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Sample records for ii statistical transformation

  1. Computer technology of genogeographic analysis of a gene pool: II. Statistical transformation of maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balanovskaya, E.V.; Nurbaev, S.D.; Rychkov, Yu.G. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-11-01

    Transformations of computer maps of geographic distribution of gene frequencies using basic mathematical statistical procedures are considered. These transformations are designated as statistical transformation of maps. Two transformation groups are considered: of one map separately and of a group of maps. Transformations possess a value beyond their use as intermediate stages of more complicated cartographical analysis: the resulting maps carry entirely new information on the geography of genes or a gene pool. This article considers three examples of obtaining new genetic profiles using statistical transformation algorithms. These profiles are of: (1) heterozygosity (of HLA-A, B, C loci in northeastern Eurasia); (2) disease risk (Rh-incompatibility of mother and child with simultaneous registration of Rh and ABO blood groups in Eastern Europe); (3) genetic distances (from own mean ethnic values for Belarus and from mean Russian values for the gene pool of Eastern Europe). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  3. Transforming Graph Representations for Statistical Relational Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Ryan A; Aha, David W; Neville, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of statistical relational learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In this article, we examine a range of representation issues for graph-based relational data. Since the choice of relational data representation for the nodes, links, and features can dramatically affect the capabilities of SRL algorithms, we survey approaches and opportunities for relational representation transformation designed to improve the performance of these algorithms. This leads us to introduce an intuitive taxonomy for data representation transformations in relational domains that incorporates link transformation and node transformation as symmetric representation tasks. In particular, the transformation tasks for both nodes and links include (i) predicting their existence, (ii) predicting their label or type...

  4. Solid phase transformations II

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  5. Transforming Elementary Statistics To Enhance Student Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jill L.; Aleksic, Maja

    Undergraduate students often leave statistics courses not fully understanding how to apply statistical concepts (M. Bonsangue, 1994). In order to enhance student learning and improve the understanding and application of statistical concepts, an elementary statistics course was transformed from a lecture-based course into one that integrates…

  6. On Quantum Statistical Inference, II

    OpenAIRE

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O. E.; Gill, R. D.; Jupp, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in problems of statistical inference connected to measurements of quantum systems has recently increased substantially, in step with dramatic new developments in experimental techniques for studying small quantum systems. Furthermore, theoretical developments in the theory of quantum measurements have brought the basic mathematical framework for the probability calculations much closer to that of classical probability theory. The present paper reviews this field and proposes and inte...

  7. Resistance to Statistical Attacks of Parastrophic Quasigroup Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Bakeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to statistical kind of attacks of encrypted messages is a very important property for designing cryptographic primitives. In this paper, the parastrophic quasigroup PE-transformation, proposed elsewhere, is considered and the proof that it has this cryptographic property is given. Namely, it is proven that if PE-transformation is used for design of an encryption function then after n applications of it on arbitrary message the distribution of m-tuples (m = 1; 2; : : : ; n is uniform. These uniform distributions imply the resistance to statistical attack of the encrypted messages. For illustration of theoretical results, some experimental results are presented as well.

  8. [Pathogenesis of temporomandibular dysfunction. II. Statistical method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágó, P

    1989-08-01

    The variables of the epidemiologic assessments concerned with the aetiology of the mandible joint disfunction were examined in the course of statistical analyses, in general, in their pairwise connections and possibly a multi-variable linear regression calculation was employed. In the course of the examination, for establishing the linear, empirically tested model of the aetiology of the mandible joint disfunction a new type statistical method, the LISREL (Linear Structural Relationship) method was employed. An advantage of this assessment consists in that not only observed variables may figure as the variables of the structural equation but also latent variables which cannot be observed but it is supposable that they are factors of the observed variables. This statistical method is described in closer details in the article in connection with the forming of the aetiological model.

  9. Spin & Statistics in Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics, II

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckert, B; Kuckert, Bernd; Mund, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Recently a sufficient and necessary condition for Pauli's spin- statistics connection in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics has been established [quant-ph/0208151]. The two-dimensional part of this result is extended to n-particle systems and reformulated and further simplified in a more geometric language.

  10. Binary statistics among population ii stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zinnecker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrellas de Poblaci on II son estrellas viejas, pobres en metales, pertenecen al halo gal actico y tienen movimientos propios grandes. Hemos realizado una b usqueda de binarias visuales entre 164 estrellas del halo en la vecindad solar (distancia media 100 pc, mediante interferometr a de motas en el infrarrojo, optica adaptativa e im agenes directas de gran campo. La muestra se basa en las listas de Carney et al. (1994 y Norris (1986, con distancias con ables del HIPPARCOS. En primera instancia, hemos encontrado 33 binarias, 6 triples y una cu adruple. Si nos limitamos a cocientes de ujo en la banda K mayores que 0.1 (para evitar contaminaci on por el fondo los n umeros bajan a 9 binarias y una triple, lo cual corresponde a una fracci on de binarias del 6 al 7 %, por arriba de nuestro l mite de resoluci on angular de 0.1 segundos de arco. Si contamos todas las binarias con cocientes de ujo en la banda K mayores que 0.01, obtenemos 15 binarias y 3 triples adicionales, lo cual corresponde a una fracci on de binarias de alrededor del 20% para separaciones proyectadas mayores que unas 10AU. Para efectos de comparaci on, la frecuencia de binarias espectrosc opicas para Poblaci on II es de 15% (para per odos de hasta 3000 d as (Latham et al. 2002. Tambi en hemos determinado la distribuci on de semiejes mayores para nuestras binarias y triples visuales de Poblaci on II. Observaciones en una segunda epoca servir an para con rmar la realidad de nuestros resultados.

  11. Characterizing complex networks through statistics of Möbius transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, Vladimir; Crnkić, Aladin

    2017-04-01

    It is well-known now that dynamics of large populations of globally (all-to-all) coupled oscillators can be reduced to low-dimensional submanifolds (WS transformation and OA ansatz). Marvel et al. (2009) described an intriguing algebraic structure standing behind this reduction: oscillators evolve by the action of the group of Möbius transformations. Of course, dynamics in complex networks of coupled oscillators is highly complex and not reducible. Still, closer look unveils that even in complex networks some (possibly overlapping) groups of oscillators evolve by Möbius transformations. In this paper, we study properties of the network by identifying Möbius transformations in the dynamics of oscillators. This enables us to introduce some new (statistical) concepts that characterize the network. In particular, the notion of coherence of the network (or subnetwork) is proposed. This conceptual approach is meaningful for the broad class of networks, including those with time-delayed, noisy or mixed interactions. In this paper, several simple (random) graphs are studied illustrating the meaning of the concepts introduced in the paper.

  12. Relation between Type-II Discrete Sine Transform and Type -I Discrete Hartley Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Narayan Murty

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a relation for finding type-II discrete sine transform (DST from type-I discrete Hartley transform (DHT has been derived. The transform length N is taken as even. Using this relation, the (N - 1 output components of DST can be realized from DHT. The DHT is one of the transforms used for converting data in time domain into frequency domain using only real values.

  13. CPS Transformation of Flow Information, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, D.; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    the least solution. Preservation of least solutions solves a problem that was left open in Palsberg and Wand's article ‘CPS Transformation of Flow Information.’ Together, Palsberg and Wand's article and the present article show how to map in linear time the least solution of the flow constraints...... of a program into the least solution of the flow constraints of the CPS counterpart of this program, after administrative reductions. Furthermore, we show how to CPS transform control-flow information in one pass....... consider the administrative reductions of a Plotkin-style transformation into Continuation-Passing Style (CPS), and how they affect the result of a constraint-based control-flow analysis and, in particular, the least element in the space of solutions. We show that administrative reductions preserve...

  14. Indirect Fourier transform in the context of statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthig, Michael; Prévost, Sylvain; Orglmeister, Reinhold; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Inferring structural information from the intensity of a small-angle scattering (SAS) experiment is an ill-posed inverse problem. Thus, the determination of a solution is in general non-trivial. In this work, the indirect Fourier transform (IFT), which determines the pair distance distribution function from the intensity and hence yields structural information, is discussed within two different statistical inference approaches, namely a frequentist one and a Bayesian one, in order to determine a solution objectively From the frequentist approach the cross-validation method is obtained as a good practical objective function for selecting an IFT solution. Moreover, modern machine learning methods are employed to suppress oscillatory behaviour of the solution, hence extracting only meaningful features of the solution. By comparing the results yielded by the different methods presented here, the reliability of the outcome can be improved and thus the approach should enable more reliable information to be deduced from SAS experiments.

  15. Preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice I ← II transformation and the flow of ice II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K.; Wenk, H.-R.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preferred crystallographic orientation developed during the ice I ← II transformation and during the plastic flow of ice II was measured in polycrystalline deuterium oxide (D2O) specimens using low-temperature neutron diffraction. Samples partially transformed from ice I to II under a non-hydrostatic stress developed a preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice II. Samples of pure ice II transformed from ice I under a hydrostatic stress and then when compressed axially, developed a strong preferred orientation of compression axes parallel to (1010). A match to the observed preferred orientation using the viscoplastic self-consistent theory was obtained only when (1010) [0001] was taken as the predominant slip system in ice II.

  16. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Ayumi

    2014-04-01

    The Part I of Primer of Statistics in Dental Research covered five topics that are often mentioned in statistical check list of many peer-review journals including (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity Adjustment. The Part II of the series covers another set of important topics in dental statistics including (1) selecting the proper statistical tests, (2) repeated measures analysis, (3) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (4) analysis of agreement. First, a guide in selecting the proper statistical tests based on the research question will be laid out in text and with a table so that researchers choose the univariable statistical test by answering five simple questions. Second, the importance of utilizing repeated measures analysis will be illustrated. This is a key component of data analysis as in many dental studies, observations are considered repeated in a single patient (several teeth are measured in a single patient). Third, concepts of confounding and the use of regression analysis are explained by going over a famous observational cohort study. Lastly, the use of proper agreement analysis vs. correlation for study of agreement will be discussed to avoid a common pitfall in dental research.

  17. The University of Salamanca under Philip II in statistic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier ALEJO MONTES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical comparative study between the students who were registering in the University of Salamanca and who were obtaining each of three degrees that could be obtained in the University. It fills an existing emptiness in the University of Salamanca historiography, since a comparative study was necessary in the epoch of Philip II. The study analyzes the university matriculation, the requirements to formalize it, the order in which there were staying new recruits and the statistical contributed information. Likewise, there are analyzed and compare the statistical information contributed for each of three degrees that could be obtained in the University of Salamanca, which they were that of graduate, that of licentiate and that of doctor or teacher. It appreciates clearly the importance that had each of the faculties, being clearly the most valued the Faculty of Canon law and that less, that of Medicine.

  18. Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G

    2005-09-01

    The special relativity laws emerge as one-parameter (light speed) generalizations of the corresponding laws of classical physics. These generalizations, imposed by the Lorentz transformations, affect both the definition of the various physical observables (e.g., momentum, energy, etc.), as well as the mathematical apparatus of the theory. Here, following the general lines of [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056125 (2002)], we show that the Lorentz transformations impose also a proper one-parameter generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The obtained relativistic entropy permits us to construct a coherent and self-consistent relativistic statistical theory, preserving the main features of the ordinary statistical theory, which is recovered in the classical limit. The predicted distribution function is a one-parameter continuous deformation of the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and has a simple analytic form, showing power law tails in accordance with the experimental evidence. Furthermore, this statistical mechanics can be obtained as the stationary case of a generalized kinetic theory governed by an evolution equation obeying the H theorem and reproducing the Boltzmann equation of the ordinary kinetics in the classical limit.

  19. Statistical Assessment of Estimated Transformations in Observed-Score Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; González, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Equating methods make use of an appropriate transformation function to map the scores of one test form into the scale of another so that scores are comparable and can be used interchangeably. The equating literature shows that the ways of judging the success of an equating (i.e., the score transformation) might differ depending on the adopted…

  20. Riesz transforms in statistical signal processing and their applications to speckle metrology: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shun; Ma, Ning

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a high-dimensional statistical signal processing is revisited with the aim of introducing the concept of vector signal representation derived from the Riesz transforms, which are the natural extension and generalization of the one-dimensional Hilbert transform. Under the new concepts...... of vector correlations proposed recently, the statistical properties of the vector signal representation for random signal are presented and some applications to speckle metrology developed recently are reviewed to demonstrate the unique capability of Riesz transforms....

  1. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  2. Riesz transforms in statistical signal processing and their applications to speckle metrology: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shun; Ma, Ning;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a high-dimensional statistical signal processing is revisited with the aim of introducing the concept of vector signal representation derived from the Riesz transforms, which are the natural extension and generalization of the one-dimensional Hilbert transform. Under the new concep...

  3. Ca II Absorbers in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Sardane, Gendith M; Rao, Sandhya M

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a survey for CaII 3934,3969 absorption-line systems culled from ~ 95,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 and Data Release 9 quasar spectra. With 435 doublets identified in the catalog, this list is the largest CaII catalog compiled to date, spanning redshifts z = 0.3 A, is n_0=0.017 +/- 0.001. In comparison to MgII surveys, we found that only 3% of MgII systems in the SDSS have CaII, confirming that it is rare to identify CaII in quasar absorption-line surveys. We also report on some preliminary investigations of the nature of the two populations of CaII absorbers, and show that they can likely be distinguished using their MgII properties.

  4. The Relationship between Tsallis Statistics, the Fourier Transform, and Nonlinear Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kenric P

    2008-01-01

    Tsallis statistics (or q-statistics) in nonextensive statistical mechanics is a one-parameter description of correlated states. In this paper we use a translated entropic index: $1 - q \\to q$ . The essence of this translation is to improve the mathematical symmetry of the q-algebra and make q directly proportional to the nonlinear coupling. A conjugate transformation is defined $\\hat q \\equiv \\frac{{- 2q}}{{2 + q}}$ which provides a dual mapping between the heavy-tail q-Gaussian distributions, whose translated q parameter is between $ - 2 < q < 0$, and the compact-support q-Gaussians, between $0 < q < \\infty $ . This conjugate transformation is used to extend the definition of the q-Fourier transform to the domain of compact support. A conjugate q-Fourier transform is proposed which transforms a q-Gaussian into a conjugate $\\hat q$ -Gaussian, which has the same exponential decay as the Fourier transform of a power-law function. The nonlinear statistical coupling is defined such that the conjugate ...

  5. Radon transforms and Gegenbauer-Chebyshev integrals, II; examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Boris

    2016-08-01

    We transfer the results of Part I related to the modified support theorem and the kernel description of the hyperplane Radon transform to totally geodesic transforms on the sphere and the hyperbolic space, the spherical slice transform, and the spherical mean transform for spheres through the origin. The assumptions for functions are formulated in integral terms and close to minimal.

  6. An analysis of distribution transformer failure using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Mago Ramos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology was developed for analysing faults in distribution transformers using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS; it consisted of organising and creating of database regarding failed equipment, incorporating such data into the processing programme and converting all the information into numerical variables to be processed, thereby obtaining descriptive statistics and enabling factor and discriminant analysis. The research was based on information provided by companies in areas served by Corpoelec (Valencia, Venezuela and Codensa (Bogotá, Colombia.

  7. Transformation of tetracyclines mediated by Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions in the presence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Ru; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2009-01-15

    Complexation of tetracyclines (TCs) with dissolved Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions were found to significantly enhance the transformation of these antibiotics in the presence of oxygen at pH 8-9.5 and pH 4-6, respectively. In the TC-Mn(II)-O2 system, oxidation of the TC-complexed Mn(II) to Mn(III) by oxygen occurs, followed by oxidation of TC by Mn(III) to regenerate Mn(II). In the TC-Cu(II)-O2 system, Cu(II) oxidizes TC within the complex and the yielded Cu(I) is reoxidized by the present oxygen. Opposite reactivity trends were observed with the two metals: OTC (oxytetracycline) > TTC (tetracycline) > iso-CTC (iso-chlorotetracycline) for the Mn(II)-mediated reaction, whereas CTC > TTC > OTC > epimers for the Cu(II)-mediated reaction. The reactivity results and examination of TC-metal ion complexation and transformation products suggest that the BCD-ring and A-ring of TC are crucial to interact with Mn(II) and Cu(II), respectively. This study highlights that the fate of TCs in aquatic environments may differ significantly by their strong interactions with different metal species present in the systems.

  8. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

  9. The Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform Based Statistical Medical Image Fusion Using Generalized Gaussian Density

    OpenAIRE

    Guocheng Yang; Meiling Li; Leiting Chen; Jie Yu

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the statistical dependencies between coefficients in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, in which the probability density function of the NSCT coefficients is concisely fitted using generalized Gaussian density (GGD), as well as the similarity measurement of two subbands is accurately computed by Jensen-Shannon divergence of two GGDs. To preserve more useful information from source images, the new fusion rules are devel...

  10. Extrasolar planet population synthesis II: Statistical comparison with observation

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, Christoph; Benz, Willy; Naef, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series of papers showing the results of extrasolar planet population synthesis calculations. In the companion paper (Paper I), we have presented in detail our methods. By applying an observational detection bias for radial velocity surveys, we identify the potentially detectable synthetic planets. The properties of these planets are compared in quantitative statistical tests with the properties of a carefully selected sub-population of actual exoplanets. We use a two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare the mass-distance distributions of synthetic and observed planets, as well as 1D KS tests to compare the mass, the semimajor axis and the [Fe/H] distributions. We find that some models can account to a reasonable degree of significance for the observed properties. We concurrently account for many other observed features, e.g. the "metallicity effect". This gives us confidence that our model captures several essential features of giant planet formation. Our simulations al...

  11. Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: II. Multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

    2011-01-01

    This research is intended to assess the ability of UV-visible microspectrophotometry to successfully discriminate the color of dyed hair. Fifty-five red hair dyes were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). The spectra were grouped into three classes, which were visually consistent with different shades of red. A two-dimensional PCA observations plot was constructed, describing 78.6% of the overall variance. The wavelength regions associated with the absorbance of hair and dye were highly correlated. Principal components were selected to represent 95% of the overall variance for analysis with DA. A classification accuracy of 89% was observed for the comprehensive dye set, while external validation using 20 of the dyes resulted in a prediction accuracy of 75%. Significant color loss from successive washing of hair samples was estimated to occur within 3 weeks of dye application.

  12. Radix-3 Algorithm for Realization of Type-II Discrete Sine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Murty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, radix-3 algorithm for computation of type-II discrete sine transform (DST-II of length N = 3 ( = 1,2, … . is presented. The DST-II of length N can be realized from three DST-II sequences, each of length N/3. A block diagram of for computation of the radix-3 DST-II algorithm is given. Signal flow graph for DST-II of length = 3 2 is shown to clarify the proposed algorithm.

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  14. CPS Transformation of Flow Information, Part II: Administrative Reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel; Danvy, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    consider the administrative reductions of a Plotkin-style transformation into Continuation-Passing Style (CPS), and how they affect the result of a constraint-based control-flow analysis and, in particular, the least element in the space of solutions. We show that administrative reductions preserve...... the least solution. Preservation of least solutions solves a problem that was left open in Palsberg and Wand's article ‘CPS Transformation of Flow Information.’ Together, Palsberg and Wand's article and the present article show how to map in linear time the least solution of the flow constraints...... of a program into the least solution of the flow constraints of the CPS counterpart of this program, after administrative reductions. Furthermore, we show how to CPS transform control-flow information in one pass....

  15. Stable transformation of Hi-II maize using the particle inflow gun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on the transformation of the embryogenic type II callus, initiated from cultured immature zygotic embryos of the maize line Hi-II, by microprojectile bombardment using a particle inflow gun. Use of the plasmid pAHC25; Tissue culture...

  16. Blind image quality assessment using statistical independence in the divisive normalization transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ying; Mou, Xuanqin; Fu, Hong; Ji, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    We present a general purpose blind image quality assessment (IQA) method using the statistical independence hidden in the joint distributions of divisive normalization transform (DNT) representations for natural images. The DNT simulates the redundancy reduction process of the human visual system and has good statistical independence for natural undistorted images; meanwhile, this statistical independence changes as the images suffer from distortion. Inspired by this, we investigate the changes in statistical independence between neighboring DNT outputs across the space and scale for distorted images and propose an independence uncertainty index as a blind IQA (BIQA) feature to measure the image changes. The extracted features are then fed into a regression model to predict the image quality. The proposed BIQA metric is called statistical independence (STAIND). We evaluated STAIND on five public databases: LIVE, CSIQ, TID2013, IRCCyN/IVC Art IQA, and intentionally blurred background images. The performances are relatively high for both single- and cross-database experiments. When compared with the state-of-the-art BIQA algorithms, as well as representative full-reference IQA metrics, such as SSIM, STAIND shows fairly good performance in terms of quality prediction accuracy, stability, robustness, and computational costs.

  17. Finite symmetric trilinear integral transform of distributions. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Waghmare

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite symmetric trilinear integral transform is extended to distributions by using quite different technique than Zemanian (1968 and Dube (1976 and an inversion formula is established using Parseval's identity. The operational calculus generated is applied to find the temperature inside an equilateral prism of semi-infinite length.

  18. Fourier and Hadamard transform spectrometers - A limited comparison. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.; Tai, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical approach was used to compare interferometric spectrometers and Hadamard transform spectrometers. The principle results are reported, noting that the simple Hadamard spectrometer encodes more efficiently than a Michelson interferometer which, in turn, encodes less efficiently than is usually acknowledged. Hirschfeld's (1977) major objections to these findings are discussed, although it is noted that none of his objections is supported by evidence.

  19. Identification of a mechanism of transformation of clathrate hydrate structures I to II or H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioki, Shuzo

    2012-07-01

    Binary mixed-gas hydrates including methane and other guest gases demonstrate a structural transition between the sI and sII phases. Under increasing pressure pure methane hydrate exhibits a phase transition first from sI to sII and then to sH. But the mechanism of the transformation from sI to sII or sH has not yet been identified. Recently, molecular dynamics simulations of methane hydrates suggest there may exist uncommon 15-hedral cages (5¹²6³), linking the sI and sII cages. In addition, xenon hydrate involving 15-hedral cages has been synthesized and named an hsI hydrate. Based on the hsI cages, we propose a mechanism for the transition of sI to sII or sH at atomic level resolution. The sI hydrate is first transformed to hsI, and hsI is further transformed to sII. Upon compression, hsI is transformed to sH owing to depletion of atomic layers. The mechanism of transformation speculated here calls for experimental verification.

  20. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  1. CPS Transformation of Flow Information, Part II: Administrative Reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniel; Danvy, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    the least solution. Preservation of least solutions solves a problem that was left open in Palsberg and Wand's article ‘CPS Transformation of Flow Information.’ Together, Palsberg and Wand's article and the present article show how to map in linear time the least solution of the flow constraints...... of a program into the least solution of the flow constraints of the CPS counterpart of this program, after administrative reductions. Furthermore, we show how to CPS transform control-flow information in one pass.......We characterize the impact of a linear $\\beta$-reduction on the result of a control-flow analysis. (By ‘a linear $\\beta$-reduction’ we mean the $\\beta$-reduction of a linear $\\lambda$-abstraction, i.e., of a $\\lambda$-abstraction whose parameter occurs exactly once in its body.) As a corollary, we...

  2. Bias reduction for Satellite Based Precipitation Estimates using statistical transformations in Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringard, Justine; Becker, Melanie; Seyler, Frederique; Linguet, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Currently satellite-based precipitation estimates exhibit considerable biases, and there have been many efforts to reduce these biases by merging surface gauge measurements with satellite-based estimates. In Guiana Shield all products exhibited better performances during the dry season (August- December). All products greatly overestimate very low intensities (50 mm). Moreover the responses of each product are different according to hydro climatic regimes. The aim of this study is to correct spatially the bias of precipitation, and compare various correction methods to define the best methods depending on the rainfall characteristic correcting (intensity, frequency). Four satellites products are used: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) research product (3B42V7) and real time product (3B42RT), the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely-Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) and the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Morphing technique (CMORPH), for six hydro climatic regimes between 2001 and 2012. Several statistical transformations are used to correct the bias. Statistical transformations attempt to find a function h that maps a simulated variable Ps such that its new distribution equals the distribution of the observed variable Po. The first is the use of a distribution derived transformations which is a mixture of the Bernoulli and the Gamma distribution, where the Bernoulli distribution is used to model the probability of precipitation occurrence and the Gamma distribution used to model precipitation intensities. The second a quantile-quantile relation using parametric transformation, and the last one is a common approach using the empirical CDF of observed and modelled values instead of assuming parametric distributions. For each correction 30% of both, simulated and observed data sets, are used to calibrate and the other part used to validate. The validation are test with statistical

  3. Hankel transform of a sequence obtained by series reversion II - aerating transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Bojičić, Radica; Barry, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the connection between the Hankel transform and aerating transforms of a given integer sequence. Results obtained are used to establish a completely different Hankel transform evaluation of the series reversion of a certain rational function $Q(x)$ and shifted sequences, recently published in our paper \\cite{part1}. For that purpose, we needed to evaluate the Hankel transforms of the sequences $\\seqn{\\alpha^2 C_n-\\beta C_{n+1}}$ and $\\seqn{\\alpha^2 C_{n+1}-\\beta C_{n+2}}$, where $C=\\seqn{C_n}$ is the well-known sequence of Catalan numbers. This generalizes the results of Cvetkovi\\' c, Rajkovi\\'c and Ivkovi\\'c \\cite{CRI}. Also, we need the evaluation of Hankel-like determinants whose entries are Catalan numbers $C_n$ and which is based on the recent results of Krattenthaler \\cite{krattCat}. The results obtained are general and can be applied to many other Hankel transform evaluations.

  4. Fast Algorithm for Computing the Discrete Hartley Transform of Type-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Taha Hamood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized discrete Hartley transforms (GDHTs have proved to be an efficient alternative to the generalized discrete Fourier transforms (GDFTs for real-valued data applications. In this paper, the development of direct computation of radix-2 decimation-in-time (DIT algorithm for the fast calculation of the GDHT of type-II (DHT-II is presented. The mathematical analysis and the implementation of the developed algorithm are derived, showing that this algorithm possesses a regular structure and can be implemented in-place for efficient memory utilization.The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and the computational complexity is calculated for different transform lengths. A comparison between this algorithm and existing DHT-II algorithms shows that it can be considered as a good compromise between the structural and computational complexities.

  5. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Abel, David (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD)

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  6. Statistical design in phase II clinical trials and its application in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Francesco; Di Maio, Massimo; De Maio, Ermelinda; Maione, Paolo; Ottaiano, Alessandro; Pensabene, Matilde; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Alessandra Vernaglia; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Gallo, Ciro

    2003-05-01

    Several statistical designs for phase II studies have been proposed, but they are frequently misunderstood or not applied at all. In this review we describe the major characteristics of the available designs. To investigate the extent to which statistical designs were used in some recent phase II studies, and which designs were the most common, we did a survey of 145 trials involving treatment of breast cancer. Studies selected for the survey were published between 1995 and 1999 in one of seven specific oncology journals (all with impact factor consistently higher than 2). 94 of the studies (64.8%) did not have an identifiable statistical design. However, among the 51 studies with statistical design there was a notable heterogeneity in the type of design applied. We put together a list of factors associated with use of statistical design at univariate analysis. These factors included: referral to a previous phase I study, recent trial start date, private sponsorship, single-agent treatment, and multicentre organisation. Single-agent treatment (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.01-5.51) and multicentre organisation (OR 3.24; 95% CI 1.47-7.15) were independently predictive of the presence of statistical design. Publication in journals with high impact factors and short intervals between the start of the study and publication were also correlated with statistical design.

  7. Kinetics of Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of 6-line ferrihydrite under anaerobic flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Marcus, M.A.; Bargar, J.R.

    2010-04-01

    The readsorption of ferrous ions produced by the abiotic and microbially-mediated reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides drives a series of transformations of the host minerals. To further understand the mechanisms by which these transformations occur and their kinetics within a microporous flow environment, flow-through experiments were conducted in which capillary tubes packed with ferrihydrite-coated glass spheres were injected with inorganic Fe(II) solutions under circumneutral pH conditions at 25 C. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to identify the secondary phase(s) formed and to provide data for quantitative kinetic analysis. At concentrations at and above 1.8 mM Fe(II) in the injection solution, magnetite was the only secondary phase formed (no intermediates were detected), with complete transformation following a nonlinear rate law requiring 28 hours and 150 hours of reaction at 18 and 1.8 mM Fe(II), respectively. However, when the injection solution consisted of 0.36 mM Fe(II), goethite was the predominant reaction product and formed much more slowly according to a linear rate law, while only minor magnetite was formed. When the rates are normalized based on the time to react half of the ferrihydrite on a reduced time plot, it is apparent that the 1.8 mM and 18 mM input Fe(II) experiments can be described by the same reaction mechanism, while the 0.36 input Fe(II) experiment is distinct. The analysis of the transformation kinetics suggest that the transformations involved an electron transfer reaction between the aqueous as well as sorbed Fe(II) and ferrihydrite acting as a semiconductor, rather than a simple dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. A transformation mechanism involving sorbed inner sphere Fe(II) alone is not supported, since the essentially equal coverage of sorption sites in the 18 mM and 1.8 mM Fe(II) injections cannot explain the difference in the transformation rates observed.

  8. Kinetics of Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of 6-line ferrihydrite under anaerobic flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Marcus, M.A.; Bargar, J.R.

    2010-04-01

    The readsorption of ferrous ions produced by the abiotic and microbially-mediated reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides drives a series of transformations of the host minerals. To further understand the mechanisms by which these transformations occur and their kinetics within a microporous flow environment, flow-through experiments were conducted in which capillary tubes packed with ferrihydrite-coated glass spheres were injected with inorganic Fe(II) solutions under circumneutral pH conditions at 25 C. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to identify the secondary phase(s) formed and to provide data for quantitative kinetic analysis. At concentrations at and above 1.8 mM Fe(II) in the injection solution, magnetite was the only secondary phase formed (no intermediates were detected), with complete transformation following a nonlinear rate law requiring 28 hours and 150 hours of reaction at 18 and 1.8 mM Fe(II), respectively. However, when the injection solution consisted of 0.36 mM Fe(II), goethite was the predominant reaction product and formed much more slowly according to a linear rate law, while only minor magnetite was formed. When the rates are normalized based on the time to react half of the ferrihydrite on a reduced time plot, it is apparent that the 1.8 mM and 18 mM input Fe(II) experiments can be described by the same reaction mechanism, while the 0.36 input Fe(II) experiment is distinct. The analysis of the transformation kinetics suggest that the transformations involved an electron transfer reaction between the aqueous as well as sorbed Fe(II) and ferrihydrite acting as a semiconductor, rather than a simple dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. A transformation mechanism involving sorbed inner sphere Fe(II) alone is not supported, since the essentially equal coverage of sorption sites in the 18 mM and 1.8 mM Fe(II) injections cannot explain the difference in the transformation rates observed.

  9. Statistical selection of multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear dynamic models of spike train transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa H M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2007-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear dynamic model of spike train to spike train transformations was previously formulated for hippocampal-cortical prostheses. This paper further described the statistical methods of selecting significant inputs (self-terms) and interactions between inputs (cross-terms) of this Volterra kernel-based model. In our approach, model structure was determined by progressively adding self-terms and cross-terms using a forward stepwise model selection technique. Model coefficients were then pruned based on Wald test. Results showed that the reduced kernel models, which contained much fewer coefficients than the full Volterra kernel model, gave good fits to the novel data. These models could be used to analyze the functional interactions between neurons during behavior.

  10. The Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform Based Statistical Medical Image Fusion Using Generalized Gaussian Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guocheng; Li, Meiling; Chen, Leiting; Yu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the statistical dependencies between coefficients in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, in which the probability density function of the NSCT coefficients is concisely fitted using generalized Gaussian density (GGD), as well as the similarity measurement of two subbands is accurately computed by Jensen-Shannon divergence of two GGDs. To preserve more useful information from source images, the new fusion rules are developed to combine the subbands with the varied frequencies. That is, the low frequency subbands are fused by utilizing two activity measures based on the regional standard deviation and Shannon entropy and the high frequency subbands are merged together via weight maps which are determined by the saliency values of pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms the conventional NSCT based medical image fusion approaches in both visual perception and evaluation indices.

  11. The Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform Based Statistical Medical Image Fusion Using Generalized Gaussian Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the statistical dependencies between coefficients in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT domain, in which the probability density function of the NSCT coefficients is concisely fitted using generalized Gaussian density (GGD, as well as the similarity measurement of two subbands is accurately computed by Jensen-Shannon divergence of two GGDs. To preserve more useful information from source images, the new fusion rules are developed to combine the subbands with the varied frequencies. That is, the low frequency subbands are fused by utilizing two activity measures based on the regional standard deviation and Shannon entropy and the high frequency subbands are merged together via weight maps which are determined by the saliency values of pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms the conventional NSCT based medical image fusion approaches in both visual perception and evaluation indices.

  12. Discrimination of handlebar grip samples by fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors presented a study on the discrimination of handlebar grip samples, to provide effective forensic science service for hit and run traffic cases. 50 bicycle handlebar grip samples, 49 electric bike handlebar grip samples, and 96 motorcycle handlebar grip samples have been randomly collected by the local police in Beijing (China. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR was utilized as analytical technology. Then, target absorption selection, data pretreatment, and discrimination of linked samples and unlinked samples were chosen as three steps to improve the discrimination of FTIR spectrums collected from different handlebar grip samples. Principal component analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve were utilized to evaluate different data selection methods and different data pretreatment methods, respectively. It is possible to explore the evidential value of handlebar grip residue evidence through instrumental analysis and statistical treatments. It will provide a universal discrimination method for other forensic science samples as well.

  13. Degradation of ethyl paraben by heat-activated persulfate oxidation: statistical evaluation of operating factors and transformation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2017-01-01

    A factorial design methodology was implemented to evaluate the importance of ethyl paraben (EP) concentration (500-1500 μg/L), sodium persulfate concentration (400-500 mg/L), temperature (40-60 °C), reaction time (2-30 min), water matrix (pure water or secondary treated wastewater), and initial solution pH (3-9) on EP removal by heat-activated persulfate oxidation. All individual effects, except the solution pH, were statistically significant and so were the second-order interactions of ethyl paraben concentration with temperature or the reaction time. The influence of the water matrix was crucial, and the efficiency of the process was lower in secondary treated wastewater due to the presence of natural organic matter and inorganic salts that compete with ethyl paraben for the reactive oxygen species. Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) was employed to identify major transformation by-products (TBPs); 13 compounds were detected as TBPs of EP. Degradation occurred through (i) hydroxylation, (ii) dealkylation, and (iii) oligomerization reactions leading to TBPs with ether and biphenyl structures. Oligomerization reactions were found to be the dominant pathway during the first steps of the reaction. The toxicity of 500 μg/L EP in secondary treated wastewater was tested against marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri; toxicity increased during the first minutes due to the production of several TBPs, but it consistently decreased thereafter.

  14. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  15. Statistical Study of Shocks and CMEs Associated With Interplanetary Type II Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    We present a study of some spectral properties associated with interplanetary Type II radio emission. Type II radio bursts are signatures of violent eruptions from the Sun that result in shock waves propagating through the corona and the interplanetary medium. We investigated the relative bandwidth of all the type II bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (WAVES) on board the Wind spacecraft from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). We present statistical results for the bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) in the three subsets as well as a comparision of our results with the Type II solar radio bursts observed by ISEE-3 radio experiment, which is similar to WAVES/RAD1. We analyzed the bandwidth and BFR evolution with the heliocentric distance as well as an analysis of drift rate magnitude of type II radio bursts and its starting frequency. We also present some properties of shocks and coronal mass ejections associated with interplanetary type II bursts. This work is partially supported by NSF/SHINE (ATM 0204588)

  16. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  17. THE ADVANTAGES OF REGIONALIZATION BY TRANSFORMING THE CURRENT TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC AND STATISTICAL STRUCTURES INTO ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordan Marioara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU standards on statistics and administrative units, it is recommended that the Member States should develop relatively homogeneous territorial structures in terms of their size or the number of inhabitants, and "increasing", from smallsized regional structures to structures with a few million people. Considering the above-mentioned, the paper presents a brief description of the evolution of territorial-administrative organization of Romania, with the emphasis on the current existing regional structures. An extensive presentation of the pro and cons of transforming the current development regions from relatively limited instruments of implementing the regional policy, lacking legal status and effective levers, into real, de jure administrative units, adequately empowered to implement effectively the cohesion policy and make proper use of the European, national and local funding (public and private is also done. Finally, a possible re-aggregation of the counties that have common characteristics and potential for functional integration as administrative regions - adapted to the current realities on the ground and based on comprehensive criteria – is presented.

  18. THE ADVANTAGES OF REGIONALIZATION BY TRANSFORMING THE CURRENT TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC AND STATISTICAL STRUCTURES INTO ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordan Marioara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU standards on statistics and administrative units, it is recommended that the Member States should develop relatively homogeneous territorial structures in terms of their size or the number of inhabitants, and "increasing", from small-sized regional structures to structures with a few million people. Considering the above-mentioned, the paper presents a brief description of the evolution of territorial-administrative organization of Romania, with the emphasis on the current existing regional structures. An extensive presentation of the pro and cons of transforming the current development regions from relatively limited instruments of implementing the regional policy, lacking legal status and effective levers, into real, de jure administrative units, adequately empowered to implement effectively the cohesion policy and make proper use of the European, national and local funding (public and private is also done. Finally, a possible re-aggregation of the counties that have common characteristics and potential for functional integration as administrative regions-adapted to the current realities on the ground and based on comprehensive criteria – is presented.

  19. Analysis of hyper-spectral data derived from an imaging Fourier transform: A statistical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Clark, G.A.; Fields, D.J.

    1996-01-10

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) using optical sensors are increasingly being used in various branches of science. Typically, a FTS generates a three-dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one frequency/wavelength dimension. The number of frequency dimensions in such data cubes is generally very large, often in the hundreds, making data analytical procedures extremely complex. In the present report, the problem is viewed from a statistical perspective. A set of procedures based on the high degree of inter-channel correlation structure often present in such hyper-spectral data, has been identified and applied to an example data set of dimension 100 x 128 x 128 comprising 128 spectral bands. It is shown that in this case, the special eigen-structure of the correlation matrix has allowed the authors to extract just a few linear combinations of the channels (the significant principal vectors) that effectively contain almost all of the spectral information contained in the data set analyzed. This in turn, enables them to segment the objects in the given spatial frame using, in a parsimonious yet highly effective way, most of the information contained in the data set.

