 2nd Edition  Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more. Tra

17. Statistical thermodynamics

Lim, Gyeong Hui

2008-03-01

This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics

18. Transforming Graph Data for Statistical Relational Learning

2012-10-01

pairwise kernel for predicting links between proteins (protein-protein interactions). The pairwise kernel is a tensor -product of two linear kernels on...participate in the same “event,” such as both voting yes for the same political bill. Rather than directly labeling links (like ART), the GT model clusters...these nodes (such as people) into latent groups based on textual descriptions of the events/ votes . However, the GT model also simultaneously infers a set

19. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

2014-09-01

The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

20. Cancer Statistics

... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

1. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

Rudolf A. Treumann

2014-06-01

Full Text Available A new form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

2. GUIDANCE FOR STATISTICAL DETERMINATION OF APPROPRIATE PERCENT MINORITY AND PERCENT POVERTY DISTRIBUTIONAL CUTOFF VALUES USING CENSUS DATA FOR AND EPA REGION II ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE PROJECT

The purpose of this report is to assist Region H by providing a statistical analysis identifying the areas with minority and below poverty populations known as "Community of Concern" (COC). The aim was to find a cutoff value as a threshold to identify a COC using demographic data...

3. Statistical symmetries in physics

1994-01-01

Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs

4. Post-synthetic transformation of a Zn( ii ) polyhedral coordination network into a new supramolecular isomer of HKUST-1

Chen, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Nankai University; Tianjin 300071; P. R. China; College of Pharmacy; Wojtas, Lukasz [Department of Chemistry; University of South Florida; 4202 East Fowler Avenue; Tampa; USA; Ma, Shengqian [Department of Chemistry; University of South Florida; 4202 East Fowler Avenue; Tampa; USA; Zaworotko, Michael J. [Department of Chemistry & Environmental Sciences, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick; Limerick; Republic of Ireland; Zhang, Zhenjie [College of Chemistry, Nankai University; Tianjin; P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Nankai University

2017-01-01

A Zn-based porphyrin containing metal–organic material (porphMOM-1) was post-synthetically transformed into a Cu-based porphyrin-encapsulating metal–organic material (porph@HKUST-1-β).HKUST-1-βis a new supramolecular isomer ofHKUST-1.

Tabatabai, Manouchehr; Gamble, Ralph

1997-01-01

Survey responses from 204 of 500 business schools identified most often topics in business statistics I and II courses. The most popular software at both levels was Minitab. Most schools required both statistics I and II. (SK)

6. Statistical analysis of water-quality data containing multiple detection limits II: S-language software for nonparametric distribution modeling and hypothesis testing

Lee, L.; Helsel, D.

2007-01-01

Analysis of low concentrations of trace contaminants in environmental media often results in left-censored data that are below some limit of analytical precision. Interpretation of values becomes complicated when there are multiple detection limits in the data-perhaps as a result of changing analytical precision over time. Parametric and semi-parametric methods, such as maximum likelihood estimation and robust regression on order statistics, can be employed to model distributions of multiply censored data and provide estimates of summary statistics. However, these methods are based on assumptions about the underlying distribution of data. Nonparametric methods provide an alternative that does not require such assumptions. A standard nonparametric method for estimating summary statistics of multiply-censored data is the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method. This method has seen widespread usage in the medical sciences within a general framework termed "survival analysis" where it is employed with right-censored time-to-failure data. However, K-M methods are equally valid for the left-censored data common in the geosciences. Our S-language software provides an analytical framework based on K-M methods that is tailored to the needs of the earth and environmental sciences community. This includes routines for the generation of empirical cumulative distribution functions, prediction or exceedance probabilities, and related confidence limits computation. Additionally, our software contains K-M-based routines for nonparametric hypothesis testing among an unlimited number of grouping variables. A primary characteristic of K-M methods is that they do not perform extrapolation and interpolation. Thus, these routines cannot be used to model statistics beyond the observed data range or when linear interpolation is desired. For such applications, the aforementioned parametric and semi-parametric methods must be used.

7. Role of free radicals in the initiation and promotion of radiation transformation in vitro

Kennedy, A.R.; Troll, W.; Little, J.B.

1984-01-01

We have studied the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, Cu(II) (3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)2 (CuDIPS) and other copper compounds on radiation transformation in vitro using C3H 10T1/2 cells. When present only during irradiation, high concentrations of SOD in the medium enhanced transformation, while catalase, inactivated SOD (autoclaved), CuDIPS, cupric chloride and cuprous chloride inhibited the initiation phase of radiation transformation. SOD, catalase and CuDIPS did not affect the expression phase of radiation transformation. Suppression of the TPA enhancement of transformation by catalase was a highly significant effect, while the suppression by SOD was not of statistical significance. Our results suggest that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) may be important in the cellular damage leading to malignant transformation

8. Role of free radicals in the initiation and promotion of radiation transformation in vitro

Kennedy, A.R.; Little, J.B.; Troll, W.

1984-01-01

The effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, Cu(II) (3,5-diisopropylsalicylate) 2 (CuDIPS) and other copper compounds on radiation transformation in vitro have been studied using C3H 10T1/2 cells. When present only during irradiation, high concentrations of SOD in the medium enhanced transformation, while catalase, inactivated SOD (autoclaved), CuDIPS, cupric chloride and cuprous chloride inhibited the initiation phase of radiation transformation. SOD, catalase and CuDIPS did not affect the expression phase of radiation transformation. Suppression of the TPA enhancement of transformation by catalase was a highly significant effect, while the suppression by SOD was not of statistical significance. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) may be important in the cellular damage leading to malignant transformation. (author)

9. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Analysis of Trapa bispinosa: A Novel Adsorbent for the Removal of Cu (II) from Aqueous Solution in Chemically Treated Form

Yousaf, M.; Nadeem, R.; Saeed, M.; Zahoor, T.

2013-01-01

Current study explored biosorption mechanism and kinetics of Cu (II) onto Trapa bispinosa peels (TBPs) biomass in surfactant (SDS, CTAB, and Triton X-100), organic acid (CA, TA, AA) and in Native (N) form during batch experiment. Equilibrium sorption capacity was determined at various solution parameters like pH, contact time and initial concentration. Increment in sorption capacity was observed with increase in pH until maximum is achieved at pH 5. Optimized time and concentration were 120 minutes and 100 ppm respectively. Best fitted pseudo-second order kinetic model on the data showed that sorption of Cu (II) is rate-controlling. Sorption capacity (mg g-1) for Cu (II) ions increased while % removal decreased. SDS TBPs in comparison to all TBPs show highest sorption tendency as after SDS pretreatment TBPs surface is loaded with the negatively charged groups that provide more attachment sites for Cu (II) ions. Langmuir isotherm give best description of monolayer adsorption over the surface as it fitted better to data. FTIR analysis showed presence of functional groups like amine, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Ionization states of these functional groups are changed with pH. (author)

10. Occurrence and fate of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist transformation product valsartan acid in the water cycle--a comparative study with selected β-blockers and the persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame.

Nödler, Karsten; Hillebrand, Olav; Idzik, Krzysztof; Strathmann, Martin; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Licha, Tobias

2013-11-01

The substantial transformation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan to the transformation product 2'-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (referred to as valsartan acid) during the activated sludge process was demonstrated in the literature and confirmed in the here presented study. However, there was a severe lack of knowledge regarding the occurrence and fate of this compound in surface water and its behavior during drinking water treatment. In this work a comparative study on the occurrence and persistency of valsartan acid, three frequently used β-blockers (metoprolol, atenolol, and sotalol), atenolol acid (one significant transformation product of atenolol and metoprolol), and the two widely distributed persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame in raw sewage, treated wastewater, surface water, groundwater, and tap water is presented. Median concentrations of valsartan acid in the analyzed matrices were 101, 1,310, 69, waters valsartan acid was found just as relevant as the analyzed β-blockers and the anticonvulsant carbamazepine. Regarding its persistency in surface waters it was comparable to carbamazepine and acesulfame. Furthermore, removal of valsartan acid during bank filtration was poor, which demonstrated the relevance of this compound for drinking water suppliers. Regarding drinking water treatment (Muelheim Process) the compound was resistant to ozonation but effectively eliminated (≥90%) by subsequent activated carbon filtration. However, without applying activated carbon filtration the compound may enter the drinking water distribution system as it was demonstrated for Berlin tap water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. KiDS-450: cosmological constraints from weak-lensing peak statistics - II: Inference from shear peaks using N-body simulations

Martinet, Nicolas; Schneider, Peter; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Shan, HuanYuan; Asgari, Marika; Dietrich, Jörg P.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Erben, Thomas; Grado, Aniello; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Nakajima, Reiko

2018-02-01

We study the statistics of peaks in a weak-lensing reconstructed mass map of the first 450 deg2 of the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450). The map is computed with aperture masses directly applied to the shear field with an NFW-like compensated filter. We compare the peak statistics in the observations with that of simulations for various cosmologies to constrain the cosmological parameter S_8 = σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}, which probes the (Ωm, σ8) plane perpendicularly to its main degeneracy. We estimate S8 = 0.750 ± 0.059, using peaks in the signal-to-noise range 0 ≤ S/N ≤ 4, and accounting for various systematics, such as multiplicative shear bias, mean redshift bias, baryon feedback, intrinsic alignment, and shear-position coupling. These constraints are ˜ 25 per cent tighter than the constraints from the high significance peaks alone (3 ≤ S/N ≤ 4) which typically trace single-massive haloes. This demonstrates the gain of information from low-S/N peaks. However, we find that including S/N KiDS-450. Combining shear peaks with non-tomographic measurements of the shear two-point correlation functions yields a ˜20 per cent improvement in the uncertainty on S8 compared to the shear two-point correlation functions alone, highlighting the great potential of peaks as a cosmological probe.

12. Exact statistical analysis of nonlinear dynamic power reactor models by the Fokker--Planck method. Part II. Reactor with on-off control

Debosscher, A.F.; Dutre, W.L.

1979-01-01

The paper deals with the exact stochastic analysis of the low-frequency neutron density fluctuations in an on-off controlled nuclear power reactor without delayed neutrons and perturbed by Gaussian white reactivity noise. The stochastic process, being Markovian, is completely characterized by its first-order probability density function (pdf) and the transition pdf. The first-order pdf is the normalized solution to the time-independent Fokker--Planck equation (FPE). Using this pdf, a general expression for the moments is obtained. The conditions for stochastic stability in probability, in the mean, and in the mean-square are derived. The time-dependent FPE is solved using the Laplace transform technique, which results in four distinct expressions for the transition pdf, according to the relative magnitude of initial and final reactor power with respect to the regulator level. After Laplace inversion, a physical interpretation of the controller's effect on the stochastic process becomes possible. Finally, making use of the obtained pdf's, the spectral density of the reactor power fluctuations is calculated

13. Usage Statistics

... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/usestatistics.html MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, ... By Quarter View image full size Quarterly User Statistics Quarter Page Views Unique Visitors Oct-Dec-98 ...

14. Mathematical statistics

Pestman, Wiebe R

2009-01-01

This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

15. Statistical mechanics of solitons

Bishop, A.

1980-01-01

The status of statistical mechanics theory (classical and quantum, statics and dynamics) is reviewed for 1-D soliton or solitary-wave-bearing systems. Primary attention is given to (i) perspective for existing results with evaluation and representative literature guide; (ii) motivation and status report for remaining problems; (iii) discussion of connections with other 1-D topics

16. Frog Statistics

Whole Frog Project and Virtual Frog Dissection Statistics wwwstats output for January 1 through duplicate or extraneous accesses. For example, in these statistics, while a POST requesting an image is as well. Note that this under-represents the bytes requested. Starting date for following statistics

17. Transformative Learning

Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

2011-01-01

The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

18. Anion-exchange and anthracene-encapsulation within copper(II) and manganese(II)-triazole metal-organic confined space in a single crystal-to-single crystal transformation fashion.

