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Sample records for ii near-infrared spectroscopy

  1. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants : Phase II randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas; Austin, Topun; Van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Franz, Axel R.; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit; Hagmann, Cornelia; Lemmers, Petra; Van Oeveren, Wim; Pichler, Gerhard; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Riera, Joan; Sanchez, Laura; Winkel, Per; Wolf, Martin; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. Design: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. Setting Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units in

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue ischaemia can be a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional oxygenation monitoring modalities measure systemic oxygenation, but regional tissue oxygenation is not monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive monitor for measuring regional oxygen saturation which provides real-time information. There has been increased interest in the clinical application of NIRS following numerous studies that show improved outcome in various clinical situations especially cardiac surgery. Its use has shown improved neurological outcome and decreased postoperative stay in cardiac surgery. Its usefulness has been investigated in various high risk surgeries such as carotid endarterectomy, thoracic surgeries, paediatric population and has shown promising results. There is however, limited data supporting its role in neurosurgical population. We strongly feel, it might play a key role in future. It has significant advantages over other neuromonitoring modalities, but more technological advances are needed before it can be used more widely into clinical practice.

  3. Broad-band time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.C.; Pastor, I.; Cal, E. de la; McCarthy, K.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    First experimental results on broad-band, time-resolved Near Infrared (NIR;here loosely defined as covering from 750 to 1650 nm) passive spectroscopy using a high sensitivity InGaAs detector are reported for the TJ-II Stellarator. Experimental set-up is described together with its main characteristics, the most remarkable ones being its enhanced NIR response, broadband spectrum acquisition in a single shot, and time-resolved measurements with up to 1.8 kHz spectral rate. Prospects for future work and more extended physics studies in this newly open spectral region in TJ-II are discussed. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  6. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care unit...

  7. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesø, Morten; Velaga, Sitaram; Alhalaweh, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate...... retained in a physical mixture with the guest molecule, while liquid-assisted cogrinding did not induce any changes in the crystal lattice. The good chemical peak selectivity of Raman spectroscopy allowed a straightforward interpretation of sample data by analyzing peak positions and comparing to those...... of pure references. In addition, Raman spectroscopy provided additional information on the crystal structure of the IND-SAC cocrystal. The broad spectral line shapes of NIR spectra make visual interpretation of the spectra difficult, and consequently, multivariate modeling by principal component analysis...

  9. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Systems for Tissue Oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl

    We present exible silicon device platforms, which combine polyimide with polydimethylsiloxane in order to add flexibility and biocompatibility to the silicon devices. The device platforms are intended as tissue oximeters, using near infrared spectroscopy, but could potentially also be used...... for other medical applications. The tissue oximeters are realised by incorporation of pn-diodes into the silicon in order to form arrays of infrared detectors. These arrays can then be used for spatially resolved spectroscopy measurements, with the targeted end user being prematurely born infant children....... Monte Carlo simulations have been performed on a model of a neonatal head and they show only weak changing signals as function of changes in cerebral oxygenation. A mechanical and electrical analysis of the device platforms, both by analytical expressions and numerical simulation, indicated...

  10. Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Hemodynamic Monitor in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, Nancy S; Hoffman, George M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the technology and clinical interpretation of near infrared spectroscopy oximetry and its clinical application in patients with congenital heart disease. MEDLINE and PubMed. Near infrared spectroscopy provides a continuous noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. Over 20 years ago, near infrared spectroscopy was introduced into clinical practice for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. Since that time, the utilization of near infrared spectroscopy has extended into the realm of pediatric cardiac surgery and is increasingly being used in the cardiac ICU to monitor tissue oxygenation perioperatively.

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Schroeder, T V; Vogt, K C

    1997-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy was performed perioperatively on the dorsum of the foot in 14 patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass surgery using a prosthesis or the greater saphenous vein. Dual-wavelength continuous light spectroscopy was used to assess changes in tissue saturation before, during...... that near-infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for perioperative monitoring during vascular grafting....

  12. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  13. Social Perception in Infancy: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Blasi, Anna; Volein, Agnes; Everdell, Nick; Elwell, Claire E.; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to engage and communicate in a social world is one of the defining characteristics of the human species. While the network of regions that compose the social brain have been the subject of extensive research in adults, there are limited techniques available for monitoring young infants. This study used near infrared spectroscopy to…

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Piantadosi, C A

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method for monitoring oxygen availability and utilization by the tissues. In intact skeletal muscle, NIRS allows semi-quantitative measurements of haemoglobin plus myoglobin oxygenation (tissue O2 stores) and the haemoglobin volume. Specialized...

  15. Breast phantom for mammary tissue characterization by near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, D A; Cristiano, K L; Gutiérrez, J C

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated to a high morbidity and mortality in the entire world. In the study of early detection of breast cancer the development of phantom is so important. In this research we fabricate a breast phantom using a ballistic gel with special modifications to simulate a normal and abnormal human breast. Optical properties of woman breast in the near infrared region were modelled with the phantom we developed. The developed phantom was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy in order to study its relation with breast tissue. A good optical behaviour was achieved with the model fabricated

  16. Near infrared spectroscopy of food systems using a supercontinuum laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine

    Mid-infrared and particularly near-infrared spectroscopy is extremely useful for food analysis because they measure chemical and physical properties fast and non-destructively. The advancement of a supercontinuum light source covering the near-infrared and parts of the ultraviolet and mid......)) can be obtained, (c) that the supercontinuum light is fiber compatible i.e. it can couple directly to fibers, and (d) that the fast repetition rate of the supercontinuum pulses makes it possible to do very fast measurements. For these reasons, the supercontinuum light stands out from the commonly...... applied near- and mid-infrared incandescent light bulbs. This thesis aim to explore the utility of using a supercontinuum source in two food applications. (1) The supercontinuum light was applied for the first time to barley seeds in transmission mode in the long wavelength near-infrared region from 2260...

  17. Noninvasive detection of gas exchange rate by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guodong; Mao, Zongzhen; Wang, Bangde

    2008-12-01

    In order to study the relationship among the oxygen concentration in skeletal muscle tissues and the heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during incremental running exercises on a treadmill, a near-infrared spectroscopy muscle oxygen monitor system is employed to measure the relative change in muscle oxygenation, with the heart rate, oxygen uptake, production of carbon dioxide (VCO2) and respiratory exchange ratio are recorded synchronously. The results indicate parameters mentioned above present regular changes during the incremental exercise. High correlations are discovered between relative change of oxy-hemoglobin concentration and heart rate, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio at the significance level (P=0.01). This research might introduce a new measurement technology and/or a novel biological monitoring parameter to the evaluation of physical function status, control the training intensity, estimation of the effectiveness of exercise. Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; muscle oxygen concentration; heart rate; oxygen uptake; respiratory exchange ratio.

  18. Practical guide to interpretive near-infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Workman, Jr, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Containing focused, comprehensive coverage, Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy gives you the tools necessary to interpret NIR spectra. The authors present extensive tables, charts, and figures with NIR absorption band assignments and structural information for a broad range of functional groups, organic compounds, and polymers. They include visual spectral representation of all major compound functional groupings and NIR frequency ranges. Organized by functional group type and chemical structure, based on standard compound classification, the chapters are easy to

  19. Exploring process dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy in lactic fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina; Cieplak, Tomasz; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2016-01-01

    the chemical composition, physical/textural properties and/or microbial contamination. In this study lactic fermentation batches with the starter bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus are explored by in-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The dynamics obtained...... and absorption, where the scatter gives us information about the textural change happening, and the absorption gives us information about the biomass formation plus the conversion of sugar into lactic acid....

  20. Quantitative aspects of near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, F. T.; Smith, M. J.

    Three fundamental behaviors of vibrational spectroscopy data manipulation routinely associated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are evaluated for near-infrared (NIR) Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Spectral reproducibility, spectral subtraction and sensitivity are examined relative to the NIR FT-Raman experiment. Quantitative predictive ability is compared for identical sets of samples containing mixtures of the three xylene isomers. Partial least-squares analysis is used to compare predictive ability. IR performance is found to be better than Raman, though the potential for method development using NIR FT-Raman is shown to be quite promising.

  1. Near Infrared Spectroscopy: fundamentals, practical aspects and analytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini Celio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to review the basic theory of Near Infrared (NIR Spectroscopy and its applications in the field of Analytical Science. It is addressed to the reader who does not have a profound knowledge of vibrational spectroscopy but wants to be introduced to the analytical potentialities of this fascinating technique and, at same time, be conscious of its limitations. Essential theory background, an outline of modern instrument design, practical aspects, and applications in a number of different fields are presented. This work does not intend to supply an intensive bibliography but refers to the most recent, significant and representative material found in the technical literature. Because this paper has been produced as consequence of the First Workshop on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, whose venue was Campinas - Brazil, as a pre-conference activity of the XI National Meeting on Analytical Chemistry (ENQA, it also depicts the state of the art of NIR spectroscopy in Brazil, pointing out the current achievements and the need to take the technology to a level consistent with this country's economical activities.

  2. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in golf turfgrass management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Ying; Han, Jian-Guo

    2008-07-01

    The management of golf course is different from other turfs. Its particularity lies in its higher and more precise requirement during maintenance compare with other turfs. In case something happened to turf of golf course, more effective and higher speed detecting and resolution are required. Only the data about turf growth and environment were mastered precisely in time, the friendly environmental and scientific management goal could be completed effectively and economically. The near infrared spectroscopy is a new kind of effective, convenient and non-destructive analytical method in the turfgrass management of golf course in recent years. Many factors of turf-soil system in golf course could be determined by near infrared spectroscopy at the same time. In this paper, the existing literature that use of near infrared spectroscopy to study turfgrass and soil nutrient content, soil hygroscopic moisture, feasible fertilizer application time and rate, to fix the time and volume of irrigation, turfgrass visual quality evaluation, turfgrass disease prediction and prevention were reviewed. Most researchers considered the nutrition condition of turf impacted the visual and playing quality of golf course directly and then indirectly influenced most of assistant cultivation such as fertilization, mowing and irrigation and so on. The using of NIRS can detect the nutrient content of turfgrass effectively and estimate the nutrient is excessive or deficient quickly. And then the feasible time and rate of fertilizers can be decided. Comparing with the common judgment ways based on the season fertilization and visual estimation, the using of NIRS can reduce the application of fertilizers on the base of keeping the same turf quality simultaneously. NIRS can analysis many items of soil such as moisture, elements concentration, textures on the spot by the thousands. This method can get lots of cover-all data non-destructively. What's more, NIRS can analysis soil betimes quickly

  3. [Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shaoqin; Mao, Hua

    2014-03-01

    To establish a method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. A rapid near-infrared Raman system was used to examine the tissue specimens of pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (33 cases), gastric precancerous lesions (27 cases), and normal gastric mucosa (45 cases). All the specimens were obtained from 105 patients undergoing gastrectomy or endoscopic biopsy of suspected gastric lesions. High-quality Raman spectra ranging from 700 to 1800 cm(-1) were acquired from the gastric tissues within 5 s. The distribution pattern of Raman spectra in gastric cancer differed significantly from those of gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853 cm(-1), 936 cm(-1), 1003 cm(-1), 1032 cm(-1), 1174 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1323 cm(-1), 1335 cm(-1), 1450 cm(-1), and 1655 cm(-1), which contained signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The diagnostic decision algorithm based on the Raman peak intensity ratios of I1003/ I1337, I1003/I1445, I1003/I1655, and I1156/I1655 yielded remarkable differences in gastric cancer from gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, and the ratios were significantly higher in normal gastric tissues (Pinfrared Raman spectroscopy using PCA-LDA algorithms associated with leave- one-out and cross-validation method showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.5%, 85.3%, and 100%, and specificities of 86.4%, 100%, and 97.4% for normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer, respectively. near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with intensity ratio algorithms shows the potential for noninvasive diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancy at the molecular level.

  4. NIRS - Near infrared spectroscopy - investigations in neurovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes...... to sympathetic activity was investigated in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, who have increased sympathetic activity and risk of stroke. Following successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, OSA patients decreased their LFOs amplitude, which was interpreted as a marker of decreased...

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopy. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy system with a remote fiber-optic probe was developed and demonstrated to measure the water content of high-level radioactive wastes from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in richland Washington. The technology was developed as a cost-effective and safer alternative to the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique in use as the baseline. This work was supported by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) in cooperation with the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program

  6. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy in analysis of wood properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-wen

    2009-04-01

    There is substantial interest in the improvement of wood properties through genetic selection or a change in silviculture prescription. Tree breeding purpose requires measurement of a large number of samples. However, traditional methods of assessing wood properties are both time consuming and destructive, limiting the numbers of samples that can be processed, so new method would be needed to find. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation of wood and it can quickly, accurately estimate the properties of increment core, solid wood or wood meal. The present paper reviews the advances in the research on the wood chemistry properties and anatomical properties using NIR.

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy in the development of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Eetu; Sandler, Niklas

    2007-02-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has rapidly grown partly due to demands of process analytical applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Furthermore, newest regulatory guidelines have advanced the increase of the use of NIR technologies. The non-destructive and non-invasive nature of measurements makes NIR a powerful tool in characterization of pharmaceutical solids. These benefits among others often make NIR advantageous over traditional analytical methods. However, in addition to NIR, a wide variety of other tools are naturally also available for analysis in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, and those can often be more suitable for a given application. The versatility and rapidness of NIR will ensure its contribution to increased process understanding, better process control and improved quality of drug products. This review concentrates on the use of NIR spectroscopy from a process research perspective and highlights recent applications in the field.

  8. Gum Arabic authentication and mixture quantification by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yongjiang; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method is developed for Gum Arabic authentication based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods. On a large industrial collection of authentic gum Arabics, the two major Acacia gum species, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal could be assigned perfectly...... by the NIR spectroscopic method. In addition, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is calibrated to predict the blending percentage of the two pure gum types, producing an accuracy, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.8%. Sampling of the Gum Arabic ‘tears’ is discussed......, and it was determined that subsamples from three ‘tears’ is required for a representative result. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a very powerful and reliable method for authenticity testing of Gum Arabic species....

  9. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  10. Near infrared spectroscopy for qualitative comparison of pharmaceutical batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggo, Y; Roeseler, C; Ulmschneider, M

    2004-11-19

    Pharmaceuticals are produced according to current pharmacopoeias, which require quality parameters. Tablets of identical formulation, produced by different factories should have the same properties before and after storage. In this article, we analyzed samples having two different origins before and after storage (30 degrees C, 75% relative moisture). The aim of the study is to propose two approaches to understand the differences between origins and the storage effect by near infrared spectroscopy. In the first part, the main wavelengths are identified in transmittance and reflectance near infrared spectra in order to identify the major differences between the samples. In this paper, this approach is called fingerprinting. In the second part, principal component analysis (PCA) is computed to confirm the fingerprinting interpretation. The two interpretations show the differences between batches: physical aspect and moisture content. The manufacturing process is responsible for the physical differences between batches. During the storage, changes are due to the increase of moisture content and the decrease of the active content.

  11. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmad Kamran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF is modeled by using two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters. The HRF model is supposed to be linear combination of HRF, baseline and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown. An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on twelve free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using ten real and fifteen simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis, i.e., (t-value >tcritical and p-value < 0.05.

  12. Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan G.; Elwell, Clare E.; Delpy, Dave T.; Beard, Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use pulsed near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to determine the oxygen saturation (SO2) of a saline suspension of red blood cells in vitro. The photoacoustic measurements were made in a cuvette which formed part of a larger circuit through which the red blood cell suspension was circulated. Oxygen saturation of the red blood cell suspension was altered between 2-3% to 100% in step increments using a membrane oxygenator and at each increment an independent measurement of oxygen saturation was made using a co-oximeter. An optical parametric oscillator laser system provided nanosecond excitation pulses at a number of wavelengths in the near-infrared spectrum (740-1040nm) which were incident on the cuvette. The resulting acoustic signals were detected using a broadband (15MHz) Fabry-Perot polymer film transducer. The optical transport coefficient and amplitude were determined from the acoustic signals as a function of wavelength. These data were then used to calculate the relative concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, using their known specific absorption coefficients and an empirically determined wavelength dependence of optical scattering over the wavelength range investigated. From this, the oxygen saturation of the suspension was derived with an accuracy of +/-5% compared to the co-oximeter SO2 measurements.

  13. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Watching the Brain in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neurological sensing technique applicable to optimizing human performance in transportation operations, such as commercial aviation. Cognitive state can be determined via pattern classification of functional activations measured with fNIRS. Operational application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for dynamic artifact removal. The concept of using the frequency domain phase shift signal to tune a Kalman filter is introduced to improve the quality of fNIRS signals in real-time. Hemoglobin concentration and phase shift traces were simulated for four different types of motion artifact to demonstrate the filter. Unwanted signal was reduced by at least 43%, and the contrast of the filtered oxygenated hemoglobin signal was increased by more than 100% overall. This filtering method is a good candidate for qualifying fNIRS signals in real time without auxiliary sensors.

  14. Brain plasticity and rehabilitation by using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balconi Michela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review elucidated the use of optical imaging technique (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRS to better explain the brain plasticity for learning mechanisms, rehabilitation and post-traumatic brain recovery. Some recent applications were discussed, with specific focus on the usability of integrated measures (such as electroencephalography, EEG-NIRS; Transcranial Magnet Stimulation, TMS-NIRS to study plasticity and its dynamic effects. NIRS-Neurofeedback and NIRS-BCI (Brain Computer Interface were also explored as possible tools to produce a specific long-lasting learning in relationship with a specific cognitive domain. Finally a proficient domain where NIRS was found to be useful to test neuroplasticity is the interpersonal brain-to-brain coupling, termed “hyperscanning”, a new emerging paradigm in neuroscience which measures brain activity from two or more people simultaneously.

  15. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  16. Moisture determination in hygroscopic drug substances by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Hines, P; Borer, M W

    1998-06-01

    The moisture level in a hygroscopic drug substance was successfully determined by near infrared spectroscopy using coulometric Karl Fischer titration as the reference method. The importance of sample handling and proper application of the reference technique are stressed for this difficult sample type. Samples were prepared with moisture levels from 0.5 to 11.4% (w/w) and reflectance spectra were collected over the spectral range 1100-2500 nm. Calibration models were built using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. Optimum models were found by choosing proper spectral ranges and number of PLS factors. The best calibration models were built using first derivative spectra, a spectral range of 1850-1936 nm and 5 PLS factors. The corresponding standard error of prediction was 0.11% (w/w) water.

  17. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamitsu Shinichiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychosomatic and developmental behavioral medicine in pediatrics has been the subject of significant recent attention, with infants, school-age children, and adolescents frequently presenting with psychosomatic, behavioral, and psychiatric symptoms. These may be a consequence of insecurity of attachment, reduced self-confidence, and peer -relationship conflicts during their developmental stages. Developmental cognitive neuroscience has revealed significant associations between specific brain lesions and particular cognitive dysfunctions. Thus, identifying the biological deficits underlying such cognitive dysfunction may provide new insights into therapeutic prospects for the management of those symptoms in children. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, and especially functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, have contributed significant findings to the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience in pediatrics. We present here a comprehensive review of functional NIRS studies of children who have developed normally and of children with psychosomatic and behavioral disorders.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Piantadosi, C A

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method for monitoring oxygen availability and utilization by the tissues. In intact skeletal muscle, NIRS allows semi-quantitative measurements of haemoglobin plus myoglobin oxygenation (tissue O2 stores) and the haemoglobin volume. Specialized...... algorithms allow assessment of the oxidation-reduction (redox) state of the copper moiety (CuA) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and, with the use of specific tracers, accurate assessment of regional blood flow. NIRS has demonstrated utility for monitoring changes in muscle oxygenation and blood flow...... during submaximal and maximal exercise and under pathophysiological conditions including cardiovascular disease and sepsis. During work, the extent to which skeletal muscles deoxygenate varies according to the type of muscle, type of exercise and blood flow response. In some instances, a strong...

  19. Structure, electrochemistry and spectroscopy of a new diacylhydrazido-bridged diruthenium complex with a strongly near-infrared absorbing RuIIIRuII intermediate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jana, R.; Sarkar, B.; Bubrin, D.; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2010), s. 1160-1162 ISSN 1387-7003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk OC09043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : crystal structure * hydrazido ligand * near-infrared ruthenium Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.974, year: 2010

  20. Quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy on patients with peripheral vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, MA; Fantini, S; Palumbo, R; Pasqualini, L; Vaudo, G; Franceschini, E; Gratton, E; Palumbo, B; Innocente, S; Mannarino, E

    1997-01-01

    We have used near-infrared spectroscopy to measure the hemoglobin saturation at rest and during exercise on patients affected by peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The instrument used in our study is a frequency-domain tissue oximeter which employs intensity modulated (110 MHz) laser diodes. We examined 9 subjects, 3 of which were controls and 6 were patients affected by stage II PVD. The optical probe was located on the calf muscle of the subjects. The measurement protocol consisted of: (1) ...

  1. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad A; Jeong, Myung Yung; Mannan, Malik M N

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR) differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF) is modeled by two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters (four of them to model the shape and other two to scale and baseline respectively). The HRF model is supposed to be a linear combination of HRF, baseline, and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown). An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on 12 free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using 10 real and 15 simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis (i.e., t-value > t critical and p-value < 0.05).

  2. Monitoring osteoarthritis progression using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Isaac O; Prasadam, Indira; Arabshahi, Zohreh; Xiao, Yin; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-09-13

    We demonstrate in this study the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model. Osteoarthritic degeneration was artificially induced in one joint in laboratory rats, and the animals were sacrificed at four time points: 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks (3 animals/week). NIR spectra were acquired from both (injured and intact) knees. Subsequently, the joint samples were subjected to histological evaluation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content analysis, to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system and to determine proteoglycan loss, respectively. Multivariate spectral techniques were then employed for classification (principal component analysis and support vector machines) and prediction (partial least squares regression) of the samples' Mankin scores and GAG content from their NIR spectra. Our results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy is sensitive to degenerative changes in articular cartilage, and is capable of distinguishing between mild (weeks 1&2; Mankin 3) cartilage degeneration. In addition, the spectral data contains information that enables estimation of the tissue's Mankin score (error = 12.6%, R 2  = 86.2%) and GAG content (error = 7.6%, R 2  = 95%). We conclude that NIR spectroscopy is a viable tool for assessing cartilage degeneration post-injury, such as, post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

  3. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF POST-AGB STARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAIJER, RD; WATERS, LBFM; VANDERVEEN, WECJ; GEBALLE, TR

    The results of a medium resolution near-infrared spectral survey of 18 post-AGB candidate stars are presented. Most of the stars have near-infrared hydrogen lines in absorption, which is normal for their spectral types. Three stars, HD 101584, HD 179821 and HD 170756 have the CO first overtone bands

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy for burning plasma diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2008-10-01

    Ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS, 200-750 nm) atomic spectroscopy of neutral and ionized fuel species (H, D, T, and Li) and impurities (e.g., He, Be, C, and W) is a key element of plasma control and diagnosis on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and future magnetically confined burning plasma experiments (BPXs). Spectroscopic diagnostic implementation and performance issues that arise in the BPX harsh nuclear environment in the UV-VIS range, e.g., degradation of first mirror reflectivity under charge-exchange atom bombardment (erosion) and impurity deposition, permanent and dynamic loss of window, and optical fiber transmission under intense neutron and gamma-ray fluxes, are either absent or not as severe in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-2000 nm) range. An initial survey of NIR diagnostic applications has been undertaken on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can be used for machine protection and plasma control applications, as well as contribute to plasma performance evaluation and physics studies. Emission intensity estimates demonstrate that NIR measurements are possible in the BPX plasma operating parameter range. Complications in the NIR range due to the parasitic background emissions are expected to occur at very high plasma densities, low impurity densities, and at high plasma-facing component temperatures.

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopy is feasible to discriminate hazelnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Stella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the feasibility of the near infrared (NIR spectroscopy use for hazelnut-cultivar sorting. Hazelnut spectra were acquired from 600 fruit for each cultivar sample, two diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from opposite sides of the same hazelnut. Spectral data were transformed into absorbance before the computations. A different variety of spectral pretreatments were applied to extract characteristics for the classification. An iterative Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA algorithm was used to select a relatively small set of variables to correctly classify samples. The optimal group of features selected for each test was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. The spectral region most frequently chosen was the 1980-2060 nm range, which corresponds to best differentiation performance for a total minimum error rate lower than 1.00%. This wavelength range is generally associated with stretching and bending of the N-H functional group of amino acids and proteins. The feasibility of using NIR Spectroscopy to distinguish different hazelnut cultivars was demonstrated.

  6. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species...

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy in the study of polymorphic transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Marcel [Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Unity, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: marcel.blanco@uab.es; Alcala, Manel [Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Unity, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gonzalez, Josep M. [Laboratorios Menarini S.A., c/. Alfons XII, 587, E-08918 Badalona, Barcelona (Spain); Torras, Ester [Laboratorios Menarini S.A., c/. Alfons XII, 587, E-08918 Badalona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-05-17

    The potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the characterization of polymorphs in the active principle of a commercial formulation prior to and after the manufacturing process was assessed. Polymorphism in active principles is extremely significant to the pharmaceutical industry. Polymorphic changes during the production of commercial pharmaceutical formulations can alter some properties of the resulting end-products. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) methodology was used to obtain the 'pure' NIR spectrum for the active principle without the need to pretreat samples. This methodology exposed the polymorphic transformation of Dexketoprofen Trometamol (DKP) in both laboratory and production samples obtained by wet granulation. No polymorphic transformation, however, was observed in samples obtained by direct compaction. These results were confirmed using by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Pure crystalline polymorphs of DKP were available in the laboratory but amorphous form was not, nevertheless the developed methodology allows the identification of amorphous and crystal forms in spite of the lack of pure DKP.

  8. Carbon monoxide reduces near-infrared spectroscopy determined 'total' hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Mads J; Sørensen, Henrik; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    to normoxia (68.9 ± 6.9%; p determined ScO2 remained unchanged during CO/O2 and O2 inhalations but oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin decreased (by 19.7 μM (median; IQR 2.8-34.8; p = .016) and 37.3 μM (30.8-46.6; p = .004), respectively) during inhalation of CO/O2 compared...... to inhalation of O2. Therefore, NIRO-200NX determined 'total' hemoglobin (sum of O2Hb and HHb) decreased (by 62.1 μM; 44.5-78.2; p = .001). In conclusion, exposure to CO did not increase MCAVmean, and neither NIRO-200NX nor INVOS-5100 detected a change in ScO2 when CO was added to inhalation of oxygen......Carbon monoxide (CO) increases middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCAVmean), but the effect of CO on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) is not detailed. In our study, 11 non-smoking subjects breathed 100% O2 through a closed circuit. A CO2 scrubber...

  9. Bundled-Optode Method in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Dung Nguyen

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theory for detection of the absolute concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR from hemodynamic responses using a bundled-optode configuration in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is proposed. The proposed method is then applied to the identification of two fingers (i.e., little and thumb during their flexion and extension. This experiment involves a continuous-wave-type dual-wavelength (760 and 830 nm fNIRS and five healthy male subjects. The active brain locations of two finger movements are identified based on the analysis of the t- and p-values of the averaged HbOs, which are quite distinctive. Our experimental results, furthermore, revealed that the hemodynamic responses of two-finger movements are different: The mean, peak, and time-to-peak of little finger movements are higher than those of thumb movements. It is noteworthy that the developed method can be extended to 3-dimensional fNIRS imaging.

  10. Near Infrared Spectroscopy during pediatric cardiac surgery: errors and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandy, Y; Rubatti, M; Couturier, R

    2011-09-01

    As a result of improvements in early outcomes, long-term neurologicalal outcomes are becoming a major issue in pediatric cardiac surgery. The mechanisms of brain injury are numerous, but a vast majority of injuries are impervious to therapy and only a few are modifiable. The quality of perfusion during cardiac surgery is a modifiable factor and cerebral monitoring during bypass is the way to assess the quality of intra-operative cerebral perfusion. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), as a diagnostic tool, has gained in popularity within the perfusion community. However, NIRS is becoming the standard of care before its scientific validation. This manuscript relates four clinical cases, demonstrating the limitations of NIRS monitoring during pediatric cardiac surgery as well as uncertainties about the interpretation of the recorded values. The clinical relevance of cerebral oxymetry is needed before the use of NIRS as a decision making tool. Multimodal brain monitoring with NIRS, trans-cranial Doppler and electroencephalogram are currently under way in several pediatric centers. The benefit of this time-consuming and expensive monitoring system has yet to be demonstrated.

  11. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in nutritional intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A Jackson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials—in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed—have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in haemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavouring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.