  20. Passive Steganalysis Based on Higher Order Image Statistics of Curvelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Geetha; Siva S.Sivatha Sindhu; N.Kamaraj

    2010-01-01

    Steganographic techniques accomplish covert communication by embedding secret messages into innocuous digital images in ways that are imperceptible to the human eye.This paper presents a novel passive steganalysis strategy in which the task is approached as a pattern classification problem.A critical part of the steganalyser design depends on the selection of informative features.This paper is aimed at proposing a novel attack with improved performance indices with the following implications: 1)employing higher order statistics from a curvelet sub-band image representation that offers better discrimination ability for detecting stego anomalies in images,as compared to other conventional wavelet transforms;2)increasing the sensitivity and specificity of the system by the feature reduction phase;3)realizing the system using an efficient classification engine,a neuro-C4.5 classifier,which provides better classification rate.An extensive experimental evaluation on a database containing 5600 clean and stego images shows that the proposed scheme is a state-of-the-art steganalyser that outperforms other previous steganalytic methods.

  1. Photo-induced transformations of mercury(II) species in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Lin, E-mail: dlwhu@163.com [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Fu Dafang [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-05-30

    The effects of algae (i.e., Chlorella vulgaris), Fe(III), humic substances, and pH on the photoreduction of Hg(II) under the irradiation of metal halide lamps ({lambda} {>=} 365 nm, 250 W) were investigated in this paper. The photoreduction rate of Hg(II) was found to increase with the increasing concentration of algae, Fe(III), and humic substances. The cooperation action of Fe(III) and humic substances accelerated the photoreduction of Hg(II). When the initial concentration of Hg(II) was in the range of 0.0-200.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} with initial algae concentrations 7.0 x 10{sup 9} cells L{sup -1} at pH 7.0, the initial photoreduction rate of Hg(II) could be expressed by the equation: -dC{sub Hg(II)}/dt = 0.65 x [C{sub Hg(II)}]{sup 0.39} with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9912. The study on the photochemical process in terms of total mercury mass balance revealed that more than 40.86% of Hg(II) from the algal suspension was reduced to volatile metallic mercury. This paper discussed the photoreduction mechanism of Hg(II) in the presence of algae. This research will provide information for predicting the photoreduction of Hg(II) in the real environment. It will be helpful for understanding the photochemical transformation of Hg(II) and the formation of DGM in natural water in the presence of algae complexes. It will also be helpful for providing new methods to deal with heavy metal pollution.

  2. Cu(II)-catalyzed transformation of benzylpenicillin revisited: the overlooked oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiabin; Sun, Peizhe; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-04-07

    Penicillins, a class of widely used β-lactam antibiotics, are known to be susceptible to catalyzed hydrolysis by metal ions such as Cu(II). However, new results in this study strongly indicate that the role of Cu(II) is not merely a hydrolysis catalyst but also an oxidant. When benzylpenicillin (i.e., penicillin G (PG)) was exposed to Cu(II) ion at an equal molar ratio and pH 7, degradation of PG occurred rapidly in the oxygen-rich solution but gradually slowed down to a halt in the oxygen-limited solution. In-depth studies revealed that Cu(II) catalyzed hydrolysis of PG to benzylpenicilloic acid (PA) and oxidized PA to yield phenylacetamide and other products. The availability of oxygen played the role in reoxidizing Cu(I) back to Cu(II), which sustained fast degradation of PG over time. The overall reaction was also influenced by pH, with Cu(II)-catalyzed hydrolysis of PG occurring throughout pH 5, 7 and 9, while Cu(II) oxidation of PA occurring at pH 7 and 9. Note that the potential of Cu(II) to oxidize penicillins was largely overlooked in the previous literature, and catalyzed hydrolysis was frequently assumed as the only reaction. This study is among the first to identify the dual roles of Cu(II) in the entire degradation process of PG and systematically investigate the overlooked oxidation reaction to elucidate the mechanism. The new mechanistic knowledge has important implications for many other β-lactam antibiotics for their interactions with Cu(II), and significantly improves the ability to predict the environmental fate and transformation products of PG and related penicillins in systems where Cu(II) species are also present.

  3. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  4. Objective scoring of transformed foci in BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay by statistical image descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Urani, Chiara; Corvi, Raffaella; CALLEGARO G.; Stefanini, Federico Mattia

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell transformation assays (CTAs) have been shown to model important stages of in vivo carcinogenesis and have the potential to predict carcinogenicity in humans. Advantages of CTAs are their ability of revealing both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens while reducing both experimental costs and the number of animals used. The endpoint of the CTA is foci formation, and requires classification under light microscopy based on morphology. Thus current limitations for the wide ado...

  5. The transformation of ordinal scale for parametric statistic analysis on dental health questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Hapsoro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Questioner Measurement is very customize, it means that researchers make very individual based on the aim of the research. Frequently, the results of questioner measurements are numeric rank and index or both of them. Numeric rank and index are categorical data. Beside of validity and reliability problems, they have analytical problems as well. So, they need transformation to scale type (ratio, interval data in order to minimize their problems. Purpose: This article reviews the effectiveness of two type data transformation in dental health research measurement. reviews: There are two type data transformations, i.e. interval equivalency and sum of rating transformation method. Conclusion: Interval equivalency transformation method is more effective for the data come from index, and sum of rating transformation method is more effective for the data come from numeric rank.

  6. [Functional analysis of transforming growth factor-beta type II dominant negative receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, M

    1996-06-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional homodimeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 25 KDa. TGF-beta transduces signals by forming heteromeric complexes of their type-I (T beta R-I) and type-II (T beta R-II) serin/threonine kinase receptors. TGF-beta binds first to T beta R-II receptor, and then the ligand in this complex is recognized by T beta R-I, resulting in formation of a heteromeric receptor complex composed of T beta R-I and T beta R-II. Once received, T beta R-I becomes phosphorylated in the GS domain by the associated constitutively active T beta R-II and transmits the downstream signal. It has been reported that formation of the heteromeric complex is indispensible at least in epithelial cells for growth inhibition and extracellular matrix production induced by TGF-beta. In this study, the functional role of T beta R-II for the TGF-beta-induced signals in osteoblastic cells was investigated by using a dominant negative type of T beta R-II mutant receptors (T beta RIIDNR). ROS 17/2.8 and MG 63 cells were found to express T beta R-I, T beta R-II, and T beta R-III, and their cell growth was inhibited by TGF-beta, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity was stimulated. Cells that were stably transfected with the T beta RIIDNR plasmid showed decreased response to TGF-beta during growth and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results indicate that the intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain of T beta R-II is essential for signal transduction of the TGF-beta-induced alkaline phosphatase activity as well as growth inhibition.

  7. Islamic Educational Transformation through Inmate Social Interaction at Palu Correctional Facility Class II A, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.

  8. Fukunaga-Koontz feature transformation for statistical structural damage detection and hierarchical neuro-fuzzy damage localisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Considering jointly damage sensitive features (DSFs) of signals recorded by multiple sensors, applying advanced transformations to these DSFs and assessing systematically their contribution to damage detectability and localisation can significantly enhance the performance of structural health monitoring systems. This philosophy is explored here for partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) of acceleration responses. They are interrogated with the help of the linear discriminant analysis based on the Fukunaga-Koontz transformation using datasets of the healthy and selected reference damage states. Then, a simple but efficient fast forward selection procedure is applied to rank the DSF components with respect to statistical distance measures specialised for either damage detection or localisation. For the damage detection task, the optimal feature subsets are identified based on the statistical hypothesis testing. For damage localisation, a hierarchical neuro-fuzzy tool is developed that uses the DSF ranking to establish its own optimal architecture. The proposed approaches are evaluated experimentally on data from non-destructively simulated damage in a laboratory scale wind turbine blade. The results support our claim of being able to enhance damage detectability and localisation performance by transforming and optimally selecting DSFs. It is demonstrated that the optimally selected PACCs from multiple sensors or their Fukunaga-Koontz transformed versions can not only improve the detectability of damage via statistical hypothesis testing but also increase the accuracy of damage localisation when used as inputs into a hierarchical neuro-fuzzy network. Furthermore, the computational effort of employing these advanced soft computing models for damage localisation can be significantly reduced by using transformed DSFs.

  9. Applications of squeezed states: Bogoliubov transformations and wavelets to the statistical mechanics of water and its bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defacio, Brian; Kim, S.-H.; Vannevel, A.

    1994-01-01

    The squeezed states or Bogoliubov transformations and wavelets are applied to two problems in nonrelativistic statistical mechanics: the dielectric response of liquid water, epsilon(q-vector,w), and the bubble formation in water during insonnification. The wavelets are special phase-space windows which cover the domain and range of L(exp 1) intersection of L(exp 2) of classical causal, finite energy solutions. The multiresolution of discrete wavelets in phase space gives a decomposition into regions of time and scales of frequency thereby allowing the renormalization group to be applied to new systems in addition to the tired 'usual suspects' of the Ising models and lattice gasses. The Bogoliubov transformation: squeeze transformation is applied to the dipolaron collective mode in water and to the gas produced by the explosive cavitation process in bubble formation.

  10. A novel statistical fusion rule for image fusion and its comparison in non subsampled contourlet transform domain and wavelet domain

    OpenAIRE

    Manu V T; Philomina Simon

    2012-01-01

    Image fusion produces a single fused image from a set of input images. A new method for image fusion is proposed based on Weighted Average Merging Method (WAMM) in the Non Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain. A performance analysis on various statistical fusion rules are also analysed both in NSCT and Wavelet domain. Analysis has been made on medical images, remote sensing images and multi focus images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method, WAMM obtained better resu...

  11. Hyperfine structure constants for singly ionized manganese (Mn II) using Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley-Smith, Keeley; Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    We expand on the comprehensive study of hyperfine structure (HFS) in Mn II conducted by Holt et al. (1999) by verifying hyperfine magnetic dipole constants (A) for 20 levels previously measured by Holt et al. (1999) and deriving A constants for 47 previously unstudied levels. The HFS patterns were measured in archival spectra from Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at Imperial College London and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Analysis of the FT spectra was carried out in XGREMLIN. Our A constant for the ground level has a lower uncertainty by a factor of 6 than that of Blackwell-Whitehead et al.

  12. Circular serendipity: in situ ligand transformation for the self-assembly of an hexadecametallic [Cu(II)16] wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Andreas K; Katsenis, Athanassios D; Frost, Jamie M; Kessler, Vadim G; Brechin, Euan K; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S

    2014-12-11

    A [Cu(II)16] wheel was isolated serendipitously from the reaction of acetylacetone dioxime with copper(ii) chloride and lanthanide ions in a reaction initially designed to produce heterometallic 3d-4f cages. The ligand has been transformed in situ to three different forms, all found within the [Cu16] wheel, with the original ligand completely absent.

  13. Statistical Models and Inference for the True Equating Transformation in the Context of Local Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, B. Jorge; von Davier, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Based on Lord's criterion of equity of equating, van der Linden (this issue) revisits the so-called local equating method and offers alternative as well as new thoughts on several topics including the types of transformations, symmetry, reliability, and population invariance appropriate for equating. A remarkable aspect is to define equating…

  14. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias M.; Worseck, Gabor; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Crighton, Neil H. M.

    2017-09-01

    The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii {Ly}α transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of quasar-driven He ii reionization. We conduct a comprehensive spectroscopic survey to find z∼ 3 quasars in the foreground of 22 background quasar sightlines with Hubble Space Telescope/COS He ii {Ly}α transmission spectra. With our two-tiered survey strategy, consisting of a deep pencil-beam survey and a shallow wide-field survey, we discover 131 new quasars, which we complement with known SDSS/BOSS quasars in our fields. Using a restricted sample of 66 foreground quasars with inferred He ii photoionization rates greater than the expected UV background at these redshifts ({{{Γ }}}{QSO}{He {{II}}}> 5× {10}-16 {{{s}}}-1) we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Our results show qualitative evidence for a large object-to-object variance: among the four foreground quasars with the highest {{{Γ }}}{QSO}{He {{II}}} only one (previously known) quasar is associated with a significant He ii transmission spike. We perform a stacking analysis to average down these fluctuations, and detect an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on {{{Γ }}}{QSO}{He {{II}}}. Our detection places a purely geometrical lower limit on the quasar lifetime of {t}{{Q}}> 25 {Myr}. Improved modeling would additionally constrain quasar obscuration and the mean free path of He ii-ionizing photons.

  15. [Selection of a statistical model for the evaluation of the reliability of the results of toxicological analyses. II. Selection of our statistical model for the evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, K; Wilczyńska, U

    1980-01-01

    Part II presents a statistical model devised by the authors for evaluating toxicological analyses results. The model includes: 1. Establishment of a reference value, basing on our own measurements taken by two independent analytical methods. 2. Selection of laboratories -- basing on the deviation of the obtained values from reference ones. 3. On consideration of variance analysis, t-student's test and differences test, subsequent quality controls and particular laboratories have been evaluated.

  16. Transforming a Business Statistics Course with Just-in-Time Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Joann

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes changing the way a business statistics course is taught through the use of just-in-time teaching methods. Implementing this method allowed for more time in the class to be spent focused on problem solving, resulting in students being able to handle more difficult problems. Students' perceptions of the just-in-time assignments…

  17. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  18. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  19. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  20. A novel statistical fusion rule for image fusion and its comparison in non subsampled contourlet transform domain and wavelet domain

    CERN Document Server

    T, Manu V

    2012-01-01

    Image fusion produces a single fused image from a set of input images. A new method for image fusion is proposed based on Weighted Average Merging Method (WAMM) in the NonSubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain. A performance analysis on various statistical fusion rules are also analysed both in NSCT and Wavelet domain. Analysis has been made on medical images, remote sensing images and multi focus images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method, WAMM obtained better results in NSCT domain than the wavelet domain as it preserves more edges and keeps the visual quality intact in the fused image.

  1. Transformation of statistical and spectral wave periods crossing a smooth low-crested structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Carevic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out experimental studies of a smooth submerged breakwater in a wave channel in order to study such a structure impacts on thechanges of statistically and spectrally defined representative wave periods as waves cross it. We discuss the impact of relative submersion, i.e.the relationship between the breakwater crown submersion and the incoming significant wave length Rc / Ls-i, on the representative wave periods.The mean periods, estimated using statistical and spectral methods, were compared in front of and behind the breakwater: the two periods turned out to beidentical. Based on the measurements of the spectral mean wave periods in front of and behind the breakwater, an empirical model is derived for estimating the reduction in mean spectral period for submerged and emerged smooth breakwaters.

  2. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  3. Exploring the Statistical Derivation of Transformational Rule Sequences for Part-of-Speech Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Ramshaw, L A; Ramshaw, Lance A.; Marcus, Mitchell P.

    1994-01-01

    Eric Brill has recently proposed a simple and powerful corpus-based language modeling approach that can be applied to various tasks including part-of-speech tagging and building phrase structure trees. The method learns a series of symbolic transformational rules, which can then be applied in sequence to a test corpus to produce predictions. The learning process only requires counting matches for a given set of rule templates, allowing the method to survey a very large space of possible contextual factors. This paper analyses Brill's approach as an interesting variation on existing decision tree methods, based on experiments involving part-of-speech tagging for both English and ancient Greek corpora. In particular, the analysis throws light on why the new mechanism seems surprisingly resistant to overtraining. A fast, incremental implementation and a mechanism for recording the dependencies that underlie the resulting rule sequence are also described.

  4. Efficient local statistical analysis via integral histograms with discrete wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Histograms computed from local regions are commonly used in many visualization applications, and allowing the user to query histograms interactively in regions of arbitrary locations and sizes plays an important role in feature identification and tracking. Computing histograms in regions with arbitrary location and size, nevertheless, can be time consuming for large data sets since it involves expensive I/O and scan of data elements. To achieve both performance- and storage-efficient query of local histograms, we present a new algorithm called WaveletSAT, which utilizes integral histograms, an extension of the summed area tables (SAT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Similar to SAT, an integral histogram is the histogram computed from the area between each grid point and the grid origin, which can be be pre-computed to support fast query. Nevertheless, because one histogram contains multiple bins, it will be very expensive to store one integral histogram at each grid point. To reduce the storage cost for large integral histograms, WaveletSAT treats the integral histograms of all grid points as multiple SATs, each of which can be converted into a sparse representation via DWT, allowing the reconstruction of axis-aligned region histograms of arbitrary sizes from a limited number of wavelet coefficients. Besides, we present an efficient wavelet transform algorithm for SATs that can operate on each grid point separately in logarithmic time complexity, which can be extended to parallel GPU-based implementation. With theoretical and empirical demonstration, we show that WaveletSAT can achieve fast preprocessing and smaller storage overhead than the conventional integral histogram approach with close query performance.

  5. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  6. Circular dichroism spectroscopy study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in chiral platinum(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Jin-Cheng; Li, Cheng-Hui; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Two couples of enantiomeric platinum(II) complexes: Pt(L1a )Cl (1a), Pt(L1b )Cl (1b) and Pt(L1a )(C ≡ C - Ph) (2a), Pt(L1b )(C ≡ C - Ph) (2b) (L1a  = (+)-1,3-di-(2-(4,5-pinene)pyridyl)benzene, L1b  = (-)-1,3-di-(2-(4,5-pinene)pyridyl)benzene) were synthesized and characterized. Their absolute configurations were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and further verified by circular dichroism (CD) spectra (including electronic circular dichroism [ECD] and vibrational circular dichroism [VCD]). These complexes show interesting mechanoluminescence and/or vapoluminescence due to crystalline-to-amorphous transformation. The crystalline solids, grinding-induced amorphous powders, and vapor-induced amorphous powders of complexes 2a and 2b were comparatively investigated by solid-state ECD and VCD spectra. The transformation from crystalline solids to amorphous powders was accompanied by significant variances of the spectral feature in both ECD and VCD spectra. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Type-II super-Bäcklund transformation and integrable defects for the N=1 super sinh-Gordon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, A.R.; Gomes, J.F.; Spano, N.I.; Zimerman, A.H. [Instituto de Física Teórica - IFT/UNESP,Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271, Bloco II, 01140-070, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-06-18

    A new super-Bäcklund transformation for the N=1 supersymmetric sinh-Gordon equation is constructed. Based on this construction we propose a type-II integrable defect for the supersymmetric sinh-Gordon model consistent with this new transformation through the Lagrangian formalism. Explicit expressions for the modified conserved energy, momentum and supercharges are also computed. In addition, we show for the model that the type-II defect can also been regarded as a pair of fused defects of a previously introduced type. The explicit derivation of the associated defect matrices is also presented as a necessary condition for the integrability of the model.

  8. Type-II super-Backlund transformation and integrable defects for the N=1 super sinh-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A R; Spano, N I; Zimerman, A H

    2015-01-01

    A new super-Backlund transformation for the N=1 supersymmetric sinh-Gordon equation is constructed. Based on this construction we propose a type-II integrable defect for the supersymmetric sinh-Gordon model consistent with this new transformation through the Lagrangian formalism. Explicit expressions for the modified conserved energy, momentum and supercharges are also computed. In addition, we show for the model that the type-II defect can also been regarded as a pair of fused defects of a previously introduced type. The explicit derivation of the associated defect matrices is also presented as a necessary condition for the integrability of the model.

  9. Type-II super-Bäcklund transformation and integrable defects for the N = 1 super sinh-Gordon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A. R.; Gomes, J. F.; Spano, N. I.; Zimerman, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    A new super-Bäcklund transformation for the N = 1 supersymmetric sinhGordon equation is constructed. Based on this construction we propose a type-II integrable defect for the supersymmetric sinh-Gordon model consistent with this new transformation through the Lagrangian formalism. Explicit expressions for the modified conserved energy, momentum and supercharges are also computed. In addition, we show for the model that the type-II defect can also been regarded as a pair of fused defects of a previously introduced type. The explicit derivation of the associated defect matrices is also presented as a necessary condition for the integrability of the model.

  10. Metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation as a way of forming novel Ni(II)- and Cu(II)-salicylaldimine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Yun; Tsai, Chi-Jou; Chang, Ching-Yun; Wu, Yung-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    A Zn(II)-salicylaldimine complex [Zn(Lsalpyca)(H2O)]n (1, where H2Lsalpyca=4-hydroxy-3-(((pyridin-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)benzoic acid), with a one-dimensional (1D) chain structure, has been successfully converted to a discrete Ni(II)-salicylaldimine complex [Ni(Lsalpyca)(H2O)3] (2) and an infinite Cu(II)-salicylaldimine complex {[Cu(Lsalpyca)]·3H2O}n (3) through a metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation process. However, such processes do not worked by Mn(II) and Co(II) ions. Solid-state structure analyses reveal that complexes 1-3 form comparable coordinative or supramolecular zigzag chains running along the crystallographic [201] direction. In addition, replacing Zn(II) ion by Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions caused changes in coordination environment and sphere of metal centers, from a 5-coordinate intermediate geometry of square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal in 1 to a 6-coordinate octahedral geometry in 2, and to a 4-coordiante square planar geometry in 3. This study shows that metal-ion exchange serves as a very efficient way of forming new coordination complexes that may not be obtained through direct synthesis.

  11. Role of adsorbed arsenic and structural aluminum on Fe(II) retention and transformation of ferrihydrite (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Masue-Slowey, Y.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    Arsenic is a wide-spread toxin contaminating water from both natural (as in the case of South and Southeast Asia) and anthropogenic sources. Its high affinity for soil solids helps to regulate the deleterious impacts of this toxic element on ecosystem and human health. Iron (hydr)oxides are of particular importance in controlling dissolved concentrations of arsenic, making the behavior of these substrates crucial to understanding the transport and ultimate fate of arsenic. Ferrihydrite is one of the most active forms of Fe (hydr)oxides, and aluminum-substituted ferrihydrite is a common form of this phase in soils and sediment. Sorption of Fe(II) catalyzes the transformation of the thermodynamically unstable ferrihydrite to more thermodynamically stable Fe (hydr)oxides. Although the process of ferrihydrite transformation has been extensively studied, the role of structural aluminum and adsorbed arsenic on the Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of ferrihydrite is unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare how ferrihydrite and aluminum-substituted ferrihydrite differ in their retention of Fe(II) and the resulting transformation rates and products in the presence and absence of arsenic. Sand coated with ferrihydrite and aluminum-ferrihydrite (with and without adsorbed arsenic) was packed into columns and flow of circumneutral groundwater solution containing 0.2 to 4 mM Fe(II) was initiated. Breakthrough of Fe(II) was monitored using the ferrozine colorimetric assay to determine Fe(II) retention in the solid phase. The solid phase was characterized using Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Structural aluminum limits Fe(II) sorption, and, as a consequence, the extent of the aluminum-substituted ferrihydrite transformation is much less than that of ferrihydrite. Adsorbed As further decreases Fe(II) retention on aluminum-ferrihydrite. In contrast, Fe(II) retention on ferrihydrite is enhanced in the presence of arsenic due

  12. Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Mimicking as Left Subclavian Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor II Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rana O; Dhillon, Baltej Singh; Sandhu, Harleen K; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Estrera, Anthony L; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We report successful endovascular repair of a left vertebral artery aneurysm in a patient with transforming growth factor beta receptor II mutation. The patient was initially diagnosed with a left subclavian artery aneurysm on computed tomography angiography. The patient consented to publication of this report.

  13. Research methodology in dentistry: Part II - The relevance of statistics in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogikalmat Krithikadatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifeline of original research depends on adept statistical analysis. However, there have been reports of statistical misconduct in studies that could arise from the inadequate understanding of the fundamental of statistics. There have been several reports on this across medical and dental literature. This article aims at encouraging the reader to approach statistics from its logic rather than its theoretical perspective. The article also provides information on statistical misuse in the Journal of Conservative Dentistry between the years 2008 and 2011

  14. Water- and Temperature-Triggered Reversible Structural Transformation of Tetranuclear Cobalt(II) Cores Sandwiched by Polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Yosuke; Kikukawa, Yuji; Suzuki, Kosuke; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2016-03-14

    Although stimuli-responsive structural transformations of inorganic materials have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use as functional switchable materials, multinuclear metal cores frequently suffer from unexpected dissociation of metal cations and/or irreversible transformations into infinite structures. In this study, we describe the successful demonstration of the water- and temperature-triggered reversible structural transformation between cubane- and planar-type tetranuclear Co(II) cores sandwiched by polyoxometalates. The arrangements and coordination geometries of the Co(II) cations were interconverted by simple hydration and dehydration, resulting in the manipulation of the magnetic and optical properties of these compounds. Moreover, this system showed unique thermochromism through temperature-dependent reversible structural interconversion.

  15. Coupling of Fe(II) oxidation in illite with nitrate reduction and its role in clay mineral transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linduo; Dong, Hailiang; Edelmann, Richard E.; Zeng, Qiang; Agrawal, Abinash

    2017-03-01

    In pedogenic and diagenetic processes, clay minerals transform from pre-existing phases to other clay minerals via intermediate interstratified clays. Temperature, pressure, chemical composition of fluids, and time are traditionally considered to be the important geological variables for clay mineral transformations. Nearly ten years ago, the role of microbes was recognized for the first time, where microbial reduction of structural Fe(III) in smectite resulted in formation of illite under ambient conditions within two weeks. However, the opposite process, the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in illite has not been studied and it remains unclear whether or not this process would result in the back reaction, e.g., from illite to smectite. The overall objective of this study was to investigate biological oxidation of structural Fe(II) in illite coupled with nitrate reduction and the effect of this process on clay mineral transformation. Laboratory incubations were set up, where structural Fe(II) in illite served as electron donor, nitrate as electron acceptor, and Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002 as mediator. Solution chemistry and gas composition were monitored over time. Mineralogical transformation resulting from bio-oxidation was characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Our results demonstrated that strain 2002 was able to couple oxidation of structural Fe(II) in illite with reduction of nitrate to N2 with nitrite as a transient intermediate. This oxidation reaction resulted in transformation of illite to smectite and ultimately to kaolinite (illite → smectite → kaolinite transformations). This study illustrates the importance of Fe redox process in mediating the smectite-illite mineral cycle with important implications for Fe redox cycling and mineral evolution in surficial earth environments.

  16. Process technological effects of deletion and amplification of hydrophobins I and II in transformants of Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M J; Askolin, S; Hörhammer, N; Tenkanen, M; Linder, M; Penttilä, M; Nakari-Setälä, T

    2002-05-01

    Transformants of the Trichoderma reeseistrains QM9414 and Rut-C30 were constructed in which the genes for the two major hydrophobin proteins, hydrophobins I (HFBI) and II (HFBII), were deleted or amplified by molecular biological techniques. Growth parameters and foam production of the transformant strains were compared with the corresponding properties of the parent strains by cultivation in laboratory bioreactors under conditions of catabolite repression (glucose medium) or induction of cellulolytic enzymes and other secondary metabolites (cellulose and lactose media). All the transformed strains exhibited vegetative growth properties similar to those of their parent. The Delta hfb2 (but not the Delta hfb1) transformant showed reduced tendency to foam, whereas both strains overproducing hydrophobins foamed extensively, particularly in the case of HFBII. Enzyme production on cellulose medium was unaltered in the Delta hfb2 transformant VTT D-99676, but both the Delta hfb2 and HFBII-overproducing transformants exhibited somewhat decreased enzyme production properties on lactose medium. Production of HFBI by the multi-copy transformant VTT D-98692 was almost 3-fold that of the parent strain QM9414. Overproduction of HFBII by the transformant VTT D-99745, obtained by transformation with three additional copies of the hfb2 gene under the cbh1 promoter, was over 5-fold compared to production by the parent strain Rut-C30. The Delta hfb2transformant VTT D-99676 produced a greatly increased number of spores on lactose medium compared with the parent strain, whereas the HFBII-overproducing transformant VTT D-99745 produced fewer spores.

  17. Selecting Statistical Characteristics of Brain Signals to Detect Epileptic Seizures using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Perceptron Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Abbasi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram signals (EEG have always been used in medical diagnosis. Evaluation of the statistical characteristics of EEG signals is actually the foundation of all brain signal processing methods. Since the correct prediction of disease status is of utmost importance, the goal is to use those models that have minimum error and maximum reliability. In anautomatic epileptic seizure detection system, we should be able to distinguish between EEG signals before, during and after seizure. Extracting useful characteristics from EEG data can greatly increase the classification accuracy. In this new approach, we first parse EEG signals to sub-bands in different categories with the help of discrete wavelet transform(DWT and then we derive statistical characteristics such as maximum, minimum, average and standard deviation for each sub-band. A multilayer perceptron (MLPneural network was used to assess the different scenarios of healthy and seizure among the collected signal sets. In order to assess the success and effectiveness of the proposed method, the confusion matrix was used and its accuracy was achieved98.33 percent. Due to the limitations and obstacles in analyzing EEG signals, the proposed method can greatly help professionals experimentally and visually in the classification and diagnosis of epileptic seizures.

  18. Radiative transfer meets Bayesian statistics: where does a galaxy's [C II] emission come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, G.; Saintonge, A.; Bisbas, T. G.; Viti, S.

    2017-01-01

    The [C II] 158 μm emission line can arise in all phases of the interstellar medium (ISM), therefore being able to disentangle the different contributions is an important yet unresolved problem when undertaking galaxy-wide, integrated [C II] observations. We present a new multiphase 3D radiative transfer interface that couples STARBURST99, a stellar spectrophotometric code, with the photoionization and astrochemistry codes MOCASSIN and 3D-PDR. We model entire star-forming regions, including the ionized, atomic, and molecular phases of the ISM, and apply a Bayesian inference methodology to parametrize how the fraction of the [C II] emission originating from molecular regions, f_{[C II],mol}, varies as a function of typical integrated properties of galaxies in the local Universe. The main parameters responsible for the variations of f_{[C II],mol} are specific star formation rate (SSFR), gas phase metallicity, H II region electron number density (ne), and dust mass fraction. For example, f_{[C II],mol} can increase from 60 to 80 per cent when either ne increases from 101.5 to 102.5 cm-3, or SSFR decreases from 10-9.6 to 10-10.6 yr-1. Our model predicts for the Milky Way that f_{[C II],mol} = 75.8 ± 5.9 per cent, in agreement with the measured value of 75 per cent. When applying the new prescription to a complete sample of galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey, we find that anywhere from 60 to 80 per cent of the total integrated [C II] emission arises from molecular regions.

  19. Monitoring of cobalt(II) uptake and transformation in cells of the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense using emission Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, Alexander A; Antonyuk, Lyudmila P; Kulikov, Leonid A; Perfiliev, Yury D

    2004-08-01

    Interaction of cobalt(II) at micromolar concentrations with live cells of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (strain Sp245) and further transformations of the metal cation were monitored using 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopy (EMS). Cell suspensions of the bacterial culture (2.4 x 10(8) cells ml(-1)) were doped with radioactive 57CoCl2 (1 mCi; final concentration 2 x 10(-6) M 57Co2+), kept under physiological conditions for various periods of time (from 2 min up to 1 hour) and then rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen. Analysis of emission Mössbauer spectra of the frozen aqueous suspensions of the bacterial cell samples shows that the primary absorption of cobalt(II) at micromolar concentrations by the bacterial cells is rapid and virtually complete, giving at least two major forms of cobalt(II) species bound to the cells. Within an hour, the metal is involved in further metabolic transformations reflected by changes occurring in the spectra. The Mössbauer parameters calculated from the EMS data by statistical treatment were different for suspensions of live and dead (thermally killed) bacterial cells that had been in contact with 57Co2+ for 1 h, as well as for the cell-free culture medium containing the same concentration of 57Co2+. Chemical after-effects of the nuclear transition (57Co --> 5 7Fe), which provide additional information on the chemical environment of metal ions, are also considered. The data presented demonstrate that EMS is a valuable tool for monitoring the chemical state of cobalt species in biological matter providing information at the atomic level in the course of its uptake and/or metabolic transformations.

  20. Overview of EDSP Tier II Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay histopathology and statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    These presentations are meant to provide expert pathologists and statisticians with background information on the Tier II LAGDA design. Expert pathologists at this workshop are charged with providing guidance on histopathology considerations unique to the LAGDA. Expert statisti...

  1. Method for Caution Values Calculation of Dissolved Gases in Transformers Based on Statistical Distribution and Correlation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuelei; LI Qingmin; LI Chengrong; YANG Rui; GAO Shuguo

    2013-01-01

    Before diagnosed by DGA (dissolved gas analysis) methods,gas caution values,which index the level of gas formation,must be used to evaluate the possibility of incipient faults to reduce the misdiagnosis in the normal state.However,the calculation of these values is now only based on cumulative percentile method without taking into account operating conditions.To overcome this disadvantage,a new approach to calculate the transformer caution values is presented.This approach is based on statistical distribution and correlation analysis,and it takes the individual variation and fluctuation caused by intemal and external factors into consideration.Then 6550 transformer DGA data collected from North China Power Grid are analyzed in this paper.The results show that the volume fraction of TH (total hydrocarbon)approximately obeys normal distribution when the 3-sigma rule is used to calculate its caution value.The volume fraction of CO has a strong positive correlation with oil temperature.For H2,the negative correlation with oil temperature is significant when the volume fraction is not very low.The caution value curves for CO and H2 are obtained by regression analyses.Thus,the gas caution values/curves obtained using the new method are not always constant,but vary with oil temperature,which is an advantage of the proposed method compared with cumulative percentile method.The variation of gas caution values/curves also reflects the influence of the external factors,for instance,varying with monitoring time ensures that the gas caution values are always consistent with operating status.

  2. Statistical equilibrium in cometary C2. II - Swan/Phillips band ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Odell, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical equilibrium calculations have been made for both the triplet and ground state singlets for C2 in comets, using the exchange rate as a free parameter. The predictions of the results are consistent with optical observations and may be tested definitively by accurate observations of the Phillips and Swan band ratios. Comparison with the one reported observation indicates compatibility with a low exchange rate and resonance fluorescence statistical equilibrium.

  3. Optimization of Pb(II) biosorption by Robinia tree leaves using statistical design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Shahmoradi, Ali; Sangi, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-30

    The present study introduces Robinia tree leaves as a novel and efficient biosorbent for removing Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. In order to reduce the large number of experiments and find the highest removal efficiency of Pb(II), a set of full 2(3) factorial design with two blocks were performed in duplicate (16 experiments). In all experiments, the contact time was fixed at 25 min. The main interaction effects of the three factors including sorbent mass, pH and initial concentration of metal-ion were considered. By using Student's t-test and analysis of variances (ANOVA), the main factors, which had the highest effect on the removal process, were identified. Twenty-six experiments were designed according to Doehlert response surface design to obtain a mathematical model describing functional relationship between response and main independent variables. The most suitable regression model, that fitted the experimental data extremely well, was chosen according to the lack-of-fit-test and adjusted R(2) value. Finally, after checking for possible outliers, the optimum conditions for maximum removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution were obtained. The best conditions were calculated to be as: initial concentration of Pb(II)=40 mg L(-1), pH 4.6 and concentration of sorbet equal to 27.3 g L(-1).

  4. Feature extraction by statistical contact potentials and wavelet transform for predicting subcellular localizations in gram negative bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Argoty, G A; Jaramillo-Garzón, J A; Castellanos-Domínguez, G

    2015-01-07

    Predicting the localization of a protein has become a useful practice for inferring its function. Most of the reported methods to predict subcellular localizations in Gram-negative bacterial proteins make use of standard protein representations that generally do not take into account the distribution of the amino acids and the structural information of the proteins. Here, we propose a protein representation based on the structural information contained in the pairwise statistical contact potentials. The wavelet transform decodes the information contained in the primary structure of the proteins, allowing the identification of patterns along the proteins, which are used to characterize the subcellular localizations. Then, a support vector machine classifier is trained to categorize them. Cellular compartments like periplasm and extracellular medium are difficult to predict, having a high false negative rate. The wavelet-based method achieves an overall high performance while maintaining a low false negative rate, particularly, on "periplasm" and "extracellular medium". Our results suggest the proposed protein characterization is a useful alternative to representing and predicting protein sequences over the classical and cutting edge protein depictions.

  5. Exploring the statistical and clinical impact of two interim analyses on the Phase II design with option for direct assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Edelman, Martin J; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of Phase II clinical trials is to understand better a treatment's safety and efficacy to inform a Phase III go/no-go decision. Many Phase II designs have been proposed, incorporating randomization, interim analyses, adaptation, and patient selection. The Phase II design with an option for direct assignment (i.e. stop randomization and assign all patients to the experimental arm based on a single interim analysis (IA) at 50% accrual) was recently proposed [An et al., 2012]. We discuss this design in the context of existing designs, and extend it from a single-IA to a two-IA design. We compared the statistical properties and clinical relevance of the direct assignment design with two IA (DAD-2) versus a balanced randomized design with two IA (BRD-2) and a direct assignment design with one IA (DAD-1), over a range of response rate ratios (2.0-3.0). The DAD-2 has minimal loss in power (assignment design, especially with two IA, provides a middle ground with desirable statistical properties and likely appeal to both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the multiplicity distribution in statistical model: (II) most central collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    This work is a continuation of our effort [arXiv:1602.06378] to investigate the statistical expectations for cumulants of (net-conserved) charge distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions, by using a simple but quantitatively more realistic geometric model, i.e. optical Glauber model. We suggest a new approach for centrality definition in studying of multiplicity fluctuations, which aim at eliminating the uncertainties between experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, as well as redoubling the statistics. We find that the statistical expectations of multiplicity distribution mimic the negative binomial distribution at non-central collisions, but tend to approach the Poisson one at most central collisions due to the "boundary effect" from distribution of volume. We conclude that the collisional geometry (distribution of volume and its fluctuations) play a crucial role in studying of event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  7. A controllable gate effect in cobalt(II) organic frameworks by reversible structure transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Chang, Ze; Song, Wei-Chao; Song, Han; Song, Hai-Bin; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-10-25

    With H2 O or NH3 stimuli, the blue cobalt-based metal-organic framework (MOF) BP can reversibly transform to red RP. The removal/recovery of terephthalate ligands accompanied by the transformation leads to a gate effect, which allows the encapsulation and release of small solvent molecules under certain conditions. This is the first example of topology transformation from a self-penetrating to interpenetrating net in 3D MOFs.

  8. Chaos and universality in the dynamics of inflationary cosmologies. II. The role of nonextensive statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, H. P.; Damião Soares, I.; Tonini, E. V.