Liu, Ju-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yuan, Bin; Xu, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Cong-Ying; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Ying; Ding, Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Yue, Min Min

2014-06-16

A new multidentate ligand 1-(9-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)anthracen-10-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (tatrz) was designed and synthesized. Using tatrz as a building block, three novel coordination frameworks, namely, {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·(CH3OH)·4H2O}n (1), {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](BF4)2}n (2), and [Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2(CH3OH)]·2H2O (3) can be isolated. Anion-exchange experiment indicates that NO3(-) anions in the two-dimensional (2D) copper framework of 1 can be completely exchanged by ClO4(-) in an irreversible single crystal-to-single crystal (SC-SC) transformation fashion, as evidenced by the anion-exchange products of {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·4CH3OH} (1a). Further, if 1a was employed as a precursor in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), an isomorphic solvate of {[Cu(tatrz)2(DMF)2](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (1b) can be generated during the reversible dynamic transformation process. When 1 was immersed in CH3OH, a distinct 2D layer {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·4.4CH3OH·0.6H2O}n (1c) was isolated. Interestingly, the solvent-exchange conversion is also invertible between 1 and 1c, which exhibits spongelike dynamic behavior with retention of crystalline integrity. If the 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) framework 2 is selected, it can be transformed into another 2-fold interpenetrating 3D framework {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·5.56H2O}n (2a) in a reversible SC-SC transformation fashion. However, when the light yellow crystals of mononuclear complex 3 were exposed to trichloromethane containing aromatic organic anthracene (atan), through our careful observation, the crystals of 3 were dissolved and reassembled into dark brown crystals of 2D crystalline coordination framework {[Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2]·(atan)}n (3a). X-ray diffraction revealed that in 3a, atan acting as an organic template was encapsulated in the confined space of the 2D grid. Luminescent measurements illustrate that 3a is the first report of multidimensional polymers based on triazole derivatives as luminescent probes of Mg(2+).

19. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results

da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.

2013-01-01

Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

20. α-transforming growth factor secreted by untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells in culture. II. Identification using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody

Kobrin, M.S.; Samsoondar, J.; Kudlow, J.E.

1986-01-01

Untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells cultured in serum-free defined medium secrete an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptide with an amino acid composition similar to rat or human α-transforming growth factor (αTGF). To further characterize the bovine pituitary αTGF, it was compared to a human αTGF partially purified from the conditioned medium of a human melanoma cell line. An anti-αTGF monoclonal antibody, MF9, was produced from hybridomas derived from mice immunized with a 17-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal sequence of rat αTGF. The hybridoma supernatants were initially screened for the ability to immunoprecipitate 125 I-peptide and then tested for recognition of human αTGF. Only 2 of 36 antipeptide antibodies recognized the native αTGF. The binding of 125 I-peptide to MF9 was displaced by human αTGF but not by EGF. Bovine pituitary αTGF also displaced the binding of 125 I-peptide to MF9 in a similar manner to human αTGF. Both iodinated human and bovine pituitary αTGF were immunoprecipitated by MF9 whereas 125 I-EGF was not. Tryptic digests of both 125 I-αTGFs chromatographed to give a single, indistinguishable peak of iodinated material on a reverse-phase C 18 high performance liquid chromatography column when eluted with two different solvent systems, suggesting the generation of a single and identical tyrosine-containing tryptic peptide from both αTGFs. The comparisons of the bovine pituitary and human melanoma αTGF using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping suggest that these αTGFs are related and that αTGF production is not limited to transformed or fetal sources

1. Statistical physics

2012-01-01

This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

2. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

1977-01-01

Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

3. Breakthroughs in statistics

Johnson, Norman

This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...

4. Statistical optics

Goodman, Joseph W

2015-01-01

This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

5. Harmonic statistics

Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

2017-05-15

The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

6. Harmonic statistics

Eliazar, Iddo

2017-01-01

The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

7. Statistical methods

Szulc, Stefan

1965-01-01

Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

8. Histoplasmosis Statistics

... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

9. Metallurgical transformations of high strength low alloys steels 450 EMZ type II in the heat affected zone during multipass submerged arc welding

Gonzalez-Palma, R.; Suarez-Bermejo, J. C.; Vicario, F. J.; Munoz, A.

2006-01-01

A considerable number of crack tip opening displacement tests in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of multipass welds. performed in accordance with standards BS 5762 and EEMUA, are rejected since the crack is not inside the coarse grain region at 0.5 mm from the fusion border, as well as the quantity of the crack length in percentage, that the crack goes through the inter critical region instead of in the grain coarse region as it would correspond. This circumstance make advisable to carry out a metallographic study of he inter critical zone in the HAZ as well as the corresponding tests, in order analyze the inter critical region brittleness reasons. The study is performed on a HSLA 75 mm thick panel 450 EMZ type II, welded under a SAW process with heat input and welded parameters controlled, without any post weld heat treatment. (Author)

10. Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation

Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele

2006-01-01

Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir...

11. Statistical Diversions

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2012-01-01

The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the…

12. Statistical Diversions

Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

2008-01-01

In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

13. Scan Statistics

Glaz, Joseph

2009-01-01

Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

14. Practical Statistics

Lyons, L.

2016-01-01

Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

15. Total mass difference statistics algorithm: a new approach to identification of high-mass building blocks in electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry data of natural organic matter.

Kunenkov, Erast V; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Perminova, Irina V; Hertkorn, Norbert; Gaspar, Andras; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Popov, Igor A; Garmash, Andrew V; Nikolaev, Evgeniy N

2009-12-15

The ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrum of natural organic matter (NOM) contains several thousand peaks with dozens of molecules matching the same nominal mass. Such a complexity poses a significant challenge for automatic data interpretation, in which the most difficult task is molecular formula assignment, especially in the case of heavy and/or multielement ions. In this study, a new universal algorithm for automatic treatment of FTICR mass spectra of NOM and humic substances based on total mass difference statistics (TMDS) has been developed and implemented. The algorithm enables a blind search for unknown building blocks (instead of a priori known ones) by revealing repetitive patterns present in spectra. In this respect, it differs from all previously developed approaches. This algorithm was implemented in designing FIRAN-software for fully automated analysis of mass data with high peak density. The specific feature of FIRAN is its ability to assign formulas to heavy and/or multielement molecules using "virtual elements" approach. To verify the approach, it was used for processing mass spectra of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, M(w) = 2200 Da) and polymethacrylate (PMA, M(w) = 3290 Da) which produce heavy multielement and multiply-charged ions. Application of TMDS identified unambiguously monomers present in the polymers consistent with their structure: C(8)H(7)SO(3)Na for PSS and C(4)H(6)O(2) for PMA. It also allowed unambiguous formula assignment to all multiply-charged peaks including the heaviest peak in PMA spectrum at mass 4025.6625 with charge state 6- (mass bias -0.33 ppm). Application of the TMDS-algorithm to processing data on the Suwannee River FA has proven its unique capacities in analysis of spectra with high peak density: it has not only identified the known small building blocks in the structure of FA such as CH(2), H(2), C(2)H(2)O, O but the heavier unit at 154.027 amu. The latter was

Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E

2015-10-01

Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced. © RSNA, 2015.

17. Two solvent and temperature dependent copper(II) compounds formed by a flexible ligand: syntheses, structures and SC-SC transformation.

Sun, Haixia; Xie, Wenli; Lv, Shenghong; Xu, Yan; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Yaoming; Ma, Zhenmao; Fang, Min; Liu, Hong-Ke

2012-07-07

A nonporous neutral framework [CuCl(2)(m-bttmb)(2)](n) (1) was changed into a porous ionic {[Cu(m-bttmb)(2)(H(2)O)Cl]Cl(CH(3)CN)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2.75)}(n) (2) by simply increasing the amount of CH(3)CN in the mixed solvent (CH(3)CN and H(2)O) or temperature in the reactions of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O with 1,3-bis(triazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene (m-bttmb). 1 undergoes transformation into 2 when treated with CH(3)CN. Both 1 and 2 have 2D 4-connected (4,4) network architectures but in different packing arrangements. These compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. This work may provide a way to control the formation of neutral or ionic frameworks, as well as porosities by adjusting the polarity and components of the solvents.

18. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations. II. Extension to two-electron Coulomb interaction.

Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

2012-10-14

The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244102 (2012)], which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been extended to a four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. In the previous study, the LUT scheme was applied only to a one-particle IODKH Hamiltonian with non-relativistic two-electron Coulomb interaction, termed IODKH/C. The current study extends the LUT scheme to a two-particle IODKH Hamiltonian as well as one-particle one, termed IODKH/IODKH, which has been a real bottleneck in numerical calculation. The LUT scheme with the IODKH/IODKH Hamiltonian was numerically assessed in the diatomic molecules HX and X(2) and hydrogen halide molecules, (HX)(n) (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). The total Hartree-Fock energies calculated by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH/IODKH results. The computational cost of the LUT method is reduced drastically compared with that of the conventional method. In addition, the LUT method achieves linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

19. Fused pyrazine mono-N-oxides as bioreductive drugs. II cytotoxicity in human cells and oncogenicity in a rodent transformation assay

Langmuir, Virginia K.; Laderoute, Keith R.; Mendonca, Holly L.; Sutherland, Robert M.; Hei, Tom K.; Liu, S.-X.; Hall, Eric J.; Naylor, Matthew A.; Adams, Gerald E.

1996-01-01

Purpose: To determine what structural moieties of the fused pyrazine mono-N-oxides are determining factors in their in vitro cytotoxicity and oncogenicity. Methods and Materials: A new series of experimental bioreductive drugs, fused pyrazine mono-N-oxides, was evaluated in vitro for aerobic and hypoxic cytotoxicity in the HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line by using clonogenic assays. The relative oncogenicities of these compounds were also determined in aerobic cultures of C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts by using a standard transformation assay. Results: Removal of the 4-methyl piperazine side chain from the parent compound, RB 90740, reduced the potency of the hypoxic cytotoxin. Reduction of the N-oxide function increased the aerobic cytotoxicity and eliminated most of the hypoxic/aerobic cytotoxic differential. The reduced N-oxide also had significant oncogenicity, consistent with a mechanism of genotoxicity following bioreduction of RB 90740. Conclusion: This new series of bioreductive compounds may be effective in cancer therapy, particularly the lead compound RB 90740. The oncogenic potential of these compounds is similar to that for other cancer therapies. Further studies should include evaluation of these compounds in vivo and the development of analogs with reduced oncogenic potential and retention of the hypoxic/aerobic cytotoxicity differential

20. Photogrammetric computer vision statistics, geometry, orientation and reconstruction

Förstner, Wolfgang

2016-01-01

This textbook offers a statistical view on the geometry of multiple view analysis, required for camera calibration and orientation and for geometric scene reconstruction based on geometric image features. The authors have backgrounds in geodesy and also long experience with development and research in computer vision, and this is the first book to present a joint approach from the converging fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Part I of the book provides an introduction to estimation theory, covering aspects such as Bayesian estimation, variance components, and sequential estimation, with a focus on the statistically sound diagnostics of estimation results essential in vision metrology. Part II provides tools for 2D and 3D geometric reasoning using projective geometry. This includes oriented projective geometry and tools for statistically optimal estimation and test of geometric entities and transformations and their rela­tions, tools that are useful also in the context of uncertain reasoning in po...

Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

2011-01-01

The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

2. Semiconductor statistics

Blakemore, J S

1962-01-01

Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

3. Statistical Physics

Wannier, Gregory Hugh

1966-01-01

Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

4. Statistics Clinic

Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

2014-01-01

Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

5. Characterization of the low-temperature triplet state of chlorophyll in photosystem II core complexes: Application of phosphorescence measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Zabelin, Alexey A; Neverov, Konstantin V; Krasnovsky, Alexander A; Shkuropatova, Valentina A; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Shkuropatov, Anatoly Ya

2016-06-01

Phosphorescence measurements at 77 K and light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy at 95 K were applied to study of the triplet state of chlorophyll a ((3)Chl) in photosystem II (PSII) core complexes isolated from spinach. Using both methods, (3)Chl was observed in the core preparations with doubly reduced primary quinone acceptor QA. The spectral parameters of Chl phosphorescence resemble those in the isolated PSII reaction centers (RCs). The main spectral maximum and the lifetime of the phosphorescence corresponded to 955±1 nm and of 1.65±0.05 ms respectively; in the excitation spectrum, the absorption maxima of all core complex pigments (Chl, pheophytin a (Pheo), and β-carotene) were observed. The differential signal at 1667(-)/1628(+)cm(-1) reflecting a downshift of the stretching frequency of the 13(1)-keto C=O group of Chl was found to dominate in the triplet-minus-singlet FTIR difference spectrum of core complexes. Based on FTIR results and literature data, it is proposed that (3)Chl is mostly localized on the accessory chlorophyll that is in triplet equilibrium with P680. Analysis of the data suggests that the Chl triplet state responsible for the phosphorescence and the FTIR difference spectrum is mainly generated due to charge recombination in the reaction center radical pair P680(+)PheoD1(-), and the energy and temporal parameters of this triplet state as well as the molecular environment and interactions of the triplet-bearing Chl molecule are similar in the PSII core complexes and isolated PSII RCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

6. Image Statistics

Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2017-08-08

In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

7. Accident Statistics

Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

8. CMS Statistics

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

9. WPRDC Statistics

Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Data about the usage of the WPRDC site and its various datasets, obtained by combining Google Analytics statistics with information from the WPRDC's data portal.