  12. Study of deacetylation in chitinous materials using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suming; Tsai, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Richie L. C.; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Hsien-Yi; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Yang, Ci-Wen

    2005-11-01

    Chitinous materials are important sources for bio-medical applications, and the process monitoring is one of key factors for the quality control of products. In this study, chitin and chitosan in suspension form were analyzed using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Two models including multiple linear regression (MLR), modified partial least square regression (MPLSR) were adopted for studying the degree of deacetylation (DD) of chitinous materials in order to assure a better quality monitoring and control for chitosan production. During the process of the deacetylation, the real-time measurements of suspension were conducted. The MPLSR model with second derivative spectra in the range of 600-1000 and 1400-1500 nm yielded the best results, which were rc=0.991, SEC=0.019, RESC=1.4%, rp=0.990, SEP=0.022, RSEP=3.4%, RPD=9.4. The NIR measurements of DD status of chitinous suspension could be achieved by using the MLR and MPLSR models developed in this study. It provides great application potentials to the real-time and on-line quality monitoring of deacetylation process for the production of chitosan.

  13. Giant Planet Interior Physics from Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Thorngren, Daniel; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline

    2017-10-01

    Transiting planets give us excellent probes of giant exoplanet structure (from mass and radius) and atmospheres (from transit and occultation spectroscopy). However, the combined power of these observations to understand how the planetary interior structure may impact its atmosphere has not yet been fully exploited. This will change with JWST. In particular, near-infrared wavelengths have less water opacity than mid-IR wavelengths, which allows us to probe thermal emission from deeper, hotter regions of the atmosphere. In some circumstances we should be able to see thermal emission coming from below the radiative-convective boundary in the atmosphere, including the adiabat itself. This adiabat continues into the planet’s very deep interior -- the specific entropy of this adiabat sets the planetary radius at a given mass. Hot internal adiabats, which we should be able to ``see” in thermal emission, should be present for the most inflated hot Jupiters, and planets like warm Neptunes that are strongly influenced by tidal heating (e.g. GJ 436b, Morley et al. 2017). Determining the flux coming from these atmospheric depths can be an important constraint on structure models of planets that have aimed to understand giant planet bulk metal enrichment, which is an important constraint on formation models. These flux detections can also provide novel and reasonably direct constraints on planetary tidal Q for eccentric planets. We highlight how we expect JWST to open up this new window into exoplanetary physics.

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Evaluation of Anesthetic Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hernandez-Meza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard-of-care guidelines published by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA recommend monitoring of pulse oximetry, blood pressure, heart rate, and end tidal CO2 during the use of anesthesia and sedation. This information can help to identify adverse events that may occur during procedures. However, these parameters are not specific to the effects of anesthetics or sedatives, and therefore they offer little, to no, real time information regarding the effects of those agents and do not give the clinician the lead-time necessary to prevent patient “awareness.” Since no “gold-standard” method is available to continuously, reliably, and effectively monitor the effects of sedatives and anesthetics, such a method is greatly needed. Investigation of the use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS as a method for anesthesia or sedation monitoring and for the assessment of the effects of various anesthetic drugs on cerebral oxygenation has started to be conducted. The objective of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the currently available published scientific studies regarding the use of fNIRS in the fields of anesthesia and sedation monitoring, comment on their findings, and discuss the future work required for the translation of this technology to the clinical setting.

  15. Prediction of brain tissue temperature using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Lisa; Mitra, Subhabrata; Bale, Gemma; Robertson, Nicola; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of R2=0.713±0.157 (animal dataset) and R2=0.798±0.087 (human dataset). In addition, we applied regression receiver operating characteristic curves for the first time to evaluate the temperature prediction, which provided an overall mean error bias between NIRS predicted brain temperature and body temperature of 0.436±0.283°C (animal dataset) and 0.162±0.149°C (human dataset). We discuss main methodological aspects, particularly the well-known aspect of over- versus underestimation between brain and body temperature, which is relevant for potential clinical applications. PMID:28630878

  16. Quantifying cerebral hypoxia by near-infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B.; Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Andresen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    hypotension to investigate the influence of blood volume distribution on cerebral NIRS in a newborn piglet model. Hypotension was induced gradually by inflating a balloon-catheter in the inferior vena cava and the regional tissue oxygenation from NIRS (rStO2,NIRS) was then compared to a reference (rStO2,COX......Tissue oxygenation estimated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a volume-weighted mean of the arterial and venous hemoglobin oxygenation. In vivo validation assumes a fixed arterial-to-venous volume-ratio (AV-ratio). Regulatory cerebro-vascular mechanisms may change the AV-ratio. We used......) calculated from superior sagittal sinus and aortic blood sample co-oximetry with a fixed AV-ratio. Apparent changes in the AV-ratio and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were also calculated. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) range was 14 to 82 mmHg. PaCO2 and SaO2 were stable during measurements. rStO2,NIRS...

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a piglet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nicola Groes; Spielmann, Nelly; Ringer, Simone K.

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a piglet model: readings are influenced by the colour of the cover Clausen NG1,2, Spielmann N1,3, Weiss M1,3, Ringer SK4 1Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland; 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Odense...... from rSO2-UC and rSO2-SC (rSO2-UC2: 57.4 ± 6.8; rSO2-SC: 57.5 ± 6.4; rSO2-SD: 52 ± 5.9 %) (preadings can be influenced by covering of the sensors. The colour of the cover seems to be of importance....... This variability is likely to reflect a source of error rather than an actual change in rSO2 and should be considered, when interpreting rSO2 in a clinical setting. We suggest application of a black sensor cover to avoid the influence of light. Acknowledgement: An INVOS Oximetry monitor was provided with courtesy...

  18. Near infrared spectroscopy in animal science production: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Riovanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR is one of the techniques belonging to vibrational spectroscopy. Its radiation (750 to 2500nm interacts with organic matter, and the absorption spectrum is rich in chemical and physical information of organic molecules. In order to extract valuable information on the chemical properties of samples, it is necessary to mathematically process spectral data by chemometric tools. The most important part in the development of an NIR method is building the predicting model generally called calibration. NIR spectroscopy has several advantages over other analytical techniques: rapidity of analysis, no use of chemicals, minimal or no samples preparation, easily applicable in different work environments (on/in/at line applications. On the other hand, NIR spectroscopy has some disadvantages: low ability to predict compounds at low concentration (<0.1%, necessity of accurate analysis as reference, development of calibration models required high trained personnel, need of a large and up-to-date calibration data set (often difficult to obtain, difficulties to transfer calibration among instruments, initial high financial investments. In the feed industry, NIR spectroscopy is used for: feed composition, digestibility (in vivo, in vitro, in situ, traceability assessment (to avoid possible frauds. As far as animal products are concerned, NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine the main composition of meat, milk, fish, cheese, eggs. Furthermore, it was also used to predict some physical properties (tenderness, WHC (Water Holding Capacity, drip loss, colour and pH in meat; coagulation ability in milk; freshness, flavour and other sensorial parameters in cheese. Interesting applications of NIR spectroscopy regard issues like: determination of animal products’ authenticity and the detection of adulteration (in order to prevent frauds, discrimination PDO (Protected Designation of Origin and PGI (Protected Geographical Indication from other non

  19. Effect of mechanical optical clearing on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, Christopher R; Vogt, William C; King-Casas, Brooks; LaConte, Stephen M; Rylander, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a broadly utilized technology with many emerging applications including clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and functional neuroimaging, to name a few. For functional brain imaging NIR light is delivered at multiple wavelengths through the scalp and skull to the brain to enable spatial oximetry measurements. Dynamic changes in brain oxygenation are highly correlated with neural stimulation, activation, and function. Unfortunately, NIRS is currently limited by its low spatial resolution, shallow penetration depth, and, perhaps most importantly, signal corruption due to light interactions with superficial non-target tissues such as scalp and skull. In response to these issues, we have combined the non-invasive and rapidly reversible method of mechanical tissue optical clearing (MOC) with a commercially available NIRS system. MOC utilizes a compressive loading force on tissue, causing the lateral displacement of blood and water, while simultaneously thinning the tissue. A MOC-NIRS Breath Hold Test displayed a ∼3.5-fold decrease in the time-averaged standard deviation between channels, consequentially promoting greater channel agreement. A Skin Pinch Test was implemented to negate brain and muscle activity from affecting the recorded signal. These results displayed a 2.5-3.0 fold increase in raw signal amplitude. Existing NIRS instrumentation has been further integrated within a custom helmet device to provide a uniform force distribution across the NIRS sensor array. These results showed a gradual decrease in time-averaged standard deviation among channels with an increase in applied pressure. Through these experiments, and the development of the MOC-NIRS helmet device, MOC appears to provide enhancement of NIRS technology beyond its current limitations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Near infrared spectroscopy: experience on esophageal atresia infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Andrea; Giliberti, Paola; Mondi, Vito; Valfré, Laura; Sgro, Stefania; Picardo, Sergio; Bagolan, Pietro; Dotta, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) gradually became the gold standard to guide anesthetic conduction during cardiac surgery, and nowadays, it is commonly utilized to monitor cerebral oxygenation during invasive procedures. Preterm babies also benefit from this non-invasive monitoring to prevent neurological sequelae. However, few data are available on NIRS perioperative changes in newborn operated on for major non-cardiac malformations. Aim of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of NIRS assessment during and after esophageal atresia (EA) correction and its correlation with clinical behavior. All patients treated for EA from May 2011 were prospectively enrolled in the study. All infants underwent "open" correction of EA and cerebral and splanchnic NIRS was applied up to 48h after surgery. Body temperature, blood pressure, pH, paSO2, paCO2, and urine output, were recorded during NIRS registration. Mann-Whitney test and 1-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's multiple comparison tests) were used as appropriate. Seventeen patients were enrolled into the study and 13 were available for the analysis. Four patients were excluded because of poor NIRS registration. Cerebral and renal NIRS values significantly decreased at 24h post-operatively (pNIRS remained stable during the study period. Urine output significantly decreased. Our data confirmed that perioperative monitoring of tissue oxygenation during neonatal esophageal surgery is feasible. Cerebral and renal NIRS evaluation, as for cardiac patients, may guide anesthetic conduction and postoperative care. Out data suggest a newly observed hemodynamic reorganization during esophageal surgery involving renal and, probably, splanchnic blood flow redistribution, demonstrated by the observed subsequent significant post-operative transitory decrease in urinary output. Reducing the decrement in cerebral and renal NIRS values may improve, and ideally eliminate, the well-known late sequelae linked to hemodynamic changes

  1. New applications of near infrared spectroscopy in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewald, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The near infrared spectroscopic method of analysis was initially developed for rapid analyses of protein in wheat. A brief explanation of the theory and history of near infrared spectroscopic analysis will be given. Research was done on the application of near infrared spectroscopic (NIR) in the food industry. Especially exciting was the breakthrough achieved in applying NIR to determine the dry solid content of bread. Such application could revolutionise the baking industry. Results will also be presented of research done on the application of NIR techniques for the determination of protein and fat in bread based on dry matter; hardness in wheat; absorption and sedimentation in pasta products; and use in process control in snack products manufacture. The limitations that were found in the application of NIR analysis will also be covered. The developments in NIR technology may result in these methods becoming standard practice in many food laboratories

  2. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non...

  3. Discriminating oat and groat kernels from other grains using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat and groats can be discriminated from other grains such as barley, wheat, rye, and triticale (non-oats) using near infrared spectroscopy. The two instruments tested were the manual version of the ARS-USDA Single Kernel Near Infrared (SKNIR) and the automated QualySense QSorter Explorer high-speed...

  4. [The application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in seeds quality certification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-Bo; Han, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Guo, Hui-Qin

    2008-03-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy is a newly developed method capable of analyzing the content of specific compound in the detected sample quickly and efficiently. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been wildly used in many fields such as agriculture science, food industry, medical industry, chemical engineering and protection of environment and so on. In the present paper firstly the principle, technique method and merits of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy were described. Then the application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the seeds of many crops, i.e. wheat, rice, rape and apple, was reviewed and discussed in brief. Based on this introduction, the potential value of the application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the grass seeds quality certification was discussed in the four areas, i.e. the grass seed variety discrimination, the standard percentage rate of grass seed germination testing, the scale of the content of grass seed moisture, and the evaluation of the grass seed vigor and the purity of grass seed. Finally, it was concluded that the application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the grass seed quality certification is significant both in the academic and the technical areas because near infrared reflectance spectroscopy will not only improve the efficiency of grass seed certification, saving manual work and testing time, but also help expand the extent and application of routine quality certification of grass seeds.

  5. Determination of plant silicon content with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan eSmis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is one of the most common elements in the earth bedrock, and its continental cycle is strongly biologically controlled. Yet, research on the biogeochemical cycle of Si in ecosystems is hampered by the time and cost associated with the currently used chemical analysis methods. Here, we assessed the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS for measuring Si content in plant tissues. NIR spectra depend on the characteristics of the present bonds between H and N, C and O, which can be calibrated against concentrations of various compounds. Because Si in plants always occurs as hydrated condensates of orthosilicic acid (Si(OH4, linked to organic biomolecules, we hypothesized that NIRS is suitable for measuring Si content in plants across a range of plant species.We based our testing on 442 samples of 29 plant species belonging to a range of growth forms. We calibrated the NIRS method against a well-established plant Si analysis method by using partial least-squares regression. Si concentrations ranged from detection limit (0.24 ppmSi to 7.8% Si on dry weight and were well predicted by NIRS. The model fit with validation data was good across all plant species (n=141, R2=0.90, RMSEP=0.24, but improved when only graminoids were modeled (n=66, R2=0.95, RMSEP=0.10. A species specific model for the grass Deschampsia cespitosa showed even slightly better results than the model for all graminoids (n=16, R2=0.93, RMSEP=0.015.We show for the first time that NIRS is applicable for determining plant Si concentration across a range of plant species and growth forms, and represents a time- and cost-effective alternative to the chemical Si analysis methods. As NIRS can be applied concurrently to a range of plant organic constituents, it opens up unprecedented research possibilities for studying interrelations between Si and other plant compounds in vegetation, and for addressing the role of Si in ecosystems across a range of Si

  6. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species authentication, Geographical origin discrimination, Quality control

  7. Discrimination of mineral waters using near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that water is one of the most studied materials today its dynamic properties are still not well understood. Water state in human organism is of high importance for normal healthy functioning of human body. Different kinds of water are usually classified according to its present solutes, and concentrations of these solutes, but though it is known that water molecules can form clusters around present solutes, classification of waters based on types of water molecular organization and present clusters is not present in current literature. In this study we used multivariate analysis for classification of commercial mineral waters based on their near infrared spectra (NIR. Further, we applied Aquaphotomics, a new approach for interpretation of near infrared spectra of water, which gives insight into organization of water molecules in each of these waters.

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy in the routine diagnostic work-up of patients with leg ischaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbink, D. T.; Koopman, B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the reproducibility and clinical applicability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in patients with leg ischaemia. DESIGN: Prospective comparative diagnostic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routinely measured peripheral blood pressure and microcirculatory parameters were

  9. Cutaneous vasoconstriction affects near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygen saturation during administration of norepinephrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Henrik Breiner; Secher, Niels H; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Perioperative optimization of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral frontal lobe oxygenation (scO2) may reduce postoperative morbidity. Norepinephrine is routinely administered to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure and, thereby, cerebral blood flow, but norepinephrin...

  10. Effect of motion artifacts and their correction on near-infrared spectroscopy oscillation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selb, Juliette; Yücel, Meryem A; Phillip, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy is prone to contamination by motion artifacts (MAs). Motion correction algorithms have previously been proposed and their respective performance compared for evoked rain activation studies. We study instead the effect of MAs on "oscillation" data which...... in the frequency band around 0.1 and 0.04 Hz, suggesting a physiological origin for the difference. We emphasize the importance of considering MAs as a confounding factor in oscillation-based functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies....

  11. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. The application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Barabassy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cow’s milk in Hungary fluctuates by 15-20 % annualy. Surplus milk is dried into powder and can also be converted to modified milk powders using techniques such as ultra filtration. From approximetely 20.000 tonnes, of all milk powder types, 3.000 tonnes, is converted using ultra filtration technology. Multivariable near infrared (NIR calibration was performed on powder mixtures of whole milk, skimmed milk, whey, retenate (protein concentrate and lactose for rapid fat, protein, lactose, water and ash content determination. More than 150 samples were prepared and measured in two NIRS labs (Scottish Agriculture College – SAC – Aberdeen and University of Horticulture and Food Science - UHFS – Budapest. The results obtained from the same samples were compared. The aims of the study were: 1. Rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of mixtures of milk powder products using NIR technique. 2. Comparison of the results achieved in Aberdeen (SAC and Budapest (UHFS institutes. The mass per cent varied between 0.0-2.8% for fat, 0.0-80% for protein, 6.6-100 % for lactose, 0.0-5.0 % for water and 0.0-8.0 % for ash. High correlation coefficients (0.97-0.99 were found for all five components.

  13. Quantitative analysis of ice films by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Joseph T.

    1990-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in the Space Transportation System is the possibility of the ice buildup on the external fuel tank surface while it is mounted on the launch pad. During the T-2 hours (and holding) period, the frost/ice thickness on the external tank is monitored/measured. However, after the resumption of the countdown time, the tank surface can only be monitored remotely. Currently, remote sensing is done with a TV camera coupled to a thermal imaging device. This device is capable of identifying the presence of ice, especially if it is covered with a layer of frost. However, it has difficulty identifying transparent ice, and, it is not capable of determining the thickness of ice in any case. Thus, there is a need for developing a technique for measuring the thickness of frost/ice on the tank surface during this two hour period before launch. The external tank surface is flooded with sunlight (natural or simulated) before launch. It may be possible, therefore, to analyze the diffuse reflection of sunlight from the external tank to determine the presence and thickness of ice. The purpose was to investigate the feasibility of this approach. A near-infrared spectrophotometer was used to record spectra of ice. It was determined that the optimum frequencies for monitoring the ice films were 1.03 and 1.255 microns.

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Small Protonated Water Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J. Philipp; McDonald, David C., II; McCoy, Anne B.; Duncan, Michael A.

    2017-06-01

    Small protonated water clusters and their argon tagged analogues of the general formula H^{+}(H_{2}O)_{n}Ar_{m} have been generated in a pulsed electric discharge source. Clusters containing n=1-8 water molecules were mass-selected and their absorptions in the near-infrared were probed with a tunable Nd/colonYAG pumped OPA/OPA laser system in the region from 4850-7350 cm^{-1}. A doublet corresponding to overtones of the free O-H stretches of the external waters was observed around 7200 cm^{-1} that was continuously decreasing in intensity with increasing cluster size. Broad, mostly featureless absorptions were found around 5300 cm^{-1} associated with stretch/bend combinations and with the hydrogen bonded waters in the core of the clusters. Vibrational assignments were substantiated by comparison to anharmonic frequency computations via second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory.

  15. Moisture determination of tritium tracers utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosemary; Waterhouse, David J; Helmy, Roy

    2016-06-15

    Tritium tracers are frequently used in biological assays during the drug discovery process because of their high specific activity and relative ease of synthesis. However, this high specific activity, along with other contributing factors, can lead to an increased rate of radiolytic decomposition. As a result, following long-term storage tritium tracers often require purification. Understanding the elements that cause radiolytic decomposition is extremely important to extend the storage life, and consequently reduce unnecessary inventory purifications. One of these elements is the presence of water in tritium tracers. Upon investigation, it was discovered that aside from the relatively common tritium/water exchange that could occur, residual water could also contribute significantly to the decomposition of tritium tracers. A near-infrared method was developed utilizing a portable device to measure the water content in tritium tracers rapidly and without sample destruction. This method proved to be quick, efficient, and achieved an error less than 5% compared to that of traditional Karl Fischer titration. Method validation was performed and good accuracy, linearity, limit of detection and quantitation were all established. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Application of miniaturized near-infrared spectroscopy for quality control of extemporaneous orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Wen Chin; Widjaja, Effendi; Khong, Yuet Mei; Gokhale, Rajeev; Chan, Sui Yung

    2018-02-20

    Extemporaneous oral preparations are routinely compounded in the pharmacy due to a lack of suitable formulations for special populations. Such small-scale pharmacy preparations also present an avenue for individualized pharmacotherapy. Orodispersible films (ODF) have increasingly been evaluated as a suitable dosage form for extemporaneous oral preparations. Nevertheless, as with all other extemporaneous preparations, safety and quality remain a concern. Although the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) recommends analytical testing of compounded preparations for quality assurance, pharmaceutical assays are typically not routinely performed for such non-sterile pharmacy preparations, due to the complexity and high cost of conventional assay methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Spectroscopic methods including Raman, infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy have been successfully applied as quality control tools in the industry. The state-of-art benchtop spectrometers used in those studies have the advantage of superior resolution and performance, but are not suitable for use in a small-scale pharmacy setting. In this study, we investigated the application of a miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectrometer as a quality control tool for identification and quantification of drug content in extemporaneous ODFs. Miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is suitable for small-scale pharmacy applications in view of its small size, portability, simple user interface, rapid measurement and real-time prediction results. Nevertheless, the challenge with miniaturized NIR spectroscopy is its lower resolution compared to state-of-art benchtop equipment. We have successfully developed NIR spectroscopy calibration models for identification of ODFs containing five different drugs, and quantification of drug content in ODFs containing 2-10mg ondansetron (OND). The qualitative model for drug identification produced 100% prediction accuracy. The quantitative

  17. Prediction of tablets disintegration times using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a nondestructive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, M; Ghaly, Evone S

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this study are to user near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to measure the disintegration time of a series of tablets compacted at different compressional forces, calibrate NIR data vs. laboratory equipment data, develop a model equation, validate the model, and test the model's predictive ability. Seven theophylline tablet formulations of the same composition but with different disintegration time values (0.224, 1.141, 2.797, 5.492, 9.397, 16.8, and 30.092 min) were prepared along with five placebo tablet formulations with different disintegration times. Laboratory disintegration time was compared to near-infrared diffuse reflectance data. Linear regression, quadratic, cubic, and partial least square techniques were used to determine the relationship between disintegration time and near-infrared spectra. The results demonstrated that an increase in disintegration time produced an increase in near-infrared absorbance. Series of model equations, which depended on the mathematical technique used for regression, were developed from the calibration of disintegration time using laboratory equipment vs. the near-infrared diffuse reflectance for each formulation. The results of NIR disintegration time were similar to laboratory tests. The near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method is an alternative nondestructive method for measurement of disintegration time of tablets.

  18. Quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy on patients with peripheral vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Fantini, Sergio; Palumbo, Renato; Pasqualini, Leonella; Vaudo, Gaetano; Franceschini, Edoardo; Gratton, Enrico; Palumbo, Barbara; Innocente, Salvatore; Mannarino, Elmo

    1998-01-01

    We have used near-infrared spectroscopy to measure the hemoglobin saturation at rest and during exercise on patients affected by peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The instrument used in our study is a frequency-domain tissue oximeter which employs intensity modulated (110 MHz) laser diodes. We examined 9 subjects, 3 of which were controls and 6 were patients affected by stage II PVD. The optical probe was located on the calf muscle of the subjects. The measurement protocol consisted of: (1) baseline (approximately 5 min); (2) stationary bicycle exercise (approximately 5 min); (3) recovery (approximately 15 min). The change in hemoglobin saturation during exercise ((Delta) Y) and the recovery time after exercise (trec) were significantly greater in the PVD patients ((Delta) Y equals -21 +/- 3%, trec equals 5.9 +/- 3.8 min) than in the control subjects ((Delta) Y equals 2 +/- 3%, trec equals 0.6 +/- 0.1 min).

  19. [Effects of spectral pretreatment on the prediction of crystallinity of wood cellulose using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze-hui; Fei, Ben-hua; Yang, Zhong

    2007-03-01

    The crystallinity of wood has an important effect on the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of cellulose fibers. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to predict the crystallinity of wood cellulose and the effect of spectral pretreatment on the prediction of crystallinity in wood cellulose using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were collected from wood powder with a fiber-optical probe and the crystallinity of wood was determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) in this experiment. The results showed that near infrared spectroscopy coupled with partial least square (PLS) regression could be correlated with the crystallinity of plantation wood, and the ability of NIR prediction based on original spectra was better than that based on the first derivative or second derivative treated spectra. There was a significant correlation between NIR spectra and XRD determined crystallinity with a correlationcoefficient of 0.950 and a low RMSEP. Near infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data anlaysis has proven to be an accurate and fast method for rapid prediction of wood crystallinity.

  20. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  1. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination.

  2. Background and state of the art of near infrared spectroscopy in the forest sector base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, G.I.B. de; Magalhães, W.L.E.; Carneiro, M.E.; Viana, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of wood properties is the fundamental importance for the indication of the potential and use of this material. In the search for new alternatives for a fast, simple and reliable characterization, there are the non-destructive evaluations of wood. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used as a non-destructive method that allows qualitative and quantitative information of the constituents of biomass through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with near-infrared next to the sample. This work aims to provide a review of the technique of near infrared spectroscopy and its application in forestry. The technique is used in virtually all areas due to the level of development that this technology has reached in recent years. NIR spectroscopy has proved a quick and efficient replacement of several tests that determine the quality of the wood. This is a literature review and state of the art on the theme [pt

  3. [Application of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to the detection and identification of transgenic corn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yu-kui; Luo, Yun-bo; Huang, Kun-lun; Wang, Wei-min; Zhang, Lu-da

    2005-10-01

    With the rapid development of the GMO, more and more GMO food has been pouring into the market. Much attention has been paid to GMO labeling under the controversy of GMO safety. Transgenic corns and their parents were scanned by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy range of 12000-4000 cm(-1); the resolution was 4 cm(-1); scanning was carried out for 64 times; BP algorithm was applied for data processing. The GMO food was easily resolved. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is unpolluted and inexpensive compared with PCR and ELISA, so it is a very promising detection method for GMO food.

  4. Characterization of the functional near-infrared spectroscopy response to nociception in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrecht, Vanessa A; Jiang, Yifei; Viola, Luigi; Walter, Charlotte M; Liu, Hanli; Kurth, Charles D

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy can interrogate functional optical signal changes in regional brain oxygenation and blood volume to nociception analogous to functional magnetic resonance imaging. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the near-infrared spectroscopy signals for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin from the brain in response to nociceptive stimulation of varying intensity and duration, and after analgesic and neuromuscular paralytic in a pediatric population. We enrolled children 6 months-21 years during propofol sedation before surgery. The near-infrared spectroscopy sensor was placed on the forehead and nociception was produced from an electrical current applied to the wrist. We determined the near-infrared spectroscopy signal response to increasing current intensity and duration, and after fentanyl, sevoflurane, and neuromuscular paralytic. Heart rate and arm movement during electrical stimulation was also recorded. The near-infrared spectroscopy signals for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin were calculated as optical density*time (area under curve). During electrical stimulation, nociception was evident: tachycardia and arm withdrawal was observed that disappeared after fentanyl and sevoflurane, whereas after paralytic, tachycardia persisted while arm withdrawal disappeared. The near-infrared spectroscopy signals for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin increased during stimulation and decreased after stimulation; the areas under the curves were greater for stimulations 30 mA vs 15 mA (13.9 [5.6-22.2], P = .0021; 5.6 [0.8-10.5], P = .0254, and 19.8 [10.5-29.1], P = .0002 for HbO 2 , Hb, and Hb T , respectively), 50 Hz vs 1 Hz (17.2 [5.8-28.6], P = .0046; 7.5 [0.7-14.3], P = .0314, and 21.9 [4.2-39.6], P = .0177 for HbO 2 , Hb, and Hb T , respectively) and 45 seconds vs 15 seconds (16.3 [3.4-29.2], P = .0188 and 22.0 [7.5-36.5], P = .0075 for HbO 2 and Hb T , respectively); the areas under the curves were attenuated by

  5. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    -consuming and costly, and it is therefore desirable to have a rapid and less expensive method, which makes it possible to carry out more analyses in-situ. Near infra-red reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) is appropriate as a standard analysis of dry matter, total N, starch and is today used routinely by grain traders...

  6. Diagnosis with near infrared spectroscopy during minimally invasive procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nachabé (Rami)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe goal of this dissertation is to present the potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy technique to characterize and differentiate types of tissue, including dysplastic and cancerous tissues, when measuring the tissue spectra during a surgical or an interventional procedure under

  7. Near-infrared laboratory spectroscopy of mineral chemistry: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Freek van der

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopy is the science concerned with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced when materials interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation. Commercial infrared spectrometer were designed from the 1950's onward and found their way into the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In the 1970's and 1980's also natural sciences notably mineralogy and vegetation science started systematically to measure optical properties of leaves and minerals/rocks with spectrometers. In the last decade spectroscopy has made the step from qualitative observations of mineral classes, soil type and vegetation biomass to quantitative estimates of mineral, soil and vegetation chemistry. This resulted in geothermometers used to characterize metamorphic and hydrothermal systems and to the advent of foliar biochemistry. More research is still needed to bridge the gap between laboratory spectroscopy and field spectroscopy. Empirical studies of minerals either as soil or rock constituents (and vegetation parameters) derived from regression analysis of spectra against chemistry is important in understanding the physics of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and matter which in turn is important in the design of future satellite missions. Physics based models and retrievals are needed to operationalize these relationships and implement them in future earth observation missions as these are more robust and easy to transfer to other areas and data sets.