    2003-03-01

    We discuss universal statistical patterns in the chaotic dynamics of closed inflationary cosmologies, associated with the presence of a saddle-center critical point in the phase space of the models. We extend and complete the analysis made in a previous paper [H. P. de Oliveira, S. L. Sautu, I. Damião Soares, and E. V. Tonini, Phys. Rev. D 60, 121301 (1999)], including also other inflationary models. The statistical distribution connected to orbits that visit a neighborhood of the saddle center is shown to be in the realm of Tsallis nonextensive statistics that generalizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics for systems in which long-range interactions are present. The value of the entropic index q of the distribution function determines the dimension of the fractal basin boundaries in the ensemble of initial conditions, with respect to the code recollapse/escape into inflation. In a regime of high nonintegrability, this distribution is universal in the sense that it is scale invariant, independent of the parameters of the model and independent of the particular system where the saddle-center is present. Also it does not depend on the specific model where the saddle-center is present. The consequences for the physics of the early stages of inflation are discussed.

  9. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys - II. Analysis of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P; Marlow, D; Quast, R; Wilkinson, PN; Browne, IWA; Koopmans, LVE

    We present constraints on the cosmological constant lambda(0) from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this is the largest gravitational lens survey which has been analysed, cosmological constraints are only comparable to those from optical

  10. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation: analysis of two-point statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Tenneti, Ananth; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic alignment of galaxies with the large-scale density field is an important astrophysical contaminant in upcoming weak lensing surveys whilst offering insights into galaxy formation and evolution. We present detailed measurements of the galaxy intrinsic alignments and associated ellipticity-direction (ED) and projected shape ($w_{g+}$) correlation functions for galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamic MassiveBlack-II (MB-II) simulation. We carefully assess the effects on galaxy shapes, misalignments and two-point statistics of iterative weighted (by mass, luminosity, and color) definitions of the (reduced and unreduced) inertia tensor. We find that iterative procedures must be adopted for a reliable measurement of reduced tensor but that luminosity versus mass weighting has only negligible effects. Blue galaxies exhibit stronger misalignments and suppressed $w_{g+}$ amplitude. Both ED and $w_{g+}$ correlations increase in amplitude with subhalo mass (in the range of $10^{10} - 6.0\\times 10^{14}h^{...

  11. Characterization of statistical prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): II. Application to dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, Pascal Theriault; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-02-01

    The ionizing radiation imparted to patients during computed tomography exams is raising concerns. This paper studies the performance of a scheme called dose reduction using prior image constrained compressed sensing (DR-PICCS). The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of a statistical model of x-ray detection in the DR-PICCS framework and its impact on spatial resolution. Both numerical simulations with known ground truth and in vivo animal dataset were used in this study. In numerical simulations, a phantom was simulated with Poisson noise and with varying levels of eccentricity. Both the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and the PICCS algorithms were used to reconstruct images. In PICCS reconstructions, the prior image was generated using two different denoising methods: a simple Gaussian blur and a more advanced diffusion filter. Due to the lack of shift-invariance in nonlinear image reconstruction such as the one studied in this paper, the concept of local spatial resolution was used to study the sharpness of a reconstructed image. Specifically, a directional metric of image sharpness, the so-called pseudopoint spread function (pseudo-PSF), was employed to investigate local spatial resolution. In the numerical studies, the pseudo-PSF was reduced from twice the voxel width in the prior image down to less than 1.1 times the voxel width in DR-PICCS reconstructions when the statistical model was not included. At the same noise level, when statistical weighting was used, the pseudo-PSF width in DR-PICCS reconstructed images varied between 1.5 and 0.75 times the voxel width depending on the direction along which it was measured. However, this anisotropy was largely eliminated when the prior image was generated using diffusion filtering; the pseudo-PSF width was reduced to below one voxel width in that case. In the in vivo study, a fourfold improvement in CNR was achieved while qualitatively maintaining sharpness; images also had a

  12. Statistics of the derivatives of complex signal derived from Riesz transform and its application to pseudo-Stokes vector correlation for speckle displacement measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shun; Yang, Yi; Hanson, Steen Grüner;

    2015-01-01

    for the superiority of the proposed PSVC technique, we study the statistical properties of the spatial derivatives of the complex signal representation generated from the Riesz transform. Under the assumption of a Gaussian random process, a theoretical analysis for the pseudo Stokes vector correlation has been...

  13. A model of modulated diffusion. II. Numerical results on statistical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzani, A.; Siboni, S.; Turchetti, G. [dell`Universita Bologna (Italy)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    We investigate numerically the statistical properties of a model of modulated diffusion for which we have already computed analytically the diffusion coefficient D. Our model is constructed by adding a deterministic or random noise to the frequency of an integrable isochronous system. We consider in particular the central limit theorem and the invariance principle and we show that they follow whenever D is positive and for any magnitude of the noise; we also investigate the asymptotic distribution in a case when D=0.

  14. Studies in astronomical time series analysis. II - Statistical aspects of spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, J. D.

    1982-12-01

    Detection of a periodic signal hidden in noise is frequently a goal in astronomical data analysis. This paper does not introduce a new detection technique, but instead studies the reliability and efficiency of detection with the most commonly used technique, the periodogram, in the case where the observation times are unevenly spaced. This choice was made because, of the methods in current use, it appears to have the simplest statistical behavior. A modification of the classical definition of the periodogram is necessary in order to retain the simple statistical behavior of the evenly spaced case. With this modification, periodogram analysis and least-squares fitting of sine waves to the data are exactly equivalent. Certain difficulties with the use of the periodogram are less important than commonly believed in the case of detection of strictly periodic signals. In addition, the standard method for mitigating these difficulties (tapering) can be used just as well if the sampling is uneven. An analysis of the statistical significance of signal detections is presented, with examples

  15. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (II) Three-Baryon Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of an exploratory Lattice QCD calculation of three-baryon systems through a high-statistics study of one ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations with a pion mass of m_\\pi ~ 390 MeV. Because of the computational cost of the necessary contractions, we focus on correlation functions generated by interpolating-operators with the quantum numbers of the $\\Xi^0\\Xi^0 n$ system, one of the least demanding three baryon systems in terms of the number of contracti...

  16. Abiotic and microbial interactions during anaerobic transformations of Fe(II and NOx-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn ePicardal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial Fe(II oxidation using NO3- as the terminal electron acceptor (nitrate-dependent Fe(II oxidation; NDFO has been studied for over 15 years. Although there are reports of autotrophic isolates and stable enrichments, many of the bacteria capable of NDFO are known organotrophic NO3- -reducers that require the presence of an organic, primary substrate, e.g., acetate, for significant amounts of Fe(II oxidation. Although the thermodynamics of Fe(II oxidation are favorable when coupled to either NO3- or NO2- reduction, the kinetics of abiotic Fe(II oxidation by NO3- are relatively slow except under special conditions. NDFO is typically studied in batch cultures containing millimolar concentrations of Fe(II, NO3-, and the primary substrate. In such systems, NO2- is often observed to accumulate in culture media during Fe(II oxidation. Compared to NO3-, abiotic reactions of biogenic NO2- and Fe(II are relatively rapid. The kinetics and reaction pathways of Fe(II oxidation by NO2- are strongly affected by medium composition and pH, reactant concentration, and the presence of Fe(II-sorptive surfaces, e.g., Fe(III oxyhydroxides and cellular surfaces. In batch cultures, the combination of abiotic and microbial Fe(II oxidation can alter product distribution and, more importantly, results in the formation of intracellular precipitates and extracellular Fe(III oxyhydroxide encrustations that apparently limit further cell growth and Fe(II oxidation. Unless steps are taken to minimize or account for potential abiotic reactions, results of microbial NDFO studies can be obfuscated by artifacts of the chosen experimental conditions, the use of inappropriate analytical methods, and the resulting uncertainties about the relative importance of abiotic and microbial reactions.In this manuscript, abiotic reactions of NO3- and NO2- with aqueous Fe2+, chelated Fe(II, and solid-phase Fe(II are reviewed along with factors that can influence overall NDFO reac

  17. p-Benzoquinone adsorption-separation, sensing and its photoinduced transformation within a robust Cd(II)-MOF in a SC-SC fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Qi-Kui; Wu, Dan; Li, An-Yan; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2015-05-01

    p-Benzoquinone (Q) adsorption–separation, sensing and its photoinduced transformation within a robust Cd(II)-MOF (1) is reported. All the adsorption, sensing and photochemical reactions are directly performed on the single-crystals of 1.

  18. Statistical inferences with jointly type-II censored samples from two Pareto distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zinadah, Hanaa H.

    2017-08-01

    In the several fields of industries the product comes from more than one production line, which is required to work the comparative life tests. This problem requires sampling of the different production lines, then the joint censoring scheme is appeared. In this article we consider the life time Pareto distribution with jointly type-II censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) and the corresponding approximate confidence intervals as well as the bootstrap confidence intervals of the model parameters are obtained. Also Bayesian point and credible intervals of the model parameters are presented. The life time data set is analyzed for illustrative purposes. Monte Carlo results from simulation studies are presented to assess the performance of our proposed method.

  19. Chapter two: Phenomenology of tsunamis II: scaling, event statistics, and inter-event triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Observations related to tsunami catalogs are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. An examination of scaling relationships between earthquake size (as expressed by scalar seismic moment and mean slip) and tsunami size (as expressed by mean and maximum local run-up and maximum far-field amplitude) indicates that scaling is significant at the 95% confidence level, although there is uncertainty in how well earthquake size can predict tsunami size (R2 ~ 0.4-0.6). In examining tsunami event statistics, current methods used to estimate the size distribution of earthquakes and landslides and the inter-event time distribution of earthquakes are first reviewed. These methods are adapted to estimate the size and inter-event distribution of tsunamis at a particular recording station. Using a modified Pareto size distribution, the best-fit power-law exponents of tsunamis recorded at nine Pacific tide-gauge stations exhibit marked variation, in contrast to the approximately constant power-law exponent for inter-plate thrust earthquakes. With regard to the inter-event time distribution, significant temporal clustering of tsunami sources is demonstrated. For tsunami sources occurring in close proximity to other sources in both space and time, a physical triggering mechanism, such as static stress transfer, is a likely cause for the anomalous clustering. Mechanisms of earthquake-to-earthquake and earthquake-to-landslide triggering are reviewed. Finally, a modification of statistical branching models developed for earthquake triggering is introduced to describe triggering among tsunami sources.

  20. Ocean optical measurements—II. Statistical analysis of data from Canadian eastern Arctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topliss, B. J.; Miller, J. R.; Horne, E. P. W.

    1989-02-01

    The attenuation of light in Arctic waters was found to be controlled by chlorophyll pigment and dissolved material with a possible contribution from suspended particulate matter. The potential dependence of the attenuation coefficient on pigment concentration, depth and material type was statistically investigated to evaluate these individual, but intercorrelated, contributions. When the variation of dissolved material with depth was selected as a separation criteria for the intercorrelated in situ variables the statistical analysis suggested a concentration dependence for the specific attenuation coefficient of chlorophyll pigments. A non-linear attenuation/pigment relationship for the Arctic data, governed by concentration and proportion of phaeophytin to chlorophyll, was found to be consistent with clear water data from the open ocean as well as from turbid waters on the Grand Banks. Although only approximately 25% of available light was absorbed by chlorophyll a pigment itself, the under-water spectrum was modified by these pigments in a manner similar to that occurring in clear open ocean waters. Scattering calculations gave large specific back-scattering values for low pigment concentrations in Arctic waters as well as for waters from an inshore glacial fjord, posing potential interpretation problems for remote sensing applications. In contrast scattering calculations for high pigment concentrations from the Arctic implied that potentially useful information might be extracted from high latitude imagery.

  1. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  2. Improving Statistical Process Monitoring of Quality Characteristic with Polynomial Profile in Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Amiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Profile monitoring is a new research subject in Statistical Process Control which has been recently considered by many researchers. Profile describes the relationship between a response variable and one or more independent variables. This relationship is often modeled using regression which can be simple linear, multiple linear, polynomial or sometimes nonlinear. To monitor polynomial profiles, some methods have been developed, the best of which is the orthogonal polynomial approach. One of the disadvantages of this method is the large number of control charts which are simultaneously used. In this paper, a new approach has been proposed based on orthogonal polynomial approach, in which only two control charts are used to monitor a kth-order polynomial profile. Simulation findings and average run length (ARL curve analysis imply better performance of the proposed approach compared to the existing approach. Also, using the proposed approach is much easier in practice.

  3. Trace Formulae and Spectral Statistics for Discrete Laplacians on Regular Graphs (II)

    CERN Document Server

    Oren, Idan

    2010-01-01

    Following the derivation of the trace formulae in the first paper in this series, we establish here a connection between the spectral statistics of random regular graphs and the predictions of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). This follows from the known Poisson distribution of cycle counts in regular graphs, in the limit that the cycle periods are kept constant and the number of vertices increases indefinitely. The result is analogous to the so called "diagonal approximation" in Quantum Chaos. We also show that by assuming that the spectral correlations are given by RMT to all orders, we can compute the leading deviations from the Poisson distribution for cycle counts. We provide numerical evidence which supports this conjecture.

  4. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. II. Statistical correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C.; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of Liesegang-type patterns formed in a gaseous HCl-NH3 system by ammonium chloride precipitation along glass tubes, as described in Paper I [J. C. Torres-Guzmán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174701 (2016)] of this work. We focus on the detection and characterization of short and long-range correlations within the non-stationary sequence of apparently irregular precipitation bands. To this end we applied several techniques to estimate spatial correlations stemming from different fields, namely, linear auto-correlation via the power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and methods developed in the context of random matrix theory (RMT). In particular RMT methods disclose well pronounced long-range correlations over at least 40 bands in terms of both, band positions and intensity values. By using a variant of the DFA we furnish proof of the nonlinear nature of the detected long-range correlations.

  5. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. II. Statistical atom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2016-05-01

    A model for charge-dependent energy loss of slow ions is developed based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms. Using a modified electrostatic potential which takes the ionic charge into account, nuclear and electronic energy transfers are calculated, the latter by an extension of the Firsov model. To evaluate the importance of multiple collisions even in nanometer-thick target materials we use the charge-state-dependent potentials in a Monte Carlo simulation in the binary collision approximation and compare the results to experiment. The Monte Carlo results reproduce the incident charge-state dependence of measured data well [see R. A. Wilhelm et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 052708 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052708], even though the experimentally observed charge exchange dependence is not included in the model.

  6. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective solvent uptake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjog S Nagarkar; Sujit K Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    A Co(II)-based two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5(H2O)2] (1) {pca = pyrazine carboxylic acid, and bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid} was synthesized solvothermally. The compound loses the coordinated lattice water molecules on heating which is accompanied by solidstate structural transformation to yield dehydrated phase [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5] (1′). The hydrated structure can be regained by exposing 1′ to water vapour (1′′). These reversible solid-state structural transformations are accompanied by a visible colour change in the material. The dehydrated compound also shows highly selective water uptake over other solvents like MeOH, EtOH, THF. This selective water uptake can be ascribed to the high affinity of polar water molecule towards the open metal site created on heating. The present report provides important insights into the reversible structural transformations observed due to variable coordination number of the central metal ion and transformability of the framework. The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification.

  7. Update on the Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II: statistical analysis plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregson Barbara A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies had suggested that the outcome for patients with spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH and no intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH might be improved with early evacuation of the haematoma. The Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II set out to establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients with spontaneous lobar ICH would improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It is an international, multi-centre, prospective randomised parallel group trial of early surgery in patients with spontaneous lobar ICH. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire. Results Recruitment to the study began on 27 November 2006 and closed on 15 August 2012 by which time 601 patients had been recruited. The protocol was published in Trials (http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/12/1/124/. This update presents the analysis plan for the study without reference to the unblinded data. The trial data will not be unblinded until after follow-up is completed in early 2013. The main trial results will be presented in spring 2013 with the aim to publish in a peer-reviewed journal at the same time. Conclusion The data from the trial will provide evidence on the benefits and risks of early surgery in patients with lobar ICH. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN22153967

  8. Statistical Properties of Microbursts Derived from the FIREBIRD-II CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumko, M.; Sample, J.; Klumpar, D. M.; Spence, H. E.; Crew, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    The FIREBIRD-II CubeSats have been successfully operating in a high-inclination, low-earth-orbit since January 31st, 2015. The FIREBIRD CubeSats were designed to observe relativistic electron microbursts. A microburst is a sharp increase (often greater than an order of magnitude) in precipitating electron flux lasting 100 ms. Each CubeSat contains two solid state detectors with complementary geometric factors which measure electrons from 200 keV to 1 MeV. Observations are gathered in campaigns, and the two data products are Context and HiRes. Context is an electron count rate from two energy channels at a 6 s cadence, and HiRes is at a cadence as fast as 12.5 ms. Context data is downlinked for the entirety of the campaign, but due to a tight telemetry budget, only a specified subset of HiRes data is downlinked. Microbursts have been simultaneously observed when the CubeSats were separated by as little as 10 km. A technique to automatically identify microbursts in the data using wavelet analysis is evaluated. Various fitting techniques are applied to the bursts and used to determine distributions of microburst parameters such as duration, repetition and dispersion as a function of energy.

  9. Statistical processes limiting the noise of a screen-film system: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Jacob; Shaw, Rodney; Yampolsky, Michael

    1995-05-01

    In a recent publication we demonstrated that the increase in image noise which results from exposing a film via a phosphor screen can be attributed entirely to the increased extent of the autocorrelation interval introduced by the screen, and not to any change in the shape or scale of the probability distribution function which governs the fluctuations about the mean level. This result implies that the (0,0)-value of the autocovariance function is independent of the degree of so-called quantum mottle and since the autocovariance function, ACV(x,y), and the Wiener Spectrum, WS(u,v), are Fourier transform pairs, it follows that the integral of the Wiener Spectrum over all spatial frequencies (u,v) must share this independence. Since this result was counterintuitive to existing assumptions of the role of screen and film in defining the Wiener Spectrum (i.e., a simple additive combination of quantum mottle and film grain), we now investigate this relationship in more detail in order to provide a more complete insight. For this purpose we have simulated a set of controlled images which correspond to a wide range of screen correlation intervals, from 192 micrometers down to uncorrelated film noise. Included in this simulation we have also explored the role of the overall amplification factor, i.e., the average number of image grains associated with an x-ray quantum. The results of these simulations are presented here, and confirm our previous findings, by establishing the invariance of the scale (0,0) value of the ACV.

  10. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N;

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...... cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of absent RII expression in SCLC cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed that RII RNA expression was very weak in 16 of 21 cell lines. To investigate if the absence of RII transcript was due to mutations, we screened the poly-A tract...... for mutations, but no mutations were detected. Additional screening for mutations of the RII gene revealed a GG to TT base substitution in one cell line, which did not express RII. This mutation generates a stop codon resulting in predicted synthesis of a truncated RII of 219 amino acids. The nature...

  11. Statistical Tools for Fitting Models of the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance to Data from Marine Mammal Populations (PCAD Tools II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance to Data from Marine Mammal Populations (PCAD Tools II) Len Thomas, John Harwood, Catriona Harris, & Robert...build a coherent statistical framework for modeling the effects of disturbance, particularly acoustic disturbance, on different species of marine mammals ...are formulated 2 APPROACH Our technical approach has involved building and fitting statistical models to marine mammal data in order to quantify

  12. Spectral characterization of V-type asteroids - II. A statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ieva, S; Lazzaro, D; Perna, D; Fulvio, D; Fulchignoni, M

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several small basaltic V-type asteroids have been identified all around the main belt. Most of them are members of the Vesta dynamical family, but an increasingly large number appear to have no link with it. The question that arises is whether all these basaltic objects do indeed come from Vesta. To find the answer to the above questioning, we decided to perform a statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and mineralogical properties of a large sample of V-types, with the objective to highlight similarities and differences among them, and shed light on their unique, or not, origin. The analysis was performed using 190 visible and near-infrared spectra from the literature for 117 V-type asteroids. The asteroids were grouped according to their dynamical properties and their computed spectral parameters compared. Comparison was also performed with spectral parameters of a sample of HED meteorites and data of the surface of Vesta taken by the VIR instrument on board of the Dawn spacecraft. Our ana...

  13. Galaxy Groups in the SDSS DR4: II. halo occupation statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiaohu; Bosch, Frank C van den

    2007-01-01

    We investigate various halo occupation statistics using a large galaxy group catalogue constructed from the SDSS DR4 with an adaptive halo-based group finder. The conditional luminosity function (CLF) is measured separately for all, red and blue galaxies, as well as in terms of central and satellite galaxies. The CLFs for central and satellite galaxies can be well modelled with a log-normal distribution and a modified Schechter form, respectively. About 85% of the central galaxies and about 80% of the satellite galaxies in halos with masses $M_h\\ga 10^{14}\\msunh$ are red galaxies. These numbers decrease to 50% and 40%, respectively, in halos with $M_h \\sim 10^{12}\\msunh$. For halos of a given mass, the distribution of the luminosities of central galaxies, $L_c$, has a dispersion of about 0.15 dex. The mean luminosity (stellar mass) of the central galaxies scales with halo mass as $L_c\\propto M_h^{0.17}$ ($M_{*,c}\\propto M_h^{0.22}$) for halos with masses $M\\gg 10^{12.5}\\msunh$, and both relations are signific...

  14. A general catalogue of 6.7GHz methanol masers II: statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M R; Collett, J; Minier, V; Conway, J; Booth, R; Pestalozzi, Michele R.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Methanol masers at 6.7GHz are recognised markers of high-mass star formation regions. The study of their distribution in the Galaxy gives important insights into the star formation activity of the Milky Way. We present a statistical analysis on the General Catalogue of 6.7GHz methanol masers in the Galaxy with the aim of extracting global properties of the masers. Aims: We provide constraints on the luminosity function of 6.7GHz methanol masers and on their total number in the Galaxy. Methods: We model the spatial distribution of the masers in the Milky Way by using their distribution in galactocentric distance which is unambiguous once a rotation curve for the Galaxy is assumed. This is the starting point for determining the luminosity function of the masers. Results: The luminosity function of 6.7GHz methanol masers is modelled as a power-law with sharp cutoffs and having an index lying between -1.5 and -2. We also predict the number of detections of methanol masers assuming different sensitivity l...

  15. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lairmore, Michael D. [University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Martinez, Ernest [Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lüscher, Bernhard [Institute of Biochemistry, Klinikum, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Robson, Craig N. [Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Cell and Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Harrod, Robert, E-mail: rharrod@smu.edu [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  16. The University of Salamanca under Philip II in statistic data La Universidad de Salamanca bajo Felipe II en estadísticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier ALEJO MONTES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical comparative study between the students who were registering in the University of Salamanca and who were obtaining each of three degrees that could be obtained in the University. It fills an existing emptiness in the University of Salamanca historiography, since a comparative study was necessary in the epoch of Philip II. The study analyzes the university matriculation, the requirements to formalize it, the order in which there were staying new recruits and the statistical contributed information. Likewise, there are analyzed and compare the statistical information contributed for each of three degrees that could be obtained in the University of Salamanca, which they were that of graduate, that of licentiate and that of doctor or teacher. It appreciates clearly the importance that had each of the faculties, being clearly the most valued the Faculty of Canon law and that less, that of Medicine.El presente artículo es un estudio estadístico comparativo entre los estudiantes que se matriculaban en la Universidad de Salamanca y los que obtenían cada uno de los tres grados que se podían obtener en la Universidad. Llena un vacío existente en la historiografía universitaria salmantina, ya que era necesario un estudio comparativo en la época de Felipe II. El estudio analiza la matrícula universitaria, los requisitos para formalizarla, el orden en el que quedaban inscritos y los datos estadísticos aportados. Asimismo, se analizan y comparan los datos estadísticos aportados para cada uno de los tres grados que se podían obtener en la Universidad de Salamanca, que eran el de bachiller, el de licenciado y el de doctor o maestro. Con ello, se aprecia claramente la importancia que tenía cada una de las Facultades, siendo claramente la más valorada la Facultad de Derecho Canónico y la que menos, la de Medicina.

  17. Formation and Transformation of Iron Oxide-Kaolinite Associations in the Presence of Iron(II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.Y.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; Tan, W.F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxide-kaolinite associations are important components of tropical and subtropical soils and have significant influence on the physical and chemical properties of soils. In this study, the formation and transformation of Fe oxide-kaolinite associations as a function of pH, temperature, and time

  18. Verification of COMDES-II Systems Using UPPAAL with Model Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ke; Pettersson, Paul; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    in a timed multitasking environment, modal continuous operation combining reactive control behavior with continuous data processing, etc., by following the principle of separation-of-concerns. In the paper we present a transformational approach to the formal verification of both timing and reactive behaviors...

  19. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (II) Three-Baryon Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S; Detmold, W; Luu, T; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2009-05-05

    We present the results of an exploratory Lattice QCD calculation of three-baryon systems through a high-statistics study of one ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations with a pion mass of m{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 MeV. Because of the computational cost of the necessary contractions, we focus on correlation functions generated by interpolating-operators with the quantum numbers of the {Xi}{sup 0}{Xi}{sup 0}n system, one of the least demanding three baryon systems in terms of the number of contractions. We find that the ground state of this system has an energy of E{sub {Xi}{sup 0}{Xi}{sup 0}n} = 3877.9 {+-} 6.9 {+-} 9.2 {+-} 3.3 MeV corresponding to an energy-shift due to interactions of {delta}E{sub {Xi}{sup 0}{Xi}{sup 0}n} = E{sub {Xi}{sup 0}{Xi}{sup 0}n} - 2M{sub {Xi}{sup 0}} - M{sub n} = 4.6 {+-} 5.0 {+-} 7.9 {+-} 4.2 MeV. There are a significant number of time-slices in the three-baryon correlation function for which the signal-to-noise ratio is only slowly degrading with time. This is in contrast to the exponential degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio that is observed at larger times, and is due to the suppressed overlap of the source and sink interpolating-operators that are associated with the variance of the three-baryon correlation function onto the lightest eigenstates in the lattice volume (mesonic systems). As one of the motivations for this area of exploration is the calculation of the structure and reactions of light nuclei, we also present initial results for a system with the quantum numbers of the triton (pnn). This present work establishes a path to multi-baryon systems, and shows that Lattice QCD calculations of the properties and interactions of systems containing four and five baryons are now within sight.

  20. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (II) Three-Baryon Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre Walker-Loud, Will Detmold, William Detmold, Aaron Torok, Konstantinos Orginos, Silas Beane, Tom Luu, Martin Savage, Assumpta Parreno

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of an exploratory Lattice QCD calculation of three-baryon systems through a high-statistics study of one ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations with a pion mass of m_\\pi ~ 390 MeV. Because of the computational cost of the necessary contractions, we focus on correlation functions generated by interpolating-operators with the quantum numbers of the $\\Xi^0\\Xi^0 n$ system, one of the least demanding three baryon systems in terms of the number of contractions. We find that the ground state of this system has an energy of E_{\\Xi^0\\Xi^0n}= 3877.9\\pm 6.9\\pm 9.2\\pm3.3 MeV corresponding to an energy-shift due to interactions of \\delta E_{\\Xi^0\\Xi^0n}=E_{\\Xi^0\\Xi^0n}-2M_{\\Xi^0} -M_n=4.6\\pm 5.0\\pm 7.9\\pm 4.2 MeV. There are a significant number of time-slices in the three-baryon correlation function for which the signal-to-noise ratio is only slowly degrading with time. This is in contrast to the exponential degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio that is observed at larger times, and is due to the suppressed overlap of the source and sink interpolating-operators that are associated with the variance of the three-baryon correlation function onto the lightest eigenstates in the lattice volume (mesonic systems). As one of the motivations for this area of exploration is the calculation of the structure and reactions of light nuclei, we also present initial results for a system with the quantum numbers of the triton (pnn). This present work establishes a path to multi-baryon systems, and shows that Lattice QCD calculations of the properties and interactions of systems containing four and five baryons are now within sight.

  1. Epileptic Seizure Detection based on Wavelet Transform Statistics Map and EMD Method for Hilbert-Huang Spectral Analyzing in Gamma Frequency Band of EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behnam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seizure detection using brain signal (EEG analysis is the important clinical methods in drug therapy and the decisions before brain surgery. In this paper, after signal conditioning using suitable filtering, the Gamma frequency band has been extracted and the other brain rhythms, ambient noises and the other bio-signal are canceled. Then, the wavelet transform of brain signal and the map of wavelet transform in multi levels are computed. By dividing the color map to different epochs, the histogram of each sub-image is obtained and the statistics of it based on statistical momentums and Negentropy values are calculated. Statistical feature vector using Principle Component Analysis (PCA is reduced to one dimension. By EMD algorithm and sifting procedure for analyzing the data by Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF and computing the residues of brain signal using spectrum of Hilbert transform and Hilbert – Huang spectrum forming, one spatial feature based on the Euclidian distance for signal classification is obtained. By K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifier and by considering the optimal neighbor parameter, EEG signals are classified in two classes, seizure and non-seizure signal, with the rate of accuracy 76.54% and with variance of error 0.3685 in the different tests.

  2. A saponification-triggered gelation of ester-based Zn(II) complex through conformational transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dubey, Mrigendra; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2014-09-11

    Novel saponification-triggered gelation in an ester-based bis-salen Zn(II) complex (1) is described. Strategic structural modifications induced by NaOH in 1 tune the dipolar-/π-interactions leading to J-aggregation and the creation of an inorganic gel material (IGM), which has been established by photophysical, DFT and rheological studies.

  3. Robust alignment of chromatograms by statistically analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjing; Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng; Zhan, Dejian

    2015-03-01

    Retention time shift is one of the most challenging problems during the preprocessing of massive chromatographic datasets. Here, an improved version of the moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation algorithm is presented to perform nonlinear and robust alignment of chromatograms by analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window procedure. The shifts matrix in retention time can be estimated by fast Fourier transform cross-correlation with a moving window procedure. The refined shift of each scan point can be obtained by calculating the mode of corresponding column of the shifts matrix. This version is simple, but more effective and robust than the previously published moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation method. It can handle nonlinear retention time shift robustly if proper window size has been selected. The window size is the only one parameter needed to adjust and optimize. The properties of the proposed method are investigated by comparison with the previous moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation and recursive alignment by fast Fourier transform using chromatographic datasets. The pattern recognition results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry dataset of metabolic syndrome can be improved significantly after preprocessing by this method. Furthermore, the proposed method is available as an open source package at https://github.com/zmzhang/MWFFT2.

  4. Photo-transformation of pedogenic humic acid and consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) speciation and bioavailability to green microalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Adenmatten, David; Miéville, Pascal; Traber, Jacqueline; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances (HS) play key role in toxic metal binding and protecting aquatic microorganisms from metal-induced stress. Any environmental changes that could alter HS concentration and reactivity can be expected to modify metal complexation and thus affect metal speciation and bioavailability to microalgae. The present study explores the influence of increased solar irradiance on the chemical structures and molecular weight of Elliott soil humic acid (EHA) and the associated consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexation and intracellular metal content in microalga. The results demonstrate that high radiance doses induce an oxidation of EHA with a formation of low molecular weight acids, an increase of -OH and -COOH group abundance, and a drop in EHA hydrodynamic size and molecular weight. The photo-induced structural changes are accompanied with a release of metal from M-EHA complexes and narrowing their size distribution, which in turn results in an increase of the intracellular Cd, Cu and Pb contents in microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in agreement with the measured free metal ions concentrations.

  5. Beta-to-alpha transformation in polycrystalline SiC. II - Interfacial energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T. E.; Ogbuji, L. U.; Heuer, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the energetics of the beta-to-alpha transformation in polycrystalline SiC is presented. It is found that the extreme anisotropy of the interfacial energy between alpha- and beta-SiC can account for the rapid growth of composite grains into the beta matrix during conventional sintering or hot-pressing processes. The composite grains consist of alpha-SiC plates 'sandwiched' between well-oriented and recrystallized beta-SiC 'envelopes'. The interfaces involving the 111 plane type of beta and (0001) of alpha have much lower energies than random beta/alpha interfaces.

  6. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : III. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPES II, III, AND VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    1. An improved method is outlined for the isolation and purification of the pneumococcal transforming substance. This method makes use of the fact that citrate inhibits the destructive action of the enzyme, desoxyribonuclease, which is released together with the active material during lysis of the living bacterial cells. A fivefold greater yield of purified transforming agent is obtained by the present method than by the procedure previousiy described. 2. The specific transforming substance has been isolated from pneumococci of types II and VI, in addition to Type III. In each instance the biologically active material has been found to consist of desoxyribonucleic acid.

  7. Sonochemical synthesis of two new nano lead(II) coordination polymers: Evaluation of structural transformation via mechanochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Leila; Morsali, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Two new lead(II) mixed-ligand coordination polymers, [Pb(PNO)(SCN)]n (1) and [Pb(PNO)(N3)]n (2), (HPNO=picolinic acid N-oxide) were synthesized by a sonochemical method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal behavior of 1 and 2 were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis. Structural transformations of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated through anion-replacement processes by mechanochemical method. Moreover, the effect of sonication conditions including time, concentrations of initial reagents and power of irradiation were evaluated on size and morphology of compounds 1 and 2.

  8. Chiropteran types I and II interferon genes inferred from genome sequencing traces by a statistical gene-family assembler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Albert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of emergence of human pathogens is steadily increasing; most of these novel agents originate in wildlife. Bats, remarkably, are the natural reservoirs of many of the most pathogenic viruses in humans. There are two bat genome projects currently underway, a circumstance that promises to speed the discovery host factors important in the coevolution of bats with their viruses. These genomes, however, are not yet assembled and one of them will provide only low coverage, making the inference of most genes of immunological interest error-prone. Many more wildlife genome projects are underway and intend to provide only shallow coverage. Results We have developed a statistical method for the assembly of gene families from partial genomes. The method takes full advantage of the quality scores generated by base-calling software, incorporating them into a complete probabilistic error model, to overcome the limitation inherent in the inference of gene family members from partial sequence information. We validated the method by inferring the human IFNA genes from the genome trace archives, and used it to infer 61 type-I interferon genes, and single type-II interferon genes in the bats Pteropus vampyrus and Myotis lucifugus. We confirmed our inferences by direct cloning and sequencing of IFNA, IFNB, IFND, and IFNK in P. vampyrus, and by demonstrating transcription of some of the inferred genes by known interferon-inducing stimuli. Conclusion The statistical trace assembler described here provides a reliable method for extracting information from the many available and forthcoming partial or shallow genome sequencing projects, thereby facilitating the study of a wider variety of organisms with ecological and biomedical significance to humans than would otherwise be possible.

  9. Free-boundary high-beta tokamaks. II. Mathematical intermezzo: Hilbert transforms and conformal mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    1982-11-01

    Mathematical techniques are described that facilitate the reduction of the stability problem of a toroidal free-boundary high-β tokamak equilibrium with skin currents to one that is basically one-dimensional. This includes the conformal mapping of the simply connected plasma region onto a circular disk and the conformal mapping of the doubly connected vacuum region onto an annulus by means of the Theodorsen and Garrick nonlinear integral equations. Henrici's method of constructing the discretized Hilbert transforms for periodic functions on the boundaries of these domains provides both the basis for constructing the mappings and the tool for the study of the perturbations. The methods are applied to problems of two-dimensional potential flow with a discontinuity of which the stability of sharp-boundary high-β tokamaks is just a special case.

  10. Statistical-thermodynamic description of the order-disorder transformation of D0{sub 19}-type phase in Ti-Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, T.M. [Department of Solid State Theory, Institute for Metal Physics, N.A.S. of Ukraine, 36 Acad. Vernadsky Blvd., 03680 Kyiv-142 (Ukraine)], E-mail: taras.radchenko@gmail.com; Tatarenko, V.A. [Department of Solid State Theory, Institute for Metal Physics, N.A.S. of Ukraine, 36 Acad. Vernadsky Blvd., 03680 Kyiv-142 (Ukraine); Zapolsky, H.; Blavette, D. [UMR 6634, CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Rouen, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France)

    2008-03-06

    Within the framework of the self-consistent field approximation and the static concentration waves approach, a statistical-thermodynamic description of D0{sub 19}-type superstructure in Ti-Al alloy is developed. A model of order-disorder phase transformation is applied for the non-stoichiometric intermetallic Ti{sub 3}Al phase. Interatomic-interaction parameters are estimated for both approximations. One model supposes temperature-independent interatomic-interaction parameters, while the other includes the temperature dependence of mixing energies. The partial phase diagrams (equilibrium compositions for the coexistent ordered {alpha}{sub 2}-phase and disordered {alpha}-phase) are evaluated for both cases.

  11. Transforming growth factor beta receptor II polymorphisms are associated with Kawasaki disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in the differentiation of striated cells and remodeling of coronary arteries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of this gene are associated with Marfan syndrome and sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular remodeling and T cell activation of TGFBR2 gene suggest that the TGFBR2 gene SNPs are related to the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD and coronary artery lesion (CAL. Methods : The subjects were 105 patients with KD and 500 healthy adults as controls. Mean age of KD group was 32 months age and 26.6% of those had CAL. We selected TGFBR2 gene SNPs from serum and performed direct sequencing. Results : The sequences of the eleven SNPs in the TGFBR2 gene were compared between the KD group and controls. Three SNPs (rs1495592, rs6550004, rs795430 were associated with development of KD (P=0.019, P=0.026, P=0.016, respectively. One SNP (rs1495592 was associated with CAL in KD group (P=0.022. Conclusion : Eleven SNPs in TGFBR2 gene were identified at that time the genome wide association. But, with the change of the data base, only six SNPs remained associated with the TGFBR2 gene. One of the six SNPs (rs6550004 was associated with development of KD. One SNP associated with CAL (rs1495592 was disassociated from the TGFBR2 gene. The other five SNPs were not functionally identified, but these SNPs are notable because the data base is changing. Further studies involving larger group of patients with KD are needed.