10. Multiparametric statistics

2007-01-01

This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

11. Gonorrhea Statistics

... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Gonorrhea Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Gonorrhea Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gonorrhea ...

12. Reversible Statistics

2004-01-01

The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

13. Vital statistics

MacKenzie, Dana

2004-01-01

The drawbacks of using 19th-century mathematics in physics and astronomy are illustrated. To continue with the expansion of the knowledge about the cosmos, the scientists will have to come in terms with modern statistics. Some researchers have deliberately started importing techniques that are used in medical research. However, the physicists need to identify the brand of statistics that will be suitable for them, and make a choice between the Bayesian and the frequentists approach. (Edited abstract).

14. Matrices and linear transformations

Cullen, Charles G

1990-01-01

""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

15. Energy statistics manual

NONE

2010-07-01

Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

16. Visualizing Transformation

Pedersen, Pia

2012-01-01

Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

17. Applied Statistics.

1980-03-18

of Operations Research Society , 25, 1977, 493-505. Limit probabilities n a multi-type critical age-dependent branching process, Howard Weiner...11, 9/23/77. Scandi Acturial Journal, 1978, 211-224. q. On the distribution of the greatest coon divisor, Persl Diaconis & Paul Erdos. Technical Report...Technical Report No. 20, 7/12/78. Journal of the Roya-- Eatistical Society , Series B, 40, 1978, 64,70. Toward characterizing Boolean transformations, Alan

18. Statistical mechanics

Schwabl, Franz

2006-01-01

The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

19. Statistical physics

Guénault, Tony

2007-01-01

In this revised and enlarged second edition of an established text Tony Guénault provides a clear and refreshingly readable introduction to statistical physics, an essential component of any first degree in physics. The treatment itself is self-contained and concentrates on an understanding of the physical ideas, without requiring a high level of mathematical sophistication. A straightforward quantum approach to statistical averaging is adopted from the outset (easier, the author believes, than the classical approach). The initial part of the book is geared towards explaining the equilibrium properties of a simple isolated assembly of particles. Thus, several important topics, for example an ideal spin-½ solid, can be discussed at an early stage. The treatment of gases gives full coverage to Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Towards the end of the book the student is introduced to a wider viewpoint and new chapters are included on chemical thermodynamics, interactions in, for exam...

20. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

2003-01-01

This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

1. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

2004-01-01

This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

2. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

2002-01-01

This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

3. Statistical Physics

Mandl, Franz

1988-01-01

The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

4. Statistical inference

Rohatgi, Vijay K

2003-01-01

Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

5. AP statistics

Levine-Wissing, Robin

2012-01-01

All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

6. Statistical mechanics

Davidson, Norman

2003-01-01

Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

7. Statistical Computing

inference and finite population sampling. Sudhakar Kunte. Elements of statistical computing are discussed in this series. ... which captain gets an option to decide whether to field first or bat first ... may of course not be fair, in the sense that the team which wins ... describe two methods of drawing a random number between 0.

8. Statistical thermodynamics

Schrödinger, Erwin

1952-01-01

Nobel Laureate's brilliant attempt to develop a simple, unified standard method of dealing with all cases of statistical thermodynamics - classical, quantum, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and more.The work also includes discussions of Nernst theorem, Planck's oscillator, fluctuations, the n-particle problem, problem of radiation, much more.

9. Security Transformation

Metz, Steven

2003-01-01

... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

10. Landskabets transformation

Munck Petersen, Rikke

2005-01-01

Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

11. Covariant Transform

2010-01-01

The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

12. Transforming Anatomy

Hall, Anndee

2017-01-01

Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

13. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

DR. AMINU

Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

14. Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis:II. Cell Genome and Interactome, Neoplastic Non-random Transformation Models in Topoi with Lukasiewicz-Logic and MV Algebras

Baianu, I C

2004-01-01

Quantitative Biology, abstract q-bio.OT/0406045 From: I.C. Baianu Dr. [view email] Date (v1): Thu, 24 Jun 2004 02:45:13 GMT (164kb) Date (revised v2): Fri, 2 Jul 2004 00:58:06 GMT (160kb) Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: II. Authors: I.C. Baianu Comments: 23 pages, 1 Figure Report-no: CC04 Subj-class: Other Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected modular sub-networks that evolve under the influence of micro-environmentally induced perturbations, in non-random, pseudo-Markov chain processes. An appropriate n-stage model of carcinogenesis involves therefore n-valued Logic treatments of nonlinear dynamic transformations of complex functional genomes and cell interactomes. Lukasiewicz Algebraic Logic models of genetic networks and signaling pathways in cells are formulated in terms of nonlinear dynamic systems with n-state components that allow for the generalization of previous, Boolean or "fuzzy", logic models of genetic activities in vivo....

15. Energy Statistics

Anon.

1994-01-01

For the years 1992 and 1993, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period. The tables and figures shown in this publication are: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption; Coal consumption; Natural gas consumption; Peat consumption; Domestic oil deliveries; Import prices of oil; Price development of principal oil products; Fuel prices for power production; Total energy consumption by source; Electricity supply; Energy imports by country of origin in 1993; Energy exports by recipient country in 1993; Consumer prices of liquid fuels; Consumer prices of hard coal and natural gas, prices of indigenous fuels; Average electricity price by type of consumer; Price of district heating by type of consumer and Excise taxes and turnover taxes included in consumer prices of some energy sources

16. Statistical utilitarianism

Pivato, Marcus

2013-01-01

We show that, in a sufficiently large population satisfying certain statistical regularities, it is often possible to accurately estimate the utilitarian social welfare function, even if we only have very noisy data about individual utility functions and interpersonal utility comparisons. In particular, we show that it is often possible to identify an optimal or close-to-optimal utilitarian social choice using voting rules such as the Borda rule, approval voting, relative utilitarianism, or a...

17. Key World Energy Statistics

NONE

2010-07-01

The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

18. Sustainable transformation

Andersen, Nicolai Bo

This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

19. Energy statistics

Anon.

1989-01-01

World data from the United Nation's latest Energy Statistics Yearbook, first published in our last issue, are completed here. The 1984-86 data were revised and 1987 data added for world commercial energy production and consumption, world natural gas plant liquids production, world LP-gas production, imports, exports, and consumption, world residual fuel oil production, imports, exports, and consumption, world lignite production, imports, exports, and consumption, world peat production and consumption, world electricity production, imports, exports, and consumption (Table 80), and world nuclear electric power production

20. Wavelet Transforms: Application to Data Analysis - II

'Cytotec', a software firm based in Vadodara, dealing with image processing and. 'Flow Cytometry' software. His research interests include image processing and artificial intelligence. Prasanta K Panigrahi (bottom right) is currently with the. Quantum Information and. Quantum Optics Division at. PRL. His current research.

1. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

NONE

2012-07-01

Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

2. Sustainable transformation

Andersen, Nicolai Bo

This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

3. Transformer core

Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

2008-01-01

A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

4. Transformer core

Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

2010-01-01

A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

5. Superconducting transformer

Murphy, J.H.

1982-01-01

A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

6. Transformation & Metamorphosis

Lott, Debra

2009-01-01

The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

7. Transforming Society

Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

2017-01-01

, was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

8. Comparative study of poloidal field systems for the torus II experiment

Farvaque, L.; Ghazal, S.; Leloup, C.; Pariente, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

1976-11-01

Three types of transformer for the TORUS II experiment are compared: a saturated iron core transformer with an entire magnetic circuit, an air core transformer and a saturated iron core transformer restricted to the central limb [fr

9. pH-Dependent Regulation of the Relaxation Rate of the Radical Anion of the Secondary Quinone Electron Acceptor QB in Photosystem II As Revealed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

Nozawa, Yosuke; Noguchi, Takumi

2018-05-15

Photosystem II (PSII) is a protein complex that performs water oxidation using light energy during photosynthesis. In PSII, electrons abstracted from water are eventually transferred to the secondary quinone electron acceptor, Q B , and upon double reduction, Q B is converted to quinol by binding two protons. Thus, excess electron transfer in PSII increases the pH of the stroma. In this study, to investigate the pH-dependent regulation of the electron flow in PSII, we have estimated the relaxation rate of the Q B - radical anion in the pH region between 5 and 8 by direct monitoring of its population using light-induced Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. The decay of Q B - by charge recombination with the S 2 state of the water oxidation center in PSII membranes was shown to be accelerated at higher pH, whereas that of Q A - examined in the presence of a herbicide was virtually unaffected at pH ≤7.5 and slightly slowed at pH 8. These observations were consistent with the previous studies that included rather indirect monitoring of the Q B - and Q A - decays using fluorescence detection. The accelerated relaxation of Q B - was explained by the shift of a redox equilibrium between Q A - and Q B - to the Q A - side due to the decrease in the redox potential of Q B at higher pH, which is induced by deprotonation of a single amino acid residue near Q B . It is proposed that this pH-dependent Q B - relaxation is one of the mechanisms of electron flow regulation in PSII for its photoprotection.

10. National Statistical Commission and Indian Official Statistics*

a good collection of official statistics of that time. With more .... statistical agencies and institutions to provide details of statistical activities .... ing several training programmes. .... ful completion of Indian Statistical Service examinations, the.

11. Discrete transforms

Firth, Jean M

1992-01-01

The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

12. XML Transformations

Felician ALECU

2012-04-01

Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

13. RF transformer

Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

1979-01-01

There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

14. Transformative Agency

Majgaard, Klaus

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

15. Stupid statistics!

Tellinghuisen, Joel

2008-01-01

The method of least squares is probably the most powerful data analysis tool available to scientists. Toward a fuller appreciation of that power, this work begins with an elementary review of statistics fundamentals, and then progressively increases in sophistication as the coverage is extended to the theory and practice of linear and nonlinear least squares. The results are illustrated in application to data analysis problems important in the life sciences. The review of fundamentals includes the role of sampling and its connection to probability distributions, the Central Limit Theorem, and the importance of finite variance. Linear least squares are presented using matrix notation, and the significance of the key probability distributions-Gaussian, chi-square, and t-is illustrated with Monte Carlo calculations. The meaning of correlation is discussed, including its role in the propagation of error. When the data themselves are correlated, special methods are needed for the fitting, as they are also when fitting with constraints. Nonlinear fitting gives rise to nonnormal parameter distributions, but the 10% Rule of Thumb suggests that such problems will be insignificant when the parameter is sufficiently well determined. Illustrations include calibration with linear and nonlinear response functions, the dangers inherent in fitting inverted data (e.g., Lineweaver-Burk equation), an analysis of the reliability of the van't Hoff analysis, the problem of correlated data in the Guggenheim method, and the optimization of isothermal titration calorimetry procedures using the variance-covariance matrix for experiment design. The work concludes with illustrations on assessing and presenting results.

16. Direct genetic transformation of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

After 60 days evaluation point, the assessment of the transformation by PCR revealed that H. sabdariffa line tested, carried the nptII gene. Key words: Hibiscus sabdariffa, genetic transformation. INTRODUCTION. Hibiscus sabdariffa is a crop widely cultivated in Sub. Saharan Africa, growing on sandy soils after the harvest.

17. Electrical transformer handbook

Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

2005-07-01

This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

18. Hamlet's Transformation.

Usher, P. D.

1997-12-01

William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

19. Regeneration and Agrobacterium -mediated transformation studies ...

Leaf explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Turbo) were used for the transformation of gene performed by the EHA 105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vector, pGA482GG. This vector carries the marker genes, neomycin phosphotansferase II (npt II) that determine resistance to ...

20. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Tunisian Cucumis melo ...

Transgenic Cucumis melo cv. Maazoun containing the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) chimeric gene conferring resistance to kanamycin were obtained from cotyledons explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (GV3101) that contained the binary vector plasmid pADI. Transformed shoots were obtained ...

1. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

1962-11-01

Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

2. Rotary Transformer

McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

1996-01-01

None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

3. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

2004-01-01

This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

4. Statistical modelling with quantile functions

Gilchrist, Warren

2000-01-01

Galton used quantiles more than a hundred years ago in describing data. Tukey and Parzen used them in the 60s and 70s in describing populations. Since then, the authors of many papers, both theoretical and practical, have used various aspects of quantiles in their work. Until now, however, no one put all the ideas together to form what turns out to be a general approach to statistics.Statistical Modelling with Quantile Functions does just that. It systematically examines the entire process of statistical modelling, starting with using the quantile function to define continuous distributions. The author shows that by using this approach, it becomes possible to develop complex distributional models from simple components. A modelling kit can be developed that applies to the whole model - deterministic and stochastic components - and this kit operates by adding, multiplying, and transforming distributions rather than data.Statistical Modelling with Quantile Functions adds a new dimension to the practice of stati...