  8. Quality control of tablets by Near Infrared (NIR)-Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, J; Kaunzinger, A; Niemöller, A; Karas, M

    2005-10-01

    Today, NIR-spectroscopy is an established analytical technique not only in the identification of raw materials but also in the quantification of active ingredients in tablets. In this work calibration models were set up with tablets of the same active ingredient but of miscellaneous origin and manufacturess. Consequently the tablets had different excipients and appearance. The pharmaceutical preparations used included atenolol 100 mg tablets, enalapril 20 mg tablets and acetylsalicylic acid (ASS) tablets of different dosage units. In order to proof if the calibration models set up are generally feasible the assay declared by the manufacturer was used to calculate the partial least square (PLS) calibration. With respect to enalapril tablets simultaneous analysis by HPLC, according to USP 26 was carried out. It was investigated if such methods allow a determination of active ingredients in tablets within limits of +/- 10% of declaration. It was shown that it is possible to set up calibration models to quantify active ingredients in tablets independent of adjuvants or optical appearance. Additionally it could be shown that NIR-spectroscopy is also applicable to determine the concentration of active ingredients in blister-packed tablets.

  9. Screening suspected counterfeit Viagra and imitations of Viagra with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenbregt, M J; Blok-Tip, L; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Barends, D M; Kaste, D de

    2006-01-01

    We describe a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for fast-screening Viagra tablets, counterfeit Viagra tablets, and imitations of Viagra. The method can (1) check the homogeneity of a batch; (2) distinguish counterfeits and imitations from authentic Viagra; (3) screen for the presence of

  10. Potential use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correct identification of pine species is necessary for proper application of wood in forest-based industries, since the quality of each species' wood depends on factors intrinsic to the material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of near-infrared and visible spectroscopy in the discrimination of pine ...

  11. Prefrontal Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hideki; Sawada, Masayuki; Iida, Junzo; Ota, Toyosaku; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. Twenty medication-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control…

  12. Abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy measurements are lower in preterm infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive method of measuring local tissue oxygenation (StO[2]). Abdominal StO[2] measurements in preterm piglets are directly correlated with changes in intestinal blood flow and markedly reduced by necrotizing enterocolitis. The objectives of this study were to us...

  13. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Speech Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieler, A. C.; Tupak, S. V.; Fallgatter, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has substantially contributed to the understanding of language and its neural correlates. In contrast to other imaging techniques, fNIRS is well suited to study language function in healthy and psychiatric populations due to its cheap and easy application in a quiet and natural…

  14. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to preservative-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Stan T. Lebow; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Leslie H. Groom; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is now a widely-used technique in the field of forest products, especially for physical and mechanical property determinations. This technique is also ideal for the chemical analysis of wood. There has been a growing need to find a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method to distinguish between preservative-treated and untreated waste...

  15. Near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics analysis of serum from mares exposed to the fungal mycotoxin zearalenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaphotomics is a branch of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in which bond vibrations from organic molecules and water create unique spectral absorbance patterns to profile complex aqueous mixtures. Aquaphotomics has been shown to detect virus infected soybean plants from extracts, classify probiot...

  16. Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Olesen, J

    2001-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is becoming a widely used research instrument to measure tissue oxygen (O2) status non-invasively. Continuous-wave spectrometers are the most commonly used devices, which provide semi-quantitative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in small blood...

  17. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy calibrations to measure quality characteristics in intact Brassicaceae germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining seed quality parameters is an integral part of cultivar improvement and germplasm screening. However, quality tests are often time cnsuming, seed destructive, and can require large seed samples. This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to mea...

  18. Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Skim Milk Powder Adulteration by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was explored as a fast and reliable screening method for the detection of adulteration of skim milk powder (SMP). Sixty genuine SMP were adulterated with acid whey (1–25 % w/w), starch (2 and 5 %) and maltodextrin (2 and 5 %) for a total of

  19. Authentication of Organic Feed by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics A Feasibilily Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Veer, van der J.C.; Perez-Marin, M.D.; Ruth, van S.M.; Garrido-Varo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Organic products tend to retail at a higher price than their conventional counterparts, which makes them susceptible to fraud. In this study we evaluate the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid, cost-effective method to verify the organic identity of feed for laying hens. For

  20. Advances in near-infrared spectroscopy to study the brain of the preterm and term neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Martin; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews tissue oximetry and imaging to study the preterm and newborn infant brain by near-infrared spectroscopy. These two technologies are now advanced; nearly 100 reports on their use in newborn infants have been published, and commercial instruments are available. The precision...

  1. Use of near infrared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  2. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor tissue haemoglobin (and myoglobin) oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, T. W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Tissue oxygenation may be monitored noninvasively by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) both on the thenar eminescence (muscle) and on the forehead (brain). Thenar measurement have been used to guide therapy in trauma patients ( 1 ) and to determine the prognosis of septic patients ( 2

  3. Nondestructive detection of zebra chip disease in potatoes using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900 nm to 2600 nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of Zebra Chip disease in potatoes and the measurement of sugar concentrations in affected tubers. Using stepwise regression in conjunction...

  4. The use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wet chemical analysis of feed samples is time consuming and expensive. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed as a rapid technique to predict the chemical composition of feeds. The prediction of accuracy of NIRS relies heavily on obtaining a calibration set which represents the variation in the main ...

  5. Intact neurovascular coupling during executive function in migraine without aura: interictal near-infrared spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, H W; Ciftçi, K; Akin, A

    2010-01-01

    An altered neurovascular coupling has been proposed in migraine. We aimed to investigate neurovascular coupling during a mental task interictally in patients with migraine without aura (MO) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twelve migraineurs and 12 healthy controls were included. Using NIRS,...

  6. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  7. Regional calibration models for predicting loblolly pine tracheid properties using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Nabavi; Joseph Dahlen; Laurence Schimleck; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Cristian Montes

    2018-01-01

    This study developed regional calibration models for the prediction of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) tracheid properties using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A total of 1842 pith-to-bark radial strips, aged 19–31 years, were acquired from 268 trees from 109 stands across the southeastern USA. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra were collected at 10-mm...

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy used to predict soybean seed germination and vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for differentiating levels in germination, vigor, and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds was investigated. For the 243 spectral data collected using the Perten DA7200, stratified sampling was used to obtain three calibration sets consisti...

  9. Fast determination of the resin and rubber content in Parthenium argentatum biomass using near infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchat, S.; Pioch, D.; Palu, S.; Tardan, E.; Loo, van E.N.; Davrieux, F.

    2013-01-01

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum), a plant native of semi-arid regions of northern Mexico and southern Texas, United States, is an under-used source of hypoallergenic latex, a solution to the serious latex allergy IgE problem worldwide. This study aimed to develop near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation with eliminated skin blood flow in young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirasawa, Ai; Kaneko, Takahito; Tanaka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We estimated cerebral oxygenation during handgrip exercise and a cognitive task using an algorithm that eliminates the influence of skin blood flow (SkBF) on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal. The algorithm involves a subtraction method to develop a correction factor for each subject. ...

  11. Does depth of the frontal sinus affect near-infrared spectroscopy measurement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Frederik; Vedel, Anne G; Langkilde, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method that reflects real-time cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) by the use of two adhesive optodes placed on the forehead of the patient. Frontal sinuses vary anatomically and a large frontal sinus might compromise the NIRS signal since the NIRS...

  12. Investigation of vegetation history of buried chernozem soils using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vysloužilová, B.; Ertlen, D.; Šefrna, L.; Novák, T.; Virágh, K.; Rué, M.; Campaner, A.; Dreslerová, Dagmar; Schwartz, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 365, 16 April (2015), s. 203-211 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Holocene * paleopedology * paleoecology * near-infrared spectroscopy * chernozem * buried paleosol Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2015

  13. Cerebral hemodynamics measured with simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Law, Ian; Pott, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous non-invasive quantification of blood and tissue oxygenation, and may be useful for quantification of cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes. In this study, changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin were compared to corresponding changes in CBF ...

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19-21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University. Participants were shown a picture of a Tokara goat or shack (control) while prefrontal cortical oxygenated haemoglobin levels (representing neural activity) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The prefrontal cortical near-infrared spectroscopy signal was significantly higher during viewing of the animal picture than during a rest condition or during viewing of the control picture. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to objectively identify brain activity changes during human mentation regarding animals; furthermore, these preliminary results suggest the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy could be related to increased activation of the prefrontal cortex.

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: A Promising Prehospital Tool for Management of Traumatic Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.H.; Wageningen, B. van; Hoogerwerf, N.; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Early identification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is essential. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used in prehospital settings for non-invasive monitoring and the diagnosis of patients who may require surgical intervention. METHODS: The handheld NIRS Infrascanner (InfraScan

  16. Process analytical chemistry in the distillation industry using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBerg, F. W. J.; vanOsenbruggen, W. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    Process analytical chemistry is a subdiscipline of analytical chemistry devoted to chemical measurements on processes. This paper reports the results of a feasibility study on ethanol determination during the production of alcoholic beverages. In this study near-infrared spectroscopy will be used to

  17. [The research progress in determining lignocellulosic content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; An, Dong; Xia, Tian; Huang, Yan-Hua; Li, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Yun-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology, as a new analytic method, can be used to determine the content of lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose which is faster, effective, easier to operate, and more accurate than the traditional wet chemical methods. Nowadays it has been widely used in measuring the composition of lignocelluloses in woody plant and herbaceous plant. The domestic and foreign research progress in determining the lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content in woody plant ( wood and bamboo used as papermaking raw materials and wood served as potential biomass energy) and herbaceous plant (forage grass and energy grass) by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology is comprehensively summarized and the advances in method studies of measuring the composition of lignocelluloses by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology are summed up in three aspects, sample preparation, spectral data pretreatment and wavelength selection methods, and chemometric analysis respectively. Four outlooks are proposed combining the development statues of wood, forage grass and energy grass industry. First of all, the authors need to establish more feasible and applicable models for a variety of uses which can be used for more species from different areas, periods and anatomical parts. Secondly, comprehensive near infrared reflectance spectroscopy data base of grass products quality index needs to be improved to realize on-line quality and process control in grassproducts industry, which can guarantee the quality of the grass product. Thirdly, the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy quality index model of energy plant need to be built which can not only contribute to breed screening, but also improve the development of biomass industry. Besides, modeling approaches are required to be explored and perfected any further. Finally, the authors need to try our best to boost the advancement in the determination method of lignin, cellulose and hemi

  18. Intensity-modulated near-infrared spectroscopy: instrument design issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Ken; Wickramasinghe, Yappa A.

    2000-05-01

    Tissue oxygenation instruments which rely on phase sensitive detection suffer form phase-amplitude crosstalk, i.e. the phase of the detected signal with respect to a reference signal is dependent on the average intensity of the light entering the photomultiplier tube (PMT). If an instrument that detects the phase of the scattered signal is to yield the phase accuracy required in order to provide useful clinical parameters, quantitative haemoglobin and oxy- haemoglobin concentrations (Hb), and (HbO2) and mixed arterial-venous saturation all sources of phase-amplitude effects must be understood. The phase-amplitude effect has in the past been attributed to the fact that the rise time of the detector decreases with increasing light intensity. In this work an additional phase-amplitude effect in intensity modulated near IR spectroscopy (IMNIRS) instrumentation is studied. The presence of a coherent interfering signal due to low level RF coupling at the detector output will corrupt the phase of the signal of interest and cause a phase-amplitude effect. Under certain conditions a relatively low level interfering RF signal can introduce a significant error in the slope of the phase per unit distance plot. A comparison between measured and modeled phase distortion is presented and ways to reduce the effect discussed. In addition to phase-amplitude effects, the final accuracy of the quantitative measurements made by an IMNIRS instrument depends heavily on the calibration. Calibration of the measured phase and the AC and DC components of the detected light must take into account distortions due to, (a) phase-amplitude crosstalk and system phase offset, (b) detector non-linearities, (c) variation in laser source intensity and phase with time and temperature, (d) optical probe light loss and (e) variations in detector sensitivity. Current instrument performance will be presented and discussed.

  19. Determination of fluidized bed granulation end point using near-infrared spectroscopy and phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, W Paul; Peck, Garnet R; Morris, Kenneth R

    2005-03-01

    Simultaneous real-time monitoring of particle size and moisture content by near-infrared spectroscopy through a window into the bed of a fluidized bed granulator is used to determine the granulation end point. The moisture content and particle size determined by the near-infrared monitor correlates well with off-line moisture content and particle size measurements. The measured particle size is modeled using a population balance approach, and the moisture content is shown to follow accepted models during drying. Given a known formulation, with predefined parameters for peak moisture content, final moisture content, and final granule size, the near-infrared monitoring system can be used to control a fluidized bed granulation by determining when binder addition should be stopped and when drying of the granules is complete. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Dataset of Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement for amylose determination using PLS algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sampaio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the dataset presented in this article, 168 rice samples comprising sixteen rice varieties (including Indica and Japonica sub species from a Portuguese Rice Breeding Program obtained from three different sites along four seasons, and 11 standard rice varieties from International Rice Research Institute were characterised. The amylose concentration was evaluated based on iodine method, and the near infrared (NIR spectra were determined. To assess the advantage of Near infrared spectroscopy, different rice varieties and specific algorithms based on Matlab software such as Standard Normal Variate (SNV, Multiple Scatter Calibration (MSC and Savitzky-Golay filter were used for NIR spectra pre-processing. Keywords: Amylose, Chemometrics, Near-infrared, PLS, Rice

  1. [Rapid determination of fatty acids in soybean oils by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Zhang, Feng-ping; Liu, Yao-min; Wu, Zong-wen; Suo, You-rui

    2012-08-01

    In the present research, a novel method was established for determination of five fatty acids in soybean oil by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy. The optimum conditions of mathematics model of five components (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) were studied, including the sample set selection, chemical value analysis, the detection methods and condition. Chemical value was analyzed by gas chromatography. One hundred fifty eight samples were selected, 138 for modeling set, 10 for testing set and 10 for unknown sample set. All samples were placed in sample pools and scanned by transmission reflection-near infrared spectrum after sonicleaning for 10 minute. The 1100-2500 nm spectral region was analyzed. The acquisition interval was 2 nm. Modified partial least square method was chosen for calibration mode creating. Result demonstrated that the 1-VR of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.8839, 0.5830, 0.9001, 0.9776 and 0.9596, respectively. And the SECV of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.42, 0.29, 0.83, 0.46 and 0.21, respectively. The standard error of the calibration (SECV) of five fatty acids between the reference value of testing sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.891, 0.790, 0.900, 0.976 and 0.942, respectively. It was proved that the near infrared spectrum predictive value was linear with chemical value and the mathematical model established for fatty acids of soybean oil was feasible. For validation, 10 unknown samples were selected for analysis by near infrared spectrum. The result demonstrated that the relative standard deviation between predict value and chemical value was less than 5.50%. That was to say that transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy had a good veracity in analysis of fatty acids of soybean oil.

  2. Screening of acrylamide contents in potato crisps using process variable settings and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segtnan, Vegard H; Kita, Agnieszka; Mielnik, Maria; Jørgensen, Kjetil; Knutsen, Svein Halvor

    2006-09-01

    In order to study the formation of acrylamide in potato crisps during processing, an experimental design was set up. The design variables were drying time (6 levels), frying temperature (2 levels) and frying time (8 levels). The design contained 36 samples, which were analysed for acrylamide contents using LC high-resolution mass spectroscopy (LC-HRMS), and fat contents using the Soxhlet apparatus. Prior to analysis, all potato crisp samples were ground and analysed on an NIRSystems 6500 near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. The acrylamide contents were modelled by: (i) design variables using multiple linear regression, (ii) NIR spectra using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and (iii) design variables and NIR spectra in combination using a novel technique combining least squares regression on the former, and PLSR on the latter. The results showed that the NIR spectra alone or in combination with the design variables gave better prediction models for acrylamide than the design variables alone. This implies that the spectra contain chemical information that is not purely a result of the processing variables that were investigated in this experiment. NIR spectroscopy is proposed as a possible tool for screening and identification of potato crisps with a high acrylamide content.

  3. Structure analysis of aromatic medicines containing nitrogen using near-infrared spectroscopy and generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Gao, Hongbin; Qu, Lingbo; Huang, Yanping; Xiang, Bingren

    2008-12-01

    Four aromatic medicines (acetaminophen; niacinamide; p-aminophenol; nicotinic acid) containing nitrogen were investigated by FT-NIR (Fourier transform near-infrared) spectroscopy and generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. The FT-NIR spectra were measured over a temperature range of 30-130 °C. By combining near-infrared spectroscopy, generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy and references, the molecular structures (especially the hydrogen bond related with nitrogen) were analyzed and the NIR band assignments were performed. The results will be helpful to the understanding of aromatic medicines containing nitrogen and the utility of these substances.

  4. Towards a Low-Cost Mobile Subcutaneous Vein Detection Solution Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Juric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature. The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  5. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number......-time monitoring of bioprocesses and it also highlights that the applied techniques with different measurement orders deliver specific but also complementary sources of information. Furthermore, it was shown that valuable process information can be obtained both by near infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence...

  6. Rapid Detection of Volatile Oil inMentha haplocalyxby Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Guo, Cheng; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) was applied for the rapid determination of chemical component of volatile oil content in Mentha haplocalyx . The effects of data pre-processing methods on the accuracy of the PLSR calibration models were investigated. The performance of the final model was evaluated according to the correlation coefficient ( R ) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). For PLSR model, the best preprocessing method combination was first-order derivative, standard normal variate transformation (SNV), and mean centering, which had of 0.8805, of 0.8719, RMSEC of 0.091, and RMSEP of 0.097, respectively. The wave number variables linking to volatile oil are from 5500 to 4000 cm-1 by analyzing the loading weights and variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. For SVM model, six LVs (less than seven LVs in PLSR model) were adopted in model, and the result was better than PLSR model. The and were 0.9232 and 0.9202, respectively, with RMSEC and RMSEP of 0.084 and 0.082, respectively, which indicated that the predicted values were accurate and reliable. This work demonstrated that near infrared reflectance spectroscopy with chemometrics could be used to rapidly detect the main content volatile oil in M. haplocalyx . The quality of medicine directly links to clinical efficacy, thus, it is important to control the quality of Mentha haplocalyx . Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) was applied for the rapid determination of chemical component of volatile oil content in Mentha haplocalyx . For SVM model, 6 LVs (less than 7 LVs in PLSR model) were adopted in model, and the result was better than PLSR model. It demonstrated that near infrared reflectance spectroscopy with chemometrics could be used to rapidly detect the main content volatile oil in Mentha haplocalyx . Abbreviations used: 1 st der

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening. A comparative study with Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesø, Morten; Velaga, Sitaram; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Cornett, Claus; Rasmussen, Morten A; van den Berg, Frans; de Diego, Heidi Lopez; Rantanen, Jukka

    2008-10-15

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the analytical potential of NIR spectroscopy for cocrystal screening using Raman spectroscopy as a comparative method. Indomethacin was used as the parent molecule, while saccharin and l-aspartic acid were chosen as guest molecules. Molar ratios of 1:1 for each system were subjected to two types of preparative methods. In the case of saccharin, liquid-assisted cogrinding as well as cocrystallization from solution resulted in a stable 1:1 cocrystalline phase termed IND-SAC cocrystal. For l-aspartic acid, the solution-based method resulted in a polymorphic transition of indomethacin into the metastable alpha form retained in a physical mixture with the guest molecule, while liquid-assisted cogrinding did not induce any changes in the crystal lattice. The good chemical peak selectivity of Raman spectroscopy allowed a straightforward interpretation of sample data by analyzing peak positions and comparing to those of pure references. In addition, Raman spectroscopy provided additional information on the crystal structure of the IND-SAC cocrystal. The broad spectral line shapes of NIR spectra make visual interpretation of the spectra difficult, and consequently, multivariate modeling by principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. Successful use of NIR/PCA was possible only through the inclusion of a set of reference mixtures of parent and guest molecules representing possible solid-state outcomes from the cocrystal screening. The practical hurdle related to the need for reference mixtures seems to restrict the applicability of NIR spectroscopy in cocrystal screening.

  8. [Research progress and application prospect of near infrared spectroscopy in soil nutrition analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hai-quan; Lu, Qi-peng

    2012-01-01

    "Digital agriculture" or "precision agriculture" is an important direction of modern agriculture technique. It is the combination of the modern information technique and traditional agriculture and becomes a hotspot field in international agriculture research in recent years. As a nondestructive, real-time, effective and exact analysis technique, near infrared spectroscopy, by which precision agriculture could be carried out, has vast prospect in agrology and gradually gained the recognition. The present paper intends to review the basic theory of near infrared spectroscopy and its applications in the field of agrology, pointing out that the direction of NIR in agrology should based on portable NIR spectrograph in order to acquire qualitative or quantitative information from real-time measuring in field. In addition, NIRS could be combined with space remote sensing to macroscopically control the way crop is growing and the nutrition crops need, to change the current state of our country's agriculture radically.

  9. Characterizing and Authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO Vinegars Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José De la Haba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO “Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles” wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400–2,500 nm in both cases and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380–1,700 nm. A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity, and alcohol content, and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars.

  10. Characterizing and authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO vinegars using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, María-José; Arias, Mar; Ramírez, Pilar; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2014-02-20

    This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles" wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400-2,500 nm in both cases) and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380-1,700 nm). A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity), and alcohol content), and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars.

  11. Hemodynamic response to visual stimulation in newborn infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen, Tanja; Morren, Geert; Haensse, Daniel; Bauschatz, Andrea S; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Brain activity is associated with physiological changes, which alter the optical properties of tissue. These changes can be detected by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Aim of the study was to determine changes in cerebral oxygenation in response to stimulation in the visual cortex in newborn infants during spontaneous sleep in the first days of life. We used an in-house developed multichannel NIRS imaging instrument, the MCP-II, to measure changes in concentration of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) in specific brain areas. In 10 out of 15 subjects, a significant increase in O(2)Hb and/or a significant decrease in HHb were found in one or more channels over the occipital cortex. During stimulation, O(2)Hb increased by a mean of 0.98 mumol/l, HHb decreased by a mean 0.17 mumol/l, and total-Hb increased by a mean of 0.81 mumol/l. The hemodynamic response to visual stimulation in the occipital cortex in newborn infants is similar to adults. The increase in O(2)Hb and the simultaneous decrease in HHb during stimulation suggest an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) that overcompensates for the increased oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) in the activated cortical area. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Estimation of selected properties of forest soils using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Mateusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR as a tool for evaluation of selected properties of forest soils. We analysed 144 soil samples from the topsoil of nine plots located in southern Poland. Six plots were established under pine stands, and three plots under oak stands. The NIR measurements were performed using Antharis II FT scanner. On the basis of the spectrum files obtained from scanning of 96 samples and the measurement results obtained for selected properties of the soil samples, we developed a calibration model. The model was validated using 48 independent samples. We attempted to estimate the following properties of forest soils: pH, C:N ratio, the organic carbon content (Ct, total nitrogen (Nt, clay content (Clay, base cation content (BC, cation exchange capacity (CEC and total acidity (TA. We conclude that estimation of soil properties using NIR method can be applied as additional (to laboratory analysis or initial assessment of soil quality. Our results also suggest that forest species composition may affect the mathematical model applied to NIR spectra analysis, however, this hypothesis needs some of further investigations.

  13. Rapid Detection of Volatile Oil in Mentha haplocalyx by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Hui; Guo, Cheng; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) was applied for the rapid determination of chemical component of volatile oil content in Mentha haplocalyx. The effects of data pre-processing methods on the accuracy of the PLSR calibration models were investigated. The performance of the final model was evaluated according to the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). For PLSR model, the be...

  14. Identification of syrup type using fourier transform-near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate classification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ravipat Lapcharoensuk; Natrapee Nakawajana

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to establish near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy models for identification of syrup types in which the maple syrup was discriminated from other syrup types. Thirty syrup types were used in this research; the NIR spectra of each type were recorded with 10 replicates. The repeatability and reproducibility of NIR scanning were performed, and the absorbance at 6940cm−1 was used for calculation. Principal component analysis was used to group the syrup type. Identification models w...

  15. Neonatal hemodynamic response to visual cortex activity: high-density near-infrared spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Steve M.; Gregg, Nick M.; White, Brian R.; Zeff, Benjamin W.; Bjerkaas, Katelin A.; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants is a major clinical concern with many infants displaying neurobehavioral deficits in childhood. Functional neuroimaging may provide early recognition of neural deficits in high-risk infants. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the advantage of providing functional neuroimaging in infants at the bedside. However, limitations in traditional NIRS have included contamination from superficial vascular dynamics in the s...

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19?21 years) of the Faculty of Agricultur...

  17. Multivariate Calibration Models for Sorghum Composition using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfrum, E.; Payne, C.; Stefaniak, T.; Rooney, W.; Dighe, N.; Bean, B.; Dahlberg, J.

    2013-03-01

    NREL developed calibration models based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistics to predict compositional properties relevant to cellulosic biofuels production for a variety of sorghum cultivars. A robust calibration population was developed in an iterative fashion. The quality of models developed using the same sample geometry on two different types of NIR spectrometers and two different sample geometries on the same spectrometer did not vary greatly.

  18. Direct Determination of Moisture in Powder Milk Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, R.; Singh, Parul; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2006-01-01

    Moisture content in commercially available milk powder was investigated using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with an Indian low-cost dispersive NIR spectrophotometer. Different packets of milk powder of the same batch were procured from the market. Forty-five samples with moisture range 4–10% were prepared in the laboratory. Spectra of the samples were collected in the wavelength region 800–2500 nm. Moisture values of all the samples were simultaneously determined by Kar...

  19. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of free gossypol in cottonseed meal

    OpenAIRE

    Lordelo, M.M.; Shaaban, S.A.; Dale, N.M.; Calhoun, M.C.; Vendrel, P.F.; Davis, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Gossypol is a toxic polyphenolic compound produced by the pigment glands of the cotton plant. The free gossypol content of cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly determined by the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) wet chemistry method. The AOCS method, however, laboratory-intensive, time-consuming, and therefore, not practical for quick field analyses. To determine if the free gossypol content of CSM could be predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS), CSM sample...

  20. Study on evaluation of gamma oryzanol of germinated brown rice by near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kannapot Kaewsorn; Panmanas Sirisomboon

    2014-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in gamma oryzanol which increase its consumption popularity, particularly in the health food market. The objective of this research was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for evaluation of gamma oryzanol of the germinated brown rice. The germinated brown rice samples were prepared from germinated rough rice (soaked for 24 and 48 h, incubated for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h) and purchased from local supermarkets. The germinated brown rice sampl...

  1. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the fast identification of PVC-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, M; Rantanen, J; Harmia-Pulkkinen, T; Michiels, E; Hiltunen, R; Räsänen, M; Vuorela, H

    2001-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a non-destructive and rapid qualitative method for the analysis of plastic films used by the pharmaceutical industry for blistering. Three types of films were investigated: 250 microm PVC [poly(vinyl chloride)] films, 250 microm PVC films coated with 40 g m(-2) of PVDC [poly(vinylidene dichloride)] and 250 microm PVC films coated with 5 g m(-2) of TE (Thermoelast) and 90 g m(-2) of PVDC. Three analyses were carried out using different pre-treatment options and a PLS (partial least squares) algorithm. Each analysis was aimed at identifying one type of film and rejecting all types of false sample (different thickness, colour or layer). True and false samples from four plastics manufacturers were included in the calibration sets in order to obtain robust methods that were suitable regardless of the supplier. Specificity was demonstrated by testing validation sets against the methods. The tests showed 0% of type I (false negative identification) and 1% of type II errors (false positive identification) for the PVC method, 13 and 3%, respectively, for the PVC-PVDC method and no error for the PVC-TE-PVDC method. Type II errors, mostly due to the slight sensitivity of the methods to film thickness, are easily corrected by simple thickness measurements. This study demonstrates that NIR spectroscopy is an excellent tool for the identification of PVC-based films. The three methods can be used by the pharmaceutical industry or plastics manufacturers for the quality control of films used in blister packaging.