  12. Transformation impacts of dissolved and solid phase Fe(II) on trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in an iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) mixed column system: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yeunook; Kim, Dooil; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Singhal, Naresh; Park, Jae-Woo

    2012-12-01

    In this research, we conducted trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in a column filled with iron and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and developed a mathematical model to investigate the critical reactions between active species in iron/IRB/contaminant systems. The formation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) in this system with IRB and zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe(0)) coated with a ferric iron (Fe(III)) crust significantly affected TCE reduction and IRB respiration in various ways. This study presents a new framework for transformation property and reducing ability of both dissolved (Fe(II)(dissolved)) and solid form ferrous iron (Fe(II)(solid)). Results showed that TCE reduction was strongly depressed by Fe(II)(solid) rather than by other inhibitors (e.g., Fe(III) and lactate), suggesting that Fe(II)(solid) might reduce IRB activation due to attachment to IRB cells. Newly exposed Fe(0) from the released Fe(II)(dissolved) was a strong contributor to TCE reduction compared to Fe(II)(solid). In addition, our research confirmed that less Fe(II)(solid) production strongly supported long-term TCE reduction because it may create an easier TCE approach to Fe(0) or increase IRB growth. Our findings will aid the understanding of the contributions of iron media (e.g., Fe(II)(solid), Fe(II)(dissolved), Fe(III), and Fe(0)) to IRB for decontamination in natural groundwater systems.

  13. Robust detection of gearbox deterioration using compromised autoregressive modeling and Kolmogorov Smirnov test statistic. Part II: Experiment and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yimin; Mechefske, Chris K.

    2007-07-01

    Optimal maintenance decision analysis is heavily dependent on the accuracy of condition indicators. A condition indicator that is subject to such varying operating conditions as load is unable to provide precise condition information of the monitored object for making optimal operational maintenance decisions even if the maintenance program is established within a rigorous theoretical framework. For this reason, the performance of condition monitoring techniques applied to rotating machinery under varying load conditions has been a long-term concern and has attracted intensive research interest. Part I of this study proposed a novel technique based on adaptive autoregressive modeling and hypothesis tests. The method is able to automatically search for the optimal time-series model order and establish a compromised autoregressive model fitting based on the healthy gear motion residual signals under varying load conditions. The condition of the monitored gearbox is numerically represented by a modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic. Part II of this study is devoted to applications of the proposed technique to entire lifetime condition detection of three gearboxes with distinct physical specifications, distinct load conditions, and distinct failure modes. A comprehensive and thorough comparative study is conducted between the proposed technique and several counterparts. The detection technique is further enhanced by a proposed method to automatically identify and generate fault alerts with the aid of the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and thus requires no supervision from maintenance personnel. Experimental analysis demonstrated that the proposed technique applied to automatic identification and generation of fault alerts also features two highly desirable properties, i.e. few false alerts and early alert for incipient faults. Furthermore, it is found that the proposed technique is able to identify two types of abnormalities, i.e. strong ghost components abruptly

  14. Early Detection of Malignant Transformation in Resected WHO II Low-Grade Glioma Using Diffusion Tensor-Derived Quantitative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Martin T.; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.; Binczyk, Francisczek; Laun, Frederik B.; Weber, Christian; Bonekamp, David; Tarnawski, Rafal; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Polanska, Joanna; Majchrzak, Henryk; Stieltjes, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Objective Here, we retrospectively investigate the value of voxel-wisely plotted diffusion tensor-derived (DTI) axial, radial and mean diffusivity for the early detection of malignant transformation (MT) in WHO II glioma compared to contrast-enhanced images. Materials and Methods Forty-seven patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging follow-up between 2006–2014 after gross-tumor resection of intra-axial WHO II glioma. Axial/Mean/Radial diffusivity maps (AD/MD/RD) were generated from DTI data. ADmin/MDmin/RDmin values were quantified within tumor regions-of-interest generated by two independent readers including tumor contrast-to-noise (CNR). Sensitivity/specificity and area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. Inter-reader agreement was assessed (Cohen’s kappa). Results Eighteen patients demonstrated malignant transformation (MT) confirmed in 8/18 by histopathology and in 10/18 through imaging follow-up. Twelve of 18 patients (66.6%) with MT showed diffusion restriction timely coincidental with contrast-enhancement (CE). In the remaining six patients (33.3%), the diffusion restriction preceded the CE. The mean gain in detection time using DTI was (0.8±0.5 years, p = 0.028). Compared to MDmin and RDmin, ROC-analysis showed best diagnostic value for ADmin (sensitivity/specificity 94.94%/89.7%, AUC 0.96; p<0.0001) to detect MT. CNR was highest for AD (1.83±0.14), compared to MD (1.31±0.19; p<0.003) and RD (0.90±0.23; p<0.0001). Cohen’s Kappa was 0.77 for ADmin, 0.71 for MDmin and 0.65 for RDmin (p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion MT is detectable at the same time point or earlier compared to T1w-CE by diffusion restriction in diffusion-tensor-derived maps. AD demonstrated highest sensitivity/specificity/tumor-contrast compared to radial or mean diffusivity (= apparent diffusion coefficient) to detect MT. PMID:27741525

  15. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : II. EFFECT OF DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    It has been shown that extremely minute amounts of purified preparations of desoxyribonuclease are capable of bringing about the complete and irreversible inactivation of the transforming substance of Pneumococcus Type III. The significance of the effect of the enzyme, and its bearing on the chemical nature of the transforming substance, together with certain considerations concerning the biological specificity of desoxyribonucleic acids in general, are discussed.

  16. Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys: Phase Transformation/Plasticity Interaction at the Nano Scale and the Statistics of Variation in Pseudoelastic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Harshad Madhukar

    performed. The results reveal that the slip system activated, depends on the nature of the local deformation created by martensite CVs at the austenite-martensite interface. This is in qualitative agreement with the past analytical and experimental work. There are other factors like the width of the A-M interface, that influence the interaction between slip and phase transformation. At the granular length scale, a systematic study of the factors influencing statistics of the pseudoelastic performance of the grains in a polycrystal SMA is performed. An existing grain scale microstructural FEM model calibrated to Ti-50.9at.%Ni is used to achieve this. Local crystal orientation of the grain, crystal orientation of the neighboring grains and the nature of the interfaces between the parent and the neighbors are the factors responsible for introducing a variation in the grain performance. A predictive function for the performance of a grain, as a function of the Schmid factors for transformation for the parent and neighbors is proposed. Two strategies are proposed to improve grain performance. The first is to reduce the number of interfaces, e.g. by constructing a bamboo or isostrain arrangement of grains. The second is to employ high-symmetry interfaces between grains, so that multiple equivalent martensite plates can be activated at the interfaces, without compromising performance.

  17. Transformation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids/Esters to Corresponding Keto Fatty Acids/Esters by Aerobic Oxidation with Pd(II)/Lewis Acid Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Ahmed M; Zhang, Sicheng; Zeng, Miao; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

    2017-08-16

    Utilization of renewable biomass to partly replace the fossil resources in industrial applications has attracted attention due to the limited fossil feedstock with the increased environmental concerns. This work introduced a modified Wacker-type oxidation for transformation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, in which Cu(2+) cation was replaced with common nonredox metal ions, that is, a novel Pd(II)/Lewis acid (LA) catalyst. It was found that adding nonredox metal ions can effectively promote Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids/esters to the corresponding keto fatty acids/esters, even much better than Cu(2+), and the promotional effect is highly dependent on the Lewis acidity of added nonredox metal ions. The improved catalytic efficiency is attributed to the formation of heterobimetallic Pd(II)/LA species, and the oxidation mechanism of this Pd(II)/LA catalyst is also briefly discussed.

  18. The University of Salamanca under Philip II in statistic data La Universidad de Salamanca bajo Felipe II en estadísticas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Javier ALEJO MONTES

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a statistical comparative study between the students who were registering in the University of Salamanca and who were obtaining each of three degrees that could be obtained in the University...

  19. Biological removal of nickel (II by Bacillus sp. KL1 in different conditions: optimization by Taguchi statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taran Mojtaba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is the removal of heavy-metals such as nickel (Ni using microorganisms and has been considered as an important field in the biotechnology. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms exhibiting bioremediation activities and their optimization to treat polluted wastewaters is a vital and difficult task in remediation technologies. In this study, investigation was carried out to isolate Ni (II remediating microbial strains from soils contaminated with municipal solid waste leachate. Furthermore, Taguchi design of experiments were used to evaluate the influence of concentration, pH, temperature, and time on bioremediation of Ni (II using isolated bacteria. This study concluded that Bacillus sp. KL1 is a Ni (II-resistant strain and had Ni (II bioremediation activity. The highest bioremediation of Ni (II was observed as 55.06% after 24 h at 30ºC, pH 7, and 100 ppm concentration. Moreover, it was also observed that concentration is the most effective factor in the bioremediation process. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that bacteria isolated from soils contaminated with garbage leachate have the Bacillus sp. KL1 bacteria which can efficiently uptake and eliminate Ni (II from contaminated sites and thus makes it possible to treat heavy-metal containing wastewaters in industry by using this microorganism at optimized conditions.

  20. Anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Li-Wei [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Min [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 107, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lu, Kuang-Lieh [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    A Cd(II)–organic framework {[Cd_2(tpim)_4(SO_4)(H_2O)_2]·(SO_4)·21H_2O}{sub n} (1) was synthesized by reacting CdSO{sub 4}·8/3H{sub 2}O and 2,4,5-tri(4-pyridyl)imidazole (tpim) under hydrothermal conditions. A structural analysis showed that compound 1 adopts a layered structure in which the [Cd(tpim){sub 2}]{sub n} chains are linked by sulfate anions. These 2D layers are further packed into a 3D supramolecular framework via π–π interactions. The structure contains two types of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, i.e., bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, the latter of which are included in the large channels of the framework. Compound 1 exhibits interesting anion exchange behavior. In the presence of SCN{sup −} anions, both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in 1 were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands to form a 1D species [Cd(tpim){sub 2}(SCN){sub 2}] (1A), in which the SCN{sup –} moieties function as a monodentate ligand. On the other hand, when compound 1 was ion exchanged with N{sub 3}{sup −} anions in aqueous solution, the bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} moieties remained intact, and only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were replaced by N{sub 3}{sup −} anions. The gas adsorption behavior of the activated compound 1 was also investigated. - Highlights: • An interesting anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework is reported. • The sulfate-incorporated 2D layer compound exhibits very different anion exchange behavior with respect to SCN{sup −} and N{sub 3}{sup −}. • Both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in the 2D structure were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands, resulting in the formation of a 1D species. However, in the case of N{sub 3}{sup −} anions, only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in the structure was replaced.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, A; Ravisankar, R; Rajalakshmi, A; Eswaran, P; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium.

  2. A stochastic damage model for the rupture prediction of a multi-phase solid. I - Parametric studies. II - Statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Yuan J.; Liu, Wing K.; Belytschko, Ted

    1992-01-01

    A stochastic damage model for predicting the rupture of a brittle multiphase material is developed, based on the microcrack-macrocrack interaction. The model, which incorporates uncertainties in locations, orientations, and numbers of microcracks, characterizes damage by microcracking and fracture by macrocracking. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the change of the stress intensity at the macrocrack tip by the configuration of microcracks. The inherent statistical distribution of the fracture toughness arising from the intrinsic random nature of microcracks is explored using a statistical approach. For this purpose, a computer simulation model is introduced, which incorporates a statistical characterization of geometrical parameters of a random microcrack array.

  3. Statistical analysis of particle flux flowing into the end-target in between attached and detached states in the linear divertor plasma simulator NAGDIS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI, Toki (Japan); Ohno, N.; Onda, T.; Takeyama, K.; Tsuji, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kajita, S.; Kuwabara, T. [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    We have investigated the particle flux flowing into the axisymmetric end-target in the transient state from attached to detached divertor conditions in the linear plasma device NAGDIS-II. In the transient state, a dramatic decrease of the mean particle flux and a large-amplitude fluctuation with negative and positive spikes were observed. We have analyzed the fluctuation with a newly suggested analysis technique: pre-multiplied cubic spectrum with the wavelet transform. Analysis result indicates that these spikes consist of a few kilohertz components. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. TRANSFORMATION OF NITROSOBENZENES AND HYDROXYLANILINES BY FE II SPECIES: ELUCIDATION OF MECHANISM, EFFECT OF FERRIC OXIDES AND PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrosobenzenes, the first intermediates in the reduction of nitrobenzenes, were reduced by Fe(II) solutions as well as by Fe(II)-treated goethite suspensions (Fe(II)/G). Results indicate a reactivity trend in which electron-withdrawing groups in the para position increased the ...

  5. Enhanced expression of the type II transforming growth factor beta receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells without alteration of type III receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, H; Yamanaka, Y; Büchler, M; Berger, H G; Kobrin, M S; Baldwin, R L; Korc, M

    1993-06-15

    We have recently found that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibit strong immunostaining for the three mammalian transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) isoforms. These important growth-regulating polypeptides bind to a number of proteins, including the type I TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-I), type II TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-II), and the type III TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-III). In the present study we sought to determine whether T beta R-II and T beta R-III expression is altered in pancreatic cancer. Northern blot analysis indicated that, by comparison with the normal pancreas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibited a 4.6-fold increase (P beta R-II. In contrast, mRNA levels encoding T beta R-III were not increased. In situ hybridization showed that T beta R-II mRNA was expressed in the majority of cancer cells, whereas mRNA grains encoding T beta R-III were detectable in only a few cancer cells and were present mainly in the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest that enhanced levels of T beta R-II may have a role in regulating human pancreatic cancer cell growth, while T beta R-III may function in the extracellular matrix.

  6. From Snakes to Stars, the Statistics of Collapsed Objects - II. Testing a Generic Scaling Ansatz for Hierarchical Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Munshi, D; Melott, A L; Munshi, Dipak; Coles, Peter; Melott, Adrian L.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a diagrammatic technique to represent the multi-point cumulative probability density function (CPDF) of mass fluctuations in terms of the statistical properties of individual collapsed objects and relate this to other statistical descriptors such as cumulants, cumulant correlators and factorial moments. We use this approach to establish key scaling relations describing various measurable statistical quantities if clustering follows a simple general scaling ansatz, as expected in hierarchical models. We test these detailed predictions against high-resolution numerical simulations. We show that, when appropriate variables are used, the count probability distribution function (CPDF) and void probability distribution function (VPF) shows clear scaling properties in the non-linear regime. Generalising the results to the two-point count probability distribution function (2CPDF), and the bivariate void probability function (2VPF) we find good match with numerical simulations. We explore the behaviour of t...

  7. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  8. A Conditional Fourier-Feynman Transform and Conditional Convolution Product with Change of Scales on a Function Space II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple formula for conditional expectations over continuous paths, we will evaluate conditional expectations which are types of analytic conditional Fourier-Feynman transforms and conditional convolution products of generalized cylinder functions and the functions in a Banach algebra which is the space of generalized Fourier transforms of the measures on the Borel class of L2[0,T]. We will then investigate their relationships. Particularly, we prove that the conditional transform of the conditional convolution product can be expressed by the product of the conditional transforms of each function. Finally we will establish change of scale formulas for the conditional transforms and the conditional convolution products. In these evaluation formulas and change of scale formulas, we use multivariate normal distributions so that the conditioning function does not contain present positions of the paths.

  9. Statistical interpolation of ozone measurements from satellite data (TOMS, SBUV and SAGE II) using the kriging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranchant, B.J.S.; Vincent, A.P. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Centre for Research on Computation and its Applications (CERCA), Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This study demonstrates that ordinary kriging in spherical coordinates using experimental semivariograms provides highly usable results, especially near the pole in winter and/or where there could be data missing over large areas. In addition, kriging allows display of the spatial variability of daily ozone measurements at different pressure levels. Three satellite data sets were used: total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data, solar backscattered ultra violet (SBUV), and the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE II) ozone profiles. Since SBUV is a nadir-viewing instrument, measurements are only taken along the sun-synchronous polar orbits of the satellite. SAGE II is a limb-viewing solar occulation instrument, and measurements have high vertical resolution but poor daily coverage. TOMS has wider coverage with equidistant distribution of data (resolution 1 x 1.25 ) but provides no vertical information. Comparisons of the resulting SBUV-interpolated (column-integrated) ozone field with TOMS data are strongly in agreement, with a global correlation of close to 98%. Comparisons of SBUV-interpolated ozone profiles with daily SAGE II profiles are relatively good, and comparable to those found in the literature. The interpolated ozone layers at different pressure levels are shown. (orig.)

  10. Automated diagnosis of congestive heart failure using dual tree complex wavelet transform and statistical features extracted from 2s of ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Vidya K; Acharya, U Rajendra; Oh, Shu Lih; Adam, Muhammad; Tan, Jen Hong; Chua, Chua Kuang; Chua, Kok Poo; Tan, Ru San

    2017-02-07

    Identification of alarming features in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is extremely significant for the prediction of congestive heart failure (CHF). ECG signal analysis carried out using computer-aided techniques can speed up the diagnosis process and aid in the proper management of CHF patients. Therefore, in this work, dual tree complex wavelets transform (DTCWT)-based methodology is proposed for an automated identification of ECG signals exhibiting CHF from normal. In the experiment, we have performed a DTCWT on ECG segments of 2s duration up to six levels to obtain the coefficients. From these DTCWT coefficients, statistical features are extracted and ranked using Bhattacharyya, entropy, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), receiver-operating characteristics (ROC), Wilcoxon, t-test and reliefF methods. Ranked features are subjected to k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and decision tree (DT) classifiers for automated differentiation of CHF and normal ECG signals. We have achieved 99.86% accuracy, 99.78% sensitivity and 99.94% specificity in the identification of CHF affected ECG signals using 45 features. The proposed method is able to detect CHF patients accurately using only 2s of ECG signal length and hence providing sufficient time for the clinicians to further investigate on the severity of CHF and treatments.

  11. The imprint of f(R) gravity on weak gravitational lensing - II. Information content in cosmic shear statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Li, Baojiu; Higuchi, Yuichi

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the information content of various cosmic shear statistics on the theory of gravity. Focusing on the Hu-Sawicki-type f(R) model, we perform a set of ray-tracing simulations and measure the convergence bispectrum, peak counts and Minkowski functionals. We first show that while the convergence power spectrum does have sensitivity to the current value of extra scalar degree of freedom |fR0|, it is largely compensated by a change in the present density amplitude parameter σ8 and the matter density parameter Ωm0. With accurate covariance matrices obtained from 1000 lensing simulations, we then examine the constraining power of the three additional statistics. We find that these probes are indeed helpful to break the parameter degeneracy, which cannot be resolved from the power spectrum alone. We show that especially the peak counts and Minkowski functionals have the potential to rigorously (marginally) detect the signature of modified gravity with the parameter |fR0| as small as 10-5 (10-6) if we can properly model them on small (∼1 arcmin) scale in a future survey with a sky coverage of 1500 deg2. We also show that the signal level is similar among the additional three statistics and all of them provide complementary information to the power spectrum. These findings indicate the importance of combining multiple probes beyond the standard power spectrum analysis to detect possible modifications to general relativity.

  12. TRANSFORMATION OF NITROSOBENZENES AND HYDROXYLANILINES BY FE (II) SPECIES: ELUCIDATION OF MECHANISM, EFFECT OF FERRIC OXIDES AND PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this work was to (i) study the effect of structure composition on the reactivity of a series of N-hydroxylaniline and nitrosobenzene compounds toward their reduction by Fe(II) species, (ii) evaluate the usefulness of several chemical parameters for predicting the r...

  13. Detection of the II-I Etiracetam solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation through the online monitoring of the suspension apparent viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Christelle; Leyssens, Tom; Debaste, Frédéric; Haut, Benoît

    2012-03-01

    Although going to complex techniques can be useful at some stage of process development of crystallization processes, the goal of this article is to show that process control can also be achieved with relatively simple measurements, depending of course on what type of control is needed. Focusing on the Etiracetam crystallization process, this work demonstrates the potential of the online monitoring of the power dissipated in the suspension, a property that can be directly related to the suspension apparent viscosity for the detection of the solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation from form II to form I. Even if the work presented in this paper focused on a specific crystallization process, this easy-to-use method seems promising for the control of other crystallization processes exhibiting solvent-mediated polymorphic transformations with similar characteristics: (i) significant difference in the PSD of the crystals of the stable and the metastable forms, (ii) solid volumetric fraction in the suspension higher than 40% and (iii) absence of phenomena (breaking, attrition, agglomeration, secondary nucleation, etc.) interfering with the polymorphic transformation and affecting the PSD of the crystals.

  14. Use of statistical design of experiments to evaluate the sorption capacity of 7-amine-4-azaheptylsilica and 10-amine- 4-azadecylsilica for Cu(II), Pb(II), and Fe(III) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Camila G; Ribaski, Fernanda S; Simon, Nathália M; dos Santos, Araci A; Vaghetti, Júlio C P; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Lima, Eder Cláudio

    2006-10-15

    7-Amine-4-azaheptylsilica (AAH Si) and 10-amine-4-azadecylsilica (AAD Si) were prepared and used for removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Fe(III) from aqueous solutions. Full 2(3) factorial designs with two pseudo-central points were carried out in order to achieve the best conditions of the batch adsorption procedure for metallic ion uptake by the adsorbents. To continue the optimizations, central composite surface design was also employed. These two independent statistical designs of experiments lead to the following conditions: m=30.0 mg of adsorbent; pH 6.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), pH 4.0 for Fe(III); t of contact 180 min to guarantee equilibration at higher adsorbate concentration. After optimization of the conditions, isotherms of the metallic ions adsorbed on the AAH Si and AAD Si adsorbents were obtained, which were fitted to nonlinear Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.

  15. Electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clays. Role in U and Hg(II) transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Michelle [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During this project, we investigated Fe electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. We used selective chemical extractions, enriched Fe isotope tracer experiments, computational molecular modeling, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that structural Fe(III) in clay minerals is reduced by aqueous Fe(II) and that electron transfer occurs when Fe(II) is sorbed to either basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral. Findings from highly enriched isotope experiments suggest that up to 30 % of the Fe atoms in the structure of some clay minerals exhanges with aqueous Fe(II). First principles calculations using a small polaron hopping approach suggest surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature in a nontronite clay mineral and are consistent with temperature dependent Mössbauer data Fast electron mobility suggests that electrons may be able to conduct through the mineral fast enough to enable exchange of Fe between the aqueous phase and clay mineral structure. over the time periods we observed. Our findings suggest that Fe in clay minerals is not as stable as previously thought.

  16. The imprint of $f(R)$ gravity on weak gravitational lensing II : Information content in cosmic shear statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Li, Baojiu; Higuchi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the information content of various cosmic shear statistics on the theory of gravity. Focusing on the Hu-Sawicki type $f(R)$ model, we perform a set of ray-tracing simulations and measure the convergence bispectrum, peak counts and Minkowski functionals, paying a special attention to their complementarity to the standard power spectrum analysis. We first show that while the convergence power spectrum does have sensitivity to the current value of extra scalar degree of freedom $|f_{\\rm R0}|$, it is largely compensated by a change in the present density amplitude parameter $\\sigma_{8}$ and the matter density parameter $\\Omega_{\\rm m0}$. With accurate covariance matrices obtained from 1000 lensing simulations, we then examine the constraining power of the three additional statistics. We find that these probes are indeed helpful to break the parameter degeneracy, which can not be resolved from the power spectrum alone. We show that especially the peak counts and Minkowski functionals have the potent...

  17. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  18. Scripts for TRUMP data analyses. Part II (HLA-related data): statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP) made it possible for members of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) to analyze large sets of national registry data on autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, as the processes used to collect transplantation information are complex and differed over time, the background of these processes should be understood when using TRUMP data. Previously, information on the HLA locus of patients and donors had been collected using a questionnaire-based free-description method, resulting in some input errors. To correct minor but significant errors and provide accurate HLA matching data, the use of a Stata or EZR/R script offered by the JSHCT is strongly recommended when analyzing HLA data in the TRUMP dataset. The HLA mismatch direction, mismatch counting method, and different impacts of HLA mismatches by stem cell source are other important factors in the analysis of HLA data. Additionally, researchers should understand the statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, such as competing risk, landmark analysis, and time-dependent analysis, to correctly analyze transplant data. The data center of the JSHCT can be contacted if statistical assistance is required.

  19. Experimental statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Natrella, Mary Gibbons

    2005-01-01

    Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations

  20. Absence of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor is associated with poorer prognosis in HER2-negative breast tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, C E; Drigo, S A; Rosa, F E;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-signalling pathway in breast carcinomas (BCs) remained elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of TGF-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF-betaRII) expression levels...... in tumour cells and their association with the established biomarkers in BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 324 BC from patients with long-term follow-up, the TGF-beta1 and TGF-betaRII transcript and protein expression levels were assessed. RESULTS: TGF-beta1 and TGF-betaRII down-expression was significantly...... associated with BC. Negative TGF-beta1 and TGF-betaRII protein status was associated with the development of distant metastasis (P = 0.003 and P = 0.029, respectively). In multivariate analysis, TGF-beta1-positive tumours were associated with increased disease-free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0...

  1. The influence of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the transformation and solubility of metallic palladium and palladium(II) oxide in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Vang, My; Albers, Peter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Schindl, Roland; Leopold, Kerstin

    2015-05-01

    The environmental occurrence of elevated concentrations of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) from automotive catalytic converters has been well-documented. Limited information exists regarding their chemical behavior post-emission, however, especially in the presence of commonly occurring complexing agents. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the possible environmental transformation and solubility of Pd by conducting batch experiments using metallic palladium (Pd black) and palladium(ii) oxide (PdO). Changes in the particle surface chemistry of treated samples were analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Transition Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (TEM/EDX) techniques. Metallic palladium was partially transformed into PdOx (x environmental immobility of Pd, small amounts of this element emitted in metallic form are likely to be soluble in the presence of complexing agents such as EDTA.

  2. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using cotyledonary node as explant and a promoterless gus::nptII fusion gene based vector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Swathi Anuradha; S K Jami; R S Datla; P B Kirti

    2006-06-01

    We have generated putative promoter tagged transgenic lines in Arachis hypogaea cv JL-24 using cotyledonary node (CN) as an explant and a promoterless gus::nptII bifunctional fusion gene mediated by Agrobacterium transformation. MS medium fortified with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 4 mg/l in combination with 0.1 mg/l -napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was the most effective out of the various BAP and NAA combinations tested in multiple shoot bud formation. Parameters enhancing genetic transformation viz. seedling age, Agrobacterium genetic background and co-cultivation periods were studied by using the binary vector p35SGUSINT. Genetic transformation with CN explants from 6-dayold seedlings co-cultivated with Agrobacterium GV2260 strain for 3 days resulted in high kanamycin resistant shoot induction percentage (45%); approximately 31% transformation frequency was achieved with p35S GUSINT in -glucuronidase (GUS) assays. Among the in vivo GUS fusions studied with promoterless gus::nptII construct, GUS-positive sectors occupied 38% of the total transient GUS percentage. We have generated over 141 putative T0 plants by using the promoterless construct and transferred them to the field. Among these, 82 plants survived well in the green house and 5 plants corresponding to 3.54% showed stable integration of the fusion gene as evidenced by GUS, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Twenty-four plants were positive for GUS showing either tissue-specific expression or blue spots in at least one plant part. The progeny of 15 T0 plants indicated Mendelian inheritance pattern of segregation for single-copy integration. The tissue-specific GUS expression patterns were more or less similar in both T0 and corresponding T1 progeny plants. We present the differential patterns of GUS expression identified in the putative promoter-tagged transgenic lines in the present communication.

  3. Direct C-N Coupling in an in Situ Ligand Transformation and the Self-Assembly of a Tetrametallic [Ni(II)4] Staircase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aloke Kumar; Singha Mahapatra, Tufan; Clérac, Rodolphe; Mathonière, Corine; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ray, Debashis

    2015-06-01

    A [Ni(II)4] staircase complex was serendipitously prepared from the reaction of the binucleating Schiff base proligand 2,6-bis[[(3-hydroxypropyl)imino]methyl]-4-methylphenol (H3L2) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Me2pzH) with nickel(II) nitrate in a reaction at room temperature, initially aimed to yield a dinuclear complex. From a room temperature metal ion/ligand reaction, the proligand H3L2 in situ transformed to modified forms HL3(2-) and HL4(2-), allowing the [Ni4] formation. Variable-temperature magnetic behavior of a [Ni4] complex reveals antiferromagnetic interactions with stabilization of a diamagnetic ground state (ST = 0).

  4. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II: toxicity test results and requirements for statistical power analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 microg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.

  5. A Statistical Quality Control System in a Medium-Scale Weaving Mill: II. Control of Loom Stoppages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem DÜLGEROĞLU KISAOĞLU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a control system in a medium-scale weaving mill by using statistical process control techniques was worked on and considered that the control system also would be a model for weaving mills. To determine production parameters and control them according to a definite sampling plan, the loom stoppages were investigated with their reasons and the defects on the fabric were detected during running of looms in process inspection. Therefore three different kinds of cord and a poplin fabric were observed. Analysis of loom-stoppages gives information about problems which are present in yarns, weaving preparation, weaving processes, and particularly indicates yarn quality, weaving machine adjustments and weaving preparation processes. In conclusion of woven fabric quality evaluations it was determined that the rate of defects originated from yarn is rather higher than that of defects originated from weaving preparation/weaving process.

  6. A Case of Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Gene-Related Oculorenal Syndrome: Granular Corneal Dystrophy Type II with a Unique Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafuchi, Yoichi; Morioka, Tetsuo; Oyama, Yuko; Nozu, Kandai; Iijima, Kazumoto; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Many types of inherited renal diseases have ocular features that occasionally support a diagnosis. The following study describes an unusual example of a 40-year-old woman with granular corneal dystrophy type II complicated by renal involvement. These two conditions may coincidentally coexist; however, there are some reports that demonstrate an association between renal involvement and granular corneal dystrophy type II. Granular corneal dystrophy type II is caused by a mutation in the transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) gene. The patient was referred to us because of the presence of mild proteinuria without hematuria that was subsequently suggested to be granular corneal dystrophy type II. A kidney biopsy revealed various glomerular and tubular basement membrane changes and widening of the subendothelial space of the glomerular basement membrane by electron microscopy. However, next-generation sequencing revealed that she had no mutation in a gene that is known to be associated with monogenic kidney diseases. Conversely, real-time polymerase chain reaction, using a simple buccal swab, revealed TGFBI heteromutation (R124H). The TGFBI protein plays an important role in cell-collagen signaling interactions, including extracellular matrix proteins which compose the renal basement membrane. This mutation can present not only as corneal dystrophy but also as renal disease. TGFBI-related oculorenal syndrome may have been unrecognized. It is difficult to diagnose this condition without renal electron microscopic studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of nephropathy associated with a TGFBI mutation.

  7. Fourier transform spectrometer observations of solar carbon monoxide. II - Simultaneous cospatial measurements of the fundamental and first-overtone bands, and Ca II K, in quiet and active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.; Testerman, L.; Brault, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometry has yielded simultaneous cospatial measurements of important diagnostics of thermal structure in the high solar photosphere and low chromosphere. It is noted that the anomalous behavior of the fundamental bands of CO in quiet areas near the limb is accentuated in an active region plage observed close to the limb. The difference between the core temperatures of the CO fundamental bands in a plage and a nearby quiet region at the limb is larger than the corresponding brightness temperature differences in the inner wings of the Ca II line measured in a quiet region and several plages closer to the disk center. Numerical simulations indicate that the disparate behavior of the CO bands with respect to Ca II K cannot be reconciled with existing single component thermal structure models; a two-component atmosphere is required.

  8. Learning at a distance II. Statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Elissa L; Hauser, Marc D; Spaepen, Geertrui; Aslin, Richard N

    2004-09-01

    In earlier work we have shown that adults, infants, and cotton-top tamarin monkeys are capable of computing the probability with which syllables occur in particular orders in rapidly presented streams of human speech, and of using these probabilities to group adjacent syllables into word-like units. We have also investigated adults' learning of regularities among elements that are not adjacent, and have found strong selectivities in their ability to learn various kinds of non-adjacent regularities. In the present paper we investigate the learning of these same non-adjacent regularities in tamarin monkeys, using the same materials and familiarization methods. Three types of languages were constructed. In one, words were formed by statistical regularities between non-adjacent syllables. Words contained predictable relations between syllables 1 and 3; syllable 2 varied. In a second type of language, words were formed by statistical regularities between non-adjacent segments. Words contained predictable relations between consonants; the vowels varied. In a third type of language, also formed by regularities between non-adjacent segments, words contained predictable relations between vowels; the consonants varied. Tamarin monkeys were exposed to these languages in the same fashion as adults (21 min of exposure to a continuous speech stream) and were then tested in a playback paradigm measuring spontaneous looking (no reinforcement). Adult subjects learned the second and third types of language easily, but failed to learn the first. However, tamarin monkeys showed a different pattern, learning the first and third type of languages but not the second. These differences held up over multiple replications, using different sounds instantiating each of the patterns. These results suggest differences among learners in the elementary units perceived in speech (syllables, consonants, and vowels) and/or the distance over which such units can be related, and therefore differences

  9. Statistical investigation of simulated intestinal fluid composition on the equilibrium solubility of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra, Ibrahim; Zhou, Zhou; Dunn, Claire; Wilson, Clive G; Halbert, Gavin

    2015-01-25

    A drug's solubility and dissolution behaviour within the gastrointestinal tract is a key property for successful administration by the oral route and one of the key factors in the biopharmaceutics classification system. This property can be determined by investigating drug solubility in human intestinal fluid (HIF) but this is difficult to obtain and highly variable, which has led to the development of multiple simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) recipes. Using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) technique this paper has investigated the effects and interactions on equilibrium drug solubility of seven typical SIF components (sodium taurocholate, lecithin, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, pH, pancreatin and sodium oleate) within concentration ranges relevant to human intestinal fluid values. A range of poorly soluble drugs with acidic (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, and piroxicam), basic (aprepitant, carvedilol, zafirlukast, tadalafil) or neutral (fenofibrate, griseofulvin, felodipine and probucol) properties have been investigated. The equilibrium solubility results determined are comparable with literature studies of the drugs in either HIF or SIF indicating that the DoE is operating in the correct space. With the exception of pancreatin, all of the factors individually had a statistically significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds and drug specific interactions were evident. Interestingly for the neutral compounds pH was the factor with the second largest solubility effect. Around one third of all the possible factor combinations showed a significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in interaction significance and magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds. The least number of significant media component interactions were noted for the acidic compounds with three and the greatest for the neutral compounds at seven

  10. Effects of buoyancy on lean premixed v-flames, Part II. VelocityStatistics in Normal and Microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, R.K.; Bedat, B.; Yegian, D.T.

    1999-07-01

    The field effects of buoyancy on laminar and turbulent premixed v-flames have been studied by the use of laser Doppler velocimetry to measure the velocity statistics in +1g, -1g and {micro}g flames. The experimental conditions covered mean velocity, Uo, of 0.4 to 2 m/s, methane/air equivalence ratio, f, of 0.62 to 0.75. The Reynolds numbers, from 625 to 3130 and the Richardson number from 0.05 to 1.34. The results show that a change from favorable (+1g) to unfavorable (-1g) mean pressure gradient in the plume create stagnating flows in the far field whose influences on the mean and fluctuating velocities persist in the near field even at the highest Re we have investigated. The use of Richardson number < 0.1 as a criterion for momentum dominance is not sufficient to prescribe an upper limit for these buoyancy effects. In {micro}g, the flows within the plumes are non-accelerating and parallel. Therefore, velocity gradients and hence mean strain rates in the plumes of laboratory flames are direct consequences of buoyancy. Furthermore, the rms fluctuations in the plumes of {micro}g flames are lower and more isotropic than in the laboratory flames to show that the unstable plumes in laboratory flames also induce velocity fluctuations. The phenomena influenced by buoyancy i.e. degree of flame wrinkling, flow acceleration, flow distribution, and turbulence production, can be subtle due to their close coupling with other flame flow interaction processes. But they cannot be ignored in fundamental studies or else the conclusions and insights would be ambiguous and not very meaningful.

  11. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors types II and III within various cells in the rat periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Symons, A L; Bartold, P M

    1999-02-01

    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-beta receptor type II (T beta R-II) and type III (T beta R-III) in cells of the forming periodontal ligament (PDL) in rat first molar roots. Mandibular periodontium was obtained from 3, 6 and 12-wk-old rats. This represented tissue from the initial, pre-mature and post-mature stages of root and periodontal development, respectively. Mandibular bone chips and molar roots were used to isolate osteoblasts, fibroblasts and cementoblasts. Cells were obtained using a 2-step trypsinization and explant technique, and cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) under routine cell culture conditions. Cells were cultured on coverslips for the purpose of detecting TGF-beta receptors, and compared with whole tissue sections using the same detection method. Cells which stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides were counted. Both receptors were expressed in the various periodontal tissue compartments. PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts were stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III. Endothelial cells were noted to be positive for T beta R-II only. T beta R-II was more widely distributed in cells than T beta R-III, but T beta R-III was extensively localized in the extracellular matrix. Both receptors were expressed on the cell membrane and also localized in the cytoplasm. The findings for paraffin sections were consistent with the immunohistochemical staining of cultured cells. The percentage of cells which stained positively for T beta R-II was greater (approximately 85%) than that for T beta R-III (approximately 60%) in all major types of the PDL cells on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides. Extensive location of TGF-beta receptors in both cells and extracellular matrix suggests that several binding sites are available for TGF-beta s to interact with target cells during development and following maturation

  12. LY2109761, a novel transforming growth factor β receptor type I and type II dual inhibitor, as a therapeutic approach to suppressing pancreatic cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melisi, Davide; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Sclabas, Guido M.; Fleming, Jason B.; Xia, Qianghua; Tortora, Giampaolo; Abbruzzese, James L.; Chiao, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Most pancreatic cancer patients present with inoperable disease or develop metastases after surgery. Conventional therapies are usually ineffective in treating metastatic disease. It is evident that novel therapies remain to be developed. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) plays a key role in cancer metastasis, signaling through the TGF-β type I/II receptors (TβRI/II). We hypothesized that targeting TβRI/II kinase activity with the novel inhibitor LY2109761 would suppress pancreatic cancer metastatic processes. The effect of LY2109761 has been evaluated on soft agar growth, migration, invasion using a fibroblast coculture model, and detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) by Annexin V flow cytometric analysis. The efficacy of LY2109761 on tumor growth, survival, and reduction of spontaneous metastasis have been evaluated in an orthotopic murine model of metastatic pancreatic cancer expressing both luciferase and green fluorescence proteins (L3.6pl/GLT). To determine whether pancreatic cancer cells or the cells in the liver microenvironment were involved in LY2109761-mediated reduction of liver metastasis, we used a model of experimental liver metastasis. LY2109761 significantly inhibited the L3.6pl/GLT soft agar growth, suppressed both basal and TGF-β1–induced cell migration and invasion, and induced anoikis. In vivo, LY2109761, in combination with gemcitabine, significantly reduced the tumor burden, prolonged survival, and reduced spontaneous abdominal metastases. Results from the experimental liver metastasis models indicate an important role for targeting TβRI/II kinase activity on tumor and liver microenvironment cells in suppressing liver metastasis. Targeting TβRI/II kinase activity on pancreatic cancer cells or the cells of the liver microenvironment represents a novel therapeutic approach to prevent pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:18413796

  13. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  14. Development of cystic glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium in Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor-pituitary tumor transforming gene transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Shahenda M; Malik, Mohammad T; Martin, Alvin; Moore, Joseph P; Proctor, Mary; Hamid, Tariq; Kakar, Sham S

    2007-07-01

    The pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)/securin is an oncogene that is involved in cell cycle regulation and sister chromatid separation. PTTG is highly expressed in various tumors including ovarian tumors, suggesting that PTTG may play a role in ovarian tumorigenesis. Overexpression of PTTG resulted in induction of cellular transformation in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. To ascertain PTTG function in ovarian tumorigenesis, we generated a transgenic mouse model of PTTG by cloning PTTG cDNA downstream of Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor gene promoter (MISIIR) in order to target the ovarian surface epithelium. By screening of transgenic animals, we identified five founders (four males and one female). Using the four male founders, we developed four transgenic lines. PTTG expression was increased in ovarian surface epithelium, ovarian granulosa cells, as well as in the pituitary gland. Transgenic females did not develop any visible ovarian tumors at 8-10 months of age; however, there was an overall increase in the corpus luteum mass in transgenic ovary, suggesting increased luteinization. These changes were associated with an increase in serum LH and testosterone levels. In addition, there was a generalized hypertrophy of the myometrium of MISIIR-PTTG transgenic uteri with cystic glandular and hyperplasia of the endometrium. Based on these results, we conclude that the overexpression of PTTG may be required to initiate precancerous conditions but is not sufficient to induce ovarian tumorigenesis and may require another partner to initiate cellular transformation.