5. Thermodynamics and statistical physics. 2. rev. ed.

Schnakenberg, J.

2002-01-01

This textbook covers tthe following topics: Thermodynamic systems and equilibrium, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials, stability, thermodynamic processes, ideal systems, real gases and phase transformations, magnetic systems and Landau model, low temperature thermodynamics, canonical ensembles, statistical theory, quantum statistics, fermions and bosons, kinetic theory, Bose-Einstein condensation, photon gas

6. Forestry transformation

Beer, G.

2003-01-01

State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

7. Transforming vulnerability.

Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

2003-11-01

Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

Rutherford, Ernest

2012-01-01

Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

9. Axially deformed solution of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations using the transformed harmonic oscillator basis (II) HFBTHO v2.00d: A new version of the program

Stoitsov, M. V.; Schunck, N.; Kortelainen, M.; Michel, N.; Nam, H.; Olsen, E.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S.

2013-06-01

We describe the new version 2.00d of the code HFBTHO that solves the nuclear Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (HF) or Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) problem by using the cylindrical transformed deformed harmonic oscillator basis. In the new version, we have implemented the following features: (i) the modified Broyden method for non-linear problems, (ii) optional breaking of reflection symmetry, (iii) calculation of axial multipole moments, (iv) finite temperature formalism for the HFB method, (v) linear constraint method based on the approximation of the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) matrix for multi-constraint calculations, (vi) blocking of quasi-particles in the Equal Filling Approximation (EFA), (vii) framework for generalized energy density with arbitrary density-dependences, and (viii) shared memory parallelism via OpenMP pragmas. Program summaryProgram title: HFBTHO v2.00d Catalog identifier: ADUI_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUI_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167228 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2672156 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN-95. Computer: Intel Pentium-III, Intel Xeon, AMD-Athlon, AMD-Opteron, Cray XT5, Cray XE6. Operating system: UNIX, LINUX, WindowsXP. RAM: 200 Mwords Word size: 8 bits Classification: 17.22. Does the new version supercede the previous version?: Yes Catalog identifier of previous version: ADUI_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 43 Nature of problem: The solution of self-consistent mean-field equations for weakly-bound paired nuclei requires a correct description of the asymptotic properties of nuclear quasi-particle wave functions. In the present implementation, this is achieved by using the single-particle wave functions

10. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

2012-05-01

The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

11. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

2012-01-15

The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

12. On statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences

Bipan Hazarika

2017-04-01

Full Text Available In this article the notion of statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences in Pringsheim's sense has been introduced. We prove the decompostion theorems for  statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences and some theorems related to that concept have been established using the four dimensional matrix transformations. We provided some examples, where the results of acceleration convergence fails to hold for the statistical cases.

Maccone, C.

2008. 4. A practical example is then given of how the SEH works numerically. Each of the ten random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value as given by Dole (1964) and a standard deviation of 10% is assumed. The conclusion is that the average number of habitable planets in the Galaxy should be around 100 million ±200 million, and the average distance in between any two nearby habitable planets should be about 88 light years ±40 light years. 5. The SEH results are matched against the results of the Statistical Drake Equation from reference 4. As expected, the number of currently communicating ET civilizations in the Galaxy turns out to be much smaller than the number of habitable planets (about 10,000 against 100 million, i.e. one ET civilization out of 10,000 habitable planets). The average distance between any two nearby habitable planets is much smaller that the average distance between any two neighbouring ET civilizations: 88 light years vs. 2000 light years, respectively. This means an ET average distance about 20 times higher than the average distance between any pair of adjacent habitable planets. 6. Finally, a statistical model of the Fermi Paradox is derived by applying the above results to the coral expansion model of Galactic colonization. The symbolic manipulator "Macsyma" is used to solve these difficult equations. A new random variable Tcol, representing the time needed to colonize a new planet is introduced, which follows the lognormal distribution, Then the new quotient random variable Tcol/D is studied and its probability density function is derived by Macsyma. Finally a linear transformation of random variables yields the overall time TGalaxy needed to colonize the whole Galaxy. We believe that our mathematical work in deriving this STATISTICAL Fermi Paradox is highly innovative and fruitful for the future.

14. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard

2000-01-01

We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach......, is that of exponential inhomogeneous Markov point processes. Statistical inference For such processes is discussed in some detail....

15. transformation of independent variables in polynomial regression ...

preferable when possible to work with a simple functional form in transformed variables rather than with a more complicated form in the original variables. In this paper, it is shown that linear transformations applied to independent variables in polynomial regression models affect the t ratio and hence the statistical ...

16. Baecklund transformations for discrete Painleve equations: Discrete PII-PV

Sakka, A.; Mugan, U.

2006-01-01

Transformation properties of discrete Painleve equations are investigated by using an algorithmic method. This method yields explicit transformations which relates the solutions of discrete Painleve equations, discrete P II -P V , with different values of parameters. The particular solutions which are expressible in terms of the discrete analogue of the classical special functions of discrete Painleve equations can also be obtained from these transformations

17. 78 FR 76789 - Additional Connect America Fund Phase II Issues

2013-12-19

... inspection and copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445... Phase I to Phase II. 2. Timing of Phase II Support Disbursements. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order... language in paragraph 180 of the USF/ICC Transformation Order. We now seek to more fully develop the record...

18. Childhood Cancer Statistics

... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

19. A new twist to fourier transforms

Meikle, Hamish D

2004-01-01

Making use of the inherent helix in the Fourier transform expression, this book illustrates both Fourier transforms and their properties in the round. The author draws on elementary complex algebra to manipulate the transforms, presenting the ideas in such a way as to avoid pages of complicated mathematics. Similarly, abbreviations are not used throughout and the language is kept deliberately clear so that the result is a text that is accessible to a much wider readership.The treatment is extended with the use of sampled data to finite and discrete transforms, the fast Fourier transform, or FFT, being a special case of a discrete transform. The application of Fourier transforms in statistics is illustrated for the first time using the examples operational research and later radar detection. In addition, a whole chapter on tapering or weighting functions is added for reference. The whole is rounded off by a glossary and examples of diagrams in three dimensions made possible by today's mathematics programs

20. Transforming giants.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

2008-01-01

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

1. Copper (II)

CLEMENT O BEWAJI

Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

2. MQSA National Statistics

... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2018 Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard ...

3. State Transportation Statistics 2014

2014-12-15

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

4. Energy Statistics Manual [Arabic version

NONE

2011-07-01

Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

5. Energy Statistics Manual; Handbuch Energiestatistik

NONE

2005-07-01

Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

6. TJ-II project

Alejaldre, C.; Gozalo, J.J.A.; Perez, J.B.; Magaria, F.C.; Diaz, J.R.C.; Perez, J.G.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Garcia, L.; Krivenski, V.I.; Martin, R.; Navarro, A.P.; Perea, A.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.; Ayza, M.S.; Varias, A.

1990-01-01

The TJ-II device is a medium-size helical-axis stellarator to be built in Madrid. Its main characteristics are potential for high-beta operation; flexibility, i.e., its rotational transform can be varied over a wide range and its shear to some extent; and bean-shaped plasma cross section. The latest understanding of TJ-II physics in the fields of electron cyclotron resonance heating, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamics, and the engineering solutions introduced in its final design are discussed

7. Kursk Operation Simulation and Validation Exercise - Phase II (KOSAVE II)

Bauman, Walter

1998-01-01

... (KOSAVE) Study (KOSAVE II) documents, in this report a statistical record of the Kursk battle, as represented in the KDB, for use as both a standalone descriptive record for historians, and as a baseline for a subsequent Phase...

8. ESTUDIO ESTADÍSTICO DEL NÚMERO DE REGLAS RESULTANTES AL TRANSFORMAR UNA GRAMÁTICA LIBRE DE CONTEXTO A LA FORMA NORMAL DE CHOMSKY STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE NUMBER OF RESULTING RULES WHEN TRANSFORMING A CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR TO CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM

Fredy Ángel Miguel Amaya Robayo

2010-08-01

Full Text Available Es un hecho conocido que toda gramática libre de contexto puede ser transformada a la forma normal de Chomsky de tal forma que los lenguajes generados por las dos gramáticas son equivalentes. Una gramática en forma normal de Chomsky (FNC, tiene algunas ventajas, por ejemplo sus árboles de derivación son binarios, la forma de sus reglas más simples etc. Por eso es siempre deseable poder trabajar con una gramática en FNC en las aplicaciones que lo requieran. Existe un algoritmo que permite transformar una gramática libre de contexto a una en FNC, sin embargo la cantidad de reglas generadas al hacer la transformación depende del número de reglas en la gramática inicial así como de otras características. En este trabajo se analiza desde el punto de vista experimental y estadístico, la relación existente entre el número de reglas iniciales y el número de reglas que resultan luego de transformar una Gramática Libre de Contexto a la FNC. Esto permite planificar la cantidad de recursos computacionales necesarios en caso de tratar con gramáticas de alguna complejidad.It is well known that any context-free grammar can be transformed to the Chomsky normal form so that the languages generated by each one are equivalent. A grammar in Chomsky Normal Form (CNF, has some advantages: their derivation trees are binary, simplest rules and so on. So it is always desirable to work with a grammar in CNF in applications that require them. There is an algorithm that can transform a context-free grammar to one CNF grammar, however the number of rules generated after the transformation depends on the initial grammar and other circumstances. In this work we analyze from the experimental and statistical point of view the relationship between the number of initial rules and the number of resulting rules after transforming. This allows you to plan the amount of computational resources needed in case of dealing with grammars of some complexity.

9. Renyi statistics in equilibrium statistical mechanics

Parvan, A.S.; Biro, T.S.

2010-01-01

The Renyi statistics in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles is examined both in general and in particular for the ideal gas. In the microcanonical ensemble the Renyi statistics is equivalent to the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. By the exact analytical results for the ideal gas, it is shown that in the canonical ensemble, taking the thermodynamic limit, the Renyi statistics is also equivalent to the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. Furthermore it satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics, i.e. the thermodynamical potential of the statistical ensemble is a homogeneous function of first degree of its extensive variables of state. We conclude that the Renyi statistics arrives at the same thermodynamical relations, as those stemming from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics in this limit.

10. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical

Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Sampling, Probability Models and Statistical Reasoning Statistical Inference. Mohan Delampady V R Padmawar. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 49-58 ...

11. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

2014-01-01

This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

12. Numerical analysis II essentials

REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

1989-01-01

REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

13. Comparison study on transformation of iron oxyhydroxides: Based on theoretical and experimental data

Lu Bin; Guo Hui; Li Ping; Liu Hui; Wei Yu; Hou Denglu

2011-01-01

We have investigated the catalytic transformation of ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, and lepidocrocite in the presence of Fe(II). In this paper, the transformation from akaganeite and goethite to hematite in the presence of trace Fe(II) was studied in detail. The result indicates that trace Fe(II) can accelerate the transformation of akaganeite and goethite. Compared with the transformation of other iron oxyhydroxides (e.g., ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, lepidocrocite, and akaganeite), a complete transformation from goethite to hematite was not observed in the presence of Fe(II). On the basis of our earlier and present experimental results, the transformation of various iron oxyhydroxides was compared based on their thermodynamic stability, crystalline structure, transformation mechanism, and transformation time. - Graphical abstract: The transformation of various iron oxyhydroxides in the presence of trace Fe(II) was compared based on experimental results, thermodynamic stability, crystalline structure, and transformation mechanism. Highlights: → Fe(II) can accelerate the transformation from akaganeite to hematite. → Small particles of goethite can transform to hematite in the presence of Fe(II). → Some hematite particles were found to be embedded within the crystal of goethite. → The relationship between structure and transformation mechanism was revealed.

14. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

Villegas-Blas, Carlos

2002-01-01

This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

15. Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation

Feofanova Iryna V.