  2. Noncontact blood species identification method based on spatially resolved near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The inspection and identification of whole blood are crucially significant for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. In our previous research, we proved Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectroscopy method was potential for noninvasively identifying three blood species, including macaque, human and mouse, with samples measured in the cuvettes. However, in open sampling cases, inspectors may be endangered by virulence factors in blood samples. In this paper, we explored the noncontact measurement for classification, with blood samples measured in the vacuum blood vessels. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy was used to improve the prediction accuracy. Results showed that the prediction accuracy of the model built with nine detection points was more than 90% in identification between all five species, including chicken, goat, macaque, pig and rat, far better than the performance of the model built with single-point spectra. The results fully supported the idea that spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy method can improve the prediction ability, and demonstrated the feasibility of this method for noncontact blood species identification in practical applications.

  3. BACKGROUND AND STATE OF THEE ART OF NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN THE FOREST SECTOR BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inês Bolzon de Muñiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987567The knowledge of wood properties is the fundamental importance for the indication of the potential and use of this material. In the search for new alternatives for a fast, simple and reliable characterization, there are the non-destructive evaluations of wood. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS has been used as a non-destructive method that allows qualitative and quantitative information of the constituents of biomass through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with near-infrared next to the sample. This work aims to provide a review of the technique of near infrared spectroscopy and its application in forestry. The technique is used in virtually all areas due to the level of development that this technology has reached in recent years. NIR spectroscopy has proved a quick and efficient replacement of several tests that determine the quality of the wood. This is a literature review and state of the art on the theme.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes ( Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Westphal-Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.

  5. Systematic review of clinical applications of monitoring muscle tissue oxygenation with near-infrared spectroscopy in vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezeman, Reinout P E; Moll, Frans L.; Ünlü, Çağdaş; de Vries, Jean Paul P M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of wavelengths of the near-infrared region by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been studied for several applications in vascular disease. This systematic review aims to explore the clinical relevance of monitoring muscle tissue oxygenation in vascular disease with NIRS.

  6. Identification of anisodamine tablets by Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian; Zang, Hengchang; Li, Jun; Chen, Dejun; Li, Tao; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-06-05

    Vibrational spectroscopy including Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become an attractive tool for pharmaceutical analysis. In this study, effective calibration models for the identification of anisodamine tablet and its counterfeit and the distinguishment of manufacturing plants, based on Raman and NIR spectroscopy, were built, respectively. Anisodamine counterfeit tablets were identified by Raman spectroscopy with correlation coefficient method, and the results showed that the predictive accuracy was 100%. The genuine anisodamine tablets from 5 different manufacturing plants were distinguished by NIR spectroscopy using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on interval principal component analysis (iPCA) method. And the results showed the recognition rate and rejection rate were 100% respectively. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy and NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics are feasible and potential tools for rapid pharmaceutical tablet discrimination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploration of in vivo Effect Assessment Factor Monitoring by Near-infrared Spectroscopy during LITT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Aiping; Hua Guoran; Zhang Hua [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Qian Zhiyu, E-mail: huagr@ntu.edu.cn

    2011-02-01

    By studying the variation trends of the absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub a}) and the reduced scattering coefficient ({mu}'{sub s}), which were monitored in vivo by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system in real time during laser induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), the optimized near infrared effect assessment factor would be explored. In vivo measurements of the absorption coefficient (u{sub a}) and the reduced scattering coefficient (u'{sub s}) were performed with a functional near infrared spectroscopy system during LITT. Fresh porcine liver tissue samples in vitro and the subcutaneous implanted rat liver cancers were examined in different laser doses and define heating times. The absorption coefficient obtained by the fNIRS increased in the pork liver experiments, but decreased in the rat liver cancer experiments. The reduced scattering coefficient increased in the pork liver experiments and the rat liver cancer experiments, it increased quickly at beginning, and gradually reached the stable state. Therefore, the reduced scattering coefficient is more suitable for reflecting the progress of damage during different biological tissues' LITT than the absorption coefficient. This conclusion will effectively guide the study of suitable therapy effect assessment system during LITT in real time.

  8. Exploration of in vivo Effect Assessment Factor Monitoring by Near-infrared Spectroscopy during LITT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ai-ping; Hua, Guo-ran; Zhang, Hua; Qian, Zhi-yu

    2011-02-01

    By studying the variation trends of the absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's), which were monitored in vivo by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system in real time during laser induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), the optimized near infrared effect assessment factor would be explored. In vivo measurements of the absorption coefficient (ua) and the reduced scattering coefficient (u's) were performed with a functional near infrared spectroscopy system during LITT. Fresh porcine liver tissue samples in vitro and the subcutaneous implanted rat liver cancers were examined in different laser doses and define heating times. The absorption coefficient obtained by the fNIRS increased in the pork liver experiments, but decreased in the rat liver cancer experiments. The reduced scattering coefficient increased in the pork liver experiments and the rat liver cancer experiments, it increased quickly at beginning, and gradually reached the stable state. Therefore, the reduced scattering coefficient is more suitable for reflecting the progress of damage during different biological tissues' LITT than the absorption coefficient. This conclusion will effectively guide the study of suitable therapy effect assessment system during LITT in real time.

  9. [Near infrared spectroscopy analysis method of maize hybrid seed purity discrimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua-Jun; Yan, Yan-Lu; Shen, Bing-Hui; Liu, Zhe; Gu, Jian-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ming; Zhu, De-Hai; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Qin; Li, Lin; An, Dong

    2014-05-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy analysis method of discrimination of maize hybrid seed purity was studied with the sample of Nong Hua 101 (NH101) from different origins and years. Spectral acquisition time lasted for 10 months. Using Fourier transform (FT) near infrared spectroscopy instruments, including 23 days in different seasons (divided into five time periods), a total of 920 near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of single corn grain of those samples were collected. Moving window average, first derivative and vector normalization were used to pretreat all original spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to reduce data dimensionality, and the discrimination model was established based on biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) method. Spectral distortion was calibrated by spectra pretreatment, which makes characteristics spatial distribution range of sample spectra set contract. The relative distance between hybrid and female parent increased by nearly 70-fold, and the discrimination model achieved the identification of hybrid and female parent seeds. Through the choice of representative samples, the model's response capacity to the changes in spectral acquisition time, place and environment, etc. was improved. Besides, the model's response capacity to the changes in time and site of seed production was also improved, and the robustness of the model was enhanced. The average correct acceptance rate (CAR) of the test set reached more than 95% while the average correct rejection rate (CRR) of the test set also reached 85%.

  10. Quantitative Determination of Germinability of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Urediospores Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is an important disease on wheat. In this study, quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores was investigated by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS combined with quantitative partial least squares (QPLS and support vector regression (SVR. The near infrared spectra of the urediospore samples were acquired using FT-NIR MPA spectrometer and the germination rate of each sample was measured using traditional spore germination method. The best QPLS model was obtained with vector correction as the preprocessing method of the original spectra and 4000–12000 cm−1 as the modeling spectral region while the modeling ratio of the training set to the testing set was 4 : 1. The best SVR model was built when vector normalization was used as the preprocessing method, the modeling ratio was 5 : 1 and the modeling spectral region was 8000–11000 cm−1. The results showed that the effect of the best model built using QPLS or SVR was satisfactory. This indicated that quantitative determination of germinability of Pst urediospores using near infrared spectroscopy technology is feasible. A new method based on NIRS was provided for rapid, automatic, and nondestructive determination of germinability of Pst urediospores.

  11. [Applications of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technique (NIRS) to soil attributes research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-De; Xiong, Song-Sheng; Liu, De-Li

    2014-10-01

    Soil is a much complicated substance, because animals, plants and microbes live together, organic and inorganic exist together. So soil contains a large amount of information. The traditional method in laboratory is a time-consuming effort. But the technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in many areas, owing to its rapidness, high efficiency, no pollution and low cost, NIRS has become the most important method to detect the composition of soil. This paper mainly introduce some traditional methods in laboratory, the basic processes of soil detection by NIRS, some algorithms for data preprocessing and modeling. Besides, the present paper illustrates the latest research progress and the development of portable near infrared instruments of the soil. According to this paper, the authors also hope to promote the application conditions of NIRS in the grassland ecology research in China, and accelerate the modernization of research measures in this area.

  12. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy to identify authenticity of Polygonum multiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Bi, Fu-jun; Hou, Hui-chan; Zhang, Yong-yao

    2014-11-01

    To establish a near-infrared qualitative analysis model to identify the authenticity of Polygonum multiflo- rum and distinguish processed products Polygoni Multiflori Radix. The NIR spectra were peformed on over 30 batches of P. multiflorum and Polygoni Multiflori Radix samples and the adulterants Cynanchum bungei, Pteroxygonum giraldii, Polygonum cillinerve to establish the qualitative discriminant model and the conformity test model of Polygonum multifiorum , and cluster analysis was used to analyze the samples from different origins. The model is able to identify correctly P. multiflorum with its counterfeit, and distinguish between P. multiflorum and Polygoni multiflori Radix. Near-infrared spectroscopy can be applied in the identification of P. multiflorum, which could be used to screen Chinese herbal medicine preliminarily.

  13. Determination of flow properties of pharmaceutical powders by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Cruz, Ana V; Soares, Sandra O; Amaral, Helena R; Costa, Paulo C; Lopes, João A

    2010-08-01

    The physical properties of pharmaceutical powders are of upmost importance in the pharmaceutical industry. The knowledge of their flow properties is of critical significance in operations such as blending, tablet compression, capsule filling, transportation, and in scale-up operations. Powders flow properties are measured using a number of parameters such as, angle of repose, compressibility index (Carr's index) and Hausner ratio. To estimate these properties, specific and expensive equipment with time-consuming analysis is required. Near infrared spectroscopy is a fast and low-cost analytical technique thoroughly used in the pharmaceutical industry in the quantification and qualification of products. To establish the potential of this technique to determine the parameters associated with the flow properties of pharmaceutical powders, blended powders based on paracetamol as the active pharmaceutical ingredient were constructed in pilot scale. Spectra were recorded on a Fourier-transform near infrared spectrometer in reflectance mode. The parameters studied were the angle of repose, aerated and tapped bulk density. The correlation between the reference method values and the near infrared spectrum was performed by partial least squares and optimized in terms of latent variables using cross-validation. The near infrared based properties predictions were compared with the reference methods results. Prediction errors, which varied between 2.35% for the angle of repose, 2.51% for the tapped density and 3.18% for the aerated density, show the potential of NIR spectroscopy in the determination of physical properties affecting the flowability of pharmaceutical powders. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy does not detect hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anton; Secher, Niels H.; Hirasawa, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Continuous non-invasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may be important during anaesthesia and several options are available. We evaluated the CerOx monitor that employs ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy to estimate changes in a CBF index (CFI).Methods: Seven...... by transcranial Doppler. Blood flow in the internal and external carotid artery (ICAf and ECAf) was determined using duplex ultrasonography and forehead skin blood flow (SkBF) and oxygenation (SskinO2) by laser Doppler and white light spectroscopy.Results: During hyperventilation MCAvmean and ICAf decreased by 44...

  15. Predicting the ethanol potential of wheat straw using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Åsmund; Bruun, Sander; Lindedam, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The combination of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is a powerful correlation method for predicting the chemical constituents in biological matrices, such as the glucose and xylose content of straw. However, difficulties arise when it comes to predicting enzymatic glucose and xylose release...... of using near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the ethanol potential of wheat straw by analyzing more than 1000 samples from different wheat varieties and growth conditions. During the calibration model development, the prime emphasis was to investigate the correlation structure between the two major...

  16. Mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy and risk of gastrointestinal complications in infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Ilias; Branco, Ricardo G; Brinkhuis, Nadine; Furck, Anke; LaRovere, Joan; Cooper, David S; Pathan, Nazima

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesised that lower mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy values would be associated with a greater incidence of gastrointestinal complications in children weighing infrared spectroscopy, central venous oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gases for 48 hours post-operatively. Enteral feeding intake, gastrointestinal complications, and markers of organ dysfunction were monitored for 7 days. A total of 50 children, with median age of 16.7 (3.2-31.6) weeks, were studied. On admission, the average mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy value was 71±18%, and the systemic oxygen saturation was 93±7.5%. Lower admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy correlated with longer time to establish enteral feeds (r=-0.58, pinfrared spectroscopy (58±18% versus 73±17%, p=0.01) and higher mesenteric arteriovenous difference of oxygen at admission [39 (23-47) % versus 19 (4-27) %, p=0.02]. Based on multiple logistic regression, admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy was independently associated with gastrointestinal complications (Odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.97; p=0.03). Admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 to identify children who developed gastrointestinal complications, with a suggested cut-off value of 72% (78% sensitivity, 68% specificity). In this pilot study, we conclude that admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy is associated with gastrointestinal complications and enteral feeding tolerance in children after cardiac surgery.

  17. AUTHENTICATION OF WILD AND REARED SEA BASS BY INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY NIRs (NEAR INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Novelli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate NIRs (Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy performances in the prediction of Farmed vs.Wild production method in European sea bass. Samples collected (n=39 were submitted to analysis in order to assess chemical composition and fatty acids profile of fillets. Aliquots of wet and ground freeze-dried minced samples were scanned in duplicates (1100 to 2498 nm; 2 nm intervals in reflectance mode using a monochromator NIRsystem 5000. NIRs technique showed a satisfactory accurateness in predicting Protein, Lipids and Fatty acids profile in raw samples. Sample lyophilisation increased some predicting values (r2: coefficient of determination on cross-validation range from 0,671 to 0,992; SECV: standard error of cross-validation range from 0,864 to 2,981. Results showed that NIRs technique was able to discriminate between Wild (94,7% samples recognized and Farmed (100% samples recognized using wet muscles, and 100% for both classes on ground freeze-dried fillet.

  18. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  19. Evaluating oral epithelial dysplasia classification system by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Gu, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Kai-Xiao; Wen, Zhi-Ning; Zhao, Zhi-He; Li, Long-Jiang; Li, Yi

    2017-09-29

    Until now, the classification system of oral epithelial dysplasia is still based on the architectural and cytological changes, which relies on the observation of pathologists and is relatively subjective. The purpose of present research was to discriminate the oral dysplasia by the near-infrared Raman spectroscope, in order to evaluate the classification system. We collected Raman spectra of normal mucosa, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and dysplasia by near-infrared Raman spectroscope. The biochemical variations between different stages were analyzed by the characteristic peaks in the subtracted mean spectra. Gaussian radial basis function support vector machines (SVM) were used to establish the diagnostic models. At the same time, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to verify the results of SVM. Raman spectral differences were observed in the range between 730~1913 cm -1 . Compared with normal mucosa, high contents of protein and DNA in oral dysplasia and OSCC were observed. There were no significant or gradual variation of Raman peaks among different dysplastic grades. The accuracies of comparison between mild, moderate, severe dysplasia with OSCC were 100%, 44.44%, 71.15%, which elucidated the low modeling ability of support vector machines, especially for the moderate dysplasia. The analysis by PCA-LDA could not discriminate the stages, either. Combined with support vector machines, near-infrared Raman spectroscopy could detect the biochemical variations in oral normal, OSCC and dysplastic tissues, but could not establish diagnostic model accurately. The classification system needs further improvements.

  20. Nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed rape leaves using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Fei, [No Value; Nie PengCheng, [No Value; Huang Min, [No Value; Kong WenWen, [No Value; He Yong, [No Value

    Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content are the three most important nutritional parameters for growing oilseed rape. We investigated visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for the fast and nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed

  1. Combination of optical coherence tomography and near infrared spectroscopy enhances determination of articular cartilage composition and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarin, Jaakko K; Rieppo, Lassi; Brommer, Harold; Afara, Isaac O.; Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Conventional arthroscopic evaluation of articular cartilage is subjective and poorly reproducible. Therefore, implementation of quantitative diagnostic techniques, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), is essential. Locations (n = 44) with various

  2. Cancer Discrimination Using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Chemometric Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique offers many potential advantages as tool for biomedical analysis since it enables the subtle biochemical signatures related to pathology to be detected and extracted. In conjunction with advanced chemometrics, NIR spectroscopy opens the possibility of their use in cancer diagnosis. The study focuses on the application of near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and classification models for discriminating colorectal cancer. A total of 107 surgical specimens and a corresponding NIR diffuse reflection spectral dataset were prepared. Three preprocessing methods were attempted and least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM was used to build a classification model. The hybrid preprocessing of first derivative and principal component analysis (PCA resulted in the best LS-SVM model with the sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 and 0.96 for the training and 0.94 and 0.96 for test sets, respectively. The similarity performance on both subsets indicated that overfitting did not occur, assuring the robustness and reliability of the developed LS-SVM model. The area of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.99, demonstrating once again the high prediction power of the model. The result confirms the applicability of the combination of NIR spectroscopy, LS-SVM, PCA, and first derivative preprocessing for cancer diagnosis.

  3. Systematic review of near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation during non-cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Bay Nielsen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is used to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO2 during cardiac surgery but is less established during non-cardiac surgery. This systematic review aimed i to determine the non-cardiac surgical procedures that provoke a reduction in rScO2 and ii to evaluate whether an intraoperative reduction in rScO2 influences postoperative outcome. The PubMed and Embase database were searched from inception until April 30, 2013 and inclusion criteria were intraoperative NIRS determined rScO2 in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The type of surgery and number of patients included were recorded. There was included 113 articles and evidence suggests that rScO2 is reduced during thoracic surgery involving single lung ventilation, major abdominal surgery, hip surgery, and laparascopic surgery with the patient placed in anti-Tredelenburg’s position. Shoulder arthroscopy in the beach chair and carotid endarterectomy with clamped internal carotid artery also cause pronounced cerebral desaturation. A >20% reduction in rScO2 coincides with indices of regional and global cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. Following thoracic surgery, major orthopedic and abdominal surgery the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction might be related to intraoperative cerebral desaturation. In conclusion, certain non-cardiac surgical procedures is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of regional cerebral oxygenation. Evidence for an association between cerebral desaturation and postoperative outcome parameters other than cognitive dysfunction needs to be established.

  4. Ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery using intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerkowski Hans-Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, manipulations on the beating heart can lead to transient interruptions of myocardial oxygen supply, which can generate an accumulation of oxygen-dependent metabolites in coronary venous blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy as a monitoring method to detect possible ischemic events in off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures. Methods In 15 elective patients undergoing off-pump myocardial revascularization, intravascular near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of coronary venous blood was performed. NIR signals were transferred through a fiberoptic catheter for signal emission and collection. For data analysis and processing, a miniature spectrophotometer with multivariate statistical package was used. Signal acquisition and analysis were performed before and after revascularization. Spectroscopic data were compared with hemodynamic parameters, electrocardiogram, transesophageal echocardiography and laboratory findings. Results A conversion to extracorporeal circulation was not necessary. The mean number of grafts per patient was 3.1 ± 0.6. An intraoperative myocardial ischemia was not evident, as indicated by electrocardiogram and transesophageal echocardiography. Continuous spectroscopic analysis showed reproducible absorption spectra of coronary sinus blood. Due to uneventful intraoperative courses, clear ischemia-related changes could be detected in none of the patients. Conclusion Our initial results show that intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy can reliably be used for an online intraoperative ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. However, the method has to be further evaluated and standardized to determine the role of spectroscopy in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

  5. Low frequency oscillations in cephalic vessels assessed by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Schytz, Henrik W; Selb, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Low frequency oscillations (LFO) of cerebral vessels are believed to reflect cerebral autoregulation. We investigated day-to-day and hemispheric variations in 0.1 Hz LFO with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) to determine phase shift and gain...... breathing at 6 breaths per minute on two separate days. RESULTS: The variation between hemispheres had a prediction interval (PI) of ± 39° for ABP-oxyHb phase shift and ± 69% for gain. ABP-Vmca showed ± 57° PI phase shift and ± 158% PI for gain. The variation from day to day showed ± 61° PI for ABP...

  6. A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggo, Yves; Chalus, Pascal; Maurer, Lene; Lema-Martinez, Carmen; Edmond, Aurélie; Jent, Nadine

    2007-07-27

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a fast and non-destructive analytical method. Associated with chemometrics, it becomes a powerful tool for the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, NIRS is suitable for analysis of solid, liquid and biotechnological pharmaceutical forms. Moreover, NIRS can be implemented during pharmaceutical development, in production for process monitoring or in quality control laboratories. This review focuses on chemometric techniques and pharmaceutical NIRS applications. The following topics are covered: qualitative analyses, quantitative methods and on-line applications. Theoretical and practical aspects are described with pharmaceutical examples of NIRS applications.

  7. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Triolo, Jin Mi; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The anaerobic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in biogas plants is determined with biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. However, experimental BMP analysis is time-consuming, costly and challenging to optimise stock management and feeding to achieve improved biogas production....... The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting...

  8. Determining the clay/organic carbon ratio by visible near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Hermansen, Cecilie

    /OC ratio directly would be valuable. Visible near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIRS) is a cost-effective method for soil analysis and was tested here for the prediction of clay/OC ratio. Soil samples from two agricultural fields in Denmark (N=115) were analyzed. Partial Least Squares regression (full cross......-validation) was performed on 80% randomly selected samples to correlate soil spectra with OC, clay and clay/OC. The robustness of calibration models was tested on the remaining 20% of the samples. The soil from the two study sites vary greatly presenting clay/OC ratio between 1.20 and 10.43. Successful calibration results...

  9. Assessing soil carbon lability by near infrared spectroscopy and NaOCL oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quantifying labile organic matter (OM) in arable soils and for predicting soil refractory OM fractions was tested on 37 soils varying in texture and soil carbon (C) content. Three sets of arable soils (0-20 cm depth) were sampled from 1) long...... incubated for 34 weeks while refractory OM was obtained by NaOCl oxidation. The labile fraction of the soil C accounted for 2-12% of the total soil C content. No systematic relationship between labile C content and total soil C or clay was found, but NIR spectra could be correlated well with the labile C...

  10. Determination of diazepam in intact diazepam tablets using near infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.C.; Kang, S.J.; Youn, M.O.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.Y. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea); Cha, K.W. [Inha University, Inchon (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    A rapid and simple determination of diazepam in intact diazepam tablets has been investigated using the near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) combined with partial least squares regression. The separate calibration curves of 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets were studied, as well as the linearity, concentration range and reproducibility of those calibration curves were evaluated. The correlation coefficients of calibration curves of 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets are 0.99416 and 0.9159, respectively and the standard errors of calibration curves(SEC) are 0.018% and 0.032%, respectively. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Determination of fatty acid content in sheep milk by means of near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Lužová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the use of the Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy in determining the content of selected fatty acids in raw non-homogenized sheep milk. The raw sheep milk sample spectra were scanned in reflectance mode using the FT NIR Antaris spectrophotometer. The reliable functional calibration models were created for estimation of the contents of myristic, oleic, lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids (with calibration correlation coefficients of R = 0.999; 0.999; 0.993; 0.992; 0.858 and with standard errors SEC = 0.056; 0.152; 0.066; 0.367; 1.36%.

  12. Perioperative use of cerebral and renal near-infrared spectroscopy in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Henrik W; Hansen, Tom G

    2016-01-01

    of NIRS in neonates and premature infants undergoing noncardiac surgeries. METHOD: Neonates were monitored with both cerebral and renal NIRS for 24 h after induction of anesthesia and compared with systemic blood pressure (BP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), and heart rate (HR). RESULTS: A total...... at detecting postoperative apnea. CONCLUSION: Near-infrared spectroscopy is an easily applicable technique that appears effective at detecting hypoxic events and postoperative apneas in neonates. The high incidences of regional hypoxia reported by NIRS in this study imply that there is a need for a more...

  13. Is near-infrared spectroscopy clinically useful in the preterm infant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Cristine Sortica; Greisen, Gorm; Austin, Topun

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to study cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation in the preterm infant for many years, but its use as a clinical tool has remained elusive. This has partly been due to the challenges of providing a continuous quantitative measurement that is valid...... and reliable, as well as demonstrating that interventions based on NIRS measurements improve clinical outcome. Recent studies investigating cerebral oxygenation targeted treatment, and defining optimal blood pressure based on an assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity, suggest ways in which this technology...

  14. Assessing soil water repellency of a sandy field with visible near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Masís Meléndez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2016-01-01

    to its effects on germination, root growth, liquid-vapour dynamics, surface erosion and leaching of chemicals through fingered flow paths. However, common techniques for measuring WR are time-consuming and expensive. Meanwhile, it is well established that visible near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy......, and to evaluate the effect of soil pretreatment on the predictive ability of WR models. A total of 87 soil samples from an agricultural coarse sandy field in Denmark were analysed for SOC, particle size fractions, water content and WR. Soil samples were scanned with a vis-NIR sensor (350-2500 nm) after air...

  15. [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), new intracoronary imaging technique of unstable coronary plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrúš, Tomáš; Kaňovský, Jan; Poloczek, Martin; Miklík, Roman; Boček, Otakar; Jeřábek, Petr; Kala, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome may develop in the background of hemodynamically non-significant coronary artery disease. It may be caused by the presence of "vulnerable plaque", which is characterized by the lipid rich core and thin fibrous cap content. NIRS - near infrared spectroscopy - is a morphological imaging method allowing determining atherosclerotic plaque cholesterol burden. Information about the chemical composition may contribute to "high risk" plaque early identification and subsequent optimal interventional strategy. The first experience with the clinical implementation of this novel method is demonstrated in a case report. Key words: acute coronary syndrome - chemogram - intravascular imaging - NIRS - vulnerable plaque.

  16. Regional blood flow during exercise in humans measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Olesen, J

    2000-01-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the tracer indocyanine green (ICG), we quantified blood flow in calf muscle and around the Achilles tendon during plantar flexion (1-9 W). For comparison, blood flow in calf muscle was determined by dye dilution in combination with magnetic resonance...... NIRS and ICG to quantify regional tissue blood flow during exercise in humans. Due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, the technique may be useful for determining regional blood flow distribution and regulation during exercise in humans....

  17. Cerebral hemodynamics measured with simultaneous PET and near-infrared spectroscopy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Law, Ian; Pott, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous non-invasive quantification of blood and tissue oxygenation, and may be useful for quantification of cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes. In this study, changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin were compared to corresponding changes in CBF......, increased by 37% during 6% CO(2) and decreased by 25% during hyperventilation. NIRS showed significant increases in oxygenation during hypercapnia, and a trend towards decreases during hyperventilation. Changes in CBV measured with both techniques were significantly correlated to CO(2) levels. However...

  18. Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Olesen, J

    2001-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is becoming a widely used research instrument to measure tissue oxygen (O2) status non-invasively. Continuous-wave spectrometers are the most commonly used devices, which provide semi-quantitative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in small blood......, brain and connective tissue, and more recently it has been used in the clinical setting to assess circulatory and metabolic abnormalities. Quantitative measures of blood flow are also possible using NIRS and a light-absorbing tracer, which can be applied to evaluate circulatory responses to exercise...

  19. Voxel-based measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in layered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2018-03-01

    We quantitatively investigated the measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) across six tissue models: cerebral tissue, a small animal brain, the forehead of a fetus, an adult brain, forearm muscle, and thigh muscle. The optical path length in the voxel of the model was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the measurement sensitivity can be represented as the product of the change in the absorption coefficient and the difference in optical path length in two states with different source-detector distances. The results clarified the sensitivity ratio between the surface layer and the deep layer at each source-detector distance for each model and identified changes in the deep measurement area when one of the detectors was close to the light source. A comparison was made with the results from continuous-wave spectroscopy. The study also identified measurement challenges that arise when the surface layer is inhomogeneous. Findings on the measurement sensitivity of SRS at each voxel and in each layer can support the correct interpretation of measured values when near-infrared oximetry or functional near-infrared spectroscopy is used to investigate different tissue structures. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  20. New PLS analysis approach to wine volatile compounds characterization by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genisheva, Z; Quintelas, C; Mesquita, D P; Ferreira, E C; Oliveira, J M; Amaral, A L

    2018-04-25

    This work aims to explore the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to quantify volatile compounds in Vinho Verde wines, commonly determined by gas chromatography. For this purpose, 105 Vinho Verde wine samples were analyzed using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy in the range of 5435 cm -1 to 6357 cm -1 . Boxplot and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed for clusters identification and outliers removal. A partial least square (PLS) regression was then applied to develop the calibration models, by a new iterative approach. The predictive ability of the models was confirmed by an external validation procedure with an independent sample set. The obtained results could be considered as quite good with coefficients of determination (R 2 ) varying from 0.94 to 0.97. The current methodology, using NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, can be seen as a promising rapid tool to determine volatile compounds in Vinho Verde wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in the Infrared and Near-Infrared Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Sidsel Dahl

    and 1,4-diaminobutane). Experimentally, the hydrogen bonds have been studied with vibrational spectroscopy in the infrared and near-infrared regions. The focus is primarily on spectra recorded in the near-infrared regions, which in these studies are dominated by O-H and N-H stretching overtones....... Overtone spectra have been recorded with intracavity laser photoacoustic laser spectroscopy and conventional long path absorption spectroscopy. Theoretically, a combination of electronic structure calculations and local mode models have been employed to guide the assignment of bands in the vibrational......,4-diaminobutane, no sign of intramolecular N-H···N hydrogen bonds were identified in the overtone spectra. However, theoretical analyzes indicate that intramolecular N-H···N hydrogen bonds are present in all three diamines if two hydrogen atoms on one of the methylene groups are substituted with triuoromethyl...