  15. Increase of COP for heat transformer in water purification systems. Part II - Without increasing heat source temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rosenberg@uaem.mx; Siqueiros, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Huicochea, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The integration of a water purification system allows a heat transformer to increase the actual coefficient of performance, by the reduction of the amount of heat supplied by unit of heat. A new defined COP called COP{sub WP} is proposed for the present system, which considers the fraction of heat recycled. Simulation with proven software compares the performance of the modeling of an absorption heat transformer for water purification (AHTWP) operating with water/lithium bromide, as working fluid-absorbent pair. Plots of enthalpy-based coefficients of performance (COP{sub ET}) and water purification coefficient of performance (COP{sub WP}) are shown against absorber temperature for several thermodynamic operating conditions. The results showed that the proposed (AHTWP) system is capable of increasing the original value of COP{sub ET} up to 1.6 times its original value by recycling energy from a water purification system. The proposed COP{sub WP} allows increments for COP values from any experimental data for water purification or for any other distillation system integrated to a heat transformer, regardless of actual COP{sub A} value or working fluid-absorbent pair.

  16. Plate column biosorption of Cu(II) on membrane-type biosorbent (MBS) of Penicillium biomass: optimization using statistical design methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Xin; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-09-01

    Based on the coupling of biosorption and membrane separation, a low cost membrane-type biosorbent (MBS) of Penicillium biomass was prepared. The surface morphology, pore properties and functional groups were studied via the characterization of MBS. Batch biosorption experiments indicated the maximum biosorption capacity of Cu(II) on MBS was 126.58 mg/g and about 90% of that on chitosan membrane. A plate column reactor filled with multi-layer of MBS was built for treatment of wastewater contaminated by Cu(II). The biosorption process factors were screened using Plackett-Burman design and three significant variables were selected for further optimization via response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken model. A statistically second-order polynomial model was constructed with the error below 1.22%, on the basis of which the three-dimensional response surfaces were plotted. The prepared membrane-type biosorbent could be used successfully for 10 biosorption-desorption-regeneration cycles without decreasing its biosorption ability obviously.

  17. A statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors from supernova SN 1987 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-11-01

    A detailed statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors on UT 07:35, 2/23'87 is carried out. Distribution functions of the mean scattering angles in the reaction anti 4u{sub e}p->e{sup +}n and 4ue->4ue are constructed with account taken of the multiple Coulomb scattering and the experimental angular errors. The Smirnov and Wald-Wolfowitz run tests are used to test the hypothesis that the angular distributions of events from the two detectors agree with each other. We test with the use of the Kolmogorov and Mises statistical criterions the hypothesis that the recorded events all represent anti 4u{sub e}p->e{sup +}n inelastic scatterings. Then the Neyman-Pearson test is applied to each event in testing the hypothesis anti 4u{sub e}p->e{sup +}n against the alternative 4ue->4ue. The hypotheses that the number of elastic events equals s=0, 1, 2, ... against the alternatives snot =0, 1, 2, ... are tested on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio criterion. The confidence intervals for the number of elastic events are also constructed. The current supernova models fail to give a satisfactory account of the angular distribution data. (orig.).

  18. Uptake and Release of Cerium During Fe-Oxide Formation and Transformation in Fe(II) Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin; Dideriksen, Knud; Christiansen, Bo C.

    2010-01-01

    Fe-oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and form during Fe(0) corrosion. Depending on redox conditions and solution composition, Fe-oxides such as ferrihydrite, goethite, magnetite, and green rust (GR) may form. These phases typically have high surface area and large affinity for adsorption...... of trace components. Further, Fe(II)-Fe(III) (hydr)oxides are redox active. Cerium, a member of the lanthanide family, can be used as an analogue for the tri- and tetra-valent actinides found in radioactive waste, expected to be stored in subsurface repositories. In experiments with ferrihydrite, Ce......(III) release. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Ce(III) adsorbed on magnetite. When Fe-oxides were synthesized by air oxidation of Fe(II) solutions at pH 7, GR(Na,SO4) played a catalytic role in the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by O-2, removing more than 90% of the dissolved Ce. Transmission electron...

  19. Uptake and Release of Cerium During Fe-Oxide Formation and Transformation in Fe(II) Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin; Dideriksen, Knud; Christiansen, Bo C.

    2010-01-01

    microscopy revealed that it formed discrete nanocrystals of CeO2(s). These results demonstrate that Fe-oxide interaction with radionuclides is likely to depend strongly on the local redox conditions. By analogy with Ce, the trivalent actinides are not expected to be sequestered by preformed GR in anoxic......Fe-oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and form during Fe(0) corrosion. Depending on redox conditions and solution composition, Fe-oxides such as ferrihydrite, goethite, magnetite, and green rust (GR) may form. These phases typically have high surface area and large affinity for adsorption...... of trace components. Further, Fe(II)-Fe(III) (hydr)oxides are redox active. Cerium, a member of the lanthanide family, can be used as an analogue for the tri- and tetra-valent actinides found in radioactive waste, expected to be stored in subsurface repositories. In experiments with ferrihydrite, Ce...

  20. A chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave/pulsed uniform flow spectrometer. II. Performance and applications for reaction dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N; Park, G Barratt; Joalland, Baptiste; Oldham, James M; Prozument, Kirill; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M; Sims, Ian R; Field, Robert W; Suits, Arthur G

    2014-12-01

    This second paper in a series of two reports on the performance of a new instrument for studying chemical reaction dynamics and kinetics at low temperatures. Our approach employs chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy to probe photolysis and bimolecular reaction products that are thermalized in pulsed uniform flows. Here we detail the development and testing of a new K(a)-band CP-FTMW spectrometer in combination with the pulsed flow system described in Paper I [J. M. Oldham, C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, L. N. Zack, K. Prozument, I. R. Sims, G. B. Park, R. W. Field, and A. G. Suits, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 154202 (2014)]. This combination delivers broadband spectra with MHz resolution and allows monitoring, on the μs timescale, of the appearance of transient reaction products. Two benchmark reactive systems are used to illustrate and characterize the performance of this new apparatus: the photodissociation of SO2 at 193 nm, for which the vibrational populations of the SO product are monitored, and the reaction between CN and C2H2, for which the HCCCN product is detected in its vibrational ground state. The results show that the combination of these two well-matched techniques, which we refer to as chirped-pulse in uniform flow, also provides insight into the vibrational and rotational relaxation kinetics of the nascent reaction products. Future directions are discussed, with an emphasis on exploring the low temperature chemistry of complex polyatomic systems.

  1. Electrophilic Pt(II) complexes: precision instruments for the initiation of transformations mediated by the cation-olefin reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Ryan J; Munro-Leighton, Colleen; Gagné, Michel R

    2014-08-19

    A discontinuity exists between the importance of the cation-olefin reaction as the principal C-C bond forming reaction in terpene biosynthesis and the synthetic tools for mimicking this reaction under catalyst control; that is, having the product identity, stereochemistry, and functionality under the control of a catalyst. The main reason for this deficiency is that the cation-olefin reaction starts with a reactive intermediate (a carbocation) that reacts exothermically with an alkene to reform the reactive intermediate; not to mention that reactive intermediates can also react in nonproductive fashions. In this Account, we detail our efforts to realize catalyst control over this most fundamental of reactions and thereby access steroid like compounds. Our story is organized around our progress in each component of the cascade reaction: the metal controlled electrophilic initiation, the propagation and termination of the cyclization (the cyclase phase), and the turnover deplatinating events. Electrophilic Pt(II) complexes efficiently initiate the cation-olefin reaction by first coordinating to the alkene with selection rules that favor less substituted alkenes over more substituted alkenes. In complex substrates with multiple alkenes, this preference ensures that the least substituted alkene is always the better ligand for the Pt(II) initiator, and consequently the site at which all electrophilic chemistry is initiated. This control element is invariant. With a suitably electron deficient ligand set, the catalyst then activates the coordinated alkene to intramolecular addition by a second alkene, which initiates the cation-olefin reaction cascade and generates an organometallic Pt(II)-alkyl. Deplatination by a range of mechanisms (β-H elimination, single electron oxidation, two-electron oxidation, etc.) provides an additional level of control that ultimately enables A-ring functionalizations that are orthogonal to the cyclase cascade. We particularly focus on

  2. Type III Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor Drives Cardiac Hypertrophy Through β-Arrestin2-Dependent Activation of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Song, Shu-Ying; Li, Yan-Chao; Sun, Fei; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Mei-Tong; Dong, Chang-Jiang; Ji, Yong; Li, Hongliang; Chu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The role of type III transforming growth factor-β receptor (TβRIII) in the pathogenesis of heart diseases remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the functional role and molecular mechanisms of TβRIII in the development of myocardial hypertrophy. Western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression of TβRIII was significantly elevated in human cardiac hypertrophic samples. Consistently, TβRIII expression was substantially increased in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)- and isoproterenol-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Overexpression of TβRIII resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by knockdown of TβRIII in vitro. Cardiac-specific transgenic expression of TβRIII independently led to cardiac hypertrophy in mice, which was further aggravated by isoproterenol and TAC treatment. Cardiac contractile function of the mice was not altered in TβRIII transgenic mice; however, TAC led to significantly decreased cardiac contractile function in TβRIII transgenic mice compared with control mice. Conversely, isoproterenol- and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and TAC-induced cardiac contractile function impairment were partially reversed by suppression of TβRIII in vivo. Our data suggest that TβRIII mediates stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy through activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which requires a physical interaction of β-arrestin2 with both TβRIII and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our findings indicate that stress-induced increase in TβRIII expression results in cardiac hypertrophy through β-arrestin2-dependent activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and that transforming growth factor-β and β-adrenergic receptor signaling are not involved in spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy in cardiac

  3. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2014-08-01

    Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L1-6) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L1), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L2), o-vanillin(H2L3), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L4), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L5), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L6). H2L1-6 reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L1-6]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR (1H and 13C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed.

  4. Boosted Statistical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Based on the fundamental principles of Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, we give a rigorous, but completely elementary, proof of the relation between fundamental observables of a statistical system when measured relatively to two inertial reference frames, connected by a Lorentz transformation.

  5. Quantitatively analyzing phonon spectral contribution of thermal conductivity based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. II. From time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguang; Hu, Ming

    2015-11-01

    From a nanoscale heat transfer point of view, currently one of the most interesting and challenging tasks is to quantitatively analyze phonon mode specific transport properties in solid materials, which plays a vital role in many emerging and diverse technological applications. It has not been long that such information can be provided by the phonon spectral energy density (SED) or equivalently time domain normal mode analysis (TDNMA) methods in the framework of equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations. However, few methods have been developed for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations [Phys. Rev. B 91, 115426 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.115426], the other widely used computational method for calculating thermal transport of materials in addition to EMD. In this work, a computational scheme based on time Fourier transform of atomistic heat current, called the frequency domain direct decomposed method (FDDDM), is proposed to analyze the contributions of frequency dependent thermal conductivity in NEMD simulations. The FDDDM results of Lennard-Jones argon and Stillinger-Weber Si are compared with the TDNMA method from EMD simulation. Similar trends are found for both cases, which confirm the validity of our FDDDM approach. Benefiting from the inherent nature of NEMD and the theoretical formula that does not require any temperature assumption, the FDDDM can be directly used to investigate the size and temperature effect. Moreover, the unique advantage of FDDDM prior to previous methods (such as SED and TDNMA) is that it can be straightforwardly used to characterize the phonon frequency dependent thermal conductivity of disordered systems, such as amorphous materials. The FDDDM approach can also be a good candidate to be used to understand the phonon behaviors and thus provides useful guidance for designing efficient structures for advanced thermal management.

  6. Transformations of summary statistics as input in meta-analysis for linear dose–response models on a logarithmic scale: a methodology developed within EURRECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souverein Olga W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To derive micronutrient recommendations in a scientifically sound way, it is important to obtain and analyse all published information on the association between micronutrient intake and biochemical proxies for micronutrient status using a systematic approach. Therefore, it is important to incorporate information from randomized controlled trials as well as observational studies as both of these provide information on the association. However, original research papers present their data in various ways. Methods This paper presents a methodology to obtain an estimate of the dose–response curve, assuming a bivariate normal linear model on the logarithmic scale, incorporating a range of transformations of the original reported data. Results The simulation study, conducted to validate the methodology, shows that there is no bias in the transformations. Furthermore, it is shown that when the original studies report the mean and standard deviation or the geometric mean and confidence interval the results are less variable compared to when the median with IQR or range is reported in the original study. Conclusions The presented methodology with transformations for various reported data provides a valid way to estimate the dose–response curve for micronutrient intake and status using both randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

  7. Statistic Analysis on Reliability of Power Transmission and Transformation Facilities in China in 2011%2011年全国输变电设施可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娟; 李霞

    2012-01-01

    According to the statistics on reliability indices of nation-wide 220 kV and the above power transmission and transformation facilities in 2010, especially operation data of three main kinds of power transmission and transformation facilities, namely transformer, circuit breaker and overhead line, the main influencing causes of scheduled and unscheduled outages were analyzed and evaluated. Through the analysis of reliability indices in recent years, the reliability changing tendency was discussed, which provided the beneficial basis for improving the reliability of power transmission and transformation facilities in the coming years.%通过对2011年全国220 kV及以上电压等级输变电设施可靠性指标的分析,特别是对影响变压器、断路器、架空线路3类主要输变电设施可靠性的计划停运、非计划停运的主要因素及目前在运的特高压输电线路的分析与评估,提出了影响可靠性因素的变化趋势,为电力系统规划、设计制造、设备选型、安装调试、生产运行、检修维护等各环节工作提供了技术支撑.

  8. Detection and identification of cancerous murine fibroblasts, transformed by murine sarcoma virus in culture, using Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A; Shufan, E; Zeiri, L; Huleihel, M

    2013-03-01

    Cancer is one of the leading worldwide causes of death. It may be induced by a variety of factors, including carcinogens, radiation, genetic factors, or DNA and RNA viruses. The early detection of cancer is critical for its successful therapy, which can result in complete recovery from some types of cancer. Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in medicine and biology. It is a noninvasive, nondestructive, and water-insensitive technique that can detect changes in cells and tissues that are caused by different disorders, such as cancer. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used for the identification and characterization of murine fibroblast cell lines (NIH/3T3) and malignant fibroblast cells transformed by murine sarcoma virus (NIH-MuSV) cells. Using principal component analysis and LDA it was possible to differentiate between the NIH/3T3 and NIH-MuSV cells with an 80-85% success rate based on their Raman shift spectra. The best results for differentiation were achieved from spectra that were obtained from the rich membrane sites. Because of its homogeneity and complete control of most factors affecting its growth, cell culture is a preferred model for the detection and identification of specific biomarkers related to cancer transformation or other cellular modifications.

  9. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1 Induces Mouse Precartilaginous Stem Cell Proliferation through TGF-β Receptor II (TGFRII-Akt-β-Catenin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs could self-renew or differentiate into chondrocytes to promote bone growth. In the current study, we aim to understand the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in precartilaginous stem cell (PSC proliferation, and to study the underlying mechanisms. We successfully purified and primary-cultured PSCs from the neonate mice’ perichondrial mesenchyme, and their phenotype was confirmed by the PSC marker fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3 overexpression. We found that TGF-β1 induced Akt-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β phosphorylation and β-catenin nuclear translocation in the mouse PSCs, which was almost blocked by TGF-β receptor-II (TGFRII shRNA knockdown. Further, perifosine and MK-2206, two Akt-specific inhibitors, suppressed TGF-β1-induced GSK3β phosphorylation and β-catenin nuclear translocation. Akt inhibitors, as well as β-catenin shRNA knockdown largely inhibited TGF-β1-stimulated cyclin D1/c-myc gene transcription and mouse PSC proliferation. Based on these results, we suggest that TGF-β1 induces Akt activation to promote β-catenin nuclear accumulation, which then regulates cyclin D1/c-myc gene transcription to eventually promote mouse PSC proliferation.

  10. Removal of Cu(II) ions by biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) prior to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit: a statistical design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoglu, M Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing Cu(II) ions was realized in an activated sludge unit with pre-adsorption of Cu(II) onto powdered waste sludge (PWS). Box-Behnken experimental design method was used to investigate Cu(II), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxicity removal performance of the activated sludge unit under different operating conditions. The independent variables were the solids retention time (SRT, 5-30 d), hydraulic residence time (HRT, 5-25 h), feed Cu(II) concentration (0-50 mg L(-1)) and PWS loading rate (0-4 g h(-1)) while percent Cu(II), COD, toxicity (TOX) removals and the sludge volume index (SVI) were the objective functions. The data were correlated with a quadratic response function (R2=0.99). Cu(II), COD and toxicity removals increased with increasing PWS loading rate and SRT while decreasing with the increasing feed Cu(II) concentration and HRT. Optimum conditions resulting in maximum Cu(II), COD, toxicity removals and SVI values were found to be SRT of 30 d, HRT 15 h, PWS loading rate 3 g h(-1) and feed Cu(II) concentration of less than 30 mg L(-1).

  11. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  12. Cosmic Statistics of Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.

    1999-01-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...

  13. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  14. Statistic analysis on reliability of power transmission and transformation facilities in China in 2010%2010年全国输变电设施可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娟; 胡小正

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics on reliability indices of nation-wide 220 kV and the above power transmission and transformation facilities in 2010, especially operation data of three main kinds of power transmission and transformation facilities, namely transformer, circuit breaker and overhead line, the main influencing causes of scheduled and unscheduled outages were analyzed and evaluated. Through the analysis of reliability indices in recent years, the reliability changing tendency was discussed, which provided the beneficial basis for improving the reliability of power transmission and transformation facilities in the coming years.%通过对2010年全国220 kV及以上电压等级输变电设施可靠性分析,特别是对220kV、330 kV、500kV变压器、断路器、架空线路3类主要输变电设施的计划停运及非计划停运方面的分析,从技术及责任原因中找出影响其运行可靠性的薄弱环节,并通过设备型式、部件分析、进口与国产设备指标对比,找出了可靠性的变化趋势,为规划、设计、施工、生产等各环节电力企业制定确保输变电设施可靠性有效措施提供参考依据.

  15. Statistics & probaility for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    Two complete eBooks for one low price! Created and compiled by the publisher, this Statistics I and Statistics II bundle brings together two math titles in one, e-only bundle. With this special bundle, you'll get the complete text of the following two titles: Statistics For Dummies, 2nd Edition  Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more. Tra

  16. Highly efficient sorghum transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoquan; Godwin, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient microprojectile transformation system for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) has been developed by using immature embryos (IEs) of inbred line Tx430. Co-bombardment was performed with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene, both under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 (ubi1) promoter. After optimization of both tissue culture media and parameters of microprojectile transformation, 25 independent transgenic events were obtain...

  17. Contributions to industrial statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about statistics' contributions to industry. It is an article compendium comprising four articles divided in two blocks: (i) two contributions for a water supply company, and (ii) significance of the effects in Design of Experiments. In the first block, great emphasis is placed on how the research design and statistics can be applied to various real problems that a water company raises and it aims to convince water management companies that statistics can be very useful to impr...

  18. Immature transformed rat islet beta-cells differentially express C-peptides derived from the genes coding for insulin I and II as well as a transfected human insulin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, N; Petersen, J S; Andersen, L C;

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic peptides representing unique sequences in rat proinsulin C-peptide I and II were used to generate highly specific antisera, which, when applied on sections of normal rat pancreas, confirm a homogeneous coexpression of the two C-peptides in all islet beta-cells. Insulin gene expression...... is induced in the transformed heterogeneous rat islet cell clone, NHI-6F, by transient in vivo passage. During this process a transfected human insulin gene is coactivated with the endogenous nonallelic rat insulin I and II genes. Newly established cultures from NHI-6F insulinomas having a high frequency...

  19. Statistical Neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Gregory Harold

    1982-03-01

    The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better

  20. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  1. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  2. Statistical Analysis of Main and Interaction Effects on Cu(II) and Cr(VI) Decontamination by Nitrogen-Doped Magnetic Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yunguo

    2016-10-01

    A nitrogen-doped magnetic graphene oxide (NMGO) was synthesized and applied as an adsorbent to remove Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The individual and combined effects of various factors (A: pH, B: temperature, C: initial concentration of metal ions, D: CaCl2, and E: humic acid [HA]) on the adsorption were analyzed by a 25-1 fractional factorial design (FFD). The results from this study indicated that the NMGO had higher adsorption capacities for Cu(II) ions than for Cr(VI) ions under most conditions, and the five selected variables affected the two adsorption processes to different extents. A, AC, and C were the very important factors and interactions for Cu(II) adsorption. For Cr(VI) adsorption, A, B, C, AB, and BC were found to be very important influencing variables. The solution pH (A) was the most important influencing factor for removal of both the ions. The main effects of A-E on the removal of Cu(II) were positive. For Cr(VI) adsorption, the main effects of A and D were negative, while B, C, and E were observed to have positive effects. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions over NMGO were 146.365 and 72.978 mg/g, respectively, under optimal process conditions.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Main and Interaction Effects on Cu(II) and Cr(VI) Decontamination by Nitrogen–Doped Magnetic Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yunguo

    2016-01-01

    A nitrogen–doped magnetic graphene oxide (NMGO) was synthesized and applied as an adsorbent to remove Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The individual and combined effects of various factors (A: pH, B: temperature, C: initial concentration of metal ions, D: CaCl2, and E: humic acid [HA]) on the adsorption were analyzed by a 25−1 fractional factorial design (FFD). The results from this study indicated that the NMGO had higher adsorption capacities for Cu(II) ions than for Cr(VI) ions under most conditions, and the five selected variables affected the two adsorption processes to different extents. A, AC, and C were the very important factors and interactions for Cu(II) adsorption. For Cr(VI) adsorption, A, B, C, AB, and BC were found to be very important influencing variables. The solution pH (A) was the most important influencing factor for removal of both the ions. The main effects of A–E on the removal of Cu(II) were positive. For Cr(VI) adsorption, the main effects of A and D were negative, while B, C, and E were observed to have positive effects. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions over NMGO were 146.365 and 72.978 mg/g, respectively, under optimal process conditions. PMID:27694891

  4. Differential regulation of Smad3 and of the type II transforming growth factor-β receptor in mitosis: implications for signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Tal; Barizilay, Lior; Smorodinsky, Nechama I; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) depends on cellular context. This context is changed in mitosis through selective inhibition of vesicle trafficking, reduction in cell volume and the activation of mitotic kinases. We hypothesized that these alterations in cell context may induce a differential regulation of Smads and TGF-β receptors. We tested this hypothesis in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells, arrested (or not) in mitosis with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). In mitosis, without TGF-β stimulation, Smad3 was phosphorylated at the C-terminus and linker regions and localized to the mitotic spindle. Phosphorylated Smad3 interacted with the negative regulators of Smad signaling, Smurf2 and Ski, and failed to induce a transcriptional response. Moreover, in cells arrested in mitosis, Smad3 levels were progressively reduced. These phosphorylations and reduction in the levels of Smad3 depended on ERK activation and Mps1 kinase activity, and were abrogated by increasing the volume of cells arrested in mitosis with hypotonic medium. Furthermore, an Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of GFP-Smad3 was also observed upon its over-expression in interphase cells, suggesting a mechanism of negative regulation which counters increases in Smad3 concentration. Arrest in mitosis also induced a block in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Moreover, following the stimulation of mitotic cells with TGF-β, the proteasome-mediated attenuation of TGF-β receptor activity, the degradation and clearance of TβRII from the plasma membrane, and the clearance of the TGF-β ligand from the medium were compromised, and the C-terminus phosphorylation of Smad3 was prolonged. We propose that the reduction in Smad3 levels, its linker phosphorylation, and its association with negative regulators (observed in mitosis prior to ligand stimulation) represent a signal attenuating mechanism. This mechanism is balanced by the retention of active TGF

  5. Differential Regulation of Smad3 and of the Type II Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor in Mitosis: Implications for Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Tal; Barizilay, Lior; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) depends on cellular context. This context is changed in mitosis through selective inhibition of vesicle trafficking, reduction in cell volume and the activation of mitotic kinases. We hypothesized that these alterations in cell context may induce a differential regulation of Smads and TGF-β receptors. We tested this hypothesis in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells, arrested (or not) in mitosis with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). In mitosis, without TGF-β stimulation, Smad3 was phosphorylated at the C-terminus and linker regions and localized to the mitotic spindle. Phosphorylated Smad3 interacted with the negative regulators of Smad signaling, Smurf2 and Ski, and failed to induce a transcriptional response. Moreover, in cells arrested in mitosis, Smad3 levels were progressively reduced. These phosphorylations and reduction in the levels of Smad3 depended on ERK activation and Mps1 kinase activity, and were abrogated by increasing the volume of cells arrested in mitosis with hypotonic medium. Furthermore, an Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of GFP-Smad3 was also observed upon its over-expression in interphase cells, suggesting a mechanism of negative regulation which counters increases in Smad3 concentration. Arrest in mitosis also induced a block in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Moreover, following the stimulation of mitotic cells with TGF-β, the proteasome-mediated attenuation of TGF-β receptor activity, the degradation and clearance of TβRII from the plasma membrane, and the clearance of the TGF-β ligand from the medium were compromised, and the C-terminus phosphorylation of Smad3 was prolonged. We propose that the reduction in Smad3 levels, its linker phosphorylation, and its association with negative regulators (observed in mitosis prior to ligand stimulation) represent a signal attenuating mechanism. This mechanism is balanced by the retention of active TGF

  6. Krüppel-like factor KLF10 regulates transforming growth factor receptor II expression and TGF-β signaling in CD8+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Konstantinos A; Krempski, James; Reiter, Jesse; Svingen, Phyllis; Xiong, Yuning; Sarmento, Olga F; Huseby, April; Johnson, Aaron J; Lomberk, Gwen A; Urrutia, Raul A; Faubion, William A

    2015-03-01

    KLF10 has recently elicited significant attention as a transcriptional regulator of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling in CD4(+) T cells. In the current study, we demonstrate a novel role for KLF10 in the regulation of TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII) expression with functional relevance in antiviral immune response. Specifically, we show that KLF10-deficient mice have an increased number of effector/memory CD8(+) T cells, display higher levels of the T helper type 1 cell-associated transcription factor T-bet, and produce more IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation. In addition, KLF10(-/-) CD8(+) T cells show enhanced proliferation in vitro and homeostatic proliferation in vivo. Freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells from the spleen of adult mice express lower levels of surface TGF-βRII (TβRII). Congruently, in vitro activation of KLF10-deficient CD8(+) T cells upregulate TGF-βRII to a lesser extent compared with wild-type (WT) CD8(+) T cells, which results in attenuated Smad2 phosphorylation following TGF-β1 stimulation compared with WT CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that KLF10 directly binds to the TGF-βRII promoter in T cells, leading to enhanced gene expression. In vivo viral infection with Daniel's strain Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) also led to lower expression of TGF-βRII among viral-specific KLF10(-/-) CD8(+) T cells and a higher percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells in the spleen. Collectively, our data reveal a critical role for KLF10 in the transcriptional activation of TGF-βRII in CD8(+) T cells. Thus, KLF10 regulation of TGF-βRII in this cell subset may likely play a critical role in viral and tumor immune responses for which the integrity of the TGF-β1/TGF-βRII signaling pathway is crucial. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Business Statistics Education: Content and Software in Undergraduate Business Statistics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Manouchehr; Gamble, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Survey responses from 204 of 500 business schools identified most often topics in business statistics I and II courses. The most popular software at both levels was Minitab. Most schools required both statistics I and II. (SK)

  8. Algebraic Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...

  9. Transforming Graph Data for Statistical Relational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    usna.edu Department of Computer Science, U.S. Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402, USA David W. Aha david.aha@nrl.navy.mil Navy Center for Applied Research in... Martinez , 2002; Camacho, Guimerà, & Nunes Amaral, 2002), bioinformatics (Maslov & Sneppen, 2002; Jeong, Mason, Barabási, & Oltvai, 2001), fraud...validating relational sampling techniques (Leskovec, Chakrabarti, Kleinberg, Faloutsos, & Ghahramani, 2010; Moreno & Neville, 2009; Ahmed, Neville

  10. GUIDANCE FOR STATISTICAL DETERMINATION OF APPROPRIATE PERCENT MINORITY AND PERCENT POVERTY DISTRIBUTIONAL CUTOFF VALUES USING CENSUS DATA FOR AND EPA REGION II ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to assist Region H by providing a statistical analysis identifying the areas with minority and below poverty populations known as "Community of Concern" (COC). The aim was to find a cutoff value as a threshold to identify a COC using demographic data...

  11. Truncated Linear Statistics Associated with the Eigenvalues of Random Matrices II. Partial Sums over Proper Time Delays for Chaotic Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Texier, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Invariant ensembles of random matrices are characterized by the distribution of their eigenvalues \\{λ _1,\\ldots ,λ _N\\}. We study the distribution of truncated linear statistics of the form \\tilde{L}=\\sum _{i=1}^p f(λ _i) with pprocess. Using the Coulomb gas technique, we derive the large deviation function for \\tilde{L}. Large deviations of linear statistics L=\\sum _{i=1}^N f(λ _i) are usually dominated by the energy of the Coulomb gas, which scales as ˜ N^2, implying that the relative fluctuations are of order 1 / N. For the truncated linear statistics considered here, there is a whole region (including the typical fluctuations region), where the energy of the Coulomb gas is frozen and the large deviation function is purely controlled by an entropic effect. Because the entropy scales as ˜ N, the relative fluctuations are of order 1/√{N}. Our analysis relies on the mapping on a problem of p fictitious non-interacting fermions in N energy levels, which can exhibit both positive and negative effective (absolute) temperatures. We determine the large deviation function characterizing the distribution of the truncated linear statistics, and show that, for the case considered here (f(λ )=1/λ ), the corresponding phase diagram is separated in three different phases.

  12. Cocaine profiling for strategic intelligence, a cross-border project between France and Switzerland: part II. Validation of the statistical methodology for the profiling of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lociciro, S; Esseiva, P; Hayoz, P; Dujourdy, L; Besacier, F; Margot, P

    2008-05-20

    Harmonisation and optimization of analytical and statistical methodologies were carried out between two forensic laboratories (Lausanne, Switzerland and Lyon, France) in order to provide drug intelligence for cross-border cocaine seizures. Part I dealt with the optimization of the analytical method and its robustness. This second part investigates statistical methodologies that will provide reliable comparison of cocaine seizures analysed on two different gas chromatographs interfaced with a flame ionisation detectors (GC-FIDs) in two distinct laboratories. Sixty-six statistical combinations (ten data pre-treatments followed by six different distance measurements and correlation coefficients) were applied. One pre-treatment (N+S: area of each peak is divided by its standard deviation calculated from the whole data set) followed by the Cosine or Pearson correlation coefficients were found to be the best statistical compromise for optimal discrimination of linked and non-linked samples. The centralisation of the analyses in one single laboratory is not a required condition anymore to compare samples seized in different countries. This allows collaboration, but also, jurisdictional control over data.

  13. Technical Note: A measure of watershed nonlinearity II: re-introducing an IFP inverse fractional power transform for streamflow recession analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    This note illustrates, in the context of Brutsaert-Nieber (1977) model: -dQ/dt = aQb, the utility of a newly rediscovered inverse fractional power (IFP) transform of the flow rates. This method of streamflow recession analysis dates back a half-century. The IFP transform Δb on an operand Q is defined as Δb Q = 1/Qb-1. Brutsaert-Nieber model by IFP transform thus becomes: ΔbQ(t) = ΔbQ(0) + (b-1) at, if b ≠ 1. The IFP transformed recession curve appears as a straight line on a semi-IFP plot. The method has both the advantage of being independent of the size of computational time step, and the disadvantage of being depending on the parameter b value. This is used to calibrate the Brutsaert-Nieber recession flow model in which b is a slope (or shape) parameter, and a is an intercept (or a scale parameter). It is applied to four observed events on the Spoon River in Illinois (4237 km2). The results show that the IFP transform method gives a narrower range of parameter b values than the regression method in a recession plot. Theoretically, an IFP transformed recession curve for large watersheds falls between those performed by the reciprocal of the cubic root (RoCR) transform and the reciprocal of the square root (RoSR) one. In general, the forgotten IFP transform method merits a fresh look, especially for hillslopes and zero-order catchments, the building blocks of a watershed system. In particular, because of its origin in hillslope hydrology, the 1-parameter RoSR transform need be falsified or verified for application to headwater catchments.

  14. When the Single Matters more than the Group (II): Addressing the Problem of High False Positive Rates in Single Case Voxel Based Morphometry Using Non-parametric Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpazza, Cristina; Nichols, Thomas E; Seramondi, Donato; Maumet, Camille; Sartori, Giuseppe; Mechelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies have used Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) to compare a single patient with a psychiatric or neurological condition of interest against a group of healthy controls. However, the validity of this approach critically relies on the assumption that the single patient is drawn from a hypothetical population with a normal distribution and variance equal to that of the control group. In a previous investigation, we demonstrated that family-wise false positive error rate (i.e., the proportion of statistical comparisons yielding at least one false positive) in single case VBM are much higher than expected (Scarpazza et al., 2013). Here, we examine whether the use of non-parametric statistics, which does not rely on the assumptions of normal distribution and equal variance, would enable the investigation of single subjects with good control of false positive risk. We empirically estimated false positive rates (FPRs) in single case non-parametric VBM, by performing 400 statistical comparisons between a single disease-free individual and a group of 100 disease-free controls. The impact of smoothing (4, 8, and 12 mm) and type of pre-processing (Modulated, Unmodulated) was also examined, as these factors have been found to influence FPRs in previous investigations using parametric statistics. The 400 statistical comparisons were repeated using two independent, freely available data sets in order to maximize the generalizability of the results. We found that the family-wise error rate was 5% for increases and 3.6% for decreases in one data set; and 5.6% for increases and 6.3% for decreases in the other data set (5% nominal). Further, these results were not dependent on the level of smoothing and modulation. Therefore, the present study provides empirical evidence that single case VBM studies with non-parametric statistics are not susceptible to high false positive rates. The critical implication of this finding is that VBM can be used

  15. Angiotensin II induces hypertrophy of human airway smooth muscle cells: expression of transcription factors and transforming growth factor-beta1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. McKay (Sue); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan); H.S. Sharma (Hari)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIncreased smooth muscle mass due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells is a common feature in asthma. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogen for a wide variety of cells, has recently been implicated in bron

  16. Hair breakage by combing and brushing--a comment on: T. A. Evans and K. Park, A statistical analysis of hair breakage. II. Repeated grooming experiments, J. Cosmet. Sci., 41, 439-456 (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Y K; Robbins, C

    2011-01-01

    Literature dealing with the mechanisms of hair breakage in combing and brushing published so far has been reviewed as a background for the critical evaluation of the method and data analysis of the paper "Statistical Analysis of Hair Breakage. II" by Evans and Park (1). Accumulated knowledge about hair breakage in these grooming processes indicates that hair breakage in combing and brushing results from tangling, looping, knotting, and impact loading. Fatiguing, though responsible for some weakening of the fiber in the grooming process, it is unlikely to be a significant factor in hair breakage in combing and brushing.

  17. Statistical analysis of water-quality data containing multiple detection limits II: S-language software for nonparametric distribution modeling and hypothesis testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.; Helsel, D.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of low concentrations of trace contaminants in environmental media often results in left-censored data that are below some limit of analytical precision. Interpretation of values becomes complicated when there are multiple detection limits in the data-perhaps as a result of changing analytical precision over time. Parametric and semi-parametric methods, such as maximum likelihood estimation and robust regression on order statistics, can be employed to model distributions of multiply censored data and provide estimates of summary statistics. However, these methods are based on assumptions about the underlying distribution of data. Nonparametric methods provide an alternative that does not require such assumptions. A standard nonparametric method for estimating summary statistics of multiply-censored data is the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method. This method has seen widespread usage in the medical sciences within a general framework termed "survival analysis" where it is employed with right-censored time-to-failure data. However, K-M methods are equally valid for the left-censored data common in the geosciences. Our S-language software provides an analytical framework based on K-M methods that is tailored to the needs of the earth and environmental sciences community. This includes routines for the generation of empirical cumulative distribution functions, prediction or exceedance probabilities, and related confidence limits computation. Additionally, our software contains K-M-based routines for nonparametric hypothesis testing among an unlimited number of grouping variables. A primary characteristic of K-M methods is that they do not perform extrapolation and interpolation. Thus, these routines cannot be used to model statistics beyond the observed data range or when linear interpolation is desired. For such applications, the aforementioned parametric and semi-parametric methods must be used.