2016-05-01

Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation

16. Transformational leadership and employee satisfaction

Alisa Mujkić

2014-12-01

Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to carry out an empirical research on whether transformational leadership, in comparison to other contemporary leadership styles, contributes to higher employee satisfaction levels. In total, 399 respondents took part in this research, which was conducted in companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Germany. This was the starting point to identify the dominant leadership style in each of the two countries. Using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, it was proved that there is a statistically significant difference in employee satisfaction under transformational leadership as opposed to the transactional and charismatic styles. After a detailed research of the literature, it became apparent that research on this subject is scarce. Accordingly, presenting transformational leadership and its influence on employee satisfaction was a particular challenge.

17. Data Representations, Transformations, and Statistics for Visual Reasoning

Maciejewski, Ross

2011-01-01

Analytical reasoning techniques are methods by which users explore their data to obtain insight and knowledge that can directly support situational awareness and decision making. Recently, the analytical reasoning process has been augmented through the use of interactive visual representations and tools which utilize cognitive, design and perceptual principles. These tools are commonly referred to as visual analytics tools, and the underlying methods and principles have roots in a variety of disciplines. This chapter provides an introduction to young researchers as an overview of common visual

18. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

2002-01-01

The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

19. Army Maintenance System Transformation

Gilbertson, Frank V

2006-01-01

.... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

20. Quantum formalism for classical statistics

Wetterich, C.

2018-06-01

In static classical statistical systems the problem of information transport from a boundary to the bulk finds a simple description in terms of wave functions or density matrices. While the transfer matrix formalism is a type of Heisenberg picture for this problem, we develop here the associated Schrödinger picture that keeps track of the local probabilistic information. The transport of the probabilistic information between neighboring hypersurfaces obeys a linear evolution equation, and therefore the superposition principle for the possible solutions. Operators are associated to local observables, with rules for the computation of expectation values similar to quantum mechanics. We discuss how non-commutativity naturally arises in this setting. Also other features characteristic of quantum mechanics, such as complex structure, change of basis or symmetry transformations, can be found in classical statistics once formulated in terms of wave functions or density matrices. We construct for every quantum system an equivalent classical statistical system, such that time in quantum mechanics corresponds to the location of hypersurfaces in the classical probabilistic ensemble. For suitable choices of local observables in the classical statistical system one can, in principle, compute all expectation values and correlations of observables in the quantum system from the local probabilistic information of the associated classical statistical system. Realizing a static memory material as a quantum simulator for a given quantum system is not a matter of principle, but rather of practical simplicity.

1. (II) complexes

activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

2. The foundations of statistics

Savage, Leonard J

1972-01-01

Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.

3. State Transportation Statistics 2010

2011-09-14

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

4. State Transportation Statistics 2012

2013-08-15

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

6. State transportation statistics 2009

2009-01-01

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

7. State Transportation Statistics 2011

2012-08-08

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

8. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

9. State Transportation Statistics 2013

2014-09-19

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

10. BTS statistical standards manual

2005-10-01

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

11. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

NONE

2013-08-01

The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

12. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

2012-01-01

htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

13. On Hurwitz transformations

Kibler, M.; Hage Hassan, M.

1991-04-01

A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R 4 → R 3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R 8 → R 5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

14. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

2002-01-01

The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

15. Constraining the role of iron in environmental nitrogen transformations. Dual stable isotope systematics of abiotic NO2- reduction by Fe(II) and its production of N2O

Johnston, David [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wankel, Scott David [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Buchwald, Carolyn [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Hansel, Colleen [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States)

2015-09-16

Redox reactions involving nitrogen and iron have been shown to have important implications for mobilization of priority contaminants. Thus, an understanding of the linkages between their biogeochemical cycling is critical for predicting subsurface mobilization of radionuclides such as uranium. Despite mounting evidence for biogeochemical interactions between iron and nitrogen, our understanding of their environmental importance remains limited. Here we present an investigation of abiotic nitrite (NO2-) reduction by Fe(II) or ‘chemodenitrification,’ and its relevance to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), specifically focusing on dual (N and O) isotope systematics under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions. We observe a range of kinetic isotope effects that are regulated by reaction rates, with faster rates at higher pH (~8), higher concentrations of Fe(II) and in the presence of mineral surfaces. A clear non-linear relationship between rate constant and kinetic isotope effects of NO2- reduction was evident (with larger isotope effects at slower rates) and is interpreted as reflecting the dynamics of Fe(II)-N reaction intermediates. N and O isotopic composition of product N2O also suggests a complex network of parallel and/or competing pathways. Our findings suggest that NO2- reduction by Fe(II) may represent an important abiotic source of environmental N2O, especially in iron-rich environments experiencing dynamic redox variations. This study provides a multi-compound, multi-isotope framework for evaluating the environmental occurrence of abiotic NO2- reduction and N2O formation, helping future studies constrain the relative roles of abiotic and biological N2O production pathways.

16. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: II. Multivariate statistical profiling of pineapple aroma compounds based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Steingass, Christof Björn; Jutzi, Manfred; Müller, Jenny; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

2015-03-01

Ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied in a nontargeted profiling analysis. Volatiles were isolated via headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive 2D gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Profile patterns presented in the contour plots were evaluated applying image processing techniques and subsequent multivariate statistical data analysis. Statistical methods comprised unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the samples. Supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to discriminate different ripening stages and describe the development of volatiles during postharvest storage, respectively. Hereby, substantial chemical markers allowing for class separation were revealed. The workflow permitted the rapid distinction between premature green-ripe pineapples and postharvest-ripened sea-freighted fruits. Volatile profiles of fully ripe air-freighted pineapples were similar to those of green-ripe fruits postharvest ripened for 6 days after simulated sea freight export, after PCA with only two principal components. However, PCA considering also the third principal component allowed differentiation between air-freighted fruits and the four progressing postharvest maturity stages of sea-freighted pineapples.

17. Key world energy statistics. 2004 edition

2004-01-01

Key World Energy Statistics from the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The IEA energy balances and statistics databases on CD-Rom provide annual historical energy data extracted from four IEA/OECD data bases: energy statistics and energy balances, which contain data for most of the OECD countries for the years 1960 to 2002 and energy statistics and balances for more than 100 non-OECD countries for the years 1971 to 2002. The CDs and/or hard-copies and PDFs can be purchased individually: Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Balances of Non OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2004

18. INTRODUCTION OF GENERALIZED LAPLACE-FRACTIONAL MELLIN TRANSFORM

V. D. Sharma*, M. M. Thakare

2016-01-01

In present era, Fractional Integral Transform plays an important role in various fields of mathematics and Technology. Mellin transform has an many application in navigations, correlaters, in area of statistics, probability and also solving in differential equation. Fractional Mellin transform is integral part of mathematical modeling method because of its scale invariance property. The aim of this paper is to generalization of Laplace-Fractional Mellin Transform. Analyticity theore...

19. Relationships between molecular structure and kinetic and thermodynamic controls in lipid systems. Part II: Phase behavior and transformation paths of SSS, PSS and PPS saturated triacylglycerols--effect of chain length mismatch.

Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S

2012-01-01

The kinetic phase behavior and phase transformation paths of purified tristearoylglycerol (SSS), 3-palmitoyl-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSS) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PPS) were investigated in terms of polymorphism, crystallization and melting. The details of the phase transformation paths were obtained using the heating cycles of two sets of experiments: (a) cooling rate was varied and heating rate fixed and (b) cooling rate was fixed and heating rate varied. Kinetic effects were manifest in all measured properties, underscoring the complexity of the phase transformation paths for each TAG, and the intricate thermodynamics-molecular relationships. For the first time, XRD data obtained for SSS, PSS and PPS TAGs, cooled at rates higher than 0.5°C/min, suggested the formation of a transient structure similar to the so-called α(2)-phase which has been observed in mixed saturated-unsaturated TAGs quenched from the melt. The more stable phases (β' in PSS and PPS, and β in SSS) were only observed for cooling rates lower than 1.0°C/min. The kinetic and thermodynamic differences observed in the crystallization, structure and melting of SSS, PSS and PPS are proposed to be mainly due to the disturbances introduced at the "terrace" level via methyl-end group interactions, i.e., the missing of two or four CH(2) groups compared to SSS. The symmetrical SSS with a relatively flat "terrace" crystallizes preferably in the most stable β-form. Two missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 position (PSS) introduces enough structural disturbances to promote the relative prevalence and persistence of the β'-phase, and four missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions (PPS) is relatively too large of a disturbance and therefore favors the α-form. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

20. Statistics in Schools

Information Statistics in Schools Educate your students about the value and everyday use of statistics. The Statistics in Schools program provides resources for teaching and learning with real life data. Explore the site for standards-aligned, classroom-ready activities. Statistics in Schools Math Activities History

1. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

2. First-Generation Transgenic Plants and Statistics

Nap, Jan-Peter; Keizer, Paul; Jansen, Ritsert

1993-01-01

The statistical analyses of populations of first-generation transgenic plants are commonly based on mean and variance and generally require a test of normality. Since in many cases the assumptions of normality are not met, analyses can result in erroneous conclusions. Transformation of data to

3. Phase transformations, stability, and materials interactions

Morris, J.W. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Cost, J.R.; Shewmon, P.

1977-07-01

The proceedings of the Materials Sciences Workshop on Phase Transformations, Stability, and Materials Interactions are divided into sections according to the following topics: (I) workshop scope and priorities; (II) study group reports--ERDA mission needs; (III) study group reports--technical area research priorities

4. Biolistic transformation of Scoparia dulcis L.

Srinivas, Kota; Muralikrishna, Narra; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Raghu, Ellendula; Mahender, Aileni; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Yashodahara, Velivela; Sadanandam, Abbagani

2016-01-01

Here, we report for the first time, the optimized conditions for microprojectile bombardment-mediated genetic transformation in Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis L.), a Plantaginaceae medicinal plant species. Transformation was achieved by bombardment of axenic leaf segments with Binary vector pBI121 harbouring β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) as a reporter and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (npt II) as a selectable marker. The influence of physical parameters viz., acceleration pressure, flight distance, gap width & macroprojectile travel distance of particle gun on frequency of transient GUS and stable (survival of putative transformants) expressions have been investigated. Biolistic delivery of the pBI121 yielded the best (80.0 %) transient expression of GUS gene bombarded at a flight distance of 6 cm and rupture disc pressure/acceleration pressure of 650 psi. Highest stable expression of 52.0 % was noticed in putative transformants on RMBI-K medium. Integration of GUS and npt II genes in the nuclear genome was confirmed through primer specific PCR. DNA blot analysis showed more than one transgene copy in the transformed plantlet genomes. The present study may be used for metabolic engineering and production of biopharmaceuticals by transplastomic technology in this valuable medicinal plant.

5. Generalized quantum statistics

Chou, C.

1992-01-01

In the paper, a non-anyonic generalization of quantum statistics is presented, in which Fermi-Dirac statistics (FDS) and Bose-Einstein statistics (BES) appear as two special cases. The new quantum statistics, which is characterized by the dimension of its single particle Fock space, contains three consistent parts, namely the generalized bilinear quantization, the generalized quantum mechanical description and the corresponding statistical mechanics

6. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

7. Frontiers in statistical quality control 11

Schmid, Wolfgang

2015-01-01

The main focus of this edited volume is on three major areas of statistical quality control: statistical process control (SPC), acceptance sampling and design of experiments. The majority of the papers deal with statistical process control, while acceptance sampling and design of experiments are also treated to a lesser extent. The book is organized into four thematic parts, with Part I addressing statistical process control. Part II is devoted to acceptance sampling. Part III covers the design of experiments, while Part IV discusses related fields. The twenty-three papers in this volume stem from The 11th International Workshop on Intelligent Statistical Quality Control, which was held in Sydney, Australia from August 20 to August 23, 2013. The event was hosted by Professor Ross Sparks, CSIRO Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics, North Ryde, Australia and was jointly organized by Professors S. Knoth, W. Schmid and Ross Sparks. The papers presented here were carefully selected and reviewed by the scientifi...

8. Automated Box-Cox Transformations for Improved Visual Encoding.

Maciejewski, Ross; Pattath, Avin; Ko, Sungahn; Hafen, Ryan; Cleveland, William S; Ebert, David S

2013-01-01

The concept of preconditioning data (utilizing a power transformation as an initial step) for analysis and visualization is well established within the statistical community and is employed as part of statistical modeling and analysis. Such transformations condition the data to various inherent assumptions of statistical inference procedures, as well as making the data more symmetric and easier to visualize and interpret. In this paper, we explore the use of the Box-Cox family of power transformations to semiautomatically adjust visual parameters. We focus on time-series scaling, axis transformations, and color binning for choropleth maps. We illustrate the usage of this transformation through various examples, and discuss the value and some issues in semiautomatically using these transformations for more effective data visualization.