  2. Visible-near infrared spectroscopy as a tool to improve mapping of soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kühnel, Anna; Bogner, Christina; Haase, Ina; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Tananaev, Nikita; Sauheitl, Leopold; Spielvogel, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Spectroscopic measurements, which are non-destructive, precise and rapid, can be used to predict soil properties and help estimate the spatial variability of soil properties at the pedon scale. These estimations are required for quantifying soil properties with higher precision, identifying the changes in soil properties and ecosystem response to climate change as well as increasing the estimation accuracy of soil-related models. Our objectives were to (i) predict soil properties for nested samples (n = 296) using the laboratory-based visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) spectra of air-dried (ICP-OES, Agilent Technologies, USA). We predicted the above-mentioned soil properties for all nested samples using partial least squares regression, which was performed using R program. We can conclude that vis-NIR spectroscopy can be used effectively in order to describe, estimate and further map the spatial patterns of soil properties using geostatistical methods. This research could also help to improve the global soil spectral library taking into account that only few previous applications of vis-NIR spectroscopy were conducted on permafrost-affected soils of Northern Siberia. Keywords: Visible-near infrared spectroscopy, vis-NIR, permafrost-affected soils, Siberia, partial least squares regression.

  3. Near infrared spectroscopy for high-throughput characterization of Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut fat profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davrieux, Fabrice; Allal, François; Piombo, Georges; Kelly, Bokary; Okulo, John B; Thiam, Massamba; Diallo, Ousmane B; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-07-14

    The Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) is a major tree species in African agroforestry systems. Butter extracted from its nuts offers an opportunity for sustainable development in Sudanian countries and an attractive potential for the food and cosmetics industries. The purpose of this study was to develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to characterize Shea nut fat profiles. Powders prepared from nuts collected from 624 trees in five African countries (Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda) were analyzed for moisture content, fat content using solvent extraction, and fatty acid profiles using gas chromatography. Results confirmed the differences between East and West African Shea nut fat composition: eastern nuts had significantly higher fat and oleic acid contents. Near infrared reflectance spectra were recorded for each sample. Ten percent of the samples were randomly selected for validation and the remaining samples used for calibration. For each constituent, calibration equations were developed using modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression. The equation performances were evaluated using the ratio performance to deviation (RPD(p)) and R(p)(2) parameters, obtained by comparison of the validation set NIR predictions and corresponding laboratory values. Moisture (RPD(p) = 4.45; R(p)(2) = 0.95) and fat (RPD(p) = 5.6; R(p)(2) = 0.97) calibrations enabled accurate determination of these traits. NIR models for stearic (RPD(p) = 6.26; R(p)(2) = 0.98) and oleic (RPD(p) = 7.91; R(p)(2) = 0.99) acids were highly efficient and enabled sharp characterization of these two major Shea butter fatty acids. This study demonstrated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy for high-throughput phenotyping of Shea nuts.

  4. [Online determination of pH in fresh pork by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Tao; Fan, Yu-Xia; Wu, Xue-Qian; Cheng, Fang

    2010-03-01

    The present research was focused on determination of the pH value online by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. In the part of data gathering, fresh pork longissimus dorsi was moving at the constant velocity of 0.25 m x s(-1) on the conveyor belt, and the visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectrum (350-1 000 nm) was captured. In the part of data processing, band of 510-980 nm of the spectra was chosen to calibrate reflex distance, then to set up online detection model of pH value in fresh pork by partial least squares regression (PLSR). Kennard-stone algorithm was applied to divide the samples to the calibration set and validation set. The performances of several PLSR models employing various preprocessing methods including multiple scatter correction, derivative and both of them combined were compared. Further, the best performance model was optimized by interval PLSR to decrease the modeling variables of wavelength. The results indicated that the PLSR model based on preprocessing of multiple scatter correction (MSC) combined with first derivative gave the best performance with 0.905 of the correlation coefficient for validation set and 0.051 of the root of mean square errors for validation set. For the best PLSR model performance, the correlation coefficient of validation set increased to 0.926 and the root of mean square errors for validation set to 0.045 in the optimization interval PLSR model. However, only half of variables were used. The research demonstrates that using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to determine fresh pork pH online is feasible.

  5. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.

  6. [Evaluation of Sugar Content of Huanghua Pear on Trees by Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jun; Ying, Yi-bin

    2015-11-01

    A method of ambient light correction was proposed to evaluate the sugar content of Huanghua pears on tree by visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Due to strong interference of ambient light, it was difficult to collect the efficient spectral of pears on tree. In the field, covering the fruits with a bag blocking ambient light can get better results, but the efficiency is fairly low, the instrument corrections of dark and reference spectra may help to reduce the error of the model, however, the interference of the ambient light cannot be eliminated effectively. In order to reduce the effect of ambient light, a shutter was attached to the front of probe. When opening shutter, the spot spectrum were obtained, on which instrument light and ambient light acted at the same time. While closing shutter, background spectra were obtained, on which only ambient light acted, then the ambient light spectra was subtracted from spot spectra. Prediction models were built using data on tree (before and after ambient light correction) and after harvesting by partial least square (PLS). The results of the correlation coefficient (R) are 0.1, 0.69, 0.924; the root mean square error of prediction (SEP) are 0. 89°Brix, 0.42°Brix, 0.27°Brix; ratio of standard deviation (SD) to SEP (RPD) are 0.79, 1.69, 2.58, respectively. The results indicate that, method of background correction used in the experiment can reduce the effect of ambient lighting on spectral acquisition of Huanghua pears in field, efficiently. This method can be used to collect the visible/near infrared spectrum of fruits in field, and may give full play to visible/near-infrared spectroscopy in preharvest management and maturity testing of fruits in the field.

  7. [Determination of total nitrogen content in fresh tea leaf using visible-near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong-guang; Li, Ping-ping; Mu, Jian-hua; Mao, Han-ping; Wu, Cai-cong; Chen, Bin

    2008-12-01

    To monitor tea tree growth and nitrogen nutrition in tea leaves, visible-near infrared spectroscopy was used to determine total nitrogen content. One hundred eleven fresh tea leaves of different nitrogen levels were sampled according to different tea type, plant age, leaf age, leaf position and soil nutrients, which covered a wide range of nitrogen content. Visible-near infrared reflectance spectra were scanned under the sunlight with a portable spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec 3) in field. The software of NIRSA developed by Jiangsu University was used to establish the calibration models and prediction models, which included spectra data editing, preprocessing, sample analysis, spectrogram comparison, calibration model and prediction model, analysis reporting and system configuration Eighty six samples were used to establish the calibration model with the preprocessing of first/second-order derivative plus moving average filter and the algorithm of PLS regression, stepwise regression, principal component regression, PLS regression plus artificial neural network and so on The result shows that the PLS regression calibration model with 7 principal component factors after the preprocessing of first-order derivative plus moving average filter is the best and correspondingly the root mean square error of calibration is 0. 973. Twenty five unknown samples were used to establish the prediction model and the correlation coefficient between predicted values and real values is 0.8881, while the root mean square error of prediction is 0. 130 4 with the mean relative error of 4.339%. Therefore, visible-near infrared spectroscopy has a huge potential for the determination of total nitrogen content in fresh tea leaves in a rapid and nondestructive way. Consequently, the technique can be significant to monitoring the tea tree growth and fertilization management.

  8. Discriminant analysis of milk adulteration based on near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Lv, Guorong; He, Bin; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of food safety is becoming a global concern. It is very important to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and widely available method for food adulteration detection. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy techniques and pattern recognition were applied to study the qualitative discriminant analysis method. The samples were prepared and adulterated with one of the three adulterants, urea, glucose and melamine with different concentrations. First, the spectral characteristics of milk and adulterant samples were analyzed. Then, pattern recognition methods were used for qualitative discriminant analysis of milk adulteration. Soft independent modeling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to construct discriminant models, respectively. Furthermore, the optimization method of the model was studied. The best spectral pretreatment methods and the optimal band were determined. In the optimal conditions, PLSDA models were constructed respectively for each type of adulterated sample sets (urea, melamine and glucose) and all the three types of adulterated sample sets. Results showed that, the discrimination accuracy of model achieved 93.2% in the classification of different adulterated and unadulterated milk samples. Thus, it can be concluded that near-infrared spectroscopy and PLSDA can be used to identify whether the milk has been adulterated or not and the type of adulterant used.

  9. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  10. Determination of soil content in chlordecone (organochlorine pesticide) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Didier, E-mail: didier.brunet@ird.f [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France); Woignier, Thierry [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Montpellier 2, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphael [CIRAD (Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement), PRAM, BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Rangon, Luc [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Barthes, Bernard G. [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France)

    2009-11-15

    Chlordecone is a toxic organochlorine insecticide that was used in banana plantations until 1993 in the French West Indies. This study aimed at assessing the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining chlordecone content in Andosols, Nitisols and Ferralsols from Martinique. Using partial least square regression, chlordecone content conventionally determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be correctly predicted by NIRS (Q{sup 2} = 0.75, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the total set), especially for samples with chlordecone content <12 mg kg{sup -1} or when the sample set was rather homogeneous (Q{sup 2} = 0.91, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the Andosols). Conventional measures and NIRS predictions were poorly correlated for chlordecone content >12 mg kg{sup -1}, nevertheless ca. 80% samples were correctly predicted when the set was divided into three or four classes of chlordecone content. Thus NIRS could be considered a time- and cost-effective method for characterising soil contamination by chlordecone. - Soil content in chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, can be determined time- and cost-effectively using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

  11. Feasibility of near infrared transmittance spectroscopy to predict fatty acid composition of commercial processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Massimo; Manuelian, Carmen L; Ton, Sofia; Cassandro, Martino; Penasa, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The new European Regulation 1169/2011 concerning nutrition declaration of food products compels the addition of saturated fatty acids, whereas the declaration of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids remains voluntary. Therefore, the industry is interested in a more rapid, easy and less cost-effective analysis method for accomplishing this labelling regulation. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of near infrared transmittance spectroscopy (wavelengths between 850 and 1050 nm) to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of commercial processed meat samples (n = 310). Good predictions were achieved for the absolute content of saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, as well as ω-6 groups, and also for a few individual FA (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and 18:1n7), with the coefficient of determination in cross-validation being > 0.90 and the residual prediction deviation being > 3.15. Unsatisfactory models were obtained for the relative content of FA. Near infrared transmittance spectroscopy can be considered as a reliable method for predicting the main groups of FA in processed meat products, whereas predictions of individual FA are less reliable. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. [Near-infrared spectroscopy as an auxiliary tool in the study of child development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Suelen Rosa de; Machado, Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Campos, Flávio Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Cristina Oliveira; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the applicability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for cortical hemodynamic assessment tool as an aid in the study of child development. Search was conducted in the PubMed and Lilacs databases using the following keywords: "psychomotor performance/child development/growth and development/neurodevelopment/spectroscopy/near-infrared" and their equivalents in Portuguese and Spanish. The review was performed according to criteria established by Cochrane and search was limited to 2003 to 2013. English, Portuguese and Spanish were included in the search. Of the 484 articles, 19 were selected: 17 cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies, published in non-Brazilian journals. The analyzed articles were grouped in functional and non-functional studies of child development. Functional studies addressed the object processing, social skills development, language and cognitive development. Non-functional studies discussed the relationship between cerebral oxygen saturation and neurological outcomes, and the comparison between the cortical hemodynamic response of preterm and term newborns. NIRS has become an increasingly feasible alternative and a potentially useful technique for studying functional activity of the infant brain. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapidly Simultaneous Determination of Six Effective Components in Cistanche tubulosa by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of multiple effective components in a given plant usually requires a very large amount of authentic natural products. In this study, we proposed a rapid and non-destructive method for the simultaneous determination of echinacoside, verbascoside, mannitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose in Cistanche tubulosa by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were conducted on 116 batches of C. tubulosa samples. The DRS data were processed using standard normal variety (SNV and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC methods. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was utilized to build calibration models for components-of-interest in C. tubulosa. All models were then assessed by calculating the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, correlation coefficient of calibration (r. The r values of all six calibration models were determined to be greater than 0.94, suggesting each model is reliable. Therefore, the quantitative NIR models reported in this study can be qualified to accurately quantify the contents of six medicinal components in C. tubulosa.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy and plasma homovanillic acid levels in bipolar disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura I

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Itaru Miura,1,2 Soichi Kono,1 Sachie Oshima,1 Keiko Kanno-Nozaki,1 Hirobumi Mashiko,1 Shin-Ichi Niwa,1 Hirooki Yabe11Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan; 2Division of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USAAbstract: Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder is a serious, but not unusual problem for patients. Nevertheless, there are few biomarkers for distinguishing unipolar and bipolar disorder. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a noninvasive and useful method for the measurement of hemoglobin concentration changes in the cortical surface area, which enables the assessment of brain function. We measured NIRS and plasma monoamine metabolite levels in a patient with bipolar disorder. A 22-year-old man was admitted due to major depression. At admission, NIRS findings showed oxygenated hemoglobin reincrease in the posttask period, which is characteristic of schizophrenia. After treatment with paroxetine, he became manic with psychotic symptoms. His plasma level of homovanillic acid just before the manic switch was ten times higher than that just after paroxetine initiation. Treatment with lithium and antipsychotics was successful, and plasma homovanillic acid decreased after treatment. In this case, the NIRS findings may predict a possible risk of a manic switch, which is likely induced by paroxetine. NIRS may be able to help distinguish unipolar and bipolar disorder in clinical settings.Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, bipolar disorder, homovanillic acid, diagnosis, biomarker

  15. Near infrared spectroscopy is suitable for the classification of hazelnuts according to Protected Designation of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Radicetti, Emanuele; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Massantini, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of the 'Nocciola Romana' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cvs Tonda Gentile Romana and Nocchione) as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) hazelnut from central Italy. Algorithms for the selection of the optimal pretreatments were tested in combination with the following discriminant routines: k-nearest neighbour, soft independent modelling of class analogy, partial least squares discriminant analysis and support vector machine discriminant analysis. The best results were obtained using a support vector machine discriminant analysis routine. Thus, classification performance rates with specificities, sensitivities and accuracies as high as 96.0%, 95.0% and 95.5%, respectively, were achieved. Various pretreatments, such as standard normal variate, mean centring and a Savitzky-Golay filter with seven smoothing points, were used. The optimal wavelengths for classification were mainly correlated with lipids, although some contribution from minor constituents, such as proteins and carbohydrates, was also observed. Near infrared spectroscopy could classify hazelnut according to the PDO 'Nocciola Romana' designation. Thus, the experimentation lays the foundations for a rapid, online, authentication system for hazelnut. However, model robustness should be improved taking into account agro-pedo-climatic growing conditions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. FC-NIRS: A Functional Connectivity Analysis Tool for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingping; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Jinrui; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xindi; Fang, Fang; Niu, Haijing

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a promising noninvasive imaging technique, has recently become an increasingly popular tool in resting-state brain functional connectivity (FC) studies. However, the corresponding software packages for FC analysis are still lacking. To facilitate fNIRS-based human functional connectome studies, we developed a MATLAB software package called "functional connectivity analysis tool for near-infrared spectroscopy data" (FC-NIRS). This package includes the main functions of fNIRS data preprocessing, quality control, FC calculation, and network analysis. Because this software has a friendly graphical user interface (GUI), FC-NIRS allows researchers to perform data analysis in an easy, flexible, and quick way. Furthermore, FC-NIRS can accomplish batch processing during data processing and analysis, thereby greatly reducing the time cost of addressing a large number of datasets. Extensive experimental results using real human brain imaging confirm the viability of the toolbox. This novel toolbox is expected to substantially facilitate fNIRS-data-based human functional connectome studies.

  17. Gasoline classification using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data: Comparison of multivariate techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Safieva, Ravilya Z.; Lomakina, Ekaterina I.

    2010-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive (vibrational spectroscopy based) measurement technique for many multicomponent chemical systems, including products of petroleum (crude oil) refining and petrochemicals, food products (tea, fruits, e.g., apples, milk, wine, spirits, meat, bread, cheese, etc.), pharmaceuticals (drugs, tablets, bioreactor monitoring, etc.), and combustion products. In this paper we have compared the abilities of nine different multivariate classification methods: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares (PLS) classification, K-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machines (SVM), probabilistic neural network (PNN), and multilayer perceptron (ANN-MLP) - for gasoline classification. Three sets of near infrared (NIR) spectra (450, 415, and 345 spectra) were used for classification of gasolines into 3, 6, and 3 classes, respectively, according to their source (refinery or process) and type. The 14,000-8000 cm -1 NIR spectral region was chosen. In all cases NIR spectroscopy was found to be effective for gasoline classification purposes, when compared with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography (GC). KNN, SVM, and PNN techniques for classification were found to be among the most effective ones. Artificial neural network (ANN-MLP) approach based on principal component analysis (PCA), which was believed to be efficient, has shown much worse results. We hope that the results obtained in this study will help both further chemometric (multivariate data analysis) investigations and investigations in the sphere of applied vibrational (infrared/IR, near-IR, and Raman) spectroscopy of sophisticated multicomponent systems.

  18. Gasoline classification using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data: Comparison of multivariate techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomakina, Ekaterina I. [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-25

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive (vibrational spectroscopy based) measurement technique for many multicomponent chemical systems, including products of petroleum (crude oil) refining and petrochemicals, food products (tea, fruits, e.g., apples, milk, wine, spirits, meat, bread, cheese, etc.), pharmaceuticals (drugs, tablets, bioreactor monitoring, etc.), and combustion products. In this paper we have compared the abilities of nine different multivariate classification methods: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares (PLS) classification, K-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machines (SVM), probabilistic neural network (PNN), and multilayer perceptron (ANN-MLP) - for gasoline classification. Three sets of near infrared (NIR) spectra (450, 415, and 345 spectra) were used for classification of gasolines into 3, 6, and 3 classes, respectively, according to their source (refinery or process) and type. The 14,000-8000 cm{sup -1} NIR spectral region was chosen. In all cases NIR spectroscopy was found to be effective for gasoline classification purposes, when compared with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography (GC). KNN, SVM, and PNN techniques for classification were found to be among the most effective ones. Artificial neural network (ANN-MLP) approach based on principal component analysis (PCA), which was believed to be efficient, has shown much worse results. We hope that the results obtained in this study will help both further chemometric (multivariate data analysis) investigations and investigations in the sphere of applied vibrational (infrared/IR, near-IR, and Raman) spectroscopy of sophisticated multicomponent systems.

  19. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring cerebral regional blood oxygenation and volume in the human newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, H. P.; Wickramasinghe, Yappa A.; Rolfe, Peter J.

    1997-08-01

    Human newborns can suffer from neuro-developmental abnormalities, when they are born as preterms. With near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) it is possible to investigate any brain disease occurring together with these neuro- abnormalities. The specific absorption properties of haemoglobin and oxygenated haemoglobin in the near infrared region allow to measure the oxygenation status and several other variables. Local variations in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood oxygenation is important for a better understanding of these abnormalities.

  20. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and control of cell culture and fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Petersen, Nanna; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can potentially provide on-line information on substrate, biomass, product, and metabolite concentrations in fermentation processes, which could be useful for improved monitoring or control. However, several factors can negatively influence the quality...... of chemometric models built for interpretation of the spectra, thus impairing the analyte concentration predictions. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of necessary conditions and challenges that one has to face when developing a NIR application for monitoring of cell culture or fermentation...... fusion), and the description of process trajectories. On the basis of the review, we conclude that acceptance of NIR spectroscopy as a standard monitoring tool by the fermentation industry will necessitate considerably more on-line studies using industrially relevant—and highly challenging...

  1. Feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy to detect and to quantify adulterants in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Thanapase, Warunee; Kiatsoonthon, Artaya

    2007-07-01

    Cow milk adulteration involves the dilution of milk with a less-expensive component, such as water or whey. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was employed to detect the adulterations of milk, non-destructively. Two adulteration types of cow milk with water and whey were prepared, respectively. NIR spectra of milk adulterations and natural milk samples in the region of 1100 - 2500 nm were collected. The classification of milk adulterations and natural milk were conducted by using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) methods. PLS calibration models for the determination of water and whey contents in milk adulteration were also developed, individually. Comparisons of the classification methods, wavelength regions and data pretreatments were investigated, and are reported in this study. This study showed that NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect water or whey adulterants and their contents in milk samples.

  2. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results...... clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring....

  3. Rapid characterization of woody biomass digestibility and chemical composition using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shen; Li, Laigeng

    2011-02-01

    Rapid determination of the properties of lignocellulosic material is highly desirable for biomass production and utilization. In the present study, measurements of woody biomass digestibility and chemical composition using near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy were calibrated. Poplar and eucalyptus materials were recorded in NIR spectrum as well as determined for their chemical compositions of Klason lignin, α-cellulose, holocellulose, lignin syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio and enzymatic digestibility. Fitting of the NIR information with chemical properties and digestibility by partial least-squares (PLS) regression generated a group of trained NIR models that were able to be used for rapid biomass measurement. Applying the models for woody biomass measurements led to a reliable evaluation of the chemical composition and digestibility, suggesting the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy in the rapid characterization of biomass properties. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  5. Thermal removal from near-infrared imaging spectroscopy data of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Pieters, Carle M.; Green, Robert O.; Boardman, J.W.; Petro, Noah E.

    2011-01-01

    In the near-infrared from about 2 μm to beyond 3 μm, the light from the Moon is a combination of reflected sunlight and emitted thermal emission. There are multiple complexities in separating the two signals, including knowledge of the local solar incidence angle due to topography, phase angle dependencies, emissivity, and instrument calibration. Thermal emission adds to apparent reflectance, and because the emission's contribution increases over the reflected sunlight with increasing wavelength, absorption bands in the lunar reflectance spectra can be modified. In particular, the shape of the 2 μm pyroxene band can be distorted by thermal emission, changing spectrally determined pyroxene composition and abundance. Because of the thermal emission contribution, water and hydroxyl absorptions are reduced in strength, lowering apparent abundances. It is important to quantify and remove the thermal emission for these reasons. We developed a method for deriving the temperature and emissivity from spectra of the lunar surface and removing the thermal emission in the near infrared. The method is fast enough that it can be applied to imaging spectroscopy data on the Moon.

  6. Development of a near-infrared spectroscopy instrument for applications in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J; Stothers, Lynn

    2008-10-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established technology using photons of light in the near infrared spectrum to monitor changes in tissue of naturally occurring chromophores, including oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Technology and methodology have been validated for measurement of a range of physiologic parameters. NIRS has been applied successfully in urology research; however current instruments are designed principally for brain and muscle study. To describe development of a NIRS instrument specifically designed for monitoring changes in chromophore concentration in the bladder detrusor in real time, to facilitate research to establish the role of this non-invasive technology in the evaluation of patients with voiding dysfunction The portable continuous wave NIRS instrument has a 3 laser diode light source (785, 808 and 830 nanometers), fiber optic cables for light transmission, a self adhesive patient interface patch with an emitter and sensor, and software to detect the difference between the light transmitted and received by the instrument. Software incorporated auto-attenuates the optical signals and converts raw optical data into chromophore concentrations displayed graphically. The prototype was designed, tested, and iteratively developed to achieve optimal suprapubic transcutaneous monitoring of the detrusor in human subjects during bladder filling and emptying. Evaluation with simultaneous invasive urodynamic measurement in men and women indicates good specificity and sensitivity of NIRS chromophore concentration changes by receiver operator curve analysis, and correlation between NIRS data and urodynamic pressures. Urological monitoring with this NIRS instrument is feasible and generates data of potential diagnostic value.

  7. Prediction of soluble solids content and ph in red wine by visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; He, Yong; Wang, Yanyan

    2008-02-01

    Soluble solids content (SSC) and pH are two major characteristic used for assessing quality of red wine, and they are also two important quality indexes in the manufacture of red wine. For rapid detection of SSC and pH in red wine, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) transmittance spectroscopy technique combined with partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) were used in this study. First, the near infrared transmittance spectra of 175 red wine samples were obtained using Vis/NIR spectroradiometer, then, PLS was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the original spectra, latent variables (LVs) selected by PLS could be used to replace the complex spectral data. All samples were randomly separated into calibration set and validation set. The LVs (selected by PLS) of each sample in calibration set was used as the inputs to train the LS-SVM model, then the optimal model was used to predict the SSC and pH values of samples in validation set based on their LVs. Standard error prediction (SEP) and determination coefficient (r2) were used as the evaluation standards, and the results indicated that the SEP and r2 for the prediction of SSC were 0.2313 and 0.9348; while 0.0071 and 0.9986 for pH. This prediction model was more accurate compared with the related research.

  8. Rapid assessment of selected free amino acids during Edam cheese ripening by near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on rapid determination of free amino acids produced during the ripening of cheese, by using near infrared spectroscopy. Analyses of 96 samples of Edam cheese (30% and 45% of fat in dry matter were performed at monthly intervals up to the ripening age of 6 months. In total, 19 amino acids were analysed with infrared spectrometer using two different methods, either in the regime of reflectance in the integrating sphere of the apparatus or using a fibre optic apparatus with the fibre optic probe. Reference data based on high-performance liquid chromatography were used for calibration of the spectrophotometer. Calibration models were developed using a partial least square algorithm and tested by means of cross-validation. When measured with the integrating sphere and with the probe, the values of correlation coefficients ranged from 0.835 to 0.993 and from 0.739 to 0.995, respectively. Paired t-test did not show significant differences between the reference and predicted values (P < 0.05. The results of this new calibration method showed the possibility of near infrared technology for fast determination of free amino acids, which occur during the ripening of Edam cheese. The content of free amino acids allow us to prepare Edam cheese quickly and efficiently for sale or to prepare the material for processed cheese.

  9. Rapid Characterization of Fatty Acids in Oleaginous Microalgae by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The key properties of microalgal biodiesel are largely determined by the composition of its fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. The gas chromatography (GC based techniques for fatty acid analysis involve energy-intensive and time-consuming procedures and thus are less suitable for high-throughput screening applications. In the present study, a novel quantification method for microalgal fatty acids was established based on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. The lyophilized cells of oleaginous Chlorella containing different contents of lipids were scanned by NIRS and their fatty acid profiles were determined by GC-MS. NIRS models were developed based on the chemometric correlation of the near-infrared spectra with fatty acid profiles in algal biomass. The optimized NIRS models showed excellent performances for predicting the contents of total fatty acids, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:3, with the coefficient of determination (R2 being 0.998, 0.997, 0.989, 0.991 and 0.997, respectively. Taken together, the NIRS method established here bypasses the procedures of cell disruption, oil extraction and transesterification, is rapid, reliable, and of great potential for high-throughput applications, and will facilitate the screening of microalgal mutants and optimization of their growth conditions for biodiesel production.

  10. Development of a nondestructive measurement system for mango fruit using near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eizo Taira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy has been widely used for the evaluation of chemical components in food and agricultural products. In this study, a portable near infrared (NIR spectrometer was developed to simultaneously evaluate the internal and external quality of tropical fruits. Mango fruits are grown in the southern part of Japan and have high economic value. In this region, sorting facilities are used to check the internal quality of each mango. However, most of the product is directly shipped to consumers, complicating quality assurance procedures. A portable NIR spectrometer is an affordable method for farmers to evaluate the internal and external quality of fruits. In this study, the soluble solid content (SSC and skin color of mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Irwin were investigated using a portable NIR spectrometer. Calibration equations for SSC and skin color were developed using a partial least squares regression. The calibrations had a correlation coefficient of 0.90-0.95 in a wavelength range of 580–970 nm. Results showed that a portable NIR spectrometer is a useful and effective instrument to nondestructively analyze sugar content (as indicated by SSC and skin color in mangoes.

  11. Characterization and correction of the false-discovery rates in resting state connectivity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Hendrik; Aarabi, Ardalan; Perlman, Susan B.; Huppert, Theodore J.