  18. Bayesian statistics

    OpenAIRE

    新家, 健精

    2013-01-01

    © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved. Article Outline: Glossary Definition of the Subject and Introduction The Bayesian Statistical Paradigm Three Examples Comparison with the Frequentist Statistical Paradigm Future Directions Bibliography

  19. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  20. Prediction of logP for Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes: Comparison of statistical and quantum-chemistry based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetko, Igor V; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Talmaciu, Mona; Platts, James A; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    The octanol/water partition coefficient, logP, is one of the most important physico-chemical parameters for the development of new metal-based anticancer drugs with improved pharmacokinetic properties. This study addresses an issue with the absence of publicly available models to predict logP of Pt(IV) complexes. Following data collection and subsequent development of models based on 187 complexes from literature, we validate new and previously published models on a new set of 11 Pt(II) and 35 Pt(IV) complexes, which were kept blind during the model development step. The error of the consensus model, 0.65 for Pt(IV) and 0.37 for Pt(II) complexes, indicates its good accuracy of predictions. The lower accuracy for Pt(IV) complexes was attributed to experimental difficulties with logP measurements for some poorly-soluble compounds. This model was developed using general-purpose descriptors such as extended functional groups, molecular fragments and E-state indices. Surprisingly, models based on quantum-chemistry calculations provided lower prediction accuracy. We also found that all the developed models strongly overestimate logP values for the three complexes measured in the presence of DMSO. Considering that DMSO is frequently used as a solvent to store chemicals, its effect should not be overlooked when logP measurements by means of the shake flask method are performed. The final models are freely available at http://ochem.eu/article/76903.

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  2. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Treumann, R A

    2014-01-01

    A form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

  3. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf A. Treumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

  4. A Powerful Procedure for Pathway-Based Meta-analysis Using Summary Statistics Identifies 43 Pathways Associated with Type II Diabetes in European Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Wheeler, William; Hyland, Paula L; Yang, Yifan; Shi, Jianxin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yu, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analysis of multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has become an effective approach for detecting single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with complex traits. However, it is difficult to integrate the readily accessible SNP-level summary statistics from a meta-analysis into more powerful multi-marker testing procedures, which generally require individual-level genetic data. We developed a general procedure called Summary based Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (sARTP) for conducting gene and pathway meta-analysis that uses only SNP-level summary statistics in combination with genotype correlation estimated from a panel of individual-level genetic data. We demonstrated the validity and power advantage of sARTP through empirical and simulated data. We conducted a comprehensive pathway-based meta-analysis with sARTP on type 2 diabetes (T2D) by integrating SNP-level summary statistics from two large studies consisting of 19,809 T2D cases and 111,181 controls with European ancestry. Among 4,713 candidate pathways from which genes in neighborhoods of 170 GWAS established T2D loci were excluded, we detected 43 T2D globally significant pathways (with Bonferroni corrected p-values < 0.05), which included the insulin signaling pathway and T2D pathway defined by KEGG, as well as the pathways defined according to specific gene expression patterns on pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and bladder carcinoma. Using summary data from 8 eastern Asian T2D GWAS with 6,952 cases and 11,865 controls, we showed 7 out of the 43 pathways identified in European populations remained to be significant in eastern Asians at the false discovery rate of 0.1. We created an R package and a web-based tool for sARTP with the capability to analyze pathways with thousands of genes and tens of thousands of SNPs.

  5. Harmonic statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-05-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.

  6. Fatigue-Related Gene Networks Identified in CD14+ Cells Isolated From HIV-Infected Patients—Part II: Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joachim G.; Dobra, Adrian; Morse, Caryn; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Raju, Raghavan; Danner, Robert L.; Munson, Peter J.; Logan, Carolea; Rangel, Zoila; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Mary; Adams, Larry D.; Dalakas, Marinos C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In limited samples of valuable biological tissues, univariate ranking methods of microarray analyses often fail to show significant differences among expression profiles. In order to allow for hypothesis generation, novel statistical modeling systems can be greatly beneficial. The authors applied new statistical approaches to solve the issue of limited experimental data to generate new hypotheses in CD14+ cells of patients with HIV-related fatigue (HRF) and healthy controls. Methodology We compared gene expression profiles of CD14+ cells of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-treated HIV patients with low versus high fatigue to healthy controls (n = 5 each). With novel Bayesian modeling procedures, the authors identified 32 genes predictive of low versus high fatigue and 33 genes predictive of healthy versus HIV infection. Sparse association and liquid association networks further elucidated the possible biological pathways in which these genes are involved. Relevance for nursing practice Genetic networks developed in a comprehensive Bayesian framework from small sample sizes allow nursing researchers to design future research approaches to address such issues as HRF. Implication for practice The findings from this pilot study may take us one step closer to the development of useful biomarker targets for fatigue status. Specific and reliable tests are needed to diagnosis, monitor and treat fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22084402

  7. A Mn-54 Radiotracer Study of Mn Isotope Solid-Liquid Exchange during Reductive Transformation of Vernadite (δ-MnO₂) by Aqueous Mn(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, Evert J.; Kustka, Adam B. [Rutgers

    2015-04-09

    We employed Mn-54 radiotracers to characterize the extent and dynamics of Mn atom exchange between aqueous Mn(II) and vernadite (δ-Mn(IV)O2) at pH 7.5 under anoxic conditions. Exchange of Mn atoms between the solid and liquid phase is rapid, reaching dynamic equilibrium in 2–4 days. We propose that during the initial stages of reaction, Mn atom exchange occurs through consecutive comproportionation-disproportionation reactions where interfacial electron transfer from adsorbed Mn(II) to lattice Mn(IV) generates labile Mn(III) cations that rapidly disproportionate to reform aqueous Mn(II) and solid-phase Mn(IV). Following nucleation of Mn(III)OOH phases, additional exchange likely occurs through electron transfer from aqueous Mn(II) to solid-phase Mn(III). Our results provide evidence for the fast and extensive production of transient Mn(III) species at the vernadite surface upon contact of this substrate with dissolved Mn(II). We further show that HEPES buffer is a reductant of lattice Mn(IV) in the vernadite structure in our experiments. The methods and results presented here introduce application of Mn-54 tracers as a facile tool to further investigate the formation kinetics of labile Mn(III) surface species and their impacts on Mn-oxide structure and reactivity over a range of environmentally relevant geochemical conditions.

  8. Non-Parametric Statistical Methods and Data Transformations in Agricultural Pest Population Studies Métodos Estadísticos no Paramétricos y Transformaciones de Datos en Estudios de Poblaciones de Plagas Agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Cabrera Campos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing data from agricultural pest populations regularly detects that they do not fulfill the theoretical requirements to implement classical ANOVA. Box-Cox transformations and nonparametric statistical methods are commonly used as alternatives to solve this problem. In this paper, we describe the results of applying these techniques to data from Thrips palmi Karny sampled in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantations. The X² test was used for the goodness-of-fit of negative binomial distribution and as a test of independence to investigate the relationship between plant strata and insect stages. Seven data transformations were also applied to meet the requirements of classical ANOVA, which failed to eliminate the relationship between mean and variance. Given this negative result, comparisons between insect population densities were made using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test. Results from this analysis allowed selecting the insect larval stage and plant middle stratum as keys to design pest sampling plans.Al analizar datos provenientes de poblaciones de plagas agrícolas, regularmente se detecta que no cumplen los requerimientos teóricos para la aplicación del ANDEVA clásico. El uso de transformaciones Box-Cox y de métodos estadísticos no paramétricos resulta la alternativa más utilizada para resolver este inconveniente. En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados de la aplicación de estas técnicas a datos provenientes de Thrips palmi Karny muestreadas en plantaciones de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el período de incidencia de la plaga. Se utilizó la dócima X² para la bondad de ajuste a la distribución binomial negativa y de independencia para investigar la relación entre los estratos de las plantas y los estados del insecto, se aplicaron siete transformaciones a los datos para satisfacer el cumplimiento de los supuestos básicos del ANDEVA, con las cuales no se logró eliminar la relación entre la media y la

  9. Post-synthetic transformation of a Zn( ii ) polyhedral coordination network into a new supramolecular isomer of HKUST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Nankai University; Tianjin 300071; P. R. China; College of Pharmacy; Wojtas, Lukasz [Department of Chemistry; University of South Florida; 4202 East Fowler Avenue; Tampa; USA; Ma, Shengqian [Department of Chemistry; University of South Florida; 4202 East Fowler Avenue; Tampa; USA; Zaworotko, Michael J. [Department of Chemistry & Environmental Sciences, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick; Limerick; Republic of Ireland; Zhang, Zhenjie [College of Chemistry, Nankai University; Tianjin; P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology; Nankai University

    2017-01-01

    A Zn-based porphyrin containing metal–organic material (porphMOM-1) was post-synthetically transformed into a Cu-based porphyrin-encapsulating metal–organic material (porph@HKUST-1-β).HKUST-1-βis a new supramolecular isomer ofHKUST-1.

  10. Milky Way Demographics with the VVV Survey II. Color Transformations and Near-Infrared Photometry for 136 Million Stars in the Southern Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, M; Gunthardt, G; Minniti, D; Lucas, P; Majaess, D; Irwin, M; Emerson, J P; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Hempel, M; Saito, R K; Gurovich, S; Roman-Lopes, A; Moni-Bidin, C; Santucho, M V; Borissova, J; Kurtev, R; Toledo, I; Geisler, D; Dominguez, M; Beamin, J C

    2013-01-01

    The new multi-epoch near-infrared VVV survey (VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea) is sampling 562 sq. deg of the Galactic bulge and adjacent regions of the disk. Accurate astrometry established for the region surveyed allows the VVV data to be merged with overlapping surveys (e.g., GLIMPSE, WISE, 2MASS, etc.), thereby enabling the construction of longer baseline spectral energy distributions for astronomical targets. However, in order to maximize use of the VVV data, a set of transformation equations are required to place the VVV JHKs photometry onto the 2MASS system. The impetus for this work is to develop those transformations via a comparison of 2MASS targets in 152 VVV fields sampling the Galactic disk. The transformation coefficients derived exhibit a reliance on variables such as extinction. The transformed data were subsequently employed to establish a mean reddening law of E_{J-H}/E_{H-Ks}=2.13 +/- 0.04, which is the most precise determination to date and merely emphasizes the pertinence of the VVV dat...

  11. Comparative studies in Rous sarcoma with virus, tumor cells, and chick embryo cells transformed in vitro by virus. II. Response of normal and immunized chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOUGHERTY, R M; MORGAN, H R

    1962-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblasts infected in vitro with Rous sarcoma virus have properties similar to tumor cells when injected into virus-immune chickens. When such virus-transformed fibroblasts are injected into normal chickens, they apparently participate in the production of tumors independent of their release of virus and are thus apparently malignant in vivo.

  12. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  13. Outpatient bendamustine and idarubicin for upfront therapy of elderly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome: a phase I/II study using an innovative statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Jack M; Pagel, John M; Sandhu, Vicky K; Xie, Hu; Shadman, Mazyar; Mawad, Raya; Boehm, Alexandra; Dean, Carol; Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen; Scott, Bart L; Deeg, Hans Joachim; Becker, Pamela S; Hendrie, Paul C; Walter, Roland B; Ostronoff, Fabiana; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Estey, Elihu H

    2014-08-01

    Combinations of agents may improve outcomes among elderly acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. We performed an adaptive phase I/II trial for newly-diagnosed AML or high-risk MDS patients aged ≥50 years using a Bayesian approach to determine whether 1 of 3 doses of bendamustine (45, 60, 75 mg/m(2) days 1-3), together with idarubicin (12 mg/m(2) days 1-2), might provide a complete response (CR) rate ≥40% with 10% marrow blasts; median age 73 years). None of the three bendamustine doses in combination with idarubicin met the required CR and toxicity rates; the 75 mg/m(2) dose because of excess toxicity (two of three patients) and the 60 mg/m(2) dose because of low efficacy (CR rate 10/33), although no grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity was seen at this dose. Median survival was 7·2 months. All patients began treatment as outpatients but hospitalization was required in 90% (35/39). Although we did not find a dose of bendamustine combined with idarubicin that would provide a CR rate of >40% with acceptable toxicity, bendamustine may have activity in AML/MDS patients, suggesting its addition to other regimens may be warranted.

  14. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  15. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  16. Histoplasmosis Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, an estimated 60% to ...

  17. Statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re

  18. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  19. Breakthroughs in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman

    This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...

  20. A statistical-dynamical scheme for reconstructing ocean forcing in the Atlantic. Part II: methodology, validation and application to high-resolution ocean models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minvielle, Marie; Cassou, Christophe; Terray, Laurent; Najac, Julien [CERFACS/CNRS, Climate Modelling and Global Change Team, Toulouse (France); Bourdalle-Badie, Romain [CERFACS/CNRS, Climate Modelling and Global Change Team, Toulouse (France); MERCATOR Parc Technologique du Canal, Ramonville St Agne (France)

    2011-02-15

    A novel statistical-dynamical scheme has been developed to reconstruct the sea surface atmospheric variables necessary to force an ocean model. Multiple linear regressions are first built over a so-called learning period and over the entire Atlantic basin from the observed relationship between the surface wind conditions, or predictands, and the anomalous large scale atmospheric circulations, or predictors. The latter are estimated in the extratropics by 500 hPa geopotential height weather regimes and in the tropics by low-level wind classes. The transfer function further combined to an analog step is then used to reconstruct all the surface variables fields over 1958-2002. We show that the proposed hybrid scheme is very skillful in reproducing the mean state, the seasonal cycle and the temporal evolution of all the surface ocean variables at interannual timescale. Deficiencies are found in the level of variance especially in the tropics. It is underestimated for 2-m temperature and humidity as well as for surface radiative fluxes in the interannual frequency band while it is slightly overestimated at higher frequency. Decomposition in empirical orthogonal function (EOF) shows that the spatial and temporal coherence of the forcing fields is however very well captured by the reconstruction method. For dynamical downscaling purposes, reconstructed fields are then interpolated and used to carry out a high-resolution oceanic simulation using the NATL4 (1/4 ) model integrated over 1979-2001. This simulation is compared to a reference experiment where the original observed forcing fields are prescribed instead. Mean states between the two experiments are virtually undistinguishable both in terms of surface fluxes and ocean dynamics estimated by the barotropic and the meridional overturning streamfunctions. The 3-dimensional variance of the simulated ocean is well preserved at interannual timescale both for temperature and salinity except in the tropics where it is

  1. EPR spectroscopy of a clinically active (1:2) copper(II)-histidine complex used in the treatment of Menkes disease: a Fourier transform analysis of a fluid CW-EPR spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, Lukas; Lawson, Michael; Jomova, Klaudia; Zelenicky, Lubomir; Congradyova, Andrea; Mazur, Milan; Valko, Marian

    2014-01-15

    Redox active transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper) have been implicated in the etiology of many oxidative stress-related diseases including also neurodegenerative disorders. Unbound copper can catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radicals) via Fenton reaction/Haber-Weiss chemistry and therefore, under physiological conditions, free copper is potentially toxic and very rarely exists inside cells. Copper(II) bound to the aminoacid L-histidine represents a species discovered in blood in the mid 60s and since then extensive research on this complex was carried out. Copper bound to L-histidine represents an exchangeable pool of copper(II) in equilibrium with the most abundant blood plasma protein, human serum albumin. The structure of this complex, in aqueous solution, has been a subject of many studies and reviews, however without convincing success. The significance of the (1:2) copper(II)-L-histidine complex at physiological pH documents its therapeutic applications in the treatment of Menkes disease and more recently in the treatment of infantile hypertrophic cardioencephalomyopathy. While recently the (1:2) Cu(II)-L-His complex has been successfully crystallized and the crystal structure was solved by X-ray diffraction, the structure of the complex in fluid solution at physiological pH is not satisfactorily known. The aim of this paper is to study the (1:2) Cu(II)-L-histidine complex at low temperatures by X-band and S-band EPR spectroscopy and at physiological pH at room temperature by Fourier transform CW-EPR spectroscopy.

  2. EPR Spectroscopy of a Clinically Active (1:2 Copper(II-Histidine Complex Used in the Treatment of Menkes Disease: A Fourier Transform Analysis of a Fluid CW-EPR Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Gala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Redox active transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper have been implicated in the etiology of many oxidative stress-related diseases including also neurodegenerative disorders. Unbound copper can catalyze formation of reactive oxygen species (hydroxyl radicals via Fenton reaction/Haber–Weiss chemistry and therefore, under physiological conditions, free copper is potentially toxic and very rarely exists inside cells. Copper(II bound to the aminoacid L-histidine represents a species discovered in blood in the mid 60s and since then extensive research on this complex was carried out. Copper bound to L-histidine represents an exchangeable pool of copper(II in equilibrium with the most abundant blood plasma protein, human serum albumin. The structure of this complex, in aqueous solution, has been a subject of many studies and reviews, however without convincing success. The significance of the (1:2 copper(II-L-histidine complex at physiological pH documents its therapeutic applications in the treatment of Menkes disease and more recently in the treatment of infantile hypertrophic cardioencephalomyopathy. While recently the (1:2 Cu(II-L-His complex has been successfully crystallized and the crystal structure was solved by X-ray diffraction, the structure of the complex in fluid solution at physiological pH is not satisfactorily known. The aim of this paper is to study the (1:2 Cu(II-L-histidine complex at low temperatures by X-band and S-band EPR spectroscopy and at physiological pH at room temperature by Fourier transform CW-EPR spectroscopy.

  3. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  4. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  5. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  6. Statistics 101 for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E

    2015-10-01

    Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced.

  7. Transformation of Pb(II) from Cerrusite to Chloropyromorphite in the Presence of Hydroxyapatite under Varying Conditions of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.A.; Zhang, P.

    1998-10-14

    Cerrusite (PbC03) is soluble under acidic conditions and considered to be a highly bioavailable soil Pb species. In this study, synthetic cerrusite and hydroxyapatite [Ca5(P04)30H] were reacted under constant and dynamic pH conditions with various P/Pb molar ratios in an attempt to evaluate the effect of reaction kinetics on the formation of chloropyromorphite (Pb5(P04)3Cl) and solubilization of Pb. Under constant pH conditions, dissolution rates of both cerrusite and apatite were rapid when pH was low. Complete conversion of Pb from cerrusite to chloropyromorphite occurred within 60 tin at pH 4 and below when the amount of phosphate in the added apatite was stoichoimetrically equal to that needed to transform all added Pb into chloropyromorphite. The concentration of soluble Pb depended upon the volubility of chloropyromorphite. The dissolution rates of apatite and cerrusite decreased with increasing pH, and the transformation was incomplete at pH 5 and above in the 60 rnin reaction period. The soluble Pb level, therefore, was determined by the volubility of cerrusite. In the dynamic pH system which simulated the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) system, a complete transformation of Pb from cerrusite to chloropyromorphite was achieved due to the complete dissolution of apatite and cerrusite at the initial low pHs. Chloropyromorphite was the exclusive reaction product in both constant and dynamic pH systems as indicated by XRD analysis. The differences in transformation rate and the control of Pb volubility between the reactions occurring in constant and dynamic pH systems indicate the significance of kinetics in controlling the bioavailability of Pb and the potential for the reaction to occur during ingestion.

  8. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  9. Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring vs. Flare-Quiet Active Regions II: A Magnetic Charge Topology Model and Statistical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Longcope, D. W.

    2003-05-01

    The complexity of the coronal magnetic field extrapolated from a Magnetic Charge Topology (MCT) model, is examined for pre-event signatures unique to solar energetic phenomena. Although extensive use has been made of quantities measured at the photosphere, it is important to consider the magnetic field in the corona, where (for example) the hard X-ray signatures of energy release in solar flares are observed. By quantifying the inferred coronal magnetic topology we are no longer limited to considering solely the magnetic state of the photosphere. MCT is applied to temporally sampled photospheric magnetic data from the U. Hawai`i Imaging Vector Magnetograph, for 24 flare-event and flare-quiet epochs from seven active regions. We outline the methodology employed for automating the application of MCT to large data sets of complex active regions: partitioning the observed Bz at the photosphere, assigning a charge to each partition, and using this charge distribution to extrapolate the field in the corona. From the resulting field we compute the connectivity matrix ψ ij, the location of null points and the intersection of separatrix surfaces, i.e. separator field lines. Parameters are constructed to describe, for example, the magnetic connectivities, the magnetic flux in those connections, and the number of separators. Examining particular events results in no obvious trends in the magnitude and temporal evolution of the parameters just prior to flare events. Thus, we employ the same quantitative statistical approach outlined in Leka and Barnes [this session], i.e. applying discriminant analysis and Hotelling's T2-test, and ranking all four-variable discriminant functions as a proxy for a single all-variable discriminant function. We present those parameters which consistently appear in the best combinations, indicating that they may play an important role in defining a pre-event coronal state. This work was performed under Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  10. Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

  11. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2005-01-01

    In this revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this goal through a coherent mix of mathematical analysis, intuitive discussions and examples.* Ross's clear writin

  12. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2010-01-01

    In this 3rd edition revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. Concepts are motivated, illustrated and explained in a way that attempts to increase one's intuition. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this

  13. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  14. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory H

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  15. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  16. Unexpected metal ion-assisted transformations leading to unexplored bridging ligands in Ni(II) coordination chemistry: the case of PO3F(2-) group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Despina; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Psycharis, Vassilis; Escuer, Albert; Perlepes, Spyros P; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2014-10-21

    The initial 'accidental', metal ion-assisted hydrolysis of PF6(-) to PO3F(2-) has been evolved in a systematic investigation of the bridging affinity of the latter group in Ni(II)/oximate chemistry; mono-, di- and trinuclear complexes have been prepared and confirmed both the rich reactivity of PO3F(2-) and its potential for further use as bridging ligand in high-nuclearity 3d-metal cluster chemistry.

  17. Photogrammetric computer vision statistics, geometry, orientation and reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Förstner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a statistical view on the geometry of multiple view analysis, required for camera calibration and orientation and for geometric scene reconstruction based on geometric image features. The authors have backgrounds in geodesy and also long experience with development and research in computer vision, and this is the first book to present a joint approach from the converging fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Part I of the book provides an introduction to estimation theory, covering aspects such as Bayesian estimation, variance components, and sequential estimation, with a focus on the statistically sound diagnostics of estimation results essential in vision metrology. Part II provides tools for 2D and 3D geometric reasoning using projective geometry. This includes oriented projective geometry and tools for statistically optimal estimation and test of geometric entities and transformations and their rela­tions, tools that are useful also in the context of uncertain reasoning in po...

  18. Versatile Tailoring of Paddle-Wheel Zn(II) Metal-Organic Frameworks through Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tapan K; Neogi, Subhadip; Bharadwaj, Parimal K

    2015-11-01

    A new tetracarboxylate ligand having short and long arms formed 2D layer Zn(II) coordination polymer 1 with paddle-wheel secondary building units under solvothermal conditions. The framework undergoes solvent-specific single crystal-to-single crystal (SC-SC) transmetalation to produce 1Cu . With a sterically encumbered dipyridyl linker, the same ligand forms non-interpenetrated, 3D, pillared-layer Zn(II) metal-organic framework (MOF) 2, which takes part in SC-SC linker-exchange reactions to produce three daughter frameworks. The parent MOF 2 shows preferential incorporation of the longest linker in competitive linker-exchange experiments. All the 3D MOFs undergo complete SC-SC transmetalation with Cu(II) , whereby metal exchange in different solvents and monitoring of X-ray structures revealed that bulky solvated metal ions lead to ordering of the shortest linker in the framework, which confirms that the solvated metal ions enter through the pores along the linker axis.

  19. SEER Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  20. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  1. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  2. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  3. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  4. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  5. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  6. Long-term stabilization by radiosurgery of a secondary focal anaplastic transformation in a surgically treated WHO grade II oligodendroglioma. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Y N; Rodriguez-Arribas, M-A; Duffau, H

    2015-02-01

    We report on a young woman with a left temporal diffuse low-grade glioma treated initially by a subtotal resection. A focal anaplastic area appeared 5years later and was treated by radiosurgery. A long-time stabilization was therefore obtained and lasted even after pregnancy, which is a known factor of faster tumour progression. This report shows that radiosurgery could be an option in the multimodal treatment of a selected group of patients with focal malignant transformation of diffuse low-grade glioma. It could permit long-term stabilization of the tumour without any other adjuvant treatment and without compromising the quality of life.

  7. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  8. Anion-exchange and anthracene-encapsulation within copper(II) and manganese(II)-triazole metal-organic confined space in a single crystal-to-single crystal transformation fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yuan, Bin; Xu, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Cong-Ying; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Ying; Ding, Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Yue, Min Min

    2014-06-16

    A new multidentate ligand 1-(9-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)anthracen-10-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (tatrz) was designed and synthesized. Using tatrz as a building block, three novel coordination frameworks, namely, {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·(CH3OH)·4H2O}n (1), {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](BF4)2}n (2), and [Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2(CH3OH)]·2H2O (3) can be isolated. Anion-exchange experiment indicates that NO3(-) anions in the two-dimensional (2D) copper framework of 1 can be completely exchanged by ClO4(-) in an irreversible single crystal-to-single crystal (SC-SC) transformation fashion, as evidenced by the anion-exchange products of {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·4CH3OH} (1a). Further, if 1a was employed as a precursor in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), an isomorphic solvate of {[Cu(tatrz)2(DMF)2](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (1b) can be generated during the reversible dynamic transformation process. When 1 was immersed in CH3OH, a distinct 2D layer {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·4.4CH3OH·0.6H2O}n (1c) was isolated. Interestingly, the solvent-exchange conversion is also invertible between 1 and 1c, which exhibits spongelike dynamic behavior with retention of crystalline integrity. If the 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) framework 2 is selected, it can be transformed into another 2-fold interpenetrating 3D framework {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·5.56H2O}n (2a) in a reversible SC-SC transformation fashion. However, when the light yellow crystals of mononuclear complex 3 were exposed to trichloromethane containing aromatic organic anthracene (atan), through our careful observation, the crystals of 3 were dissolved and reassembled into dark brown crystals of 2D crystalline coordination framework {[Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2]·(atan)}n (3a). X-ray diffraction revealed that in 3a, atan acting as an organic template was encapsulated in the confined space of the 2D grid. Luminescent measurements illustrate that 3a is the first report of multidimensional polymers based on triazole derivatives as luminescent probes of Mg(2+).

  9. Design of image codec based on Bandelet transform using a NIOS II processor Diseño de un codec de imágenes basado en la transformada Bandelet utilizando un procesador NIOSII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Andres Arteaga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a compression system for grayscale images based on the Bandelet transform. The basis functions of the Bandelet transform are constructed as a set of vectors that indicate the directions in which the image has regular variations of gray. The compression system was designed as a SoPC and was composed of a NIOSII processor with a Cyclone IIEP2C70, a touch-panel, and a SD-Card, using 13% of the logic elements and 27% of the memory bits of the FPGA. The Wavelet filters were accelerated in hardware with NIOS II C2H Compiler, obtaining an execution time reduction of 8.8%. Experimental results show that Bandelet compression has an improvement of up to 2 dB over a Wavelet compression when the image has geometric components with high contrast.Este trabajo presenta el diseño e implementación de un codec de imágenes en escalas de gris basado en la transformada Bandelet. Las funciones base para la transformada Bandelet se implementan a partir de vectores de flujo geométrico que indican la dirección en la que una región de la imagen tiene variaciones regulares de los niveles de gris. El codec se diseñó como un sistema SoPC con un procesador NIOS II embebido en el FPGA Cyclone II EP2C70, con una pantalla táctil, y una SD-Card, usando el 13% de elementos lógicos y el 27% de bits de memoria del FPGA. Los filtros Wavelet fueron acelerados en hardware con NIOS II C2H Compiler, logrando una reducción en el tiempo de ejecución del 8,8%. Las pruebas realizadas muestran que la compresión con funciones Bandelet llega a ser hasta 2 dB superior a la compresión realizada con funciones Wavelet 2D cuando la imagen tiene componentes geométricos con alto contraste.

  10. A comparison of MOP-phosphonite ligands and their applications in Rh(i)- and Pd(ii)-catalysed asymmetric transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James T; Wills, Corinne; Waddell, Paul G; Harrington, Ross W; Higham, Lee J

    2016-10-04

    Six chiral MOP-phosphonites have been synthesised and compared via experimental and computational methods in an effort to quantify their differing structural and electronic profiles. They were found to be electron-poor ligands in comparison to their arylphosphine analogues and have a larger trans influence in square planar Pt(ii) complexes. Four [Rh(L(P))(η(2):η(2)-cod)Cl] complexes were synthesised and characterised by NMR, HRMS and X-ray crystallography. Two [Rh(L(P))2]BF4 complexes were prepared where one ligand acts as a chelating P,C-π-donor; detailed NMR studies demonstrated a hemilabile η(6)-coordination mode, which in one case was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Rh(i) complexes were used as catalysts in asymmetric hydrogenation and hydroformylation reactions and in the addition of phenyl boronic acid to an isatin. Pd(ii) complexes were successfully employed in asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions yielding binaphthyl products. Two [Pd(L(P))2Cl2] complexes were synthesised and characterised by X-ray crystallography, both adopting cis orientations, with one of the complexes crystallising as two pseudo-polymorphs.

  11. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabl, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...

  12. Discrete Cosine Transform-II for Reduction in Peak to Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals Through μ-Law Companding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kaur

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonalfrequency Division multiplexing (OFDM is the most familiar word intelecommunicationand wireless communication systems as it provides enhanced spectral efficiency than Frequency divisionmultiplexing (FDM.Although itissustaininganorthogonal relationbetweencarriers but highpeak toaverage power ratio (PAPRis oneof the main disadvantages of OFDMsystem.Various PAPR reductiontechniques have beenused,including techniques based oncompanding. Incompanding,-Lawcompandinghas potential toreducethePAPRof OFDMsignals.-Law Compandingtechniquepreserves thedynamic range of samples at low amplitudes.Anew methodnamed as precoding which ishaving less complexity compared to the other power reductiontechniquesis proposed to reduce PAPR.This paper put forward combinationof two existing techniques namely-LawCompanding Transformand Discrete Cosine Transform-IIprecoding technique.The simulationresults show that, the proposedcombinedscheme givesbetter result for PAPR Reductionand resultsin no distortion

  13. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  14. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  15. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin

    2012-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  16. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a

  17. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody

  18. Different expression of mu-opiate receptor in chronic and acute wounds and the effect of beta-endorphin on transforming growth factor beta type II receptor and cytokeratin 16 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliardi, P L; Sumanovski, L T; Büchner, S; Rufli, T; Bigliardi-Qi, M

    2003-01-01

    There is evidence that neuropeptides, especially the opiate receptor agonists, are involved in wound healing. We have previously observed that beta-endorphin, the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, stimulates the expression of cytokeratin 16 in a dose-dependent manner in human skin organ cultures. Cytokeratin 16 is expressed in hyperproliferative epidermis such as psoriasis and wound healing. Therefore we were interested to study whether epidermal mu-opiate receptor expression is changed at the wound margins in acute and chronic wounds. Using classical and confocal microscopy, we were able to compare the expression level of mu-opiate receptors and the influence of beta-endorphin on transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in organ culture. Our results show indeed a significantly decreased expression of mu-opiate receptors on keratinocytes close to the wound margin of chronic wounds compared to acute wounds. Additionally beta-endorphin upregulates the expression of transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human skin organ cultures. These results suggest a crucial role of opioid peptides not only in pain control but also in wound healing. Opioid peptides have already been used in animal models in treatment of wounds; they induce fibroblast proliferation and growth of capillaries, and accelerate the maturation of granulation tissue and the epithelization of the defect. Furthermore opioid peptides may fine-tune pain and the inflammatory response while healing takes place. This new knowledge could potentially be used to design new locally applied drugs to improve the healing of painful chronic wounds.

  19. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1997, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1998, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-September 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-September 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  20. Statistics; Tilastot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1996, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1997, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products

  1. Statistical Mechancis

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    C. Cercignani: A sketch of the theory of the Boltzmann equation.- O.E. Lanford: Qualitative and statistical theory of dissipative systems.- E.H. Lieb: many particle Coulomb systems.- B. Tirozzi: Report on renormalization group.- A. Wehrl: Basic properties of entropy in quantum mechanics.

  2. Occurrence and fate of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist transformation product valsartan acid in the water cycle--a comparative study with selected β-blockers and the persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nödler, Karsten; Hillebrand, Olav; Idzik, Krzysztof; Strathmann, Martin; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Licha, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    The substantial transformation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan to the transformation product 2'-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (referred to as valsartan acid) during the activated sludge process was demonstrated in the literature and confirmed in the here presented study. However, there was a severe lack of knowledge regarding the occurrence and fate of this compound in surface water and its behavior during drinking water treatment. In this work a comparative study on the occurrence and persistency of valsartan acid, three frequently used β-blockers (metoprolol, atenolol, and sotalol), atenolol acid (one significant transformation product of atenolol and metoprolol), and the two widely distributed persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame in raw sewage, treated wastewater, surface water, groundwater, and tap water is presented. Median concentrations of valsartan acid in the analyzed matrices were 101, 1,310, 69, treatment plants were confirmed as significant source. Regarding concentration levels of pharmaceutical residues in surface waters valsartan acid was found just as relevant as the analyzed β-blockers and the anticonvulsant carbamazepine. Regarding its persistency in surface waters it was comparable to carbamazepine and acesulfame. Furthermore, removal of valsartan acid during bank filtration was poor, which demonstrated the relevance of this compound for drinking water suppliers. Regarding drinking water treatment (Muelheim Process) the compound was resistant to ozonation but effectively eliminated (≥90%) by subsequent activated carbon filtration. However, without applying activated carbon filtration the compound may enter the drinking water distribution system as it was demonstrated for Berlin tap water.

  3. Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir...

  4. International Aid Statistics: World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-31

    Each 0 0 00 0 ~/ Excludes Theatre Transfers. See Appendix A for sources and coverage • . . : . ~J Nicar- agua 14 0 0 0 0 14 4 18 311 310...cereal products 615 Susar, chocolate and saccharine products 619 ~ther Foodstuffs not classified above 620 Agricultural Products Other Than

  5. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  6. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

    2013-01-01

    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  7. Aspectos relevantes sobre la formación docente en I y II ciclos en los temas probabilidad y estadística / Relevant Aspects on Teaching Probability and Statistics in Basic General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Víquez Ortiz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1995 se incluyen en los programas de estudio del Ministerio de Educación Pública (MEP los temas de estadística y probabilidad en I y II Ciclos de la Educación General Básica. Como parte del análisis de la realidad de la enseñanza de dichos temas se realizó una investigación en dos regiones educativas del país, a saber: Heredia y Pérez Zeledón. Se indagó acerca de la formación universitaria que los docentes, en ejercicio en esas regiones, han tenido en dichas temáticas para enfrentar su enseñanza en las aulas, así como en los procesos de capacitación y actualización que han recibido. Al final de la investigación se evidenció la escasa formación universitaria en estos temas y la insatisfacción de los docentes al respecto, además del poco acompañamiento que han tenido durante el ejercicio de su profesión por parte de entes capacitadores.Probability and Statistics were included in the Basic General Education curricula by the Ministry of Public Education (Costa Rica, since 1995. To analyze the teaching reality in these fields, a research was conducted in two educational regions of the country: Heredia and Pérez Zeledón. The survey included university training and updating processes of teachers teaching Statistics and Probability in the schools. The research demonstrated the limited university training in these fields, the dissatisfaction of teachers about it, and the poor support of training institutions to their professional exercise. Recibido 14 de marzo de 2012 •  Corregido 01 de junio de 2012 • Aceptado 28 de junio de 2012

  8. Gasdermin C Is Upregulated by Inactivation of Transforming Growth Factor β Receptor Type II in the Presence of Mutated Apc, Promoting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguchi, Masashi; Hinoi, Takao; Shimomura, Manabu; Adachi, Tomohiro; Saito, Yasufumi; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Kochi, Masatoshi; Sada, Haruki; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Shigeyasu, Kunitoshi; Tanakaya, Kohji; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oue, Naohide; Yasui, Wataru; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in TGFBR2, a component of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway, occur in high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) colorectal cancer (CRC). In mouse models, Tgfbr2 inactivation in the intestinal epithelium accelerates the development of malignant intestinal tumors in combination with disruption of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway. However, no studies have further identified the genes influenced by TGFBR2 inactivation following disruption of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway. We previously described CDX2P-G19Cre;Apcflox/flox mice, which is stochastically null for Apc in the colon epithelium. In this study, we generated CDX2P-G19Cre;Apcflox/flox;Tgfbr2flox/flox mice, with simultaneous loss of Apc and Tgfbr2. These mice developed tumors, including adenocarcinoma in the proximal colon. We compared gene expression profiles between tumors of the two types of mice using microarray analysis. Our results showed that the expression of the murine homolog of GSDMC was significantly upregulated by 9.25-fold in tumors of CDX2P-G19Cre;Apcflox/flox;Tgfbr2flox/flox mice compared with those of CDX2P-G19Cre;Apcflox/flox mice. We then investigated the role of GSDMC in regulating CRC tumorigenesis. The silencing of GSDMC led to a significant reduction in the proliferation and tumorigenesis of CRC cell lines, whereas the overexpression of GSDMC enhanced cell proliferation. These results suggested that GSDMC functioned as an oncogene, promoting cell proliferation in colorectal carcinogenesis. In conclusion, combined inactivation of both Apc and Tgfbr2 in the colon epithelium of a CRC mouse model promoted development of adenocarcinoma in the proximal colon. Moreover, GSDMC was upregulated by TGFBR2 mutation in CRC and promoted tumor cell proliferation in CRC carcinogenesis, suggesting that GSDMC may be a promising therapeutic target.