9. Screening and human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in Dutch surface waters and drinking water.

de Jongh, Cindy M; Kooij, Pascal J F; de Voogt, Pim; ter Laak, Thomas L

2012-06-15

Numerous studies describe the presence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle, while their transformation products are usually not included. In the current study 17 common pharmaceuticals and 9 transformation products were monitored in the Dutch waters, including surface waters, pre-treated surface waters, river bank filtrates, two groundwater samples affected by surface water and drinking waters. In these samples, 12 pharmaceuticals and 7 transformation products were present. Concentrations were generally highest in surface waters, intermediate in treated surface waters and river bank filtrates and lowest or not detected in produced drinking water. However, the concentrations of phenazone and its environmental transformation product AMPH were significantly higher in river bank filtrates, which is likely due to historical contamination. Fairly constant ratios were observed between concentrations of transformation products and parent pharmaceuticals. This might enable prediction of concentrations of transformation products from concentrations of parent pharmaceuticals. The toxicological relevance of the observed pharmaceuticals and transformation products was assessed by deriving (i) a substance specific provisional guideline value (pGLV) and (ii) a group pGLV for groups of related compounds were under the assumption of additivity of effects within each group. A substantial margin exists between the maximum summed concentrations of these compounds present in different water types and the derived (group) pGLVs. Based on the results of this limited screening campaign no adverse health effects of the studied compounds are expected in (sources of) drinking water in the Netherlands. The presence of transformation products with similar pharmacological activities and concentration levels as their parents illustrates the relevance of monitoring transformation products, and including these in risk assessment. More thorough monitoring yielding information on statistical

10. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers.

Echevarria, Ilia M; Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne

2017-04-01

11. National Statistical Commission and Indian Official Statistics

Author Affiliations. T J Rao1. C. R. Rao Advanced Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science (AIMSCS) University of Hyderabad Campus Central University Post Office, Prof. C. R. Rao Road Hyderabad 500 046, AP, India.

12. Three dimensional canonical transformations

Tegmen, A.

2010-01-01

A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

13. Statistics For Dummies

Rumsey, Deborah

2011-01-01

The fun and easy way to get down to business with statistics Stymied by statistics? No fear ? this friendly guide offers clear, practical explanations of statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, with lots of examples that show you how these concepts apply to your everyday life. Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more.Tracks to a typical first semester statistics cou

14. Industrial statistics with Minitab

Cintas, Pere Grima; Llabres, Xavier Tort-Martorell

2012-01-01

Industrial Statistics with MINITAB demonstrates the use of MINITAB as a tool for performing statistical analysis in an industrial context. This book covers introductory industrial statistics, exploring the most commonly used techniques alongside those that serve to give an overview of more complex issues. A plethora of examples in MINITAB are featured along with case studies for each of the statistical techniques presented. Industrial Statistics with MINITAB: Provides comprehensive coverage of user-friendly practical guidance to the essential statistical methods applied in industry.Explores

15. Técnicas de diagnóstico en transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia. Estado mundial del arte. Parte II; Techniques of Diagnostic in Transformers from their Answer in Frequency Domain. World State of the Art. Part II

Orestes Hernández Areu

2011-02-01

Full Text Available Entre los métodos para el diagnóstico de transformadores de potencia se encuentran los métodos de detecciónde averías a través del llamado análisis de la respuesta en la frecuencia (FRA. En un artículo anterior, sepresentó la primera parte del estudio que se ha realizado del estado mundial del arte sobre las técnicas dediagnóstico de transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia y empleando latransformada rápida de Fourier (FFT. Esta segunda parte, trata específicamente, sobre los métodos dediagnóstico de transformadores mediante el análisis de la respuesta a un barrido de frecuencia (SFRA, sin lautilización de  la transformada rápida de Fourier (FFT.  In the methods for the diagnosis of power transformers there are the failure detection methods called frequencyresponse analysis (FRA. In a previous article, the first part of a study that has been carried out about theworld art state on the techniques of diagnostic in transformers from its response in the frequency domain andusing the fast Fourier transformed (FFT, was presented.This second part, tries specifically about the methodsof diagnostic of transformers by means of the sweeping frequency response analysis (SFRA, without usingthe fast Fourier tansformed (FFT.

16. Statistics from dynamics in curved spacetime

Parker, L.; Wang, Y.

1989-01-01

We consider quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2 with a nonzero mass in curved spacetime. We show that the dynamical Bogolubov transformations associated with gravitationally induced particle creation imply the connection between spin and statistics: By embedding two flat regions in a curved spacetime, we find that only when one imposes Bose-Einstein statistics for an integer-spin field and Fermi-Dirac statistics for a half-integer-spin field in the first flat region is the same type of statistics propagated from the first to the second flat region. This derivation of the flat-spacetime spin-statistics theorem makes use of curved-spacetime dynamics and does not reduce to any proof given in flat spacetime. We also show in the same manner that parastatistics, up to the fourth order, are consistent with the dynamical evolution of curved spacetime

17. Laplace Transforms without Integration

Robertson, Robert L.

2017-01-01

Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

18. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

Nasir Ganikhodjaev

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

19. Chemical Transformation Simulator

The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

20. Diffusionless phase transformations

Vejman, K.M.

1987-01-01

Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

1. Equations For Rotary Transformers

Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

1988-01-01

Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

2. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

栾长福

2003-01-01

Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

3. Recreational Boating Statistics 2012

Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...

4. Recreational Boating Statistics 2013

Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...

5. Statistical data analysis handbook

Wall, Francis J

1986-01-01

It must be emphasized that this is not a text book on statistics. Instead it is a working tool that presents data analysis in clear, concise terms which can be readily understood even by those without formal training in statistics...

6. CMS Program Statistics

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics has developed CMS Program Statistics, which includes detailed summary statistics on national health care, Medicare...

7. Recreational Boating Statistics 2011

Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...

8. Uterine Cancer Statistics

... Doing AMIGAS Stay Informed Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool The Data Visualizations tool makes ...

9. Tuberculosis Data and Statistics

... Advisory Groups Federal TB Task Force Data and Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Set) Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Reports Data and Statistics Decrease in Reported Tuberculosis Cases MMWR 2010; 59 ( ...

10. National transportation statistics 2011

2011-04-01

Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

11. National Transportation Statistics 2008

2009-01-08

Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

12. Mental Illness Statistics

... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

13. School Violence: Data & Statistics

... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Press Room Social Media Publications ...

14. Caregiver Statistics: Demographics

... You are here Home Selected Long-Term Care Statistics Order this publication Printer-friendly version What is ... needs and services are wide-ranging and complex, statistics may vary from study to study. Sources for ...

15. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

... Summary Coverdell Program 2012-2015 State Summaries Data & Statistics Fact Sheets Heart Disease and Stroke Fact Sheets ... Roadmap for State Planning Other Data Resources Other Statistic Resources Grantee Information Cross-Program Information Online Tools ...

16. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

17. National Transportation Statistics 2009

2010-01-21

Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

18. National transportation statistics 2010

2010-01-01

National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

19. Statistics for Finance

Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

20. Principles of applied statistics

Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

2011-01-01

.... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

1. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

Wilcox, Rand R

2003-01-01

Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

2. Engineering mathematics-II

Ganesh, A

2009-01-01

About the Book: This book Engineering Mathematics-II is designed as a self-contained, comprehensive classroom text for the second semester B.E. Classes of Visveswaraiah Technological University as per the Revised new Syllabus. The topics included are Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus and Vector Integration, Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms. The book is written in a simple way and is accompanied with explanatory figures. All this make the students enjoy the subject while they learn. Inclusion of selected exercises and problems make the book educational in nature. It shou

3. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

De Leon, Francisco

2017-11-28

Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

2009-12-01

Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

5. Interactive statistics with ILLMO

Martens, J.B.O.S.

2014-01-01

Progress in empirical research relies on adequate statistical analysis and reporting. This article proposes an alternative approach to statistical modeling that is based on an old but mostly forgotten idea, namely Thurstone modeling. Traditional statistical methods assume that either the measured

6. Ethics in Statistics

Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

2014-01-01

There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

7. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

... 6):794-799. 31 American Heart Association. CPR statistics. www.heart.org/HEARTORG/CPRAndECC/WhatisCPR/CPRFactsandStats/CPRpercent20Statistics_ ... Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (January 10, 2013). The DAWN Report: ...

8. Nuclear material statistical accountancy system

Argentest, F.; Casilli, T.; Franklin, M.

1979-01-01

The statistical accountancy system developed at JRC Ispra is refered as 'NUMSAS', ie Nuclear Material Statistical Accountancy System. The principal feature of NUMSAS is that in addition to an ordinary material balance calcultation, NUMSAS can calculate an estimate of the standard deviation of the measurement error accumulated in the material balance calculation. The purpose of the report is to describe in detail, the statistical model on wich the standard deviation calculation is based; the computational formula which is used by NUMSAS in calculating the standard deviation and the information about nuclear material measurements and the plant measurement system which are required as data for NUMSAS. The material balance records require processing and interpretation before the material balance calculation is begun. The material balance calculation is the last of four phases of data processing undertaken by NUMSAS. Each of these phases is implemented by a different computer program. The activities which are carried out in each phase can be summarised as follows; the pre-processing phase; the selection and up-date phase; the transformation phase, and the computation phase

9. Transforming the Force and Logistics Transformation

Cook, Katherine M

2006-01-01

U.S. Army transformation strategy addresses the imperative to change the Army from a Cold War-oriented design to one that is more responsive, agile, and adaptable to present and emerging threats across...

10. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Steve

2011-01-01

The presentation reviews the dependability and safety effort of NASA's Independent Verification and Validation Facility. Topics include: safety engineering process, applications to non-space environment, Phase I overview, process creation, sample SRM artifact, Phase I end result, Phase II model transformation, fault management, and applying Phase II to individual projects.

11. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

2007-04-01

Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

12. Statistics for Research

Dowdy, Shirley; Chilko, Daniel

2011-01-01

Praise for the Second Edition "Statistics for Research has other fine qualities besides superior organization. The examples and the statistical methods are laid out with unusual clarity by the simple device of using special formats for each. The book was written with great care and is extremely user-friendly."-The UMAP Journal Although the goals and procedures of statistical research have changed little since the Second Edition of Statistics for Research was published, the almost universal availability of personal computers and statistical computing application packages have made it possible f

13. Statistics in a nutshell

Boslaugh, Sarah

2013-01-01

Need to learn statistics for your job? Want help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone new to the subject. Thoroughly revised and expanded, this edition helps you gain a solid understanding of statistics without the numbing complexity of many college texts. Each chapter presents easy-to-follow descriptions, along with graphics, formulas, solved examples, and hands-on exercises. If you want to perform common statistical analyses and learn a wide range of techniques without getting in over your head, this is your book.

14. Nonparametric statistical inference

Gibbons, Jean Dickinson

2010-01-01

Overall, this remains a very fine book suitable for a graduate-level course in nonparametric statistics. I recommend it for all people interested in learning the basic ideas of nonparametric statistical inference.-Eugenia Stoimenova, Journal of Applied Statistics, June 2012… one of the best books available for a graduate (or advanced undergraduate) text for a theory course on nonparametric statistics. … a very well-written and organized book on nonparametric statistics, especially useful and recommended for teachers and graduate students.-Biometrics, 67, September 2011This excellently presente

Anderson, Alan

2013-01-01

Score higher in your business statistics course? Easy. Business statistics is a common course for business majors and MBA candidates. It examines common data sets and the proper way to use such information when conducting research and producing informational reports such as profit and loss statements, customer satisfaction surveys, and peer comparisons. Business Statistics For Dummies tracks to a typical business statistics course offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels and provides clear, practical explanations of business statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, w

Griffiths, Dawn

2009-01-01

Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

17. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

2004-07-01

We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

18. Lectures on algebraic statistics

Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth

2009-01-01

How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.

19. Statistics for economics

2012-01-01

Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...

20. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

2012-01-01

Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical...... advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...... matrix approach and experimentally verified by synthesizing a 12-section nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer. The measured characteristics of the transformer are compared to the characteristics of a conventional tapered line transformer....

1. Baseline Statistics of Linked Statistical Data

Scharnhorst, Andrea; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe

2014-01-01

We are surrounded by an ever increasing ocean of information, everybody will agree to that. We build sophisticated strategies to govern this information: design data models, develop infrastructures for data sharing, building tool for data analysis. Statistical datasets curated by National

2. The radon transform. Theory and implementation

Toft, P.