    2017-05-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique that uses low levels of red to near-infrared light to measure changes in cerebral blood oxygenation. Spontaneous (resting state) functional connectivity (sFC) has become a critical tool for cognitive neuroscience for understanding task-independent neural networks, revealing pertinent details differentiating healthy from disordered brain function, and discovering fluctuations in the synchronization of interacting individuals during hyperscanning paradigms. Two of the main challenges to sFC-NIRS analysis are (i) the slow temporal structure of both systemic physiology and the response of blood vessels, which introduces false spurious correlations, and (ii) motion-related artifacts that result from movement of the fNIRS sensors on the participants' head and can introduce non-normal and heavy-tailed noise structures. In this work, we systematically examine the false-discovery rates of several time- and frequency-domain metrics of functional connectivity for characterizing sFC-NIRS. Specifically, we detail the modifications to the statistical models of these methods needed to avoid high levels of false-discovery related to these two sources of noise in fNIRS. We compare these analysis procedures using both simulated and experimental resting-state fNIRS data. Our proposed robust correlation method has better performance in terms of being more reliable to the noise outliers due to the motion artifacts.

  12. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma

    2017-01-01

    Although near-infrared spectroscopy is increasingly being used to monitor cerebral oxygenation in neonates, it has a limited penetration depth. The T2-prepared Blood Imaging of Oxygen Saturation (T2-BIOS) magnetic resonance sequence provides an oxygen saturation estimate on a voxel-by-voxel basis......, without needing a respiratory calibration experiment. In 15 neonates, oxygen saturation measured by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy were compared. In addition, these measures were compared to cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal...... sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (R(2 )= 0.64, p infrared spectroscopy oxygen saturation...

  13. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller

    2002-01-01

    products were determined on the same cod fillets. The purpose was to evaluate the potential of NIR spectroscopy for estimating (i) frozen storage temperature, (ii) frozen storage period and (iii) chill storage period of thawed-chilled MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Furthermore, the potential for measuring...... of selected quality attributes as drip loss, water holding capacity and content of dimethylamine by NIR was evaluated. The results of the investigation were presented using multivariate modelling methods such as partial least- squares regression (PLSR) and discriminant partial least- squares regression (DPLSR......Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...

  14. Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023%; PC5, 0.00095%; PC8, 0.00022%, (pspectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

  15. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  16. Muscle metabolism from near infrared spectroscopy during rhythmic handgrip in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Pott, F; Madsen, P

    1998-01-01

    The rate of metabolism in forearm flexor muscles (MO2) was derived from near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS-O2) during ischaemia at rest rhythmic handgrip at 15% and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI), and recovery in seven subjects. The MO2 was compared...... pronounced [76 (SEM 3) to 3 (SEM 1)%] than in SvO2 [71 (SEM 3) to 59 (SEM 2)%]. During the handgrip, NIRS-O2 was lower at 30% compared to 15% MVC [58 (SEM 3) v.s. 67 (SEM 3)%] while the SvO2 was similar [29 (SEM 3) v.s. 31 (SEM 4)%]. Accordingly, MO2 as well as P(I):PCr increased twofold, while VO2 increased...

  17. Application of the near-infrared spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena

    2012-07-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is currently the fastest-growing and the most versatile analytical method not only in the pharmaceutical sciences but also in the industry. This review focuses on recent NIR applications in the pharmaceutical technology. This article covers monitoring, by NIR, of many manufacturing processes, such as granulation, mixing or drying, in order to determine the end-point of these processes. In this paper, apart from basic theoretical information concerning the NIR spectra, there are included determinations of the quality and quantity of pharmaceutical compounds. Some examples of measurements and control of physicochemical parameters of the final medicinal products, such as hardness, porosity, thickness size, compression strength, disintegration time and potential counterfeit are included. Biotechnology and plant drug analysis using NIR is also described. Moreover, some disadvantages of this method are stressed and future perspectives are anticipated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Bladder: New Parameters for Evaluating Voiding Dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnab, A.; Shadgan, B.; Stothers, L.; Macnab, A.; Afshar, K.

    2011-01-01

    We describe innovative methodology for monitoring alterations in bladder oxygenation and haemodynamics in humans using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Concentrations of the chromophores oxygenated (O 2 Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) haemoglobin and their sum (total haemoglobin) differ during bladder contraction in health and disease. A wireless device that incorporates three paired light emitting diodes (wavelengths 760 and 850 nanometers) and silicon photodiode detector collects data trans cutaneously (10 Hz) with the emitter/detector over the bladder during spontaneous bladder emptying. Data analysis indicates comparable patterns of change in chromophore concentration in healthy children and adults (positive trend during voiding, predominantly due to elevated O 2 Hb), but different changes in symptomatic subjects with characteristic chromophore patterns identified for voiding dysfunction due to specific pathophysiology: bladder outlet obstruction (males), overactive bladder (females), and non neurogenic dysfunction (children). Comparison with NIRS muscle data suggests altered bladder haemodynamics and/or oxygenation may underlie voiding dysfunction offering new insight into the causal physiology.

  19. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for neuroimaging in cochlear implant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Joe; Bortfeld, Heather; Levitin, Daniel J.; Oghalai, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging can provide insight into the neurobiological factors that contribute to the variations in individual hearing outcomes following cochlear implantation. To date, measuring neural activity within the auditory cortex of cochlear implant (CI) recipients has been challenging, primarily because the use of traditional neuroimaging techniques is limited in people with CIs. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging technology that offers benefits in this population because it is non-invasive, compatible with CI devices, and not subject to electrical artifacts. However, there are important considerations to be made when using fNIRS to maximize the signal to noise ratio and to best identify meaningful cortical responses. This review considers these issues, the current data, and future directions for using fNIRS as a clinical application in individuals with CIs. PMID:26883143

  20. Properties of end-expiratory breath hold responses measured with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2011-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to assess the cerebrovascular response to breath hold. We measured eight healthy subjects during voluntary end-expiratory breath hold to study inter- and intraindividual variability of the deoxy- (HbR) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) response curves for the scalp and cerebral cortex. Although cortical [HbO2] behaves qualitatively similarly in all subjects, there is large inter- and intraindividual variability, and in the case of [HbR] also qualitative variability. However, the linearity of [HbO2] increase during the breath hold has encouraging measurement repeatability, and it may even indicate an individual's CO2 tolerance. This result may help understand why breath hold duration varies between subjects more than the total [HbO2] increase during breath hold.

  1. Optical properties of drying wood studied by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Keiji; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Ryunosuke; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2016-05-02

    We measured the optical properties of drying wood with the moisture contents ranging from 10% to 200%. By using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy, the reduced scattering coefficient μs' and absorption coefficient μa were determined independent of each other, providing information on the chemical and structural changes, respectively, of wood on the nanometer scale. Scattering from dry pores dominated, which allowed us to determine the drying process of large pores during the period of constant drying rate, and the drying process of smaller pores during the period of decreasing drying rate. The surface layer and interior of the wood exhibit different moisture states, which affect the scattering properties of the wood.

  2. Estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Joachim; Vanderhaegen, Joke; Robijns, Mieke; Naulaers, Gunnar; Spaepen, Arthur; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    This study looks at various parameters, derived from surface electromyography (sEMG) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and their relationship in muscle fatigue during a static elbow flexion until exhaustion as well as during a semidynamic exercise.We found a linear increasing trend for a corrected amplitude parameter and a linear decreasing slope for the frequency content of the sEMG signal. The tissue oxygenation index (TOI) extracted from NIRS recordings showed a four-phase response for all the subjects. A strong correlation between frequency content of the sEMG signal and TOI was established. We can conclude that both sEMG and NIRS give complementary information concerning muscle fatigue.

  3. Chilean flour and wheat grain: tracing their origin using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Ma Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; González-Pérez, Claudio; Zapata San Martín, Nelson; López-González, Fernando; Lobos Ortega, Iris; Hernández-Hierro, Jose-Miguel

    2014-02-15

    Instrumental techniques such a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are used in industry to monitor and establish product composition and quality. As occurs with other food industries, the Chilean flour industry needs simple, rapid techniques to objectively assess the origin of different products, which is often related to their quality. In this sense, NIRS has been used in combination with chemometric methods to predict the geographic origin of wheat grain and flour samples produced in different regions of Chile. Here, the spectral data obtained with NIRS were analysed using a supervised pattern recognition method, Discriminat Partial Least Squares (DPLS). The method correctly classified 76% of the wheat grain samples and between 90% and 96% of the flour samples according to their geographic origin. The results show that NIRS, together with chemometric methods, provides a rapid tool for the classification of wheat grain and flour samples according to their geographic origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional blood flow during exercise in humans measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Olesen, J

    2000-01-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the tracer indocyanine green (ICG), we quantified blood flow in calf muscle and around the Achilles tendon during plantar flexion (1-9 W). For comparison, blood flow in calf muscle was determined by dye dilution in combination with magnetic resonance...... imaging measures of muscle volume, and, for the peritendon region, blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. From rest to a peak load of 9 W, NIRS-ICG blood flow in calf muscle increased from 2.4+/-0.2 to 74+/-5 ml x 100 ml tissue(-1) x min(-1), similar to that measured by reverse dye (77+/-6 ml x 100...

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of free acid content in apples using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, M.R.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation of free acid content in apples by near- infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), browning and heat treatment of squeezed apple juice affected to the accuracy but titratable alkali concentration did not. The free acid content in apples after harvest was able to determine using different apples in harvest time for calibration making. The result of MLR, multiple correlation coefficient(R) was 0.77 and standard error of prediction(SEP) was 0.03%. The free acid content in apples during storage was able to determine using calibration equation established with stored apples, R was 0.90 and SEP was ca. 0.04%. The prediction accuracy by NIR was not sufficient for use of quantitative analysis of free acid content in apple, but classification of low and high level in acid content was supposed to be applicable

  6. [Use of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to identify the cashmere and wool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Ru; Zhang, Li-Ping; Wang, Jian-Fu; Wu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Rong

    2013-08-01

    The wool and cashmere samples (n = 130) from different areas of Gansu province were identified by visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRs). The result shows that principal component-mahalanobis distance pattern can identify the wool and cashmere, and the boundary between two categories was clear; The calibration set samples were used to establish calibration qualitative model using PCR combined with the best pretreatment of the spectra and math, including multivariate scattering correction (MSC), first derivative, eight for the best principal component factor, one for uncertainty factor, this calibration model of the predicted was the best, and the result of the external validation was correct completely. Results from this experiment indicate that Vis/NIRs can be utilized to identify the wool and cashmere.

  7. Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impeller torque measurements and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of the water addition phase of a wet granulation process. Additionally, the effect of hydrate formation during granulation on the impeller torque was investigated....... Anhydrous theophylline, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were used as materials for the study. The materials and mixtures of them were granulated using purified water in a small-scale high-shear mixer. The impeller torque was registered and NIR spectra of wet samples were...... recorded at-line. The torque and the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances increased with increasing water content. A plateau in the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances was observed for wet masses containing MCC. This was at the region of optimal water amount for granulation according to the torque...

  8. Shedding light on words and sentences: near-infrared spectroscopy in language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sonja; Telkemeyer, Silke; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2012-05-01

    Investigating the neuronal network underlying language processing may contribute to a better understanding of how the brain masters this complex cognitive function with surprising ease and how language is acquired at a fast pace in infancy. Modern neuroimaging methods permit to visualize the evolvement and the function of the language network. The present paper focuses on a specific methodology, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), providing an overview over studies on auditory language processing and acquisition. The methodology detects oxygenation changes elicited by functional activation of the cerebral cortex. The main advantages for research on auditory language processing and its development during infancy are an undemanding application, the lack of instrumental noise, and its potential to simultaneously register electrophysiological responses. Also it constitutes an innovative approach for studying developmental issues in infants and children. The review will focus on studies on word and sentence processing including research in infants and adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive and fast measurement of blood glucose in vivo by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintao, Xue; Liming, Ye; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Han, Chen

    2017-05-01

    This research was to develop a method for noninvasive and fast blood glucose assay in vivo. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a more promising technique compared to other methods, was investigated in rats with diabetes and normal rats. Calibration models are generated by two different multivariate strategies: partial least squares (PLS) as linear regression method and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regression method. The PLS model was optimized individually by considering spectral range, spectral pretreatment methods and number of model factors, while the ANN model was studied individually by selecting spectral pretreatment methods, parameters of network topology, number of hidden neurons, and times of epoch. The results of the validation showed the two models were robust, accurate and repeatable. Compared to the ANN model, the performance of the PLS model was much better, with lower root mean square error of validation (RMSEP) of 0.419 and higher correlation coefficients (R) of 96.22%.

  10. Neonatal intensive care: an obvious, yet difficult area for cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Lotte; Brun, Nikolai C.; Greisen, Gorm

    1997-01-01

    The first clinical application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 11 years go was on the head of newborn infants under intensive care. Since then much credible and some important data have been accumulated in this area of research. The best data have been obtained using manipulation of arterial oxygen saturation to obtain single or repeated estimates of cerebral blood flow or cerebral blood volume, or interference with cerebral venous return to obtain measures of venous oxygen saturation. It has been more difficult to take advantage of the continuous and noninvasive nature of NIRS. In particular, the value of the cytochrome signal can still be doubted. A role has not yet developed for NIRS in clinical neonatology.

  11. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H; Rasmussen, P; Sato, K

    2014-01-01

    .012)] as arterial carbon dioxide pressure decreased (P=0.003). ICAf was stable and ECAf increased by 11 (4-18%; P=0.005) with administration of ephedrine while SskinO₂ did not change. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of phenylephrine on ScO₂ is governed by a decrease in external carotid blood flow since it increases......BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine and ephedrine affect frontal lobe oxygenation ([Formula: see text]) differently when assessed by spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on extra- vs intra-cerebral blood flow and on [Formula: see text]. METHODS......: In 10 healthy males (age 20-54 yr), phenylephrine or ephedrine was infused for an ∼20 mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure. Cerebral oxygenation (SavO₂) was calculated from the arterial and jugular bulb oxygen saturations. Blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICAf) and blood flow...

  12. Near-near-infrared thermal lens spectroscopy to assess overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M.; Silva, J. R.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Scorza Júnior, R. P.; Lima, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) in the near-near-infrared region was used to explore the absorptions of overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone (SFZ) herbicide diluted in methanol. This spectroscopic region was chosen in order to guarantee that only thermal lens effect is noted during the experimental procedure. The results showed that it was possible to detect very low concentrations ( 2 ng/μL) of SFZ in methanol by determining its thermal diffusivity or the absorption coefficient due to the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band. This minimum SFZ concentration is the limit observed by chromatography method. The findings demonstrated that the TLS can be used for precise and accurate assessment of pesticides in ecosystems. Besides, the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band at 960 nm can be used as a marker for SFZ in methanol.

  13. Note: Three wavelengths near-infrared spectroscopy system for compensating the light absorbance by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, M. Raheel; Hong, Keum-Shik; Kim, Beop-Min; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Se-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Given that approximately 80% of blood is water, we develop a wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy system that detects not only the concentration changes of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbO and HbR) during mental activity but also that of water (H2O). Additionally, it implements a water-absorption correction algorithm that improves the HbO and HbR signal strengths during an arithmetic task. The system comprises a microcontroller, an optical probe, tri-wavelength light emitting diodes, photodiodes, a WiFi communication module, and a battery. System functionality was tested by means of arithmetic-task experiments performed by healthy male subjects.

  14. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy coupled to random forest to quantify some soil quality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Felipe Bachion; de Souza, André Marcelo; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the use of visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) combined with multivariate regression based on random forest to quantify some quality soil parameters. The parameters analyzed were soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), sum of exchange bases (SB), organic matter (OM), clay and sand present in the soils of several regions of Brazil. Current methods for evaluating these parameters are laborious, timely and require various wet analytical methods that are not adequate for use in precision agriculture, where faster and automatic responses are required. The random forest regression models were statistically better than PLS regression models for CEC, OM, clay and sand, demonstrating resistance to overfitting, attenuating the effect of outlier samples and indicating the most important variables for the model. The methodology demonstrates the potential of the Vis-NIR as an alternative for determination of CEC, SB, OM, sand and clay, making possible to develop a fast and automatic analytical procedure.

  15. Rapid near infrared spectroscopy for prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran after various pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    step is to increase the responsivity of the substrate to enzymatic attack and the type of pretreatment affects the enzymatic conversion efficiency. Destarched corn bran is a fibrous, heteroxylan-rich side-stream from the starch industry which may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production...... or as a source of xylose for other purposes. In the present study we demonstrate the use of diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive analytical tool for evaluation of pretreatment effects on destarched corn bran. NIR was used to achieve classification between 43...... differently pretreated corn bran samples using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchal clustering algorithms. Quantification of the enzymatically released monosaccharides by HPLC was used to design multivariate calibration models (biPLS) on the NIR spectra. The models could predict the enzymatic...

  16. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling

    2016-10-01

    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  17. Multifractals Properties on the Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Human Brain Hemodynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear physics presents us with a perplexing variety of complicated fractal objects and strange sets. Naturally one wishes to characterize the objects and describe the events occurring on them. Moreover, most time series found in “real-life” applications appear quite noisy. Therefore, at almost every point in time, they cannot be approximated either by the Taylor series or by the Fourier series of just a few terms. Many experimental time series have fractal features and display singular behavior, the so-called singularities. The multifractal spectrum quantifies the degree of fractals in the processes generating the time series. A novel definition is proposed called full-width Hölder exponents that indicate maximum expansion of multifractal spectrum. The obtained results have demonstrated the multifractal structure of near-infrared spectroscopy time series and the evidence for brain imagery activities.

  18. Sediment mineralogy based on visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrard, R.D.; Vanden Berg, M.D.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIS) can be used to measure reflectance spectra (wavelength 350-2500 nm) for sediment cores and samples. A local ground-truth calibration of spectral features to mineral percentages is calculated by measuring reflectance spectra for a suite of samples of known mineralogy. This approach has been tested on powders, core plugs and split cores, and we conclude that it works well on all three, unless pore water is present. Initial VNIS studies have concentrated on determination of relative proportions of carbonate, opal, smectite and illite in equatorial Pacific sediments. Shipboard VNIS-based determination of these four components was demonstrated on Ocean Drilling Program Leg 199. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  19. Near infrared spectroscopy as a new tool to determine cocoa fermentation levels through ammonia nitrogen quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Bergounhou, A; Assemat, S; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X; Davrieux, F

    2014-04-01

    Fermentation is a key step in obtaining fine cocoa through the formation of potent aroma precursors. The fermentation level of cocoa beans is traditionally assessed by measuring the amount of ammonia nitrogen (NH₃) using the time-consuming Conway technique. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a rapid and efficient tool, was used to analyze NH₃ levels in several hundred cocoa samples at different fermentation levels from six geographical origins. Fermentation levels were expressed as the number of fermentation days and sum of temperatures. The correlation between Conway results and NIRS spectra enabled the development of a reliable and accurate NIRS calibration to determine NH₃ content. We confirm that NH₃ is produced during fermentation and its amount depends on the fermentation time, sum of temperatures and geographical origin. NIRS could be used by chocolate manufacturers as a routine method to sort cocoa samples according to their level of fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring powder blending in pharmaceutical processes by use of near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Gozález Bañó, R; Bertran, E

    2002-01-04

    Obtaining completely uniform distribution of the active principle and excipients in a pharmaceutical preparation is essential with a view to ensuring correct dosage. Uniformity in pharmaceutical formulations has usually been controlled by collecting samples at different stages of the process in order to determine the active principle using a chromatographic or UV-Visible spectroscopic method. In this work, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor blending in order to ensure uniformity in a mixture consisting of three typical pharmaceutical excipients and one active principle. To this end, a method for calculating the Mean Square of Differences between two consecutive spectra was developed with a view to expeditiously identifying the time mixture homogeneity was attained. The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of two others routinely employed to monitor blending by use of the NIRS technique and the results were found to be quite consistent.

  1. Rapid analysis of the chemical composition of agricultural fibers using near infrared spectroscopy and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen S. Kelley; Roger M. Rowell; Mark Davis; Cheryl K. Jurich; Rebecca Ibach

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition of a variety of agricultural biomass samples was analyzed with near infrared spectroscopy and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectroscopy. These samples were selected from a wide array of agricultural residue samples and included residues that had been subjected to a variety of di2erent treatments including solvent extractions and chemical...

  2. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  3. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Safieva, Ravilya Z.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm -1 ) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  4. Fast characterization of solid organic waste content with near infrared spectroscopy in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Jimenez, Julie; Lemoine, Margaux; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand. We built a Partial Least Square regression model with 295 samples and validated it with an independent set of 46 samples across a wide range of solid wastes found in anaerobic digestion units. The standard errors of cross-validation were 90mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 2.5∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 7.2∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 99mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. The standard errors of prediction were 53mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 3.2∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 8.6∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 83mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. These results show that near infrared spectroscopy is a new fast and cost-efficient way to characterize solid wastes content and improve their anaerobic digestion monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Measuring Intermittent Handgrip Contractions in Sport Climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláš, Jiří; Kodejška, Jan; Krupková, Dominika; Hannsmann, Johan; Fryer, Simon

    2018-02-01

    Baláš, J, Kodejška, J, Krupková, D, Hannsmann, J, and Fryer, S. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring intermittent handgrip contractions in sport climbers. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 494-501, 2018-The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate muscle oxygenation changes during physical tasks such as rock climbing has rapidly increased within recent years; yet, there is no known measure of reliability. The current study aimed to determine intersession reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of continuous wave NIRS parameters during intermittent handgrip contractions in rock climbers. Thirty-two sport climbers were tested for exhaustive intermittent handgrip exercise (8-second contraction-2-second relief) at 60% of maximal voluntary contraction on 3 separate days. During each visit, continuous wave NIRS was used to determine tissue saturation index (TSI) as the measure of tissue oxygenation in the flexor digitorum profundus. To assess the intersession reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), SEM, coefficient of variation (CV), and MDC were used. Mean deoxygenation during the contractions provided reliable results ([INCREMENT] TSI; first trial -8.9 ± 2.9%, second trial -8.8 ± 2.7%, and third trial -8.4 ± 2.6%; ICC = 0.692; SEM = 1.5%; CV = 17.2%; MDC = 4.2%). Mean muscle reoxygenation during the relief periods was similarly reliable ([INCREMENT] TSI; first trial 9.0 ± 3.1%, second trial 8.8 ± 2.9%, and third trial 8.5 ± 2.7%; ICC = 0.672; SEM = 1.7%; CV = 19.0%, MDC = 4.7%). As such, continuous wave NIRS provides a reliable measure of deoxygenation and reoxygenation during intermittent contractions to failure in the forearm flexors of rock climbers. Differences exceeding ∼4.5% for [INCREMENT] TSI during contraction and relief periods should be considered meaningful.

  6. Comparing predictive ability of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Near Infrared Spectroscopy for soil texture and organic carbon determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Gislum, René

    and texture was tested and compared with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique and traditional laboratory analysis. Calibration models were developed on 50 topsoil samples. For all properties except silt, higher predictive ability of LIBS than NIRS models was obtained. Successful calibrations indicate......Soil organic carbon (SOC) and texture have a practical value for agronomy and the environment. Thus, alternative techniques to supplement or substitute for the expensive conventional analysis of soil are developed. Here the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine SOC...

  7. Comparing predictive ability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to visible near-infrared spectroscopy for soil property determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Gislum, René; Hermansen, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and particle size fractions have a practical value for agronomy and the environment. Thus, alternative techniques to replace the expensive conventional analyses of soil are needed. Visible near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (viseNIRS) has already shown potential...... for becoming an alternative method for soil analysis since it is faster and cheaper than conventional methods. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is another cost-effective technique with potential for rapid analysis of elements present in the soil. In this study, the feasibility of using LIBS...

  8. Saphenous vein graft near-infrared spectroscopy imaging insights from the lipid core plaque association with clinical events near-infrared spectroscopy (ORACLE-NIRS) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Barbara A; Karatasakis, Aris; Alame, Aya J; Nguyen-Trong, Phuong-Khanh J; Karacsonyi, Judit; Rangan, Bavana; Roesle, Michele; Atwell, Amy; Resendes, Erica; Martinez-Parachini, Jose Roberto; Iwnetu, Rahel; Kalsaria, Pratik; Siddiqui, Furqan; Muller, James E; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil

    2017-05-01

    We sought to examine near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging findings of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVGs). SVGs are prone to develop atherosclerosis similar to native coronary arteries. They have received little study using NIRS. We examined the clinical characteristics and imaging findings from 43 patients who underwent NIRS imaging of 45 SVGs at our institution between 2009 and 2016. The mean patient age was 67 ± 7 years and 98% were men, with high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (56%), hypertension (95%), and dyslipidemia (95%). Mean SVG age was 7 ± 7 years, mean SVG lipid core burden index (LCBI) was 53 ± 60 and mean maxLCBI 4 mm was 194 ± 234. Twelve SVGs (27%) had lipid core plaques (2 yellow blocks on the block chemogram), with a higher prevalence in SVGs older than 5 years (46% vs. 5%, P = 0.002). Older SVG age was associated with higher LCBI (r = 0.480, P < 0.001) and higher maxLCBI 4 mm (r = 0.567, P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, greater annual total cholesterol exposure was associated with higher SVG LCBI (r = 0.30, P = 0.042) and annual LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride exposure were associated with higher SVG maxLCBI 4 mm (LDL-C: r = 0.41, P = 0.020; triglycerides: r = 0.36, P = 0.043). On multivariate analysis, the only independent predictor of SVG LCBI and maxLCBI 4mm was SVG age. SVG percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 63% of the patients. An embolic protection device was used in 96% of SVG PCIs. Periprocedural myocardial infarction occurred in one patient. Older SVG age and greater lipid exposure are associated with higher SVG lipid burden. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Quantifying ternary mixtures of different solid-state forms of indomethacin by Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Savolainen, Marja; Rades, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of vibrational spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis to quantify ternary mixtures of different solid-state forms, including the amorphous form. Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to quantify mixtures of alpha-, gamma-, and amorphous indometha......This study assessed the ability of vibrational spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis to quantify ternary mixtures of different solid-state forms, including the amorphous form. Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to quantify mixtures of alpha-, gamma-, and amorphous...... by mean centering proved to be the best approaches to pre-process the data. With four partial least squares factors, root mean square errors of prediction ranging from 5.3% to 6.5% for Raman spectroscopy and 4.0% to 5.9% for near-infrared spectroscopy were calculated. In addition, the effects of potential...... with a small sampling area when stationary sample holders were used, introduced the largest variation into both spectroscopic assays. The overall method errors were found to be very similar, resulting in relative standard deviations up to 12.0% for Raman spectroscopy and up to 13.0% for near-infrared...