  9. miR-135b Promotes Cancer Progression by Targeting Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor II (TGFBR2 in Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialu Li

    Full Text Available The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathway is a tumor-suppressor pathway that is commonly inactivated in colorectal cancer (CRC. The inactivation of TGFBR2 is the most common genetic event affecting the TGF-β signaling pathway. However, the mechanism by which cancer cells downregulate TGFBR2 is unclear. In this study, we found that the TGFBR2 protein levels were consistently upregulated in CRC tissues, whereas its mRNA levels varied in these tissues, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism is involved in the regulation of TGFBR2. Because microRNAs (miRNAs are powerful post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, we performed bioinformatic analyses to search for miRNAs that potentially target TGFBR2. We identified the specific targeting site of miR-135b in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of TGFBR2. We further identified an inverse correlation between the levels of miR-135b and TGFBR2 protein, but not mRNA, in CRC tissue samples. By overexpressing or silencing miR-135b in CRC cells, we experimentally validated that miR-135b directly binds to the 3'-UTR of the TGFBR2 transcript and regulates TGFBR2 expression. Furthermore, the biological consequences of the targeting of TGFBR2 by miR-135b were examined using in vitro cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. We demonstrated that miR-135b exerted a tumor-promoting effect by inducing the proliferation and inhibiting the apoptosis of CRC cells via the negative regulation of TGFBR2 expression. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence supporting the role of miR-135b as an oncogene in CRC via the inhibition of TGFBR2 translation.

  10. Decorin inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by elevating the expression of transforming growth factor-β receptor II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Zhaohui; Ju, Wenbo; Wang, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of decorin (DCN) on the proliferation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the involvement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway. A vector containing DCN was transfected into HepG2 cells with the use of Lipofectamine 2000. Cell proliferation was assessed with an MTT assay, and western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), phosphorylated TGF-βRI, p15 and TGF-βRII. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing was performed to knock down the target gene. The results indicated that, compared with the control group, cell proliferation was significantly decreased in HepG2 cells transfected with DCN. In addition, DCN transfection significantly increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI in HepG2 cells. The expression of the downstream factor p15 was also significantly elevated in the DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. Furthermore, DCN transfection significantly elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII in HepG2 cells. By contrast, the silencing of TGF-βRII significantly decreased the phosphorylation of TGF-βRI in DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. In addition, TGF-βRII silencing abolished the effects of DCN on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, DCN elevated the expression level of TGF-βRII, increased the phosphorylation level of TGF-βRI, enhanced the expression of p15, and finally inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the role of DCN in the pathogenesis of hepatic carcinoma and assist in the disease treatment.

  11. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  12. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  13. Characterization of the low-temperature triplet state of chlorophyll in photosystem II core complexes: Application of phosphorescence measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelin, Alexey A; Neverov, Konstantin V; Krasnovsky, Alexander A; Shkuropatova, Valentina A; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Shkuropatov, Anatoly Ya

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorescence measurements at 77 K and light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy at 95 K were applied to study of the triplet state of chlorophyll a ((3)Chl) in photosystem II (PSII) core complexes isolated from spinach. Using both methods, (3)Chl was observed in the core preparations with doubly reduced primary quinone acceptor QA. The spectral parameters of Chl phosphorescence resemble those in the isolated PSII reaction centers (RCs). The main spectral maximum and the lifetime of the phosphorescence corresponded to 955±1 nm and of 1.65±0.05 ms respectively; in the excitation spectrum, the absorption maxima of all core complex pigments (Chl, pheophytin a (Pheo), and β-carotene) were observed. The differential signal at 1667(-)/1628(+)cm(-1) reflecting a downshift of the stretching frequency of the 13(1)-keto C=O group of Chl was found to dominate in the triplet-minus-singlet FTIR difference spectrum of core complexes. Based on FTIR results and literature data, it is proposed that (3)Chl is mostly localized on the accessory chlorophyll that is in triplet equilibrium with P680. Analysis of the data suggests that the Chl triplet state responsible for the phosphorescence and the FTIR difference spectrum is mainly generated due to charge recombination in the reaction center radical pair P680(+)PheoD1(-), and the energy and temporal parameters of this triplet state as well as the molecular environment and interactions of the triplet-bearing Chl molecule are similar in the PSII core complexes and isolated PSII RCs.

  14. Extraction of weak PcP phases using the slant-stacklet transform - II: constraints on lateral variations of structure near the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Resolving the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D″ region is key to improving our understanding of the interaction between the Earth's mantle and core. Observations of traveltimes and amplitudes of short-period teleseismic body waves sensitive to lowermost mantle provide essential constraints on the properties of this region. Major challenges are low signal-to-noise ratio of the target phases and interference with other mantle phases. In a previous paper (Part I), we introduced the slant-stacklet transform to enhance the signal of the core-reflected (PcP) phase and to isolate it from stronger signals in the coda of the P wave. Then we minimized a linear misfit between P and PcP waveforms to improve the quality of PcP-P traveltime difference measurements as compared to standard cross-correlation methods. This method significantly increases the quantity and the quality of PcP-P traveltime observations available for the modelling of structure near the CMB. Here we illustrate our approach in a series of regional studies of the CMB and D″ using PcP-P observations with unprecedented resolution from high-quality dense arrays located in North America and Japan for events with magnitude Mw>5.4 and distances up to 80°. In this process, we carefully analyse various sources of errors and show that mantle heterogeneity is the most significant. We find and correct bias due to mantle heterogeneities that is as large as 1 s in traveltime, comparable to the largest lateral PcP-P traveltime variations observed. We illustrate the importance of accurate mantle corrections and the need for higher resolution mantle models for future studies. After optimal mantle corrections, the main signal left is relatively long wavelength in the regions sampled, except at the border of the Pacific large-low shear velocity province (LLSVP). We detect the northwest border of the Pacific LLSVP in the western Pacific from array observations in

  15. Down-regulation of transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII protein and mRNA expression in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariglio Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinogenesis is a multistep process initiated by "high risk" human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV, most commonly HPV16. The infection per se is, however, not sufficient to induce malignant conversion. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β inhibits epithelial proliferation and altered expression of TGF-β or its receptors may be important in carcinogenesis. One cofactor candidate to initiate neoplasia in cervical cancer is the prolonged exposure to sex hormones. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that estrogens suppress TGF-β induced gene expression. To examine the expression of TGF-β2, TGF-βRII, p15 and c-myc we used in situ RT-PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing the oncogene E7 of HPV16 under control of the human Keratin-14 promoter (K14-E7 transgenic mice and nontransgenic control mice treated for 6 months with slow release pellets of 17β-estradiol. Results Estrogen-induced carcinogenesis was accompanied by an increase in the incidence and distribution of proliferating cells solely within the cervical and vaginal squamous epithelium of K14-E7 mice. TGF-β2 mRNA and protein levels increased in K14-E7 transgenic mice as compared with nontransgenic mice and further increased after hormone-treatment in both nontransgenic and transgenic mice. In contrast, TGF-βRII mRNA and protein levels were decreased in K14-E7 transgenic mice compared to nontransgenic mice and these levels were further decreased after hormone treatment in transgenic mice. We also observed that c-myc mRNA levels were high in K14-E7 mice irrespective of estrogen treatment and were increased in estrogen-treated nontransgenic mice. Finally we found that p15 mRNA levels were not increased in K14-E7 mice. Conclusion These results suggest that the synergy between estrogen and E7 in inducing cervical cancer may in part reflect the ability of both factors to modulate TGF-β signal transduction.

  16. Depth statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In 1975 John Tukey proposed a multivariate median which is the 'deepest' point in a given data cloud in R^d. Later, in measuring the depth of an arbitrary point z with respect to the data, David Donoho and Miriam Gasko considered hyperplanes through z and determined its 'depth' by the smallest portion of data that are separated by such a hyperplane. Since then, these ideas has proved extremely fruitful. A rich statistical methodology has developed that is based on data depth and, more general...

  17. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, statistical mechanics has been increasingly recognized as a central domain of mathematics. Major developments include the Schramm-Loewner evolution, which describes two-dimensional phase transitions, random matrix theory, renormalization group theory and the fluctuations of random surfaces described by dimers. The lectures contained in this volume present an introduction to recent mathematical progress in these fields. They are designed for graduate students in mathematics with a strong background in analysis and probability. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers interested in modern aspects of probability, conformal field theory, percolation, random matrices and stochastic differential equations.

  18. Modeling cosmic void statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the internal structure and spatial distribution of cosmic voids is crucial when considering them as probes of cosmology. We present recent advances in modeling void density- and velocity-profiles in real space, as well as void two-point statistics in redshift space, by examining voids identified via the watershed transform in state-of-the-art ΛCDM n-body simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The simple and universal characteristics that emerge from these statistics indicate the self-similarity of large-scale structure and suggest cosmic voids to be among the most pristine objects to consider for future studies on the nature of dark energy, dark matter and modified gravity.

  19. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  20. 考虑参数不对称的变压器励磁涌流统计分析%Statistical Analysis of Transformer Magnetizing Inrush Current Based on Unbalanced Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏成军; 代文良; 黄冬燕; 邱桂华

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism and characteristic of magnetizing inrush current in three-phase transformer are analyzed. The influence of the asymmetric phenomenon to magnetizing inrush current is researched.%分析了三相变压器励磁涌流的机理和特点,研究了不对称现象对励磁涌流的影响。

  1. κ-deformed Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfone, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new formulation of Fourier transform in the picture of the κ-algebra derived in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The κ-Fourier transform is obtained from a κ-Fourier series recently introduced by Scarfone (2013). The kernel of this transform, that reduces to the usual exponential phase in the κ → 0 limit, is composed by a κ-deformed phase and a damping factor that gives a wavelet-like behaviour. We show that the κ-Fourier transform is isomorph to the standard Fourier transform through a changing of time and frequency variables. Nevertheless, the new formalism is useful to study, according to Fourier analysis, those functions defined in the realm of the κ-algebra. As a relevant application, we discuss the central limit theorem for the κ-sum of n-iterate statistically independent random variables.

  2. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  3. Image quantization: statistics and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Muka, Edward

    1998-07-01

    A method for analyzing the effects of quantization, developed for temporal one-dimensional signals, is extended to two- dimensional radiographic images. By calculating the probability density function for the second order statistics (the differences between nearest neighbor pixels) and utilizing its Fourier transform (the characteristic function), the effect of quantization on image statistics can be studied by the use of standard communication theory. The approach is demonstrated by characterizing the noise properties of a storage phosphor computed radiography system and the image statistics of a simple radiographic object (cylinder) and by comparing the model to experimental measurements. The role of quantization noise and the onset of contouring in image degradation are explained.

  4. Issues in biomedical statistics: comparing means under normal distribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, J

    1995-04-01

    The test used most commonly in biomedical research to compare means when measurements have been made on a continuous scale is Student's t-test, followed closely by various forms of analysis of variance. These tests require that defined populations have been randomly sampled, but there are other assumptions about populations and samples that must be satisfied. These include: (i) normality of the population distributions; (ii) equal variance in those normal populations; and (iii) statistical independence of the samples. This review offers advice to investigators on how to recognize breaches of the assumptions of normality and equality of variance, and how to deal with them by modifying the usual t-test or by transforming the experimental data. The sample-size also has an important bearing on statistical inferences: (i) if it is too small, the risk of Type II error is inflated; and (ii) inequality of sample size exaggerates the effects of inequality of variance. The assumption of independence is breached if repeated measurements are made serially rather than in random order, but adjustments to analysis of variance can be made to correct for the inflated risk of Type I error. The review also considers the problem of making multiple comparisons of means, and recommends solutions.

  5. Testing the significance of a correlation with nonnormal data: comparison of Pearson, Spearman, transformation, and resampling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Anthony J; Hittner, James B

    2012-09-01

    It is well known that when data are nonnormally distributed, a test of the significance of Pearson's r may inflate Type I error rates and reduce power. Statistics textbooks and the simulation literature provide several alternatives to Pearson's correlation. However, the relative performance of these alternatives has been unclear. Two simulation studies were conducted to compare 12 methods, including Pearson, Spearman's rank-order, transformation, and resampling approaches. With most sample sizes (n ≥ 20), Type I and Type II error rates were minimized by transforming the data to a normal shape prior to assessing the Pearson correlation. Among transformation approaches, a general purpose rank-based inverse normal transformation (i.e., transformation to rankit scores) was most beneficial. However, when samples were both small (n ≤ 10) and extremely nonnormal, the permutation test often outperformed other alternatives, including various bootstrap tests.

  6. Organelle transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future.

  7. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project...

  8. Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis:II. Cell Genome and Interactome, Neoplastic Non-random Transformation Models in Topoi with Lukasiewicz-Logic and MV Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative Biology, abstract q-bio.OT/0406045 From: I.C. Baianu Dr. [view email] Date (v1): Thu, 24 Jun 2004 02:45:13 GMT (164kb) Date (revised v2): Fri, 2 Jul 2004 00:58:06 GMT (160kb) Complex Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: II. Authors: I.C. Baianu Comments: 23 pages, 1 Figure Report-no: CC04 Subj-class: Other Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected modular sub-networks that evolve under the influence of micro-environmentally induced perturbations, in non-random, pseudo-Markov chain processes. An appropriate n-stage model of carcinogenesis involves therefore n-valued Logic treatments of nonlinear dynamic transformations of complex functional genomes and cell interactomes. Lukasiewicz Algebraic Logic models of genetic networks and signaling pathways in cells are formulated in terms of nonlinear dynamic systems with n-state components that allow for the generalization of previous, Boolean or "fuzzy", logic models of genetic activities in vivo....

  9. Comparative Variable Temperature Studies of Polyamide II with a Benchtop Fourier Transform and a Miniature Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer Using 2D-COS and PCMW-2D Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this communication is to compare the performance of a miniaturized handheld near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with a benchtop Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometer. Generally, NIR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful analytical tool to study hydrogen-bonding changes of amide functionalities in solid and liquid materials and therefore variable temperature NIR measurements of polyamide II (PAII) have been selected as a case study. The information content of the measurement data has been further enhanced by exploiting the potential of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and the perturbation correlation moving window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) evaluation technique. The data provide valuable insights not only into the changes of the hydrogen-bonding structure and the recrystallization of the hydrocarbon segments of the investigated PAII but also in their sequential order. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the 2D-COS and PCMW2D results derived from the spectra measured with the miniaturized NIR instrument are equivalent to the information extracted from the data obtained with the high-performance FT-NIR instrument.

  10. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzinski, Craig

    2011-12-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment?

  11. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  12. Probability and Statistics in Sensor Performance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    transformed Rice- Nakagami distribution ......................................................................... 49 Report Documentation Page...acoustic or electromagnetic waves are scattered by both objects and turbulent wind. A version of the Rice- Nakagami model (specifically with a...Gaussian, lognormal, exponential, gamma, and the 2XX → transformed Rice- Nakagami —as well as a discrete model. (Other examples of statistical models

  13. The relevance of EGFR overexpression for the prediction of the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jutta; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Agaimy, Abbas; Bechtold, Moritz; Gorecki, Patricia; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2013-09-01

    The present study evaluated the relevance of EGFR overexpression in prediction of malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia (OLP). The retrospective study comprised paraffin-embedded tissue samples of OLP that transformed into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (n=53) and tissue samples of OLP that did not transform into OSCC (n=45) during a follow-up period of 5 years. EGFR overexpression was assessed immunohistochemically. A significantly different expression rate of EGFR was determined between transformed and non-transformed OLP (p=0.017). A statistically significant increase of EGFR expression for low dysplasia lesions in group I compared to group II was proven (D0, p=0.013; D1, p=0.049). By calculation of ROC curve and determination of highest Youden index the optimal threshold value [cut-off point (COP) = 44.96] for distinguishing the transformed from non-transformed lesions was estimated (critical expression rate of EGFR). Using the determined COP the correlation between high-risk lesions and the detection of increased expression rates were significant (p=0.001). In the future, the assessment of EGFR overexpression in OLP may allow identifying OLP lesions with an increased risk of malignant transformation that may have been regarded harmless when only the grade of dysplasia had been taken into account.

  14. Wavelet transform in similarity paradigm II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractFor the majority of data mining applications, there are no models of data which would facilitate the tasks of comparing records of time series, thus leaving one with `noise' as the only description. We propose a generic approach to comparing noise time series using the largest deviations

  15. Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal Reversible Transformations Induced by Thermal Dehydration in Keggin-Type Polyoxometalates Decorated with Copper(II-Picolinate Complexes: The Structure Directing Role of Guanidinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroa Pache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new hybrid inorganic-metalorganic compounds containing Keggin-type polyoxometalates, neutral copper(II-picolinate complexes and guanidinium cations have been synthesized in bench conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction: the isostructural [C(NH23]4[{XW12O40}{Cu2(pic4}]·[Cu2(pic4(H2O]2·6H2O [X = Si (1, Ge (3] and [C(NH23]8[{SiW12O40}2{Cu(pic2}3{Cu2(pic4(H2O}2]·8H2O (2. The three compounds show a pronounced two-dimensional character owing to the structure-directing role of guanidinium. In 1 and 3, layers of [{XW12O40}{Cu2(pic4}]n4n− hybrid POM chains and layers of [Cu2(pic4(H2O] complexes and [C(NH23]+ cations pack alternately along the z axis. The hydrogen-bonding network established by guanidinium leads to a trihexagonal tiling arrangement of all copper(II-picolinate species. In contrast, layers of [C(NH23]+-linked [{SiW12O40}2{Cu(pic2}3]n8n− double chains where each Keggin cluster displays a {Cu2(pic4(H2O} moiety pointing at the intralamellar space are observed in 2. The thermal stability of 1–3 has been studied by thermogravimetric analyses and variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 3 undergo single-crystal to single-crystal transformations promoted by reversible dehydration processes and the structures of the corresponding anhydrous phases 1a and 3a have been established. Despite the fact that the [Cu2(pic4(H2O] dimeric complexes split into [Cu(pic2] monomers upon dehydration, the packing remains almost unaltered thanks to the preservation of the hydrogen-bonding network established by guanidinium and its associated Kagome-type lattice. Splitting of the dimeric complexes has been correlated with the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra.

  16. Statistical modelling with quantile functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Warren

    2000-01-01

    Galton used quantiles more than a hundred years ago in describing data. Tukey and Parzen used them in the 60s and 70s in describing populations. Since then, the authors of many papers, both theoretical and practical, have used various aspects of quantiles in their work. Until now, however, no one put all the ideas together to form what turns out to be a general approach to statistics.Statistical Modelling with Quantile Functions does just that. It systematically examines the entire process of statistical modelling, starting with using the quantile function to define continuous distributions. The author shows that by using this approach, it becomes possible to develop complex distributional models from simple components. A modelling kit can be developed that applies to the whole model - deterministic and stochastic components - and this kit operates by adding, multiplying, and transforming distributions rather than data.Statistical Modelling with Quantile Functions adds a new dimension to the practice of stati...

  17. Cyclin D-1, interleukin-6, HER-2/neu, transforming growth factor receptor-II and prediction of relapse in women with early stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Hyman B; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Crocker, Abigail; Plaut, Karen; Koh, James; Heintz, Nick; Rincon, Mercedes; Weaver, Donald L; Tam, Diane; Beatty, Barbara; Kaufman, Peter; Donovan, Michael; Verbel, David; Weiss, Linda

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that amplification or overexpression of HER-2 (c-erbB-2), the Ki-67 antigen (Mib1), cyclin D-1 (CD1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), or the transforming growth factor beta II receptor, (TGFbetaRII), would predict relapse in women with early stage, estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. Conditional logistic regression models and a new novel analytic method - support vector machines (SVM) were used to assess the effect of multiple variables on treatment outcome. All patients had stage I-IIIa breast cancer (AJCC version 5). We paired 63 patients who were disease-free on or after tamoxifen with 63 patients who had relapsed (total 126); both disease-free and relapsed patients were matched by duration of tamoxifen therapy and time to recurrence. These 126 patients also served as the training set for SVM analysis and 18 other patients used as a validation set for SVM. In a multivariate analysis, larger tumor size, increasing extent of lymph node involvement, and poorer tumor grade were significant predictors of relapse. When HER-2 or CD1 were added to the model both were borderline significant predictors of relapse. The SVM model, after including all of the clinical and marker variables in the 126 patients as a training set, correctly predicted relapse in 78% of the 18 patient validation samples. In this trial, HER-2 and CD1 proved of borderline significance as predictive factors for recurrence on tamoxifen. An SVM model that included all clinical and biologic variables correctly predicted relapse in >75% of patients.

  18. Application of fluid-rock reaction studies to in situ recovery from oil sand deposits, Alberta Canada. II. Mineral transformations during an experimental-statistical study of water-bitumen-shale reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, J.A.; Hitchon, B.

    1983-01-01

    During the experiment, calculations were made of the mud-mineral equilibrium and studies were made of the x-ray diffractogram of the solid phases. Data on deviations from equilibriums and intensity of the normalized x-ray diffraction peaks were processed by the method of dispersion analysis. It was established that in addition to dissolving the quartz, formation of montmorillonite occurs, probably by forming transitional illite-montmorillonite interstratified layered structures. The reactions promote high pH values of the aqueous medium. The solubility of siderite to a considerable degree is determined by the reaction time and mineralization of the aqueous phase, and also the ratios of pH/mineralization, time/mineralization and pH/temperature/time. Despite the limitations associated with laboratory nature of the experiment, one can draw the conclusion that during development of the bituminous sands by the in situ method, processes of dissolving minerals are widespread.

  19. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    , that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...

  20. ADE Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is a beautiful correspondence between configurations of lines on a rational surface and tautological bundles over that surface. We extend this correspondence to families, by means of a generalized Fourier-Mukai transform that relates spectral data to bundles over a rational surface fibration.

  1. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  2. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  3. Transformational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, Katrien; Dewulf, Art; Biesbroek, Robbert

    2016-01-01

    Although transformational change is a rather new topic in climate change adaptation literature, it has been studied in organisational theory for over 30 years. This paper argues that governance scholars can learn much from organisation theory, more specifically regarding the conceptualisation of

  4. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  5. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  6. Partial Discharge Type Recognition in Power Transformer Based on Statistical Parameters and RVM%基于统计特征参数与相关向量机的变压器局部放电类型识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚海昆; 苑津莎; 王瑜; 靳松

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the defect of traditional partial discharge pattern classifier, a novel method is proposed based on statistical parameters and RVM for partial discharge type recognition. 16 statistical parameters are extracted which represent partial discharge 2-dimension diagram. One against one multiple RVM classifier is designed. And then the extracted parameters are sent to RVM model for partial discharge type recognition. Experiment results demonstrate that RVM classifier can get good recognition effect. Compared with SVM, RVM has lower complexity, less relevance vec-tors, shorter training and testing time. The partial discharge type recognition accuracy of RVM and SVM is better than that of BPNN.%针对传统的局部放电模式分类器存在的不足,提出了一种基于统计特征参数与相关向量机( RVM )的变压器局部放电类型识别的新方法。首先针对4种变压器局部放电实验模型的二维图谱提取出表征图谱特征的16个统计参数,然后设计一对一RVM多分类模型,将统计参数作为输入向量送入RVM分类模型,实现放电类型识别。测试结果表明,RVM分类器具有较好的放电识别效果,与支持向量机( SVM)相比具有计算复杂度低、相关向量少、训练及测试时间短等优点,两者识别精度相当,均高于BPNN。

  7. The Statistical Drake Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation. From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this "the Statistical Drake Equation". The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov Form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg Form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that: The new random variable N, yielding the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy, follows the LOGNORMAL distribution. Then, as a consequence, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the ordinary N in the Drake equation. The standard deviation, mode, and all the moments of this lognormal N are also found. The seven factors in the ordinary Drake equation now become seven positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be ARBITRARY. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our statistical Drake equation by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both physically realistic and practically very useful, of course. An application of our statistical Drake equation then follows. The (average) DISTANCE between any two neighboring and communicating civilizations in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of N. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density

  8. Next gen wavelets down-sampling preserving statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Miao, Lidan; Chanyagon, Pornchai; Cader, Masud

    2007-04-01

    We extend the 2 nd Gen Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of Swelden to the Next Generations (NG) Digital Wavelet Transform (DWT) preserving the statistical salient features. The lossless NG DWT accomplishes the data compression of "wellness baseline profiles (WBP)" of aging population at homes. For medical monitoring system at home fronts we translate the military experience to dual usage of veterans & civilian alike with the following three requirements: (i) Data Compression: The necessary down sampling reduces the immense amount of data of individual WBP from hours to days and to weeks for primary caretakers in terms of moments, e.g. mean value, variance, etc., without the artifacts caused by FFT arbitrary windowing. (ii) Lossless: our new NG_DWT must preserve the original data sets. (iii) Phase Transition: NG_DWT must capture the critical phase transition of the wellness toward the sickness with simultaneous display of local statistical moments. According to the Nyquist sampling theory, assuming a band-limited wellness physiology, we must sample the WBP at least twice per day since it is changing diurnally and seasonally. Since NG_DWT, like the 2 nd Gen, is lossless, we can reconstruct the original time series for the physicians' second looks. This technique of NG_DWT can also help stock market day-traders monitoring the volatility of multiple portfolios without artificial horizon artifacts.

  9. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  10. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  11. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  12. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  13. Subspaces of FMmlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹红星; 戴琼海; 赵克; 陈桂明; 李衍达

    2002-01-01

    The subspaces of FMmlet transform are investigated.It is shown that some of the existing transforms like the Fourier transform,short-time Fourier transform,Gabor transform,wavelet transform,chirplet transform,the mean of signal,and the FM-1let transform,and the butterfly subspace are all special cases of FMmlet transform.Therefore the FMmlet transform is more flexible for delineating both the linear and nonlinear time-varying structures of a signal.

  14. 结合统计分布和非下采样Contourlet变换的红外小目标检测%Infrared small target detection based on nonsubsampled Contourlet transform and statistical distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴淼; 王仕成; 赵静

    2011-01-01

    The method to detect small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noises is analyzed in this paper. An infrared small target detection algorithm combined with temporal and spatial domains is put forward. On the basis of the background change slowly, the algorithm firstly confirms the object region based on the third central moments of frame difference, and decomposes the frame difference image by nonsubsampled Contourlet transform to define the energy coefficients of the sub-band images. Then the image based on the energy value of each pixel is obtained. Finally, the final detecting of the target is realised according to the different features of small targets, backgrounds and noises. The results indicate that the small infrared target detection based on nonsubsampled Contourlet transform can precisely detect the small infrared target and has better target detection performance. When the small targets with invariable and moving backgrounds are detected, the detection rate of the proposed algorithm can reach 98% and 97% and the mean of false alarm points is only 0.05 and 0. 17, respectively. It concludes that the proposed algorithm can detect the small target when the target has fast or anomalistic movement.%在分析存在背景和噪声干扰下的红外小目标检测方法的基础上,提出了一种时空结合的红外小目标检测算法.首先,基于相邻帧背景图像灰度值变化的特点,提出了基于三阶中心矩统计分布确定小目标区域方法,接着对图像进行非下采样Contourlet变换(NSCT),定义子带的能量系数,并结合各个子带的能量系数得到各点的能量值,进而得到一个基于各点能量值的图像.最后,根据能量图像中小目标、背景及噪声的不同分布特点,利用阈值分割得到要检测的小目标.仿真实验结果表明,该方法能较精确地检测出红外小目标,具有较高的检测率和较小的平均虚警

  15. Relations of FMmlet Transform to Some Integral Transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUHongxing; DAIQionghai; WANGDianjun; LIYanda

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relationships between FMmlet transform and some of the existing integral transforms, namely, the chirplet transform, dispersion transform, wavelet transform, chirp-Fourier transform, Short-time fourier transform (STFT), Gabor transform, Fourier transform, cosine transform, sine transform,Hartley transform, Laplace transform, z-transform, Mellintransform, Hilbert transform, autocorrelation function,cross-correlation function, energy, and the mean value.It is shown that all of these transforms are subspaces of FMmlet transform with specific parameters.

  16. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  17. MQSA National Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard Statistics (Archived) 2015 ...

  18. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  19. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  20. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  1. Energy Statistics Manual [Arabic version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  2. Energy Statistics Manual [Chinese version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  3. Energy Statistics Manual; Handbuch Energiestatistik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  4. Transformationally decoupling clustering and tracer bias

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Gaussianizing transformations are used statistically in many non-cosmological fields, but in cosmology, we are only starting to apply them. Here I explain a strategy of analyzing the 1-point function (PDF) of a spatial field, together with the 'essential' clustering statistics of the Gaussianized field, which are invariant to a local transformation. In cosmology, if the tracer sampling is sufficient, this achieves two important goals. First, it can greatly multiply the Fisher information, which is negligible on nonlinear scales in the usual $\\delta$ statistics. Second, it decouples clustering statistics from a local bias description for tracers such as galaxies.

  5. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm.

  6. Predict! Teaching Statistics Using Informational Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is one of the most widely used topics for everyday life in the school mathematics curriculum. Unfortunately, the statistics taught in schools focuses on calculations and procedures before students have a chance to see it as a useful and powerful tool. Researchers have found that a dominant view of statistics is as an assortment of tools…

  7. Complex windmill transformation producing new purely magnetic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozanovski, L.; Wylleman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal complex windmill transformations of G2IB(ii) spacetimes (admitting a two-dimensional Abelian group of motions of the so-called Wainwright B(ii) class) are defined and the compatibility with a purely magnetic Weyl tensor is investigated. It is shown that the transformed spacetimes cannot be p

  8. Axially deformed solution of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations using the transformed harmonic oscillator basis (II) HFBTHO v2.00d: A new version of the program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsov, M. V.; Schunck, N.; Kortelainen, M.; Michel, N.; Nam, H.; Olsen, E.; Sarich, J.; Wild, S.

    2013-06-01

    We describe the new version 2.00d of the code HFBTHO that solves the nuclear Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (HF) or Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) problem by using the cylindrical transformed deformed harmonic oscillator basis. In the new version, we have implemented the following features: (i) the modified Broyden method for non-linear problems, (ii) optional breaking of reflection symmetry, (iii) calculation of axial multipole moments, (iv) finite temperature formalism for the HFB method, (v) linear constraint method based on the approximation of the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) matrix for multi-constraint calculations, (vi) blocking of quasi-particles in the Equal Filling Approximation (EFA), (vii) framework for generalized energy density with arbitrary density-dependences, and (viii) shared memory parallelism via OpenMP pragmas. Program summaryProgram title: HFBTHO v2.00d Catalog identifier: ADUI_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUI_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167228 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2672156 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN-95. Computer: Intel Pentium-III, Intel Xeon, AMD-Athlon, AMD-Opteron, Cray XT5, Cray XE6. Operating system: UNIX, LINUX, WindowsXP. RAM: 200 Mwords Word size: 8 bits Classification: 17.22. Does the new version supercede the previous version?: Yes Catalog identifier of previous version: ADUI_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 43 Nature of problem: The solution of self-consistent mean-field equations for weakly-bound paired nuclei requires a correct description of the asymptotic properties of nuclear quasi-particle wave functions. In the present implementation, this is achieved by using the single-particle wave functions

  9. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard

    2000-01-01

    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach......, is that of exponential inhomogeneous Markov point processes. Statistical inference For such processes is discussed in some detail....

  10. ESTUDIO ESTADÍSTICO DEL NÚMERO DE REGLAS RESULTANTES AL TRANSFORMAR UNA GRAMÁTICA LIBRE DE CONTEXTO A LA FORMA NORMAL DE CHOMSKY STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE NUMBER OF RESULTING RULES WHEN TRANSFORMING A CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR TO CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Ángel Miguel Amaya Robayo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho conocido que toda gramática libre de contexto puede ser transformada a la forma normal de Chomsky de tal forma que los lenguajes generados por las dos gramáticas son equivalentes. Una gramática en forma normal de Chomsky (FNC, tiene algunas ventajas, por ejemplo sus árboles de derivación son binarios, la forma de sus reglas más simples etc. Por eso es siempre deseable poder trabajar con una gramática en FNC en las aplicaciones que lo requieran. Existe un algoritmo que permite transformar una gramática libre de contexto a una en FNC, sin embargo la cantidad de reglas generadas al hacer la transformación depende del número de reglas en la gramática inicial así como de otras características. En este trabajo se analiza desde el punto de vista experimental y estadístico, la relación existente entre el número de reglas iniciales y el número de reglas que resultan luego de transformar una Gramática Libre de Contexto a la FNC. Esto permite planificar la cantidad de recursos computacionales necesarios en caso de tratar con gramáticas de alguna complejidad.It is well known that any context-free grammar can be transformed to the Chomsky normal form so that the languages generated by each one are equivalent. A grammar in Chomsky Normal Form (CNF, has some advantages: their derivation trees are binary, simplest rules and so on. So it is always desirable to work with a grammar in CNF in applications that require them. There is an algorithm that can transform a context-free grammar to one CNF grammar, however the number of rules generated after the transformation depends on the initial grammar and other circumstances. In this work we analyze from the experimental and statistical point of view the relationship between the number of initial rules and the number of resulting rules after transforming. This allows you to plan the amount of computational resources needed in case of dealing with grammars of some complexity.

  11. The foundations of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Leonard J

    1972-01-01

    Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.

  12. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  13. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  14. Algebraic statistics computational commutative algebra in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, Giovanni; Wynn, Henry P

    2000-01-01

    Written by pioneers in this exciting new field, Algebraic Statistics introduces the application of polynomial algebra to experimental design, discrete probability, and statistics. It begins with an introduction to Gröbner bases and a thorough description of their applications to experimental design. A special chapter covers the binary case with new application to coherent systems in reliability and two level factorial designs. The work paves the way, in the last two chapters, for the application of computer algebra to discrete probability and statistical modelling through the important concept of an algebraic statistical model.As the first book on the subject, Algebraic Statistics presents many opportunities for spin-off research and applications and should become a landmark work welcomed by both the statistical community and its relatives in mathematics and computer science.

  15. Transformers: responding to the baby boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kooy, J.

    2002-07-01

    Factors affecting the life expectancy or service life of transformers is discussed. The main point made in the article is that maintenance and testing methods should be based on the importance of the equipment to the system or application, and the relative age of the equipment. A different monitoring approach is suggested for a five-year old 30 MVA transmission transformer than the approach that might be used for a 25-year old 300 MVA generator transformer, or a 35-year old 15 MVA industrial application transformer. Failure statistics are not available for the Canadian population of transformers, however, it is generally believed that the 'bathtub' curve is a reliable representative of transformer failure trends. (Rising failure rate in the first few years due to design and application failures, followed by a period of stable failure rates for the majority of the transformer's life, followed by an upward swing as the unit approaches end of life).

  16. A new twist to fourier transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, Hamish D

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the inherent helix in the Fourier transform expression, this book illustrates both Fourier transforms and their properties in the round. The author draws on elementary complex algebra to manipulate the transforms, presenting the ideas in such a way as to avoid pages of complicated mathematics. Similarly, abbreviations are not used throughout and the language is kept deliberately clear so that the result is a text that is accessible to a much wider readership.The treatment is extended with the use of sampled data to finite and discrete transforms, the fast Fourier transform, or FFT, being a special case of a discrete transform. The application of Fourier transforms in statistics is illustrated for the first time using the examples operational research and later radar detection. In addition, a whole chapter on tapering or weighting functions is added for reference. The whole is rounded off by a glossary and examples of diagrams in three dimensions made possible by today's mathematics programs

  17. PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, REPORTS), (*PROBABILITY, REPORTS), INFORMATION THEORY, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, STATISTICAL PROCESSES, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , DECISION THEORY, MEASURE THEORY, OPTIMIZATION

  18. Statistical studies of supernova environments

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Joseph P; Habergham, Stacey M; Galbany, Lluís; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of the environments of SNe allow statistical constraints to be made on progenitor properties. We review progress that has been made in this field. Pixel statistics using tracers of e.g. star formation within galaxies show differences in the explosion sites of, in particular SNe types II and Ibc (SNe II and SNe Ibc), suggesting differences in population ages. Of particular interest is that SNe Ic are significantly more associated with H-alpha emission than SNe Ib, implying shorter lifetimes for the former. In addition, such studies have shown that the interacting SNe IIn do not explode in regions containing the most massive stars, which suggests that at least a significant fraction of their progenitors arise from the lower end of the core-collapse SN mass range. Host HII region spectroscopy has been obtained for a significant number of core-collapse events, however definitive conclusions have to-date been elusive. Single stellar evolution models predict that the fraction of SNe Ibc to SNe II sho...

  19. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  20. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  1. The Johnson-Lindenstrauss Transform Itself Preserves Differential Privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Blocki, Jeremiah; Datta, Anupam; Sheffet, Or

    2012-01-01

    This paper proves that an "old dog", namely -- the classical Johnson-Lindenstrauss transform, "performs new tricks" -- it gives a novel way of preserving differential privacy. We show that if we take two databases, $D$ and $D'$, such that (i) $D'-D$ is a rank-1 matrix of bounded norm and (ii) all singular values of $D$ and $D'$ are sufficiently large, then multiplying either $D$ or $D'$ with a vector of iid normal Gaussians yields two statistically close distributions in the sense of differential privacy. Furthermore, a small, deterministic and \\emph{public} alteration of the input is enough to assert that all singular values of $D$ are large. We apply the Johnson-Lindenstrauss transform to the task of approximating cut-queries: the number of edges crossing a $(S,\\bar S)$-cut in a graph. We show that the JL transform allows us to \\emph{publish a sanitized graph} that preserves edge differential privacy (where two graphs are neighbors if they differ on a single edge) while adding only $O(|S|/\\epsilon)$ random ...

  2. Simulation of Statistical Distributions using the Memoryless Nonlinear Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    addOptional ( th i s , name , de fau l t , v a l i d a t o r ) 60 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DSTO–TR–2517 obj = th i s ; param . name = name ; param...function obj = addParamValue ( th i s , name , de fau l t , v a l i d a t o r ) obj = th i s ; param . name = name ; param . de f a u l t = de f au l

  3. Data Representations, Transformations, and Statistics for Visual Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Analytical reasoning techniques are methods by which users explore their data to obtain insight and knowledge that can directly support situational awareness and decision making. Recently, the analytical reasoning process has been augmented through the use of interactive visual representations and tools which utilize cognitive, design and perceptual principles. These tools are commonly referred to as visual analytics tools, and the underlying methods and principles have roots in a variety of disciplines. This chapter provides an introduction to young researchers as an overview of common visual

  4. Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science.

  5. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  6. Statistics using R

    CERN Document Server

    Purohit, Sudha G; Deshmukh, Shailaja R

    2015-01-01

    STATISTICS USING R will be useful at different levels, from an undergraduate course in statistics, through graduate courses in biological sciences, engineering, management and so on. The book introduces statistical terminology and defines it for the benefit of a novice. For a practicing statistician, it will serve as a guide to R language for statistical analysis. For a researcher, it is a dual guide, simultaneously explaining appropriate statistical methods for the problems at hand and indicating how these methods can be implemented using the R language. For a software developer, it is a guide in a variety of statistical methods for development of a suite of statistical procedures.