1996-01-01

The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is the mathematical Radon transform, which is well suited for curve detection in digital images, and for reconstruction of tomography images. The thesis is divided into two main parts. Part I describes the Radon- and the Hough-transform and especially their discrete approximations with respect to curve parameter detection in digital images. The sampling relationships of the Radon transform is reviewed from a digital signal processing point of view. The discrete Radon transform is investigated for detection of curves, and aspects regarding the performance of the Radon transform assuming various types of noise is covered. Furthermore, a new fast scheme for estimating curve parameters is presented. Part II of the thesis describes the inverse Radon transform in 2D and 3D with focus on reconstruction of tomography images. Some of the direct reconstruction schemes are analyzed, including their discrete implementation. Furthermore, several iterative reconstruction schemes based on linear algebra are reviewed and applied for reconstruction of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images. A new and very fast implementation of 2D iterative reconstruction methods is devised. In a more practical oriented chapter, the noise in PET images is modelled from a very large number of measurements. Several packagers for Radon- and Hough-transform based curve detection and direct/iterative 2D and 3D reconstruction have been developed and provided for free. (au) 140 refs

3. Effects of type I/type II interferons and transforming growth factor-beta on B-cell differentiation and proliferation. Definition of costimulation and cytokine requirements for immunoglobulin synthesis and expression.

Estes, D M; Tuo, W; Brown, W C; Goin, J

1998-12-01

In this report, we sought to determine the role of selected type I interferons [interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon-tau (IFN-tau)], IFN-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the regulation of bovine antibody responses. B cells were stimulated via CD40 in the presence or absence of B-cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking. IFN-alpha enhanced IgM, IgG2 and IgA responses but did not enhance IgG1 responses. BCR signalling alone was more effective at inducing IgG2 responses with IFN-alpha than dual cross-linking with CD40. Recombinant ovine IFN-tau was less effective at inducing IgG2 responses when compared with IFN-alpha, though IgA responses were similar in magnitude following BCR cross-linking. At higher concentrations, IFN-tau enhanced IgA responses greater than twofold over the levels observed with IFN-alpha. Previous studies have shown that addition of IFN-gamma to BCR or pokeweed mitogen-activated bovine B cells stimulates IgG2 production. However, following CD40 stimulation alone, IFN-gamma was relatively ineffective at stimulating high-rate synthesis of any non-IgM isotype. Dual cross-linking via CD40 and the BCR resulted in decreased synthesis of IgM with a concomitant increase in IgA and similar levels of IgG2 production to those obtained via the BCR alone. We also assessed the effects of endogenous and exogenous TGF-beta on immunoglobulin synthesis by bovine B cells. Exogenous TGF-beta stimulates both IgG2 and IgA production following CD40 and BCR cross-linking in the presence of IL-2. Blocking endogenous TGF-beta did not inhibit the up-regulation of IgG2 or IgA by interferons.

4. A comprehensive physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic characterization of zinc (II) chloride using X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetric analysis, ultraviolet-visible, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.

Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Sethi, Kalyan Kumar; Panda, Parthasarathi; Jana, Snehasis

2017-01-01

Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc and has other numerous industrial applications. Unfortunately, it lacks reliable and accurate physicochemical, thermal, and spectral characterization information altogether. Hence, the authors tried to explore in-depth characterization of zinc chloride using the modern analytical technique. The analysis of zinc chloride was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analytical techniques. The PXRD patterns showed well-defined, narrow, sharp, and the significant peaks. The crystallite size was found in the range of 14.70-55.40 nm and showed average crystallite size of 41.34 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 1.123 ( d 10 ), 3.025 ( d 50 ), and 6.712 ( d 90 ) μm and average surface area of 2.71 m 2 /g. The span and relative span values were 5.849 μm and 1.93, respectively. The DSC thermogram showed a small endothermic inflation at 308.10°C with the latent heat (ΔH) of fusion 28.52 J/g. An exothermic reaction was observed at 449.32°C with the ΔH of decomposition 66.10 J/g. The TGA revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and lost 8.207 and 89.72% of weight in the first and second step of degradation, respectively. Similarly, the DTG analysis disclosed T max at 508.21°C. The UV-vis spectrum showed absorbance maxima at 197.60 nm (λ max ), and FT-IR spectrum showed a peak at 511/cm might be due to the Zn-Cl stretching. These in-depth, comprehensive data would be very much useful in all stages of nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals formulation research and development and other industrial applications.

5. Statistical Physics An Introduction

Yoshioka, Daijiro

2007-01-01

This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the basics of statistical physics. The first part explains the essence of statistical physics and how it provides a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, allowing one to derive quantities such as entropy. Here the author avoids going into details such as Liouville’s theorem or the ergodic theorem, which are difficult for beginners and unnecessary for the actual application of the statistical mechanics. In the second part, statistical mechanics is applied to various systems which, although they look different, share the same mathematical structure. In this way readers can deepen their understanding of statistical physics. The book also features applications to quantum dynamics, thermodynamics, the Ising model and the statistical dynamics of free spins.

6. The statistical stability phenomenon

Gorban, Igor I

2017-01-01

This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

7. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare ...

STORAGESEVER

2010-03-15

Mar 15, 2010 ... statistics and yield indicated that only TOP method would be useful for simultaneously selecting for high yield and ... metric stability methods; i) they reduce the bias caused by outliers, ii) ...... Biometrics, 43: 45-53. Sabaghnia N ...

8. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

Jackson, E Atlee

2000-01-01

Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

9. Applied statistics for economists

Lewis, Margaret

2012-01-01

This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

10. Mineral industry statistics 1975

1978-01-01

Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

11. Lectures on statistical mechanics

Bowler, M G

1982-01-01

Anyone dissatisfied with the almost ritual dullness of many 'standard' texts in statistical mechanics will be grateful for the lucid explanation and generally reassuring tone. Aimed at securing firm foundations for equilibrium statistical mechanics, topics of great subtlety are presented transparently and enthusiastically. Very little mathematical preparation is required beyond elementary calculus and prerequisites in physics are limited to some elementary classical thermodynamics. Suitable as a basis for a first course in statistical mechanics, the book is an ideal supplement to more convent

12. Introduction to Statistics

Mirjam Nielen

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Always wondered why research papers often present rather complicated statistical analyses? Or wondered how to properly analyse the results of a pragmatic trial from your own practice? This talk will give an overview of basic statistical principles and focus on the why of statistics, rather than on the how.This is a podcast of Mirjam's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 2, 2016.

13. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

Mayer, J E

1968-01-01

The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

14. Contributions to statistics

Mahalanobis, P C

1965-01-01

Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

15. Statistical methods for spatio-temporal systems

2006-01-01

Statistical Methods for Spatio-Temporal Systems presents current statistical research issues on spatio-temporal data modeling and will promote advances in research and a greater understanding between the mechanistic and the statistical modeling communities.Contributed by leading researchers in the field, each self-contained chapter starts with an introduction of the topic and progresses to recent research results. Presenting specific examples of epidemic data of bovine tuberculosis, gastroenteric disease, and the U.K. foot-and-mouth outbreak, the first chapter uses stochastic models, such as point process models, to provide the probabilistic backbone that facilitates statistical inference from data. The next chapter discusses the critical issue of modeling random growth objects in diverse biological systems, such as bacteria colonies, tumors, and plant populations. The subsequent chapter examines data transformation tools using examples from ecology and air quality data, followed by a chapter on space-time co...

16. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

2013-01-01

A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.

17. Statistical and particle physics: Common problems and techniques

Bowler, K.C.; Mc Kane, A.J.

1984-01-01

These proceedings contain statistical mechanical studies in condensed matter physics; interfacial problems in statistical physics; string theory; general monte carlo methods and their application to Lattice gauge theories; topological excitations in field theory; phase transformation kinetics; and studies of chaotic systems

18. Multi-resolution inversion algorithm for the attenuated radon transform

Barbano, Paolo Emilio; Fokas, Athanasios S.

2011-01-01

We present a FAST implementation of the Inverse Attenuated Radon Transform which incorporates accurate collimator response, as well as artifact rejection due to statistical noise and data corruption. This new reconstruction procedure is performed

19. Statistics in a Nutshell

Boslaugh, Sarah

2008-01-01

Need to learn statistics as part of your job, or want some help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference that's perfect for anyone with no previous background in the subject. This book gives you a solid understanding of statistics without being too simple, yet without the numbing complexity of most college texts. You get a firm grasp of the fundamentals and a hands-on understanding of how to apply them before moving on to the more advanced material that follows. Each chapter presents you with easy-to-follow descriptions illustrat

20. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

2011-01-01

A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic

1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

17. Principles of statistics

Bulmer, M G

1979-01-01

There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

18. 100 statistical tests

Kanji, Gopal K

2006-01-01

This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

19. Statistical distribution sampling

Johnson, E. S.

1975-01-01

Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

20. Transformative environmental governance

Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

2016-01-01

Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

1. Online neural monitoring of statistical learning.

Batterink, Laura J; Paller, Ken A

2017-05-01

The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated. Our goal was to characterize the online perceptual component of statistical learning. Participants were exposed to a structured stream of repeating trisyllabic nonsense words and a random syllable stream. Online learning was indexed by an EEG-based measure that quantified neural entrainment at the frequency of the repeating words relative to that of individual syllables. Statistical learning was subsequently assessed using conventional measures in an explicit rating task and a reaction-time task. In the structured stream, neural entrainment to trisyllabic words was higher than in the random stream, increased as a function of exposure to track the progression of learning, and predicted performance on the reaction time (RT) task. These results demonstrate that monitoring this critical component of learning via rhythmic EEG entrainment reveals a gradual acquisition of knowledge whereby novel stimulus sequences are transformed into familiar composites. This online perceptual transformation is a critical component of learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

Maccone, Claudio

2012-01-01

This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

3. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

Geyer, H.B.

1984-01-01

The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

4. Transportation Statistics Annual Report 1997

Fenn, M.

1997-01-01

This document is the fourth Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) for the President and Congress. As in previous years, it reports on the state of U.S. transportation system at two levels. First, in Part I, it provides a statistical and interpretive survey of the system—its physical characteristics, its economic attributes, aspects of its use and performance, and the scale and severity of unintended consequences of transportation, such as fatalities and injuries, oil import dependency, and environment impacts. Part I also explores the state of transportation statistics, and new needs of the rapidly changing world of transportation. Second, Part II of the report, as in prior years, explores in detail the performance of the U.S. transportation system from the perspective of desired social outcomes or strategic goals. This year, the performance aspect of transportation chosen for thematic treatment is “Mobility and Access,” which complements past TSAR theme sections on “The Economic Performance of Transportation” (1995) and “Transportation and the Environment” (1996). Mobility and access are at the heart of the transportation system’s performance from the user’s perspective. In what ways and to what extent does the geographic freedom provided by transportation enhance personal fulfillment of the nation’s residents and contribute to economic advancement of people and businesses? This broad question underlies many of the topics examined in Part II: What is the current level of personal mobility in the United States, and how does it vary by sex, age, income level, urban or rural location, and over time? What factors explain variations? Has transportation helped improve people’s access to work, shopping, recreational facilities, and medical services, and in what ways and in what locations? How have barriers, such as age, disabilities, or lack of an automobile, affected these

5. Phase transformation and diffusion

Kale, G B; Dey, G K

2008-01-01

Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

6. The convolution transform

Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

2005-01-01

In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

7. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

1986-01-01

This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

8. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

2014-01-01

The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

9. Random phenomena fundamentals of probability and statistics for engineers

Ogunnaike, Babatunde A

2009-01-01

PreludeApproach PhilosophyFour Basic PrinciplesI FoundationsTwo Motivating ExamplesYield Improvement in a Chemical ProcessQuality Assurance in a Glass Sheet Manufacturing ProcessOutline of a Systematic ApproachRandom Phenomena, Variability, and UncertaintyTwo Extreme Idealizations of Natural PhenomenaRandom Mass PhenomenaIntroducing ProbabilityThe Probabilistic FrameworkII ProbabilityFundamentals of Probability TheoryBuilding BlocksOperationsProbabilityConditional ProbabilityIndependenceRandom Variables and DistributionsDistributionsMathematical ExpectationCharacterizing DistributionsSpecial Derived Probability FunctionsMultidimensional Random VariablesDistributions of Several Random VariablesDistributional Characteristics of Jointly Distributed Random VariablesRandom Variable TransformationsSingle Variable TransformationsBivariate TransformationsGeneral Multivariate TransformationsApplication Case Studies I: ProbabilityMendel and HeredityWorld War II Warship Tactical Response Under AttackIII DistributionsIde...

10. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

2005-01-01

Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

11. A relation connecting scale transformation, Galilean transformation and Baecklund transformation for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

Steudel, H.

1980-01-01

It is shown that the two-parameter manifold of Baecklund transformations known for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be generated from one Baecklund transformation with specified parameters by use of scale transformation and Galilean transformation. (orig.)

12. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone): a spectrophotometric reagent for the determination of beryllium(II), magnesium(II) and calcium(II)

Pal, T.; Jana, N.R.

1993-01-01

The individual determination of Be II , Mg II or Ca II by conventional spectrophotometry and simultaneous determination of Mg II and Ca II in mixtures by first-derivative spectrophotometry are possible at trace levels, using emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) as spectrophotometric reagent. Interference from other metal species, application of these methods to rock samples and statistical analysis of the results are discussed. (author)

13. Fermi–Dirac Statistics

Pauli exclusion principle, Fermi–. Dirac statistics, identical and in- distinguishable particles, Fermi gas. Fermi–Dirac Statistics. Derivation and Consequences. S Chaturvedi and Shyamal Biswas. (left) Subhash Chaturvedi is at University of. Hyderabad. His current research interests include phase space descriptions.

14. Generalized interpolative quantum statistics

Ramanathan, R.

1992-01-01

A generalized interpolative quantum statistics is presented by conjecturing a certain reordering of phase space due to the presence of possible exotic objects other than bosons and fermions. Such an interpolation achieved through a Bose-counting strategy predicts the existence of an infinite quantum Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics akin to the one discovered by Greenberg recently

15. Handbook of Spatial Statistics

Gelfand, Alan E

2010-01-01

Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.

16. Statistical tables 2003

2003-01-01

The energy statistical table is a selection of statistical data for energies and countries from 1997 to 2002. It concerns the petroleum, the natural gas, the coal, the electric power, the production, the external market, the consumption per sector, the energy accounting 2002 and graphs on the long-dated forecasting. (A.L.B.)

17. Bayesian statistical inference

Bruno De Finetti

2017-04-01

Full Text Available This work was translated into English and published in the volume: Bruno De Finetti, Induction and Probability, Biblioteca di Statistica, eds. P. Monari, D. Cocchi, Clueb, Bologna, 1993.Bayesian statistical Inference is one of the last fundamental philosophical papers in which we can find the essential De Finetti's approach to the statistical inference.

18. Practical statistics for educators

Ravid, Ruth

2014-01-01

Practical Statistics for Educators, Fifth Edition, is a clear and easy-to-follow text written specifically for education students in introductory statistics courses and in action research courses. It is also a valuable resource and guidebook for educational practitioners who wish to study their own settings.

19. Thiele. Pioneer in statistics

Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...

20. Applied Statistics with SPSS

Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

2007-01-01

Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

1. Cancer Statistics Animator

This tool allows users to animate cancer trends over time by cancer site and cause of death, race, and sex. Provides access to incidence, mortality, and survival. Select the type of statistic, variables, format, and then extract the statistics in a delimited format for further analyses.

2. Energy statistics yearbook 2002

2005-01-01

The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2002 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-sixth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

2005-01-01

The papers included in the Advances in Statistics section of the Partners in Flight (PIF) 2002 Proceedings represent a small sample of statistical topics of current importance to Partners In Flight research scientists: hierarchical modeling, estimation of detection probabilities, and Bayesian applications. Sauer et al. (this volume) examines a hierarchical model...

4. Energy statistics yearbook 2001

2004-01-01

The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2001 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-fifth in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

5. Energy statistics yearbook 2000

2002-01-01

The Energy Statistics Yearbook 2000 is a comprehensive collection of international energy statistics prepared by the United Nations Statistics Division. It is the forty-third in a series of annual compilations which commenced under the title World Energy Supplies in Selected Years, 1929-1950. It updates the statistical series shown in the previous issue. Supplementary series of monthly and quarterly data on production of energy may be found in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. The principal objective of the Yearbook is to provide a global framework of comparable data on long-term trends in the supply of mainly commercial primary and secondary forms of energy. Data for each type of fuel and aggregate data for the total mix of commercial fuels are shown for individual countries and areas and are summarized into regional and world totals. The data are compiled primarily from the annual energy questionnaire distributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and supplemented by official national statistical publications. Where official data are not available or are inconsistent, estimates are made by the Statistics Division based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities

6. Temperature dependent anomalous statistics

Das, A.; Panda, S.

1991-07-01

We show that the anomalous statistics which arises in 2 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories can become temperature dependent in the most natural way. We analyze and show that a statistic's changing phase transition can happen in these theories only as T → ∞. (author). 14 refs

7. Transformational Leadership and its Relationship to Employee Job Motivation at the TACOM LCMC

2016-05-25

UNCLASSIFIED Transformational Leadership and its Relationship to Employee Job Motivation at the TACOM-LCMC...Service College Fellowship Transformational Leadership and its Relationship to Employee Job Motivation at the TACOM- LCMC ii UNCLASSIFIED...Approval Page Title: Transformational Leadership and its Relationship to Employee Job Motivation at the TACOM-LCMC Author: Craig Coger

8. Introduction to Bayesian statistics

2017-01-01

There is a strong upsurge in the use of Bayesian methods in applied statistical analysis, yet most introductory statistics texts only present frequentist methods. Bayesian statistics has many important advantages that students should learn about if they are going into fields where statistics will be used. In this Third Edition, four newly-added chapters address topics that reflect the rapid advances in the field of Bayesian staistics. The author continues to provide a Bayesian treatment of introductory statistical topics, such as scientific data gathering, discrete random variables, robust Bayesian methods, and Bayesian approaches to inferenfe cfor discrete random variables, bionomial proprotion, Poisson, normal mean, and simple linear regression. In addition, newly-developing topics in the field are presented in four new chapters: Bayesian inference with unknown mean and variance; Bayesian inference for Multivariate Normal mean vector; Bayesian inference for Multiple Linear RegressionModel; and Computati...

Westfall, Peter

2013-01-01

Introduction: Probability, Statistics, and ScienceReality, Nature, Science, and ModelsStatistical Processes: Nature, Design and Measurement, and DataModelsDeterministic ModelsVariabilityParametersPurely Probabilistic Statistical ModelsStatistical Models with Both Deterministic and Probabilistic ComponentsStatistical InferenceGood and Bad ModelsUses of Probability ModelsRandom Variables and Their Probability DistributionsIntroductionTypes of Random Variables: Nominal, Ordinal, and ContinuousDiscrete Probability Distribution FunctionsContinuous Probability Distribution FunctionsSome Calculus-Derivatives and Least SquaresMore Calculus-Integrals and Cumulative Distribution FunctionsProbability Calculation and SimulationIntroductionAnalytic Calculations, Discrete and Continuous CasesSimulation-Based ApproximationGenerating Random NumbersIdentifying DistributionsIntroductionIdentifying Distributions from Theory AloneUsing Data: Estimating Distributions via the HistogramQuantiles: Theoretical and Data-Based Estimate...

10. Optimizing Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution by magnetic nanoparticles immobilized on activated carbon using Taguchi method.

Ebrahimi Zarandi, Mohammad Javad; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosravi, Morteza; Mansouriieh, Nafiseh; Davallo, Mehran; Khosravan, Azita

2016-01-01

This study synthesized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)) immobilized on activated carbon (AC) and used them as an effective adsorbent for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution. The effect of three parameters, including the concentration of Cu(II), dosage of Fe(3)O(4)/AC magnetic nanocomposite and pH on the removal of Cu(II) using Fe(3)O(4)/AC nanocomposite were studied. In order to examine and describe the optimum condition for each of the mentioned parameters, Taguchi's optimization method was used in a batch system and L9 orthogonal array was used for the experimental design. The removal percentage (R%) of Cu(II) and uptake capacity (q) were transformed into an accurate signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for a 'larger-the-better' response. Taguchi results, which were analyzed based on choosing the best run by examining the S/N, were statistically tested using analysis of variance; the tests showed that all the parameters' main effects were significant within a 95% confidence level. The best conditions for removal of Cu(II) were determined at pH of 7, nanocomposite dosage of 0.1 gL(-1) and initial Cu(II) concentration of 20 mg L(-1) at constant temperature of 25 °C. Generally, the results showed that the simple Taguchi's method is suitable to optimize the Cu(II) removal experiments.

11. Discrete Gabor transform and discrete Zak transform

Bastiaans, M.J.; Namazi, N.M.; Matthews, K.

1996-01-01

Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e. the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of

12. Statistical sampling strategies

Andres, T.H.

1987-01-01

Systems assessment codes use mathematical models to simulate natural and engineered systems. Probabilistic systems assessment codes carry out multiple simulations to reveal the uncertainty in values of output variables due to uncertainty in the values of the model parameters. In this paper, methods are described for sampling sets of parameter values to be used in a probabilistic systems assessment code. Three Monte Carlo parameter selection methods are discussed: simple random sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, and sampling using two-level orthogonal arrays. Three post-selection transformations are also described: truncation, importance transformation, and discretization. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized

13. TBscore II

Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

2013-01-01

Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

14. Statistical mechanics of the liquid helium solitons II

Evangelista, L.R.; Ventura, I.

1988-01-01

The description of the thermal cloud is perfected through the introduction of the second condensate field ψ c , that condensates in the instantaneous packet wave function, and provides a coherent envelope to modulate the bound states. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

15. Statistics On Title II Direct Payments To Claimant Representatives

Social Security Administration — Every person has the right to be represented by an attorney or other representative while pursuing a claim or other rights. This dataset contains data around Title...

16. Case study of degeneracy in quantum statistics. II

Barker, W.A.; Raney, D.; Sy, J.

1988-01-01

In an earlier paper, classical and weak degeneracy, with the activity parameter r between 0 and 1, are investigated. In this paper, intermediate and strong degeneracy, with r>1, are studied. Coefficients for the Joyce--Dixon-type series are calculated for bosons as well as fermions in one, two, and three dimensions, for either nonrelativistic or ultrarelativistic particles. The theory is applied to the electrons and Cooper pairs in mercury at four temperatures

17. Statistical problems with weather-radar images, II: Attenuation detection

Fernandez-Duran, Juan-Jose; Upton, Graham

2003-01-01

A procedure based on the combination of a Bayesian changepoint model and ordinary least squares is used to identify and quantify regions where a radar signal has been attenuated (i.e.diminished) as a consequence of intervening weather. A graphical polar display is introduced that illustrates the location and importance of the attenuation

18. Statistical mechanics for solitons in liquid Helium. II

Evangelista, L.R.; Ventura, I.

1988-06-01

The thermal cloud is perfected through the introduction of the second condensate field ψ c , that condensates in the instantaneous packet wave function, and provides a coherent envelope to modulate the bound states. The squared amplitude of the second classical field [ψ c ] 2 , is equal to the thermal cloud density. The bound -state zero-point kinetic energy belongs now to the classical field kinetic term, and this leads us to subtract another counter-term from the thermal cloud Hamiltonian. It then results a new gap, given by the kinetic energy, 1/2 m c-tilde V) 2 , that is due to the soliton's motion. Besides the superfluid and the normal liquid, we report the theoretical existence of two other phases. (author) [pt

19. Functional brain mapping using H215O positron emission tomography (I): statistical parametric mapping method

Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Kyeong Min; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

1998-01-01

We investigated the statistical methods to compose the functional brain map of human working memory and the principal factors that have an effect on the methods for localization. Repeated PET scans with successive four tasks, which consist of one control and three different activation tasks, were performed on six right-handed normal volunteers for 2 minutes after bolus injections of 925 MBq H 2 15 O at the intervals of 30 minutes. Image data were analyzed using SPM96 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) implemented with Matlab (Mathworks Inc., U.S.A.). Images from the same subject were spatially registered and were normalized using linear and nonlinear transformation methods. Significant difference between control and each activation state was estimated at every voxel based on the general linear model. Differences of global counts were removed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with global activity as covariate. Using the mean and variance for each condition which was adjusted using ANCOVA, t-statistics was performed on every voxel. To interpret the results more easily, t-values were transformed to the standard Gaussian distribution (Z-score). All the subjects carried out the activation and control tests successfully. Average rate of correct answers was 95%. The numbers of activated blobs were 4 for verbal memory I, 9 for verbal memory II, 9 for visual memory, and 6 for conjunctive activation of these three tasks. The verbal working memory activates predominantly left-sided structures, and the visual memory activates the right hemisphere. We conclude that rCBF PET imaging and statistical parametric mapping method were useful in the localization of the brain regions for verbal and visual working memory

20. Transformative environmental governance

Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...