  10. Discrimination of tomatoes bred by spaceflight mutagenesis using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yongni; Xie, Chuanqi; Jiang, Linjun; Shi, Jiahui; Zhu, Jiajin; He, Yong

    2015-04-05

    Visible/near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIR) based on sensitive wavelengths (SWs) and chemometrics was proposed to discriminate different tomatoes bred by spaceflight mutagenesis from their leafs or fruits (green or mature). The tomato breeds were mutant M1, M2 and their parent. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) were implemented for calibration models. PLS analysis was implemented for calibration models with different wavebands including the visible region (400-700 nm) and the near infrared region (700-1000 nm). The best PLS models were achieved in the visible region for the leaf and green fruit samples and in the near infrared region for the mature fruit samples. Furthermore, different latent variables (4-8 LVs for leafs, 5-9 LVs for green fruits, and 4-9 LVs for mature fruits) were used as inputs of LS-SVM to develop the LV-LS-SVM models with the grid search technique and radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The optimal LV-LS-SVM models were achieved with six LVs for the leaf samples, seven LVs for green fruits, and six LVs for mature fruits, respectively, and they outperformed the PLS models. Moreover, independent component analysis (ICA) was executed to select several SWs based on loading weights. The optimal LS-SVM model was achieved with SWs of 550-560 nm, 562-574 nm, 670-680 nm and 705-71 5 nm for the leaf samples; 548-556 nm, 559-564 nm, 678-685 nm and 962-974 nm for the green fruit samples; and 712-718 nm, 720-729 nm, 968-978 nm and 820-830 nm for the mature fruit samples. All of them had better performance than PLS and LV-LS-SVM, with the parameters of correlation coefficient (rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias of 0.9792, 0.2632 and 0.0901 based on leaf discrimination, 0.9837, 0.2783 and 0.1758 based on green fruit discrimination, 0.9804, 0.2215 and -0.0035 based on mature fruit discrimination, respectively. The overall results indicated that ICA was an effective way for the

  11. Far-red to near infrared emission and scattering spectroscopy for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang

    2001-06-01

    The thesis investigates the far-red and near infrared (NIR) spectral region from biomedical tissue samples for monitoring the state of tissues. The NIR emission wing intensity is weak in comparison to the emission in the visible spectral region. The wing emission from biomedical samples has revealed meaningful information about the state of the tissues. A model is presented to explain the shape of the spectral wing based on a continuum of energy levels. The wing can be used to classify different kinds of tissues; especially it can be used to differentiate cancer part from normal human breast tissues. The research work of the far-red emission from thermal damaged tissue samples shows that the emission intensity in this spectral region is proportional to the extent of the thermal damage of the tissue. Near infrared spectral absorption method is used to investigate blood hemodynamics (perfusion and oxygenation) in brain during sleep-wake transition. The result of the research demonstrates that the continuous wave (CW) type near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device can be used to investigate brain blood perfusion and oxygenation with a similar precision with frequency domain (FD) type device. The human subject sleep and wake transition, has been monitored by CW type NIRS instrument with traditional electroencephalograph (EEG) method. Parallel change in oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb is a discrete event that occurs in the transition from both sleep to wakefulness and wakefulness to sleep. These hemodynamic switches are generally about few seconds delayed from the human decided transition point between sleep and wake on the polygraph EEG recording paper. The combination of NIRS and EEG methods monitor the brain activity, gives more information about the brain activity. The sleep apnea investigation was associated with recurrent apneas, insufficient nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the different response of the peripheral and central compartments to breathing

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy for the determination of testosterone in thin-film composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, William; Dumstorf, Karen; Lowell, Amanda E; Lodder, Robert A; Mumper, Russell J

    2003-09-19

    More rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective methods to control product quality in the pharmaceutical industry continue to be a major emphasis, particularly with the FDA through its recent process analytical technologies (PAT) initiative. Many different methods have been used to determine the stability and content uniformity of a drug in various dosage forms; however, most of these methods include the destruction of the sample. Therefore, the development of nondestructive methods that allow the analysis of each individual dosage form has become the basis of much research. A new assay for the nondestructive determination of testosterone content in mucoadhesive bi-layer thin-film composites (TFCs) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was developed. Five sets of the circular films (n=5) with theoretical testosterone content of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg per 3/8th in. diameter disks were scanned in the near-infrared region of 1100-2500 nm to determine testosterone content. The NIR results were directly compared with those obtained using a previously developed ultraviolet assay for testosterone at 240 nm. Principal component regression (PCR) was performed to calibrate the NIR assay. This correlation produced r2=0.99 with a standard error of estimate (SEE)=0.18 mg, and a standard error of performance (SEP)=0.18 on cross validation with an equal number of samples (F test passed at P=0.05). Though the UV assay showed a slightly better r2 value, the NIR assay was much quicker, easier, and nondestructive. Therefore, the NIR assay may have significant potential for use in the quality control of pharmaceutical films containing drugs.

  13. [Determination of steviol in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yul; Wu, Yue-Jin; Min, Di; Chen, Da-Wei; Hu, Tong-Hua

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a method for rapid determination of the content of stevioside (ST) and rebaudioside A (RA) in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves. One hundred and five samples of stevia from different areas containing ST of 0.27%-1.40% and RA of 0.61%-3.98% were used. The 105 groups' NIRS diagram was processed by different methods including subtracting a straight line (SLS), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative (FD), second derivative (SD) and so on, and then all data were analyzed by partial least square (PLS). The study showed that SLS can be used to extracted spectra information thoroughly to analyze the contents of ST, the correlation coefficients of calibration (Re), the root-mean-square errors of calibration (RMSEC) and prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) were 0.986, 0.341, 1.00 and 2.8, respectively. The correlation coefficients of RA was 0.967, RMSEC was 1.50, RMSEP was 1.98 and RPD was 4.17. The results indicated that near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique offers effective quantitative capability for ST and RA in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves. Then the model of stevia dried leaves was used to compare with the stevia powder near infrared model whose correlation coefficients of ST was 0.986, RMSEC was 0.32, RMSEP was 0.601 and RPD was 2.86 and the correlation coefficients of RA was 0.968, RMSEC was 1.50, RMSEP was 1.48 and RPD was 4.2. The result showed that there was no significant difference between the model of dried leaves and that of the powders. However, the dried leaves NIR model reduces the unnecessary the steps of drying and grinding in the actual detection process, saving the time and reducing the workload.

  14. Detecting alterations of glucose and lipid components in human serum by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Fernandes Borges

    Full Text Available Introduction Raman spectroscopy may become a tool for the analysis of glucose and triglycerides in human serum in real time. This study aimed to detect spectral differences in lipid and glucose components of human serum, thus evaluating the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for diagnostic purposes. Methods A total of 44 samples of blood serum were collected from volunteers and submitted for clinical blood biochemical analysis. The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL were obtained using standard biochemical assays. Serum samples were placed in Eppendorf tubes (200 µL, kept cooled (5 °C and analyzed with near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (830 nm, 250 mW, 50 s accumulation. The mean spectra of serum with normal or altered concentrations of each parameter were compared to determine which Raman bands were related to the differences between these two groups. Results Differences in peak intensities of altered sera compared to normal ones depended on the parameter under analysis: for glucose, peaks were related to glucose; for lipid compounds the main changes occurred in the peaks related to cholesterol, lipids (mainly triolein and proteins. Principal Components Analysis discriminated altered glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides from the normal serum based on the differences in the concentration of these compounds. Conclusion Differences in the peak intensities of selected Raman bands could be seen in normal and altered blood serum samples, and may be employed as a means of diagnosis in clinical analysis.

  15. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M; Sabbri, A R M; Jafri, M Z Mat; Omar, A F

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab ® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R 2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R 2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field

  16. Investigation of the composition of anabolic tablets using near infrared spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebiere, Hervé; Ghyselinck, Céline; Lempereur, Laurent; Brenier, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The use of performance enhancing drugs is a widespread phenomenon in professional and leisure sports. A spectroscopic study was carried out on anabolic tablets labelled as 5 mg methandienone tablets provided by police departments. The analytical approach was based on a two-step methodology: a fast analysis of tablets using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sample homogeneity based on their global composition, followed by Raman chemical imaging of one sample per NIR profile to obtain information on sample formulation. NIR spectroscopy assisted by a principal components analysis (PCA) enabled fast discrimination of different profiles based on the excipient formulation. Raman hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution - alternating least square (MCR-ALS) provided chemical images of the distribution of the active substance and excipients within tablets and facilitated identification of the active compounds. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging highlighted dose-to-dose variations and succeeded in the discrimination of four different formulations out of eight similar samples of anabolic tablets. Some samples contained either methandienone or methyltestosterone whereas one sample did not contain an active substance. Other ingredients were sucrose, lactose, starch or talc. Both techniques were fast and non-destructive and therefore can be carried out as exploratory methods prior to destructive screening methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Diagnosis of colorectal cancer by near-infrared optical fiber spectroscopy and random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Zan; Wu, Hegang; Wang, Li; Wu, Tong; Tan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has such advantages as being noninvasive, fast, relatively inexpensive, and no risk of ionizing radiation. Differences in the NIR signals can reflect many physiological changes, which are in turn associated with such factors as vascularization, cellularity, oxygen consumption, or remodeling. NIR spectral differences between colorectal cancer and healthy tissues were investigated. A Fourier transform NIR spectroscopy instrument equipped with a fiber-optic probe was used to mimic in situ clinical measurements. A total of 186 spectra were collected and then underwent the preprocessing of standard normalize variate (SNV) for removing unwanted background variances. All the specimen and spots used for spectral collection were confirmed staining and examination by an experienced pathologist so as to ensure the representative of the pathology. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to uncover the possible clustering. Several methods including random forest (RF), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLSDA), K-nearest neighbor and classification and regression tree (CART) were used to extract spectral features and to construct the diagnostic models. By comparison, it reveals that, even if no obvious difference of misclassified ratio (MCR) was observed between these models, RF is preferable since it is quicker, more convenient and insensitive to over-fitting. The results indicate that NIR spectroscopy coupled with RF model can serve as a potential tool for discriminating the colorectal cancer tissues from normal ones.

  18. Determination of geographical origin and icariin content of Herba Epimedii using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wu, Yongjiang; Li, Weili; Liu, Xuesong; Zheng, Jiyu; Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yong

    2018-02-15

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to discriminate the geographical origin of Herba Epimedii in this work. Four different classification models, namely discriminant analysis (DA), back propagation neural network (BPNN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and support vector machine (SVM), were constructed, and their performances in terms of recognition accuracy were compared. The results indicated that the SVM model was superior over the other models in the geographical origin identification of Herba Epimedii. The recognition rates of the optimum SVM model were up to 100% for the calibration set and 94.44% for the prediction set, respectively. In addition, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy with the CARS-PLSR calibration model in prediction of icariin content of Herba Epimedii was also investigated. The determination coefficient (R P 2 ) and root-mean-square error (RMSEP) for prediction set were 0.9269 and 0.0480, respectively. It can be concluded that the NIR spectroscopy technique in combination with chemometrics has great potential in determination of geographical origin and icariin content of Herba Epimedii. This study can provide a valuable reference for rapid quality control of food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of geographical origin and icariin content of Herba Epimedii using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wu, Yongjiang; Li, Weili; Liu, Xuesong; Zheng, Jiyu; Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to discriminate the geographical origin of Herba Epimedii in this work. Four different classification models, namely discriminant analysis (DA), back propagation neural network (BPNN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and support vector machine (SVM), were constructed, and their performances in terms of recognition accuracy were compared. The results indicated that the SVM model was superior over the other models in the geographical origin identification of Herba Epimedii. The recognition rates of the optimum SVM model were up to 100% for the calibration set and 94.44% for the prediction set, respectively. In addition, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy with the CARS-PLSR calibration model in prediction of icariin content of Herba Epimedii was also investigated. The determination coefficient (RP2) and root-mean-square error (RMSEP) for prediction set were 0.9269 and 0.0480, respectively. It can be concluded that the NIR spectroscopy technique in combination with chemometrics has great potential in determination of geographical origin and icariin content of Herba Epimedii. This study can provide a valuable reference for rapid quality control of food products.

  20. Evaluation of chemical components and properties of the jujube fruit using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2016-01-15

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the discrimination of spectra of the jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruit samples from four geographical regions. Prediction models were developed for the quantitative prediction of the contents of jujube fruit, i.e., total sugar, total acid, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity. Four pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back propagation-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), were used for the geographical origin classification. Furthermore, three multivariate calibration models based on the standard normal variate (SNV) pretreated NIR spectroscopy, partial least squares (PLS), BP-ANN, and LS-SVM were constructed for quantitative analysis of the four analytes described above. PCA provided a useful qualitative plot of the four types of NIR spectra from the fruit. The LS-SVM model produced best quantitative prediction results. Thus, NIR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics, is a very useful and rapid technique for the discrimination of jujube fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing Risk of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Levasseur-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are major mycotoxins found worldwide in maize and maize products. Because of their toxicity for both human and animals, European Union regulations were created to fix the maximal fumonisin B1 and B2 content allowed in foods and feeds. Unfortunately, directly measuring these mycotoxins by current analytical techniques is tedious and expensive and most measurement methods do not lend themselves to online control. Alternative approaches to chemical analysis have been developed and involve models that allow the mycotoxin contamination to be predicted based on environmental conditions and analysis by near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy. In the present work, we use NIR spectroscopy to determine the fumonisin and fungal contents of 117 samples of maize. The determination coefficient between fumonisin and fungal-biomass content was 0.44. We establish herein a threshold for the number of CFUs for fungal biomass beyond which the fumonisin content is likely to exceed the European regulatory level of 4000 μg/kg. In addition, we determine the fungal content by using a NIR-spectroscopy model that allows us to sort samples of maize. Upon calibration, the percentage of well-classified samples was 96%, which compares favorably to the 82% obtained by independent verification.

  2. A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer for near-infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2015-09-01

    A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) was constructed with a fiber-coupled lithium niobate (LiNbO3) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the purpose of rapid on-site spectroscopy of biological and chemical measurands. The MZI contains push-pull electrodes for electro-optic modulation, and its interferogram as a plot of intensity against voltage was obtained by scanning the modulating voltage from -60 to +60 V in 50 ms. The power spectrum of input signal was retrieved by Fourier transform processing of the interferogram combined with the wavelength dispersion of half-wave voltage determined for the MZI used. The prototype FTS operates in the single-mode wavelength range from 1200 to 1700 nm and allows for reproducible spectroscopy. A linear concentration dependence of the absorbance at λmax = 1451 nm for water in ethanolic solution was obtained using the prototype FTS. The near-infrared spectroscopy of solid samples was also implemented, and the different spectra obtained with different materials evidenced the chemical recognition capability of the prototype FTS. To make this prototype FTS practically applicable, work on improving its spectral resolution by increasing the maximum optical path length difference is in progress.

  3. Combined Cerebral and Renal Near-Infrared Spectroscopy After Congenital Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Anton, Javier; Redondo, Silvia; Garcia Urabayen, Diego; Nieto Faza, Manuel; Sanz, Irene; Pilar, Javier

    2015-08-01

    The maintenance of an adequate oxygen supply to tissues after congenital heart surgery is essential for good outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for estimating central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) using both cerebral and renal measurements, explore its relation with cardiac output measurements and check its ability to detect low cardiac output. A prospective observational pilot study was conducted in patients weighing <10 kg undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Spectroscopy probes were placed on the forehead and renal area, and serial cardiac output measurements were obtained by femoral transpulmonary thermodilution over the first 24 h after surgery. In the 15 patients studied, ScvO2 was correlated with cerebral (r = 0.58), renal (r = 0.60) and combined (r = 0.71) measurements. Likewise, the systolic index was correlated with the NIRS signals: cerebral (r = 0.60), renal (r = 0.50) and combined (r = 0.66). Statistically significant differences were found in the NIRS measures registered in the 29 low cardiac output events detected by thermodilution: cerebral: 62 % (59-65) versus 69 % (63-76); renal: 83 % (70-89) versus 89 % (83-95); and combined 64 % (60-69) versus 72 % (67-76). In our series, combined cerebral and renal monitoring was correlated with central venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output; low cardiac output detection associated a different spectroscopy pattern.

  4. Evaluation of chemical components and properties of the jujube fruit using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the discrimination of spectra of the jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) fruit samples from four geographical regions. Prediction models were developed for the quantitative prediction of the contents of jujube fruit, i.e., total sugar, total acid, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity. Four pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and back propagation-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), were used for the geographical origin classification. Furthermore, three multivariate calibration models based on the standard normal variate (SNV) pretreated NIR spectroscopy, partial least squares (PLS), BP-ANN, and LS-SVM were constructed for quantitative analysis of the four analytes described above. PCA provided a useful qualitative plot of the four types of NIR spectra from the fruit. The LS-SVM model produced best quantitative prediction results. Thus, NIR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics, is a very useful and rapid technique for the discrimination of jujube fruit.

  5. Quality assessment of pharmaceutical tablet samples using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Tewari, Jagdish; Gopinathan, Nishanth; Stolee, Jessica; Strong, Rick; Boulas, Pierre; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-09-01

    Determination of the content uniformity, assessed by the amount of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and hardness of pharmaceutical materials is important for achieving a high-quality formulation and to ensure the intended therapeutic effects of the end-product. In this work, Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the content uniformity and hardness of a pharmaceutical mini-tablet and standard tablet samples. Tablet samples were scanned using an FT-NIR instrument and tablet spectra were collected at wavelengths of 1000-2500 nm. Furthermore, multivariate analysis was applied to extract the relationship between the FT-NIR spectra and the measured parameters. The results of FT-NIR spectroscopy for API and hardness prediction were as precise as the reference high-performance liquid chromatography and mechanical hardness tests. For the prediction of mini-tablet API content, the highest coefficient of determination for the prediction (R2p) was found to be 0.99 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.72 mg. Moreover, the standard tablet hardness measurement had a R2p value of 0.91 with an SEP of 0.25 kg. These results suggest that FT-NIR spectroscopy is an alternative and accurate nondestructive measurement tool for the detection of the chemical and physical properties of pharmaceutical samples.

  6. Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yongni; He, Yong; Mao, Jingyuan

    2007-09-01

    Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters, such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique.

  7. Multi-parameters monitoring during traditional Chinese medicine concentration process with near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronghua; Sun, Qiaofeng; Hu, Tian; Li, Lian; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jiayue; Zhou, Wanhui; Zang, Hengchang

    2018-03-01

    As a powerful process analytical technology (PAT) tool, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used in real-time monitoring. In this study, NIR spectroscopy was applied to monitor multi-parameters of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Shenzhiling oral liquid during the concentration process to guarantee the quality of products. Five lab scale batches were employed to construct quantitative models to determine five chemical ingredients and physical change (samples density) during concentration process. The paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin and samples density were modeled by partial least square regression (PLSR), while the content of the glycyrrhizic acid and cinnamic acid were modeled by support vector machine regression (SVMR). Standard normal variate (SNV) and/or Savitzkye-Golay (SG) smoothing with derivative methods were adopted for spectra pretreatment. Variable selection methods including correlation coefficient (CC), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and interval partial least squares regression (iPLS) were performed for optimizing the models. The results indicated that NIR spectroscopy was an effective tool to successfully monitoring the concentration process of Shenzhiling oral liquid.

  8. [Prediction of minced pork quality attributes using visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Xia; Liao, Yi-Tao; Cheng, Fang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate minced pork meat quality using visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. Two hundred twenty five carcasses samples from longissimus dorsi muscle were scanned over the Vis-NIR spectral range from 350 to 1 015 nm and analysed for intramuscular fat (IMF), protein and moisture according to the official methods. Wavelet transform was employed to eliminate the spectra noise. Partial least square regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to develop Vis-NIR spectroscopy models for chemical composition detection. According to calibration statistics, the best model to predict intramuscular fat content was developed by SVM with the denoised spectra, the correlation coefficient was 0.889 for calibration and 0.888 for validation. For protein and moisture, the best model was achieved with the PLS method with the correlation coefficient of 0.869 and 0.881 for protein calibration and validation sets and 0.877 and 0.848 for moisture calibration and validation sets, respectively. And all the ratios of standard deviation of validation set to root mean square error of prediction (RPD) were not more than 3.0. Results indicated that it was possible to predict chemical composition in minced pork meat. As a fast predictor of meat quality using Vis-NIR spectroscopy, it is necessary to improve the precision and the robustness of the model for practice.

  9. Fast Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Activity in Barley Leaves Using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR spectroscopy was investigated for the fast analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaves. Seven different spectra preprocessing methods were compared. Four regression methods were used for comparison of prediction performance, including partial least squares (PLS, multiple linear regression (MLR, least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM and Gaussian process regress (GPR. Successive projections algorithm (SPA and regression coefficients (RC were applied to select effective wavelengths (EWs to develop more parsimonious models. The results indicated that Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC should be selected as the optimum preprocessing methods. The best prediction performance was achieved by the LV-LS-SVM model on SG spectra, and the correlation coefficients (r and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP were 0.9064 and 0.5336, respectively. The conclusion was that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis could be successfully applied for the fast estimation of SOD activity in barley leaves.

  10. Classification of structurally related commercial contrast media by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wai Lam; Soosainather, Tom Collin; Dyrstad, Knut; Sande, Sverre Arne

    2014-03-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-destructive measurement technique with broad application in pharmaceutical industry. Correct identification of pharmaceutical ingredients is an important task for quality control. Failure in this step can result in several adverse consequences, varied from economic loss to negative impact on patient safety. We have compared different methods in classification of a set of commercially available structurally related contrast media, Iodixanol (Visipaque(®)), Iohexol (Omnipaque(®)), Caldiamide Sodium and Gadodiamide (Omniscan(®)), by using NIR spectroscopy. The performance of classification models developed by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Main and Interactions of Individual Principal Components Regression (MIPCR) were compared. Different variable selection methods were applied to optimize the classification models. Models developed by backward variable elimination partial least squares regression (BVE-PLS) and MIPCR were found to be most effective for classification of the set of contrast media. Below 1.5% of samples from the independent test set were not recognized by the BVE-PLS and MIPCR models, compared to up to 15% when models developed by other techniques were applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection and quantification of adulteration in sandalwood oil through near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Saji; Thankappan, Xavier; Joe, Hubert; Venkataraman, Venkateswaran

    2010-10-01

    The confirmation of authenticity of essential oils and the detection of adulteration are problems of increasing importance in the perfumes, pharmaceutical, flavor and fragrance industries. This is especially true for 'value added' products like sandalwood oil. A methodical study is conducted here to demonstrate the potential use of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with multivariate calibration models like principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) as rapid analytical techniques for the qualitative and quantitative determination of adulterants in sandalwood oil. After suitable pre-processing of the NIR raw spectral data, the models are built-up by cross-validation. The lowest Root Mean Square Error of Cross-Validation and Calibration (RMSECV and RMSEC % v/v) are used as a decision supporting system to fix the optimal number of factors. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP % v/v) in the prediction sets are used as the evaluation parameters (R(2) = 0.9999 and RMSEP = 0.01355). The overall result leads to the conclusion that NIR spectroscopy with chemometric techniques could be successfully used as a rapid, simple, instant and non-destructive method for the detection of adulterants, even 1% of the low-grade oils, in the high quality form of sandalwood oil.

  12. Combined optimal-pathlengths method for near-infrared spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rong; Xu Kexin; Lu Yanhui; Sun Huili

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, reagent-less and nondestructive analytical technique, which is being increasingly employed for quantitative application in chemistry, pharmaceutics and food industry, and for the optical analysis of biological tissue. The performance of NIR technology greatly depends on the abilities to control and acquire data from the instrument and to calibrate and analyse data. Optical pathlength is a key parameter of the NIR instrument, which has been thoroughly discussed in univariate quantitative analysis in the presence of photometric errors. Although multiple wavelengths can provide more chemical information, it is difficult to determine a single pathlength that is suitable for each wavelength region. A theoretical investigation of a selection procedure for multiple pathlengths, called the combined optimal-pathlengths (COP) method, is identified in this paper and an extensive comparison with the single pathlength method is also performed on simulated and experimental NIR spectral data sets. The results obtained show that the COP method can greatly improve the prediction accuracy in NIR spectroscopy quantitative analysis

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for Distinguishing between Normal and Malignant Colorectal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis is one of the most important tasks of biomedical research and has become the main objective of medical investigations. The present paper proposed an analytical strategy for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues by combining the use of near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy with chemometrics. The successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA was used to seek a reduced subset of variables/wavenumbers and build a diagnostic model of LDA. For comparison, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA based on full-spectrum classification was also used as the reference. Principal component analysis (PCA was used for a preliminary analysis. A total of 186 spectra from 20 patients with partial colorectal resection were collected and divided into three subsets for training, optimizing, and testing the model. The results showed that, compared to PLS-DA, SPA-LDA provided more parsimonious model using only three wavenumbers/variables (4065, 4173, and 5758 cm−1 to achieve the sensitivity of 84.6%, 92.3%, and 92.3% for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, and the specificity of 100% for each subset. It indicated that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and SPA-LDA algorithm can serve as a potential tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues.

  14. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  15. Identification of syrup type using fourier transform-near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate classification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravipat Lapcharoensuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish near infrared (NIR spectroscopy models for identification of syrup types in which the maple syrup was discriminated from other syrup types. Thirty syrup types were used in this research; the NIR spectra of each type were recorded with 10 replicates. The repeatability and reproducibility of NIR scanning were performed, and the absorbance at 6940cm−1 was used for calculation. Principal component analysis was used to group the syrup type. Identification models were developed by soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. The SIMCA models of all syrup types exhibited accuracy percentage of 93.3–100% for identifying syrup types, whereas maple syrup discrimination models showed percentage of accuracy between 83.2% and 100%. The PLS-DA technique gave the accuracy of syrup types classification between 96.6% and 100% and presented ability on discrimination of maple syrup form other types of syrup with accuracy of 100%. The finding presented the potential of NIR spectroscopy for the syrup type identification.

  16. Bound states of water in gelatin discriminated by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yukiko; Shirakashi, Ryo; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-11-01

    By near-infrared spectroscopy, we classified water molecules in hydrated gelatin membranes in a drying process. Absorbance spectra in the frequency range of 4500-5500 cm-1 were resolved into three peaks, S0, S1, and S2, that correspond to water molecules with different hydrogen bond states. From the areas of the absorbance peaks as a function of the water content of gelatin, together with the information on the freezing properties of water measured by differential scanning calorimetry, we found that, when the water content is less than 20%, free water disappears and only weakly and strongly bound waters remain. We also found that the weakly bound water consists of S0, S1, and S2 water molecules with a simple composition of \\text{S}0:\\text{S}1:\\text{S}2 ≈ 1:2:0. Using this information, most of the freezable water was determined to be free water. Our classification provides a simple method of estimating the retention and freezing properties of processed foods or drugs by infrared spectroscopy.

  17. WIRELESS DISTRIBUTED ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY – WDA-NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SAFAIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The wireless distributed acquisition system for near infrared spectroscopy (WDA-NIRS is a portable, ultra-compact, continuous wave (CW NIRS system. Its main advantage is that it allows continuous synchronized multi-site hemodynamic monitoring. The WDA-NIRS system calculates online changes in hemoglobin concentration based on modified Beer–Lambert law and the tissue oxygenation index based on the spatial-resolved spectroscopy method. It consists of up to seven signal acquisition units, sufficiently small to be easily attached to any part of the body. These units are remotely synchronized by a PC base station for independent acquisition of NIRS signals. Each acquisition module can be freely adapted to individual requirements such as local skin properties and the microcirculation of interest, e.g., different muscles, brain, skin, etc. For this purpose, the light emitted by each LED can be individually, interactively or automatically adjusted to local needs. Furthermore, the user can freely create an emitter time-multiplexing protocol and choose the detector sensitivity most suitable to a particular situation. The potential diagnostic value of this advanced device is demonstrated by three typical applications.

  18. In vitro quantitation of human femoral artery atherosclerosis using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Ava C.; Anastasiadis, Pavlos; Allen, John S., III; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2012-06-01

    Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy has been used in vitro to identify calcified atherosclerotic plaques in human femoral arteries. Raman techniques allow for the identification of these plaques in a nondestructive manner, which may allow for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in cardiac patients in the future. As Raman spectroscopy also reveals chemical information about the composition of the arteries, it can also be used as a prognostic tool. The in vivo detection of atherosclerotic plaques at risk for rupture in cardiac patients will enhance treatment methods while improving clinical outcomes for these procedures. Raman spectra were excited by an Invictus 785-nm NIR laser and measured with a fiber-coupled micro-Raman RXN system (Kaiser Optical Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI) equipped with a 785 nm CW laser and CCD detector. Chemical mapping of arteries obtained post mortem allowed for the discrete location of atherosclerotic plaques. Raman peaks at 961 and 1073 cm-1 reveal the presence of calcium hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, which are known to be present in calcified plaques. By mapping the locations of these peaks the boundaries of the plaques can be precisely determined. Areas of varying degrees of calcification were also identified. Because this can be useful in determining the degree of plaque calcification and vessel stenosis, this may have a significant impact on the clinical treatment of atherosclerotic plaques in the future.

  19. Prediksi Kandungan Kafein Biji Kopi Arabika Gayo dengan Near Infrared Spectroscopy

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    Rini Rosita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffein is one of the important quality indicator of coffee. Caffein content usually determined by chemical method. Alternative method such Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS is needed to determine caffeine content of coffee rapidly and nondestructively. Applications of NIRS to predict caffein content of coffee were carried out in coffee powders and liquid not in coffee beans. The objective of this study was to assess NIRS method to predict caffein content of arabica coffee bean. Coffee bean samples were placed in petri dish with 2 and 3 layers. The reflectances are measured BY FT-NIR Spectrometer in wavelengths of 1000 – 2500 nm, followed by determination of caffein content by chemical method. Some pre-processing NIRS data such as normalization between 0 and 1 (n01, first derivative of Savitzky-Golay 5 points (dg1, second derivative of Savitzky-Golay 5 points (dg2, combination n01 and dg1, combination n01 and dg2, and PLS calibration to increase accuracy of NIRS prediction. The best prediction is obtained by second derivative and 5 factors PLS with 3 layers of coffee beans with the high R = 0.97 and RPD (5.93, low of SEP and CV (0.007%, 1.76%. This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy had excellent potential analysis to determine caffein content of coffee beans.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solid content in strawberry by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiu; Peng, Yankun

    This paper indicates the feasibility to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithms as a rapid nondestructive method to estimate the soluble solid content (SSC) in strawberry. Spectral preprocessing methods were optimized selected by cross-validation in the model calibration. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression model. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated according to root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (R2 c) in calibration set, and tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R2 p) in prediction set. The optimal siPLS model was obtained with after first derivation spectra preprocessing. The measurement results of best model were achieved as follow: RMSEC = 0.2259, R2 c = 0.9590 in the calibration set; and RMSEP = 0.2892, R2 p = 0.9390 in the prediction set. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and siPLS with efficient spectral preprocessing is a useful tool for nondestructively evaluation SSC in strawberry.