  7. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: II. Multivariate statistical profiling of pineapple aroma compounds based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Jutzi, Manfred; Müller, Jenny; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied in a nontargeted profiling analysis. Volatiles were isolated via headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive 2D gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Profile patterns presented in the contour plots were evaluated applying image processing techniques and subsequent multivariate statistical data analysis. Statistical methods comprised unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the samples. Supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to discriminate different ripening stages and describe the development of volatiles during postharvest storage, respectively. Hereby, substantial chemical markers allowing for class separation were revealed. The workflow permitted the rapid distinction between premature green-ripe pineapples and postharvest-ripened sea-freighted fruits. Volatile profiles of fully ripe air-freighted pineapples were similar to those of green-ripe fruits postharvest ripened for 6 days after simulated sea freight export, after PCA with only two principal components. However, PCA considering also the third principal component allowed differentiation between air-freighted fruits and the four progressing postharvest maturity stages of sea-freighted pineapples.

  8. Frontiers in statistical quality control 11

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this edited volume is on three major areas of statistical quality control: statistical process control (SPC), acceptance sampling and design of experiments. The majority of the papers deal with statistical process control, while acceptance sampling and design of experiments are also treated to a lesser extent. The book is organized into four thematic parts, with Part I addressing statistical process control. Part II is devoted to acceptance sampling. Part III covers the design of experiments, while Part IV discusses related fields. The twenty-three papers in this volume stem from The 11th International Workshop on Intelligent Statistical Quality Control, which was held in Sydney, Australia from August 20 to August 23, 2013. The event was hosted by Professor Ross Sparks, CSIRO Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics, North Ryde, Australia and was jointly organized by Professors S. Knoth, W. Schmid and Ross Sparks. The papers presented here were carefully selected and reviewed by the scientifi...

  9. Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feofanova Iryna V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation

  10. Metastable crystal growth of acetaminophen using solution-mediated phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Mihoko; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Okada, Shino; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We report a new method of obtaining the metastable phase form II crystals of acetaminophen. Solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT) from trihydrate into form II is utilized to obtain form II crystals. SMPT is triggered by seeding form II crystals into a saturated solution including trihydrate crystals, which are less stable than form II crystals. Form II seed crystals gradually grew at the expense of the dissolving trihydrate crystals, and finally, all the trihydrate crystals in solution were transformed into form II crystals in about 4 h. Thus, we conclude that SMPT is effective for the production of form II crystals.

  11. Statistical Physics Approaches to Seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    2008-01-01

    This entry in the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer present a summary of some of the concepts and calculational tools that have been developed in attempts to apply statistical physics approaches to seismology. We summarize the leading theoretical physical models of the space-time organization of earthquakes. We present a general discussion and several examples of the new metrics proposed by statistical physicists, underlining their strengths and weaknesses. The entry concludes by briefly outlining future directions. The presentation is organized as follows. I Glossary II Definition and Importance of the Subject III Introduction IV Concepts and Calculational Tools IV.1 Renormalization, Scaling and the Role of Small Earthquakes in Models of Triggered Seismicity IV.2 Universality IV.3 Intermittent Periodicity and Chaos IV.4 Turbulence IV.5 Self-Organized Criticality V Competing mechanisms and models V.1 Roots of complexity in seismicity: dynamics or heterogeneity? V.2 Critical earthquakes ...

  12. Digital image pattern recognition system using normalized Fourier transform and normalized analytical Fourier-Mellin transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Rábago, Rodrigo; Solorza-Calderón, Selene; Jordan-Aramburo, Adina

    2016-12-01

    This work presents an image pattern recognition system invariant to translation, scale and rotation. The system uses the Fourier transform to achieve the invariance to translation and the analytical Forier-Mellin transform for the invariance to scale and rotation. According with the statistical theory of box-plots, the pattern recognition system has a confidence level at least of 95.4%.

  13. Classification and Powerlaws: The Logarithmic Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Logarithmic transformation of the data has been recommended by the literature in the case of highly skewed distributions such as those commonly found in information science. The purpose of the transformation is to make the data conform to the lognormal law of error for inferential purposes. How does this transformation affect the analysis? We factor analyze and visualize the citation environment of the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS) before and after a logarithmic transformation. The transformation strongly reduces the variance necessary for classificatory purposes and therefore is counterproductive to the purposes of the descriptive statistics. We recommend against the logarithmic transformation when sets cannot be defined unambiguously. The intellectual organization of the sciences is reflected in the curvilinear parts of the citation distributions, while negative powerlaws fit excellently to the tails of the distributions.

  14. CALUX measurements: statistical inferences for the dose-response curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, M; Baston, D S; Stumpf, C; Haedrich, J; Keupers, I; Croes, K; Denison, M S; Baeyens, W; Goeyens, L

    2011-09-30

    Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression [CALUX] is a reporter gene mammalian cell bioassay used for detection and semi-quantitative analyses of dioxin-like compounds. CALUX dose-response curves for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] are typically smooth and sigmoidal when the dose is portrayed on a logarithmic scale. Non-linear regression models are used to calibrate the CALUX response versus TCDD standards and to convert the sample response into Bioanalytical EQuivalents (BEQs). Several complications may arise in terms of statistical inference, specifically and most important is the uncertainty assessment of the predicted BEQ. This paper presents the use of linear calibration functions based on Box-Cox transformations to overcome the issue of uncertainty assessment. Main issues being addressed are (i) confidence and prediction intervals for the CALUX response, (ii) confidence and prediction intervals for the predicted BEQ-value, and (iii) detection/estimation capabilities for the sigmoid and linearized models. Statistical comparisons between different calculation methods involving inverse prediction, effective concentration ratios (ECR(20-50-80)) and slope ratio were achieved with example datasets in order to provide guidance for optimizing BEQ determinations and expand assay performance with the recombinant mouse hepatoma CALUX cell line H1L6.1c3.

  15. Industrial statistics with Minitab

    CERN Document Server

    Cintas, Pere Grima; Llabres, Xavier Tort-Martorell

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Statistics with MINITAB demonstrates the use of MINITAB as a tool for performing statistical analysis in an industrial context. This book covers introductory industrial statistics, exploring the most commonly used techniques alongside those that serve to give an overview of more complex issues. A plethora of examples in MINITAB are featured along with case studies for each of the statistical techniques presented. Industrial Statistics with MINITAB: Provides comprehensive coverage of user-friendly practical guidance to the essential statistical methods applied in industry.Explores

  16. Statistics For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The fun and easy way to get down to business with statistics Stymied by statistics? No fear ? this friendly guide offers clear, practical explanations of statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, with lots of examples that show you how these concepts apply to your everyday life. Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more.Tracks to a typical first semester statistics cou

  17. A Statistical Framework for Utilization of Simultaneous Pupil Plane and Focal Plane Telemetry for Exoplanet Imaging, Part II: The Science Camera Image as a Function of the Wavefront Sensor Field

    CERN Document Server

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to transcend the limitations of differential imaging of exoplanets in the era of extremely large telescopes (ELTs), the first paper in this series established a rigorous, fully polarimetric framework for determining the science camera (SC) image given a turbulent wavefront and unknown aberrations in multiple planes the optical system. This article builds on the structure developed in Paper I in order to rigorously express the polarimetric SC image in terms of the field impinging on the wavefront sensor (WFS), thereby providing a direct connection between the measurements made in both subsystems. This formulation allows the SC image to be written as a function of the WFS measurements, including the following unknown quantities which can, in principle, be estimated via statistical inference: the non-common path aberration (NCPA), WFS gain errors, aberrations downstream of the beamsplitter, and the planetary image. It is demonstrated that WFS bias error is mathematically equivalent to NCPA. Thus, wi...

  18. Official Statistics In a Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie DUMITRESCU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern democratic society cannot efficiently and rigorously function in the absence of a solid basis of relevant and reliable statistical data, allowing for an easy and user-friendly access. Representing a “public good”, in the contemporary society, the official statistical information is meant to serve the whole society, under the conditions of maximum transparency, impartiality and equal treatment of all the categories of data users.Official statistics should adapt itself to the changes taking place in the modern society and should comply with its increased demands for high quality information. On its turn, it imposes to both national and global statistical systems major tasks of structural changes in the activity of producing and disseminating official statistics, as well as in the communication with its partners from the informational fl ow upstream, but particularly from its downstream – these being the target recipients of statistical data.The article presents the vision on the official statistics role, functions and tasks in the modern society, as against the major challenges regarding the transformation of statistical information into knowledge, the promotion of statistical literacy and culture, ensuring the usefulness and the large scale use of statistical data.

  19. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P;

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta-r...... role for the repair of radiation induced DNA damage in SCLC....

  20. About Statistical Analysis of Qualitative Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Loehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gathered data is frequently not in a numerical form allowing immediate appliance of the quantitative mathematical-statistical methods. In this paper are some basic aspects examining how quantitative-based statistical methodology can be utilized in the analysis of qualitative data sets. The transformation of qualitative data into numeric values is considered as the entrance point to quantitative analysis. Concurrently related publications and impacts of scale transformations are discussed. Subsequently, it is shown how correlation coefficients are usable in conjunction with data aggregation constrains to construct relationship modelling matrices. For illustration, a case study is referenced at which ordinal type ordered qualitative survey answers are allocated to process defining procedures as aggregation levels. Finally options about measuring the adherence of the gathered empirical data to such kind of derived aggregation models are introduced and a statistically based reliability check approach to evaluate the reliability of the chosen model specification is outlined.

  1. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, S. E.; Porter, R D

    1986-01-01

    Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

  2. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, S E; Porter, R D

    1986-01-01

    Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

  3. Statistical test of VEP waveform equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rockefeller S L; Kimura, Eiji

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe a theory and method for inferring the statistical significance of a visually evoked cortical potential (VEP) recording. The statistical evaluation is predicated on the pre-stimulus VEP as estimates of the cortical potentials expected when the stimulus does not produce an effect, a mathematical transform to convert the voltages into standard deviations from zero, and a time-series approach for estimating the variability of between-session VEPs under the null hypothesis. Empirical and Monte Carlo analyses address issues concerned with testability, statistical validity, clinical feasibility, as well as limitations of the proposed method. We conclude that visual electrophysiological recordings can be evaluated as a statistical study of n = 1 subject using time-series analysis when confounding effects are adequately controlled. The statistical test can be performed on either a single VEP or the difference between pairs of VEPs.

  4. CMS Program Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics has developed CMS Program Statistics, which includes detailed summary statistics on national health care, Medicare...

  5. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  6. Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Students' Pages Errata Other Statistical Sites Subjects Inflation & Prices » Consumer Price Index Producer Price Indexes Import/Export Price ... Choose a Subject Employment and Unemployment Employment Unemployment Inflation, Prices, and ... price indexes Consumer spending Industry price indexes Pay ...

  7. Recreational Boating Statistics 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...

  8. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  9. Mathematical and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, A. Glen

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  10. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  11. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the United States are diagnosed with Merkel cell skin cancer each year. Almost all people diagnosed with the ...

  12. Experiment in Elementary Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P. C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory exercise in elementary statistics in which students verify empirically the various aspects of the Gaussian distribution. Sampling techniques and other commonly used statistical procedures are introduced. (CP)

  13. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full list of resources ​​. Overweight and Obesity Statistics Page Content About Overweight and Obesity Prevalence of ... adults age 20 and older [ Top ] Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ...

  14. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  15. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... fact sheet provides up-to-date data and statistics on youth violence. Data Sources Indicators of School ...

  16. Recreational Boating Statistics 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...

  17. Software for Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzer Pebesma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth, point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.

  18. Software for Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Edzer Pebesma; Roger Bivand; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth), point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.

  19. Modern statistical methods in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Rory; Abramson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Statistics sits right at the heart of scientific endeavour in respiratory medicine and many other disciplines. In this introductory article, some key epidemiological concepts such as representativeness, random sampling, association and causation, and confounding are reviewed. A brief introduction to basic statistics covering topics such as frequentist methods, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, P values and Type II error is provided. Subsequent articles in this series will cover some modern statistical methods including regression models, analysis of repeated measures, causal diagrams, propensity scores, multiple imputation, accounting for measurement error, survival analysis, risk prediction, latent class analysis and meta-analysis.

  20. Ethics in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  1. Positively skewed data: revisiting the box-cox power transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Although the normal probability distribution is the cornerstone of applying statistical methodology; data do not always meet the necessary normal distribution assumptions. In these cases, researchers often transform non-normal data to a distribution that is approximately normal. Power transformations constitute a family of transformations, which include logarithmic and fractional exponent transforms. The Box-Cox method offers a simple method for choosing the most appropriate power transformat...

  2. Selling statistics[Statistics in scientific progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridle, S. [Astrophysics Group, University College London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sarah@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    From Cosmos to Chaos- Peter Coles, 2006, Oxford University Press, 224pp. To confirm or refute a scientific theory you have to make a measurement. Unfortunately, however, measurements are never perfect: the rest is statistics. Indeed, statistics is at the very heart of scientific progress, but it is often poorly taught and badly received; for many, the very word conjures up half-remembered nightmares of 'null hypotheses' and 'student's t-tests'. From Cosmos to Chaos by Peter Coles, a cosmologist at Nottingham University, is an approachable antidote that places statistics in a range of catchy contexts. Using this book you will be able to calculate the probabilities in a game of bridge or in a legal trial based on DNA fingerprinting, impress friends by talking confidently about entropy, and stretch your mind thinking about quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  3. Statistical search methods for lotsizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Salomon (Marc); R. Kuik (Roelof); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reports on our experiments with statistical search methods for solving lotsizing problems in production planning. In lotsizing problems the main objective is to generate a minimum cost production and inventory schedule, such that (i) customer demand is satisfied, and (ii) capa

  4. Biomolecular Aspects of Mercury Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johs, A.; Shi, L.; Miller, S. M.; Summers, A. O.; Liang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Bacteria participate significantly in mercury transformation in natural and industrial environments. Previous studies have shown that bacterial mercury resistance is mediated by the mer operon, typically located on transposons or plasmids. It encodes specific genes that facilitate uptake of mercury species, cleavage of organomercurials, and reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Expression of mer operon genes is regulated by MerR, a metal-responsive regulator protein on the level of transcription. In vitro studies have shown that MerR forms a non-transcribing pre-initiation complex with RNA polymerase and the promoter DNA. Binding of Hg(II) induces conformational changes in MerR and other components of the complex resulting in the transcription of mer operon genes. As part of ongoing investigations on allosteric conformational changes induced by Hg(II) in dimeric MerR, and the implications on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of the mer operon, we applied small angle scattering to study the regulatory mechanism of MerR in the presence and absence of Hg(II). Our results show that in the presence of Hg(II) the MerR dimer undergoes a significant reorientation from a compact state to a conformation revealing two distinct domains. Bacterial reduction of Hg(II) can also occur at concentrations too low to induce mer operon functions. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella and Geobacter are able to reduce Hg(II) in the presence of mineral oxides. This process has been linked to the activity of outer membrane multiheme cytochromes. We isolated and purified a decaheme outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and characterized its envelope shape in solution by small angle x-ray scattering. Structural features were identified and compared to homology models. These results show that OmcA is an elongated macromolecule consisting of separate modules, which may be connected by flexible linkers.

  5. Problems and Recommendations for Rural Statistics and Survey Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    With constant deepening of the reform and opening-up,national economic system has changed from planned economy to market economy,and rural survey and statistics remain in a difficult transition period. In this period,China needs transforming original statistical mode according to market economic system. All levels of government should report and submit a lot and increasing statistical information. Besides,in this period,townships,villages and counties are faced with old and new conflicts. These conflicts perplex implementation of rural statistics and survey and development of rural statistical undertaking,and also cause researches and thinking of reform of rural statistical and survey methods.

  6. Statistics Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Statistics Essentials For Dummies not only provides students enrolled in Statistics I with an excellent high-level overview of key concepts, but it also serves as a reference or refresher for students in upper-level statistics courses. Free of review and ramp-up material, Statistics Essentials For Dummies sticks to the point, with content focused on key course topics only. It provides discrete explanations of essential concepts taught in a typical first semester college-level statistics course, from odds and error margins to confidence intervals and conclusions. This guide is also a perfect re

  7. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  8. Business statistics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Score higher in your business statistics course? Easy. Business statistics is a common course for business majors and MBA candidates. It examines common data sets and the proper way to use such information when conducting research and producing informational reports such as profit and loss statements, customer satisfaction surveys, and peer comparisons. Business Statistics For Dummies tracks to a typical business statistics course offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels and provides clear, practical explanations of business statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, w

  9. Nonparametric statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, Jean Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Overall, this remains a very fine book suitable for a graduate-level course in nonparametric statistics. I recommend it for all people interested in learning the basic ideas of nonparametric statistical inference.-Eugenia Stoimenova, Journal of Applied Statistics, June 2012… one of the best books available for a graduate (or advanced undergraduate) text for a theory course on nonparametric statistics. … a very well-written and organized book on nonparametric statistics, especially useful and recommended for teachers and graduate students.-Biometrics, 67, September 2011This excellently presente

  10. Statistics in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Boslaugh, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Need to learn statistics for your job? Want help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone new to the subject. Thoroughly revised and expanded, this edition helps you gain a solid understanding of statistics without the numbing complexity of many college texts. Each chapter presents easy-to-follow descriptions, along with graphics, formulas, solved examples, and hands-on exercises. If you want to perform common statistical analyses and learn a wide range of techniques without getting in over your head, this is your book.

  11. Constraining the role of iron in environmental nitrogen transformations. Dual stable isotope systematics of abiotic NO2- reduction by Fe(II) and its production of N2O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wankel, Scott David [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Buchwald, Carolyn [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Hansel, Colleen [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Redox reactions involving nitrogen and iron have been shown to have important implications for mobilization of priority contaminants. Thus, an understanding of the linkages between their biogeochemical cycling is critical for predicting subsurface mobilization of radionuclides such as uranium. Despite mounting evidence for biogeochemical interactions between iron and nitrogen, our understanding of their environmental importance remains limited. Here we present an investigation of abiotic nitrite (NO2-) reduction by Fe(II) or ‘chemodenitrification,’ and its relevance to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), specifically focusing on dual (N and O) isotope systematics under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions. We observe a range of kinetic isotope effects that are regulated by reaction rates, with faster rates at higher pH (~8), higher concentrations of Fe(II) and in the presence of mineral surfaces. A clear non-linear relationship between rate constant and kinetic isotope effects of NO2- reduction was evident (with larger isotope effects at slower rates) and is interpreted as reflecting the dynamics of Fe(II)-N reaction intermediates. N and O isotopic composition of product N2O also suggests a complex network of parallel and/or competing pathways. Our findings suggest that NO2- reduction by Fe(II) may represent an important abiotic source of environmental N2O, especially in iron-rich environments experiencing dynamic redox variations. This study provides a multi-compound, multi-isotope framework for evaluating the environmental occurrence of abiotic NO2- reduction and N2O formation, helping future studies constrain the relative roles of abiotic and biological N2O production pathways.

  12. Lectures on algebraic statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth

    2009-01-01

    How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.

  13. Statistics for economics

    CERN Document Server

    Naghshpour, Shahdad

    2012-01-01

    Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...

  14. Estimation and inferential statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Das, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the meaning of statistical inference and estimation. Statistical inference is concerned with the problems of estimation of population parameters and testing hypotheses. Primarily aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students of statistics, the book is also useful to professionals and researchers in statistical, medical, social and other disciplines. It discusses current methodological techniques used in statistics and related interdisciplinary areas. Every concept is supported with relevant research examples to help readers to find the most suitable application. Statistical tools have been presented by using real-life examples, removing the “fear factor” usually associated with this complex subject. The book will help readers to discover diverse perspectives of statistical theory followed by relevant worked-out examples. Keeping in mind the needs of readers, as well as constantly changing scenarios, the material is presented in an easy-to-understand form.

  15. Rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-time-of-flight mass spectrometric method for qualitative profiling of ice wine volatile fraction. II: Classification of Canadian and Czech ice wines using statistical evaluation of the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setkova, Lucie; Risticevic, Sanja; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2007-04-20

    The previously developed and optimized headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-time-of-flight (TOF) MS analytical method for the determination of compounds with a wide range of polarities and volatilities was successfully used in this study to characterize and classify a large set of ice wines according to their origin, grape variety and oak or stainless steel fermentation/ageing conditions, based on a statistical evaluation (principal component analysis (PCA)) of the measured data. More than 130 ice wine samples collected directly from Canadian and Czech wine producers were analyzed in this study. The SPME step was beneficially carried out utilizing the new-generation super elastic divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) 50 microm/30 microm fiber assembly. One fiber was used for the whole sequence of ice wine samples, control and blank experiments, which consisted of more than 600 individual extraction/injection cycles. Utilizing the high-speed TOF analyzer, full spectral information within the range of 35-450 u was collected for the entire GC run (as short as 4.5 min) without compromising in the detection sensitivity, as compared to other scanning mass analyzers operated in selected ion monitoring or MS(n) mode to achieve similar sensitivity. The identification of analytes was performed by a combination of the linear temperature-programmed retention index (LTPRI) approach with the comparison of the obtained spectra with three libraries included in the ChromaTOF software. A total of 201 peaks were tentatively assigned as ice wine aroma components and 58 of those compounds were evaluated in all of the examined samples.

  16. General Υ-transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lévy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as Υ transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID...

  17. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant to be applica

  18. On Hurwitz transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, M H; Hassan, M Hage; Kibler, M

    1994-01-01

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the \\grq \\to \\grt Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its \\grh \\to \\grc compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory.

  19. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  20. Baseline Statistics of Linked Statistical Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, Andrea; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We are surrounded by an ever increasing ocean of information, everybody will agree to that. We build sophisticated strategies to govern this information: design data models, develop infrastructures for data sharing, building tool for data analysis. Statistical datasets curated by National Statistica

  1. Relationships between molecular structure and kinetic and thermodynamic controls in lipid systems. Part II: Phase behavior and transformation paths of SSS, PSS and PPS saturated triacylglycerols--effect of chain length mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic phase behavior and phase transformation paths of purified tristearoylglycerol (SSS), 3-palmitoyl-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSS) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PPS) were investigated in terms of polymorphism, crystallization and melting. The details of the phase transformation paths were obtained using the heating cycles of two sets of experiments: (a) cooling rate was varied and heating rate fixed and (b) cooling rate was fixed and heating rate varied. Kinetic effects were manifest in all measured properties, underscoring the complexity of the phase transformation paths for each TAG, and the intricate thermodynamics-molecular relationships. For the first time, XRD data obtained for SSS, PSS and PPS TAGs, cooled at rates higher than 0.5°C/min, suggested the formation of a transient structure similar to the so-called α(2)-phase which has been observed in mixed saturated-unsaturated TAGs quenched from the melt. The more stable phases (β' in PSS and PPS, and β in SSS) were only observed for cooling rates lower than 1.0°C/min. The kinetic and thermodynamic differences observed in the crystallization, structure and melting of SSS, PSS and PPS are proposed to be mainly due to the disturbances introduced at the "terrace" level via methyl-end group interactions, i.e., the missing of two or four CH(2) groups compared to SSS. The symmetrical SSS with a relatively flat "terrace" crystallizes preferably in the most stable β-form. Two missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 position (PSS) introduces enough structural disturbances to promote the relative prevalence and persistence of the β'-phase, and four missing CH(2) groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions (PPS) is relatively too large of a disturbance and therefore favors the α-form.

  2. Restoration and transformation, the New Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thoor, M.T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lecture on the research project and the book 'Restoration and Transformation of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam' Audience: Università degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. Dipartimento di Architettura Dottorato in Conservazione dei Beni Architettonici e del bel Paesaggio.

  3. Reaction Dynamics of O((3)P) + Propyne: II. Primary Products, Branching Ratios, and Role of Intersystem Crossing from Ab Initio Coupled Triplet/Singlet Potential Energy Surfaces and Statistical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimondi, Ilaria; Cavallotti, Carlo; Vanuzzo, Gianmarco; Balucani, Nadia; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2016-07-14

    The mechanism of the O((3)P) + CH3CCH reaction was investigated using a combined experimental/theoretical approach. Experimentally the reaction dynamics was studied using crossed molecular beams (CMB) with mass-spectrometric detection and time-of-flight analysis at 9.2 kcal/mol collision energy. Theoretically master equation (ME) simulations were performed on a potential energy surface (PES) determined using high-level ab initio electronic structure calculations. In this paper (II) the theoretical results are described and compared with experiments, while in paper (I) are reported and discussed the results of the experimental study. The PES was investigated by determining structures and vibrational frequencies of wells and transition states at the CASPT2/aug-cc-pVTZ level using a minimal active space. Energies were then determined at the CASPT2 level increasing systematically the active space and at the CCSD(T) level extrapolating to the complete basis set limit. Two separate portions of the triplet PES were investigated, as O((3)P) can add either on the terminal or the central carbon of the unsaturated propyne bond. Minimum energy crossing points (MECPs) between the triplet and singlet PESs were searched at the CASPT2 level. The calculated spin-orbit coupling constants between the T1 and S0 electronic surfaces were ∼25 cm(-1) for both PESs. The portions of the singlet PES that can be accessed from the MECPs were investigated at the same level of theory. The system reactivity was predicted integrating stochastically the one-dimensional ME using Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory to determine rate constants on the full T1/S0 PESs, accounting explicitly for intersystem crossing (ISC) using the Landau-Zener model. The computational results are compared both with the branching ratios (BRs) determined experimentally in the companion paper (I) and with those estimated in a recent kinetic study at 298 K. The ME results allow to interpret the main system reactivity: CH

  4. Phase transformations, stability, and materials interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Cost, J.R.; Shewmon, P.

    1977-07-01

    The proceedings of the Materials Sciences Workshop on Phase Transformations, Stability, and Materials Interactions are divided into sections according to the following topics: (I) workshop scope and priorities; (II) study group reports--ERDA mission needs; (III) study group reports--technical area research priorities. (SDF)

  5. Classical solutions by inverse scattering transformation in any number of dimensions. II. Instantons and large orders of the 1/N series for the (phi-arrow-right /sup 2/)/sup 2/ theory in. nu. dimensions (1< or =. nu. < or =4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avan, J.; de Vega, H.J.

    1984-06-15

    Instantons of the nonlocal effective action S/sub eff/ that generates a 1/N perturbative expansion for O(N)-symmetric (phi-arrow-right /sup 2/)/sup 2/ theory are obtained for Euclidean spatial dimension 0< or =..nu..< or =4, through the inverse scattering transformation (IST). They are studied analytically to a large extent. In addition, variational methods are used when the IST does not provide a closed solution for all couplings. The values of the instanton action are given as a function of the coupling constant g for ..nu.. = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, and 0< or =g< or =+infinity. The large orders of the 1/N perturbative expansion are thus estimated. It is found that the 1/N perturbation series can be resummed by a Borel transform in integer dimension 0< or =..nu..< or =3. In four dimensions, the 1/N perturbation series is not Borel-summable, owing to the existence of an instanton with real positive action, for physically relevant values of the renormalized coupling constant. It is concluded that (phi-arrow-right /sup 2/)/sup 2/ theory in four dimensions is nonperturbatively unstable. The saddle-point equation of massless (phi-arrow-right /sup 2/)/sup 2/ theory in the 1/N expansion is found to be completely integrable at least for spherically symmetric fields. Explicit instanton solutions are given for this case. A large-N estimate of the decay rate of the vacuum is given.

  6. The statistical stability phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Igor I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

  7. Lectures on statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    1982-01-01

    Anyone dissatisfied with the almost ritual dullness of many 'standard' texts in statistical mechanics will be grateful for the lucid explanation and generally reassuring tone. Aimed at securing firm foundations for equilibrium statistical mechanics, topics of great subtlety are presented transparently and enthusiastically. Very little mathematical preparation is required beyond elementary calculus and prerequisites in physics are limited to some elementary classical thermodynamics. Suitable as a basis for a first course in statistical mechanics, the book is an ideal supplement to more convent

  8. Statistics at square one

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M J

    2011-01-01

    The new edition of this international bestseller continues to throw light on the world of statistics for health care professionals and medical students. Revised throughout, the 11th edition features new material in the areas of relative risk, absolute risk and   numbers needed to treat diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity, ROC curves free statistical software The popular self-testing exercises at the end of every chapter are strengthened by the addition of new sections on reading and reporting statistics and formula appreciation.

  9. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  10. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, E Atlee

    2000-01-01

    Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

  11. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  12. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, J E

    1968-01-01

    The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

  13. Mathematical statistics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wackerly, Dennis D; Scheaffer, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    In their bestselling MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS WITH APPLICATIONS, premiere authors Dennis Wackerly, William Mendenhall, and Richard L. Scheaffer present a solid foundation in statistical theory while conveying the relevance and importance of the theory in solving practical problems in the real world. The authors' use of practical applications and excellent exercises helps you discover the nature of statistics and understand its essential role in scientific research.

  14. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  15. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Ilia M; Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among education, leadership experience, emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of nurse managers. Nursing leadership research provides limited evidence of predictors of transformational leadership style in nurse managers. A predictive correlational design was used with a sample of nurse managers (n = 148) working in varied health care settings. Data were collected using the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships. A statistically significant relationship was found between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (r = 0.59, P transformational leadership. Nurse managers should be well informed of the predictors of transformational leadership in order to pursue continuing education and development opportunities related to those predictors. The results of this study emphasise the need for emotional intelligence continuing education, leadership development and leader assessment programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nonlinear Multiscale Transformations: From Synchronization to Error Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Donat Dept. Matematica Aplicada, University of Valencia, Spain. arandiga@uv. es donat uv. es Abstract Data-dependent interpolatory techniques can be used...Numer. Algorith. 23, 175-216, 2000. 5. F. Arhndiga, R. Donat, and A. Harten. Multiresolution based on weighted averages of the hat function II : Nonlinear...transforms for image coding via lifting scheme. submitted to IEEE Trans. on Image Nonlinear multiscale transformations 313 Method II ’ 1 I ŕ, 11蕀 r

  17. Statistical discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Kosasih, Jusak Sali; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy Permana

    2016-01-01

    Following our earlier work, we construct statistical discrete geometry by applying statistical mechanics to discrete (Regge) gravity. We propose a coarse-graining method for discrete geometry under the assumptions of atomism and background independence. To maintain these assumptions, restrictions are given to the theory by introducing cut-offs, both in ultraviolet and infrared regime. Having a well-defined statistical picture of discrete Regge geometry, we take the infinite degrees of freedom (large n) limit. We argue that the correct limit consistent with the restrictions and the background independence concept is not the continuum limit of statistical mechanics, but the thermodynamical limit.

  18. Improved Statistics Handling

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Ericsson is a global provider of telecommunications systems equipment and related services for mobile and fixed network operators.  3Gsim is a tool used by Ericsson in tests of the 3G RNC node. In order to validate the tests, statistics are constantly gathered within 3Gsim and users can use telnet to access the statistics using some system specific 3Gsim commands. The statistics can be retrieved but is unstructured for the human eye and needs parsing and arranging to be readable.  The statist...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  15. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolstad, William M

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic

  16. Statistics in a Nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Boslaugh, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Need to learn statistics as part of your job, or want some help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference that's perfect for anyone with no previous background in the subject. This book gives you a solid understanding of statistics without being too simple, yet without the numbing complexity of most college texts. You get a firm grasp of the fundamentals and a hands-on understanding of how to apply them before moving on to the more advanced material that follows. Each chapter presents you with easy-to-follow descriptions illustrat

  17. Record Statistics and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2009-01-01

    The term record statistics covers the statistical properties of records within an ordered series of numerical data obtained from observations or measurements. A record within such series is simply a value larger (or smaller) than all preceding values. The mathematical properties of records strongly...... fluctuations of e. g. the energy are able to push the system past some sort of ‘edge of stability’, inducing irreversible configurational changes, whose statistics then closely follows the statistics of record fluctuations....

  18. Statistics is Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Shasha, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is the activity of inferring results about a population given a sample. Historically, statistics books assume an underlying distribution to the data (typically, the normal distribution) and derive results under that assumption. Unfortunately, in real life, one cannot normally be sure of the underlying distribution. For that reason, this book presents a distribution-independent approach to statistics based on a simple computational counting idea called resampling. This book explains the basic concepts of resampling, then systematically presents the standard statistical measures along

  19. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  20. Statistical methods for spatio-temporal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Finkenstadt, Barbel

    2006-01-01

    Statistical Methods for Spatio-Temporal Systems presents current statistical research issues on spatio-temporal data modeling and will promote advances in research and a greater understanding between the mechanistic and the statistical modeling communities.Contributed by leading researchers in the field, each self-contained chapter starts with an introduction of the topic and progresses to recent research results. Presenting specific examples of epidemic data of bovine tuberculosis, gastroenteric disease, and the U.K. foot-and-mouth outbreak, the first chapter uses stochastic models, such as point process models, to provide the probabilistic backbone that facilitates statistical inference from data. The next chapter discusses the critical issue of modeling random growth objects in diverse biological systems, such as bacteria colonies, tumors, and plant populations. The subsequent chapter examines data transformation tools using examples from ecology and air quality data, followed by a chapter on space-time co...

  1. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  2. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Spectroscopic and structural studies of quinoline derivatives—II. Forrier transform i.r. spectroscopy. 1. Rotational isomerism in 3-ethoxycarbonyl-4(1H)-quinolone and some of its substituted derivatives,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirek, Julian; Urbanek, Zbigniew H.

    Rotational isomerism associated with internal rotation about the ring carbon(3)-ester carbonyl carbon single bond in a series of 3-ethoxycarbonyl-4(1H)-quinolones have been investigated spectroscopically in the solid state using Fourier transform i.r. and laser Raman spectroscopy. Particular attention is given to the 1700, 1300 and 1100 cm -1 spectral regions related primarily to the vibrations of the CO 2C 2H 5 group. Within these regions rotational isomerism appeared in the compounds examined. The conformational changes are discussed and evidence is reported for occurrence of the unsubstituted compound 1 itself in the solid state at ambient temperature as an equilibrium mixture of both the s-trans ( 1a) and s-cis ( 1b) rotamers (this is in contrast to previous findings), and of its Bz-substituted derivatives.

  4. Implementing wavelet transform with SAW elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wenke(卢文科); ZHU; Changchun(朱长纯); LIU; Junhua(刘君华); LIU; Qinghong(刘清洪)

    2003-01-01

    In the design of the finger-overlap envelope according to the envelope of wavelet function, it is concluded that the pulse-response function of the interdigital transducer (IDT) for surface acoustic wave (SAW) is identical to the wavelet function. SAW type of the wavelet-transform element is manufactured. A new method of using two wavelet-transform elements to manufacture the reconstruction element of the wavelet transform is proposed. The sources of the element error are analyzed, and the methods for reducing the error are put forward. SAW type of the wavelet transformation element and its reconstruction element have the following three characteristics: (i) the implementing methods of the wavelet transform element and its reconstruction element are simple, and free of complicated mathematical algorithms of the wavelet transform; (ii) because one of SAW element is fast, the response velocities of SAW type of the wavelet transform element and its reconstruction element are also fast; (iii) the costs of the wavelet transform element and its reconstruction element are low, so the elements may be manufactured in a large quantity.

  5. On discrete cosine transform

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

  6. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  7. Transportation Statistics Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the fourth Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) for the President and Congress. As in previous years, it reports on the state of U.S. transportation system at two levels. First, in Part I, it provides a statistical and interpretive survey of the system—its physical characteristics, its economic attributes, aspects of its use and performance, and the scale and severity of unintended consequences of transportation, such as fatalities and injuries, oil import dependency, and environment impacts. Part I also explores the state of transportation statistics, and new needs of the rapidly changing world of transportation. Second, Part II of the report, as in prior years, explores in detail the performance of the U.S. transportation system from the perspective of desired social outcomes or strategic goals. This year, the performance aspect of transportation chosen for thematic treatment is “Mobility and Access,” which complements past TSAR theme sections on “The Economic Performance of Transportation” (1995) and “Transportation and the Environment” (1996). Mobility and access are at the heart of the transportation system’s performance from the user’s perspective. In what ways and to what extent does the geographic freedom provided by transportation enhance personal fulfillment of the nation’s residents and contribute to economic advancement of people and businesses? This broad question underlies many of the topics examined in Part II: What is the current level of personal mobility in the United States, and how does it vary by sex, age, income level, urban or rural location, and over time? What factors explain variations? Has transportation helped improve people’s access to work, shopping, recreational facilities, and medical services, and in what ways and in what locations? How have barriers, such as age, disabilities, or lack of an automobile, affected these

  8. Statistical Engine Knock Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency...

  9. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  10. Statistical Hadronization and Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal......, and so statistical, shape for it....

  11. Handbook of Spatial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.

  12. Practical statistics simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Langley, Dr Russell A

    1971-01-01

    For those who need to know statistics but shy away from math, this book teaches how to extract truth and draw valid conclusions from numerical data using logic and the philosophy of statistics rather than complex formulae. Lucid discussion of averages and scatter, investigation design, more. Problems with solutions.

  13. Statistical methods in astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Long, James P.; de Souza, Rafael S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a review of data types and statistical methods often encountered in astronomy. The aim is to provide an introduction to statistical applications in astronomy for statisticians and computer scientists. We highlight the complex, often hierarchical, nature of many astronomy inference problems and advocate for cross-disciplinary collaborations to address these challenges.

  14. Thiele. Pioneer in statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...

  15. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  16. Inductive Logic and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, J. -W.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter concerns inductive logic in relation to mathematical statistics. I start by introducing a general notion of probabilistic induc- tive inference. Then I introduce Carnapian inductive logic, and I show that it can be related to Bayesian statistical inference via de Finetti's representatio

  17. Statistical mechanics of pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Ben D; Lemischka, Ihor R

    2013-08-01

    Recent reports using single-cell profiling have indicated a remarkably dynamic view of pluripotent stem cell identity. Here, we argue that the pluripotent state is not well defined at the single-cell level but rather is a statistical property of stem cell populations, amenable to analysis using the tools of statistical mechanics and information theory.

  18. Thiele. Pioneer in statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...

  19. Application Statistics 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Summary statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in Ontario universities (for the fall of 1987) are given. Data on registrations were received indirectly from the universities as part of their annual submission of USIS/UAR enrollment data to Statistics Canada and MCU.…

  20. Deconstructing Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…