  1. Flavonoid and Antioxidant Capacity of Propolis Prediction Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Betances-Salcedo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of propolis as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in different food products is increasing, due to its antioxidant and bactericidal properties. These nutritional properties directly depend on its phenolic composition. For this reason, this study analysed the total contents of flavones and flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols, and the antioxidant capacity by using the methods of ABTS and linoleic acid/β-carotene in 99 samples of propolis from Spain and Chile. A rapid method was developed for quantifying these parameters in raw propolis using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe applied directly to the ground-up sample. The models developed allow for the determination of the total flavones and flavonols (0–183 mg quercetin/g propolis and 0–72 mg rutin/g propolis, of the total flavanones and dihydroflavonols (9–109 mg pinocembrin/g propolis extract, and of its antioxidant capacity by the ABTS method based on the reduction of the 2.2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation(0–3212.6 nmol Trolox/mg of propolis and of linoleic acid/β-carotene (22–86% inhibition. The NIR spectroscopy models were applied in external validation to different samples of the calibration group, which led to the conclusion that the methods developed provide significantly identical data to the initial chemical data of reference.

  2. Fast identification of Echinacea purpurea dried roots using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Magali; Harmia-Pulkkinen, Tuulikki; Simard, Christine L; Michiels, Erik; Räsänen, Markku; Vuorela, Heikki

    2002-06-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast identification method for Echinacea purpurea dried milled roots. Method development was carried out using a PLS (partial least-squares) algorithm and pretreatment options. The aim of this qualitative analysis was to confirm the identity of E. purpurea and to detect the presence of fraud, i.e., samples adulterated or substituted by Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, or Parthenium integrifolium. Specificity was demonstrated by testing a validation set against the method. A total of 10% of the E. purpurea batches (true samples) and 0% of the false samples from that validation set were misidentified by the method. The misidentification was due to the difference in particle size distribution of one E. purpurea batch compared to that of the other samples. Adulterated E. purpurea samples can be detected at a minimum of 10% of adulteration. This study demonstrates that NIR spectroscopy is a good tool for the fast identification of E. purpurea roots if the samples are milled using the same procedure as for the calibration samples. The method is robust with respect to the origin of the samples and can be used routinely by the pharmaceutical industry or herbal suppliers to avoid mislabeling errors or adulteration.

  3. Determination of polysaccharides of Auricularia auricula using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Jin, Zonglai; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Guangming; Zhou, Weijun; He, Yong

    2008-11-01

    Visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) was investigated for the determination of polysaccharides of Auricularia auricula. A total of 240 samples were prepared from four different geographical origins. The calibration set was consisted of 180 samples (45 samples for each origin) and the remaining 60 samples for the validation set. Different preprocessing methods were compared in partial least squares (PLS) models including smoothing, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV), the first and second derivative. PLS analysis was employed for the calibration models as well as extraction of certain latent variables (LVs). Simultaneously, some effective wavelengths (EWs) extracted by regression coefficients of LS-SVM were used as the inputs of LS-SVM compared with LVs. The optimal prediction results were achieved by LV-LS-SVM, and the correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for validation set were 0.9413, 0.6893 and -0.0729, respectively. The results were slightly better than PLS. The prediction results of EW-LS-SVM using 3 EWs were acceptable with r=0.9290, RMSEP=0.7714 and Bias=-0.1737. The results indicated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be utilized as an efficient way for the determination of polysaccharides of auricularia auricula based on LS-SVM method.

  4. Intelligent sensing sensory quality of Chinese rice wine using near infrared spectroscopy and nonlinear tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen

    2016-02-05

    The approach presented herein reports the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in contrast with human sensory panel, as a tool for estimating Chinese rice wine quality; concretely, to achieve the prediction of the overall sensory scores assigned by the trained sensory panel. Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) combined with adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm, namely BP-AdaBoost, as a novel nonlinear algorithm, was proposed in modeling. First, the optimal spectra intervals were selected by synergy interval partial least square (Si-PLS). Then, BP-AdaBoost model based on the optimal spectra intervals was established, called Si-BP-AdaBoost model. These models were optimized by cross validation, and the performance of each final model was evaluated according to correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in prediction set. Si-BP-AdaBoost showed excellent performance in comparison with other models. The best Si-BP-AdaBoost model was achieved with Rp=0.9180 and RMSEP=2.23 in the prediction set. It was concluded that NIR spectroscopy combined with Si-BP-AdaBoost was an appropriate method for the prediction of the sensory quality in Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of urine by an ingenious near-infrared Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Yongzeng; Chen, Guannan; Huang, Zufang; Liao, Xiaohua; Xie, Zhiming; Chen, Rong

    2007-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of an elaborately devised near-infrared Raman system in analysis of urine. The broad band in the long-wavelength region of the electronic absorption spectra of the sol with added adsorbent at certain concentrations has been explained in terms of the aggregation of the colloidal silver particles. We have reported the surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of urine, and studied the silver solution enhanced effects on the urine Raman scattering. The Raman bands of human's urine was assigned to certain molecule vibrations. We have found that different donators have dissimilar SERS of urine in different physiological condition. Comparatively few studies have explored the ability of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of urine acid. In the present report, we investigated the ability of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy to measure uric acid in the human urine. The results suggested that the present Raman system holds considerable promise for practical use. Practical applications such as the quantitative medical examination of urine metabolites may also be feasible in the near future.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy in saffron quality control: determination of chemical composition and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalacain, Amaya; Ordoudi, Stella A; Díaz-Plaza, Eva M; Carmona, Manuel; Blázquez, Inmaculada; Tsimidou, Maria Z; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2005-11-30

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been applied for the first time to saffron spice to determine the chemical composition and geographical origin of 111 samples from the there main producers' countries: Iran, Greece, and Spain. The validation procedures with the results obtained by UV-vis and HPLC-DAD measurements demonstrated that this technique is appropriate to determine the following parameters: moisture and volatile content, coloring strength, (250 nm), and (330 nm), established on the ISO 3632 Technical Specification Normative and used to certify saffron quality in the international market. Also, it can be used to estimate the content of the five main crocetin glycosides, the compounds responsible for saffron color, the best correlations being for trans-crocetin di-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) ester (R2= 0.93), trans-crocetin (beta-D-glucosyl)-(beta-D-gentibiosyl) (R2= 0.94), and picrocrocin (R2= 0.92), the compound accepted as responsible for saffron bitterness. Finally, a discriminant analysis among the three geographical origins reveals that Iranian samples are the most different, whereas Greek and Spanish samples are more similar. All of these results reveal that NIRS spectroscopy has an enormous potential for its application to saffron quality control as the results are obtained in 2 min and without any sample manipulation.

  7. Electromagnetically Driven Dual-axis Tilting MEMS Grating for Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Yutaka; Iwamatsu, Shinnosuke; Yahagi, Toru; Kobayashi, Seiya; Konno, Shunsuke; Sato, Toshiyuki

    This paper describes design and fabrication of electromagnetically driven dual-axis tilting MEMS-grating, and evaluation for low coherent near infrared spectroscopy. At first, we have investigated fabrication of laminar grating using EB lithography of UV photoresist and dry etching of silicon. In consequence, the laminar gratings of 0.6 - 2.0μm pitches were fabricated successfully. Second, we fabricated electromagnetically driven MEMS-grating which can tilt to dual-axis. Primary axis is used for spectroscopy, and the secondary axis is used for optical axis alignment. As the results of evaluation, primary and secondary DC tilting angles were 0.40°/mA and 0.39°/mA, respectively. And then, primary and secondary resonant frequencies (Q-factor) were 217Hz (Q36) and 172Hz (Q25), respectively. Finally, we constructed Fourier domain fiber interferometer whose sample arm was 2m in length. As setting optical length difference to be 180μm, the interference spectrum in wavelength range of 1400-1700nm was observed in less than 25ms by MEMS-GR, and a Fourier and axis transformed peak was acquired at 50dB.

  8. On-line prediction of fresh pork quality using visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Tao; Fan, Yu-Xia; Cheng, Fang

    2010-12-01

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was tested to predict the quality attributes of fresh pork (content of intramuscular fat, protein and water, pH and shear force value) on-line. Vis/NIR spectra (350-1100 nm) were obtained from 211 samples using a prototype. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed by external validation with wavelet de-noising and several pre-processing methods. The 6th order Daubechies wavelet with 6 decomposition levels (db6-6) showed high de-noising ability with good information preservation. The first derivative of db6-6 de-noised spectra combined with multiplicative scatter correction yielded the prediction models with the highest coefficient of determination (R(2)) for all traits in both calibration and validation periods, which were all above 0.757 except for the prediction of shear force value. The results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy is a promising technique to roughly predict the quality attributes of intact fresh pork on-line. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Analysis of transgenic and non-transgenic rice leaves using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-chao; Cheng, Fang

    2012-02-01

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was investigated for the fast discrimination of rice leaves with different genes and the determination of chlorophyll content. Least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) was employed to discriminate transgenic rice leaves from non-transgenic ones. The classification accuracy of calibration samples reached to 100%. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select effective wavelengths. SPA-LS-SVM discrimination model was performed, and the result indicated that an 87.27% recognition ratio was achieved using only 0.3% of total variables. The optimal performance of each quantification model was achieved after orthogonal signal correction (OSA). Performances treated by SPA were better than that of full-spectrum PLS, which indicated that SPA is a powerful way for effective wavelength selection. The best performance of quantification was obtained by SPA-LS-SVM model; with correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) being 0.902 2 and 1.312 1, respectively. Excellent classification and prediction precision were achieved. The overall results indicated that the new proposed SPA-LS-SVM is a powerful method for varieties recognition and SPAD prediction. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of Vis/NIR spectroscopy in on-field classification and monitoring.

  10. Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on fat to authenticate dietary history of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-11-01

    Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes.

  11. Early tumor detection afforded by in vivo imaging of near-infrared II fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Dang, Xiangnan; Huang, Xing; Muzumdar, Mandar D; Xu, Eric S; Bardhan, Neelkanth Manoj; Song, Haiqin; Qi, Ruogu; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Ting; Wei, Wei; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Birrer, Michael J; Belcher, Angela M; Ghoroghchian, P Peter

    2017-07-01

    Cell-intrinsic reporters such as luciferase (LUC) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) have been commonly utilized in preclinical studies to image tumor growth and to monitor therapeutic responses. While extrinsic reporters that emit near infrared I (NIR-I: 650-950 nm) or near-infrared II (NIR-II: 1000-1700 nm) optical signals have enabled minimization of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, it has remained unclear as to whether their use has afforded more accurate tumor imaging in small animals. Here, we developed a novel optical imaging construct comprised of rare earth lanthanide nanoparticles coated with biodegradable diblock copolymers and doped with organic fluorophores, generating NIR-I and NIR-II emissive bands upon optical excitation. Simultaneous injection of multiple spectrally-unique nanoparticles into mice bearing tumor implants established via intraperitoneal dissemination of LUC + /RFP + OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells enabled direct comparisons of imaging with extrinsic vs. intrinsic reporters, NIR-II vs. NIR-I signals, as well as targeted vs. untargeted exogenous contrast agents in the same animal and over time. We discovered that in vivo optical imaging at NIR-II wavelengths facilitates more accurate detection of smaller and earlier tumor deposits, offering enhanced sensitivity, improved spatial contrast, and increased depths of tissue penetration as compared to imaging with visible or NIR-I fluorescent agents. Our work further highlights the hitherto underappreciated enhancements in tumor accumulation that may be achieved with intraperitoneal as opposed to intravenous administration of nanoparticles. Lastly, we found discrepancies in the fidelity of tumor uptake that could be obtained by utilizing small molecules for in vivo as opposed to in vitro targeting of nanoparticles to disseminated tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In-line multipoint near-infrared spectroscopy for moisture content quantification during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Toiviainen, Maunu; Korhonen, Ossi; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Järvinen, Kristiina; Paaso, Janne; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2013-02-19

    During the past decade, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been applied for in-line moisture content quantification during a freeze-drying process. However, NIR has been used as a single-vial technique and thus is not representative of the entire batch. This has been considered as one of the main barriers for NIR spectroscopy becoming widely used in process analytical technology (PAT) for freeze-drying. Clearly it would be essential to monitor samples that reliably represent the whole batch. The present study evaluated multipoint NIR spectroscopy for in-line moisture content quantification during a freeze-drying process. Aqueous sucrose solutions were used as model formulations. NIR data was calibrated to predict the moisture content using partial least-squares (PLS) regression with Karl Fischer titration being used as a reference method. PLS calibrations resulted in root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) values lower than 0.13%. Three noncontact, diffuse reflectance NIR probe heads were positioned on the freeze-dryer shelf to measure the moisture content in a noninvasive manner, through the side of the glass vials. The results showed that the detection of unequal sublimation rates within a freeze-dryer shelf was possible with the multipoint NIR system in use. Furthermore, in-line moisture content quantification was reliable especially toward the end of the process. These findings indicate that the use of multipoint NIR spectroscopy can achieve representative quantification of moisture content and hence a drying end point determination to a desired residual moisture level.

  13. Advances in R&D in near-infrared spectroscopy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Sumio; Iwamoto, Mutsuo

    1991-02-01

    More than 20 years ago when Mr. K. H. Norris firstly introduced the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a powerful technology in the field of composition analysis of cereals those who were interested in the area of classical spectroscopy would not like to recognize its potential. This tendency still remains at present however it leaves no room for doubt that from viewpoints of applied spectroscopy the NIRS has consolidated its position. From a viewpoint of NIRS application in the field of nondestructive or non invasive measuring techniques history of this technology is only the last decade in Japan. However since the technology was firstly introduced to composition analysis of agricultural commodities in the same manner as in other countries R and D have been growing more actively in diversified fields such as agriculture and industry as well as medical science. In addition the NIRS technology are becoming of general interest by combining other techniques to create various hyphenated instrumentations such as FTNIR MCFTNIR NIRCT and NIR-NMR. In this paper new trends of R D on NIR spectroscopy which are being conducted in Japan will be reviewed. 2. S1JMMARY OF PRESENT R D ON NIRS IN JAPAN NIRS applications reported in the last 3 years are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Applications of NIRS in Japan Application for Agriculture Taste evaluation of rice and coffee Determination of chemical compositions rice for breeding Determination of chemical compositions in tea Determination of sugar contents in intact peaches Japanese pears Satsuma oranges and apples Determination of sugars and acids in intact tomatoes Determination of forage composition Application for Industry Analysis of state of water in foods Application of analyzing Maillard Reaction''s Process Pattern recognition of NIR spectra as related to process control of roasting coffee beans Quality control of tea processing Determination of moisture content of Surimi products 2 / SPIE Vol. 1379 Optics in Agriculture

  14. A novel approach to comparing reproductive stage serum profiles in mares using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and aquaphotomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to detect biomolecules in aqueous solutions, a sub-field of NIR called Aquaphotomics, has yet to be fully explored. Aquaphotomics references water absorbance patterns and wavelength shifts in the 1st overtone of the water spectrum as they change pat...

  15. Co-Speech Gesture Production in an Animation-Narration Task by Bilinguals: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Misato; Saito, Hirofumi; Li, Zongfeng; Zhao, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    To examine the neural mechanism of co-speech gesture production, we measured brain activity of bilinguals during an animation-narration task using near-infrared spectroscopy. The task of the participants was to watch two stories via an animated cartoon, and then narrate the contents in their first language (Ll) and second language (L2),…

  16. Rapid and non-destructive detection and identification two strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the presence of Wolbachia pipientis (wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The release of Wolbachia transinfected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategi...

  17. Task Dependent Prefrontal Dysfunction in Persons with Asperger's Disorder Investigated with Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Akira; Okajima, Yuka; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Hashimoro, Ryuichiro; Kanai, Chieko; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kato, Nobumasa

    2011-01-01

    Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex has been previously reported in individuals with Asperger's disorder. In the present study, we used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) during two verbal fluency tasks. The subjects were 20 individuals with Asperger's disorder…

  18. Asymmetrical Brain Activity Induced by Voluntary Spatial Attention Depends on the Visual Hemifield: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, Masamitsu; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the visual hemifield to which spatial attention was oriented on the activities of the posterior parietal and occipital visual cortices was examined using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in order to investigate the neural substrates of voluntary visuospatial attention. Our brain imaging data support the theory put forth in a…

  19. Reduced Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Sawada, Masayuki; Suehiro, Yuko; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Naoko; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder.…

  20. Extra-cerebral oxygenation influence on near-infrared-spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc O2 ) is assessed by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) although it seems influenced by extra-cerebral oxygenation. We aimed to quantify the impact of extra-cerebral oxygenation on two SR-NIRS derived Sc O2 . METHODS: Multiple...

  1. Prediction of dissolution profiles by non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy in tablets subjected to different levels of strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Eduardo; Pawar, Pallavi; Keyvan, Golshid; Wang, Yifan; Velez, Natasha; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Muzzio, Fernando J; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-01-05

    This study describes how the strain on formulation components affects dissolution and how near infrared spectroscopy can be used to predict dissolution. Strain (exposure to shear stress) applied during powder mixing affects the interaction between formulation components. Particles experience shear strain when they move relative to each other in a process affecting the properties of the final product. This stress affects the dissolution of oral solid dosages forms. However, dissolution testing destroys the entire tablet, making it impossible to further evaluate tablet properties when an out of specification result is obtained. Thus, a nondestructive technique such as near infrared spectroscopy is desirable to predict dissolution. The aim of this study was to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain (shear) using near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. Shear was induced using a modified Couette cell on the powder mixture and tablets from these mixtures were produced using a tablet press emulator. Tablets produced with different strain levels were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained in diffuse reflectance mode and pretreated with baseline correction to maintain the physical and chemical information of the tablets. Dissolution profiles were obtained using USP Apparatus 2 as a reference method. Principal component analysis was used to study the sources of variation in the spectra obtained. Partial least squares 2 was used to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain.

  2. Hemodynamic and Electrophysiological Connectivity in the Language System: Simultaneous Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrocorticography Recordings during Cortical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    We applied near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings during cortical stimulation to a temporal lobe epilepsy patient who underwent subdural electrode implantation. Using NIRS, changes in blood concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (HbO[subscript 2]) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbR) during cortical stimulation of the left…

  3. Quantification of betaglucans, lipid and protein contents in whole oat groats (Avena sativa L.) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole oat has been described as an important healthy food for humans due to its beneficial nutritional components. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tool that can be substituted for some traditional chemical analysis. A total o...

  4. Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): 1. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements at laboratory scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapper, C.; Klont, R.E.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to study prediction of pork quality by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology in the laboratory. A total of 131 commercial pork loin samples were measured with NIRS. Predictive equations were developed for drip loss %, colour L*, a*, b* and pH ultimate (pHu). Equations with

  5. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  6. Rapid identification of soil cadmium pollution risk at regional scale based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Changa, Q.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution due to long-term sewage irrigation is a serious environmental problem in many irrigation areas in northern China. Quickly identifying its pollution status is an important basis for remediation. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) provides a useful tool.

  7. Classification of the waxy condition of durum wheat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy using wavelets and a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been applied to the problem of differentiating four genotypes of durum wheat: ‘waxy’, wx-A1 null, wx-B1 null and wild type. The test data consisted of 95 NIR reflectance spectra of wheat samples obtained from a USDA-ARS wheat breeding program. A two...

  8. “Self-absorption” phenomenon in near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Nancy Kawai

    2005-01-01

    While cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials have been studied using conventional Raman spectroscopy, availability of near-infrared (NIR) Fourier transform (FT) Raman instrumentation has made studying these materials much more convenient. This is especially true because the problem of laser-induced fluorescence can be avoided or minimized in FT- Raman (NIR Raman)...

  9. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, C; Houmøller, L P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF...

  10. [Quality anlysis of the before redrying raw tobacco & after redrying sheet tobacco by using online near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhao-qi; Liu, Ying; Shu, Ru-xin; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Long-lian; Zhang, Lu-da; Zhang Ye-hui; Li, Jun-hui

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the 7 different origin before redrying raw tobacco & after redrying sheet tobacco's online near infrared spectroscopy were collected from sorting & redrying production line specifically for "ZHONGHUA" brand. By using the projection model bulit by different origin tobacco's online spectroscopy and the method of variance and correlation analysis, we studied the uniformity and similarity quality characteristics change before and after the redrying of tobacco, which can provide support for understanding the quality of the tobacco material and cigarette product formulations. This study show that selecting about 10,000 by equally spaced sampling time from a huge number of online near infrared spectroscopy, for modeling are feasible, and representative. After manual sorting, threshing, and redrying, the uiformity of each origin tobacco near-infrared spectroscopy can be increased by 10%~35%, homogeneity of the tobacco leaf has been significantly improved. After redrying, the similar relationship embodied in the origin also have significant changes, overall it reduce significantly, that shows the quality differences embodied by origin significantly improve, which can provide greater space for formulations, it shows the need for high-quality Chinese cigarette production requires large amounts of financial and human resources to implement cured tobacco processing. The traditional means of chemical analysis, it takes a lot of time and effort, it is difficult to control the entire processing chain, Near Infrared Spectroscopy with its rapid, non-destructive advantage, not only can achieve real-time detection and quality control, but also can take full advantage of near-infrared spectroscopy information created in the production process, which is a very promising online analytical detection technology in many industries especially in the agricultural and food processing industries.

  11. Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2011-04-29

    During the past several years, near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) spectroscopy has increasingly been adopted as an analytical tool in various fields from petroleum to biomedical sectors. The NIR spectrum (above 4000 cm(-1)) of a sample is typically measured by modern instruments at a few hundred of wavelengths. Recently, considerable effort has been directed towards developing procedures to identify variables (wavelengths) that contribute useful information. Variable selection (VS) or feature selection, also called frequency selection or wavelength selection, is a critical step in data analysis for vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, or NIRS). In this paper, we compare the performance of 16 different feature selection methods for the prediction of properties of biodiesel fuel, including density, viscosity, methanol content, and water concentration. The feature selection algorithms tested include stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR-step), interval partial least squares regression (iPLS), backward iPLS (BiPLS), forward iPLS (FiPLS), moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLS), (modified) changeable size moving window partial least squares (CSMWPLS/MCSMWPLSR), searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS), successive projections algorithm (SPA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE, including UVE-SPA), simulated annealing (SA), back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), Kohonen artificial neural network (K-ANN), and genetic algorithms (GAs, including GA-iPLS). Two linear techniques for calibration model building, namely multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression/projection to latent structures (PLS/PLSR), are used for the evaluation of biofuel properties. A comparison with a non-linear calibration model, artificial neural networks (ANN-MLP), is also provided. Discussion of gasoline, ethanol-gasoline (bioethanol), and diesel fuel data is presented. The results of other spectroscopic

  12. Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: Benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    During the past several years, near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) spectroscopy has increasingly been adopted as an analytical tool in various fields from petroleum to biomedical sectors. The NIR spectrum (above 4000 cm -1 ) of a sample is typically measured by modern instruments at a few hundred of wavelengths. Recently, considerable effort has been directed towards developing procedures to identify variables (wavelengths) that contribute useful information. Variable selection (VS) or feature selection, also called frequency selection or wavelength selection, is a critical step in data analysis for vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, or NIRS). In this paper, we compare the performance of 16 different feature selection methods for the prediction of properties of biodiesel fuel, including density, viscosity, methanol content, and water concentration. The feature selection algorithms tested include stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR-step), interval partial least squares regression (iPLS), backward iPLS (BiPLS), forward iPLS (FiPLS), moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLS), (modified) changeable size moving window partial least squares (CSMWPLS/MCSMWPLSR), searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS), successive projections algorithm (SPA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE, including UVE-SPA), simulated annealing (SA), back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), Kohonen artificial neural network (K-ANN), and genetic algorithms (GAs, including GA-iPLS). Two linear techniques for calibration model building, namely multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression/projection to latent structures (PLS/PLSR), are used for the evaluation of biofuel properties. A comparison with a non-linear calibration model, artificial neural networks (ANN-MLP), is also provided. Discussion of gasoline, ethanol-gasoline (bioethanol), and diesel fuel data is presented. The results of other spectroscopic

  13. Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Yongni; He Yong; Mao Jingyuan

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters,such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy versus Transcranial Doppler-Based Monitoring in Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Cho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper monitoring of cerebral perfusion during carotid artery surgery is crucial for determining if a shunt is needed. We compared the safety and reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with trans-cranial Doppler (TCD for cerebral monitoring. Methods: This single-center, retrospective review was con-ducted on patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA using selective shunt-based TCD or NIRS at Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from November 2009 to June 2016. Postoperative complications were the primary outcome, and the distribution of risk factors between the 2 groups was compared. Results: The medical records of 74 patients (45 TCD, 29 NIRS were reviewed. The demographic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. One TCD patient died within the 30-day postoperative period. Postoperative stroke (n=4, p=0.15 and neurologic complications (n=10, p=0.005 were only reported in the TCD group. Shunt usage was 44.4% and 10.3% in the TCD and NIRS groups, respectively (p=0.002. Conclusion: NIRS-based selective shunting during CEA seems to be safe and reliable for monitoring cerebral perfusion in terms of postoperative stroke and neurologic symptoms. It also reduces unnecessary shunt usage.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of vascular compromise in paediatric supracondylar fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowno, Justin J; De Lima, Jonathan; Quick, Tom J; Carpenter, Eleanor C; Gibbons, Paul J; Little, David G

    2014-01-01

    Children suffering supracondylar fractures of the humerus are at risk of vascular compromise, which is currently assessed clinically, although other modalities such as angiography, pulse oximetry, Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography have been used. We sought to ascertain whether tissue haemoglobin oxygenation (StO 2 ) measurement could distinguish between patients with and without clinical vascular compromise following supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We prospectively observed StO 2  using near-infrared spectroscopy in 29 paediatric patients with supracondylar fractures requiring operative manipulation. The injured and uninjured volar forearm compartments were monitored immediately before and after fracture reduction. The relationship between StO 2  in the injured and uninjured limb, and the presence of pre-operative vascular compromise was assessed. Seven out of 29 children presented with vascular compromise. Patients with clinical vascular compromise had significantly lower pre-reduction StO 2  (63.5% ± 15%, mean ± standard deviation), compared to those without compromise (80.9% ± 10%). StO 2  normalized following surgery in all children with vascular compromise. These improvements in muscle StO 2  were associated, in all patients, with the clinical return of pulses and resolution of neurological symptoms if present. StO 2  monitoring can identify patients with clinical vascular compromise, can identify the return of adequate perfusion following operative correction of supracondylar fractures, and may be a useful adjunct to clinical assessment. (paper)

  16. Monitoring of the cellulosic ethanol fermentation process by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ariane S S; Pereira, Sandra C; Ribeiro, Marcelo P A; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, efficient, and low-cost technologies for monitoring the fermentation process during second generation (2G) or cellulosic ethanol production are essential for the successful implementation of this process at the commercial scale. Here, the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS) regression was investigated as a tool for monitoring the production of 2G ethanol from lignocellulosic sugarcane residues including bagasse, straw, and tops. The spectral data was based on a set of 103 alcoholic fermentation samples. Models based on different pre-processing techniques were evaluated. The best root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values obtained in the external validation were around 3.02 g/L for ethanol and 6.60 g/L for glucose. The findings showed that the PLS-NIR methodology was efficient in accurately predicting the glucose and ethanol concentrations during the production of 2G ethanol, demonstrating potential for use in monitoring and control of large-scale industrial processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracranial Hematoma Detection by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service: Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Patrick; Bossers, Sebastiaan M; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2017-01-01

    In (helicopter) emergency medical services, (H)EMS, the prehospital detection of intracranial hematomas should improve patient care and the triage to specialized neurosurgical hospitals. Recently, noninvasive detection of intracranial hematomas became possible by applying transcranial near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Herein, second-generation devices are currently available, for example, the Infrascanner 2000 (Infrascan), that appear suited also for prehospital (H)EMS applications. Since (H)EMS operations are time-critical, we studied the Infrascanner 2000 as a "first-time-right" monitor in healthy volunteers ( n = 17, hospital employees, no neurologic history). Further, we studied the implementation of the Infrascanner 2000 in a European HEMS organization (Lifeliner 1, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The principal results of our study were as follows: The screening for intracranial hematomas in healthy volunteers with first-time-right intention resulted in a marked rate of virtual hematomas (false positive results, i.e., 12/17), rendering more time consuming repeat measurements advisable. The results of the implementation of the Infrascanner in HEMS suggest that NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection is feasible in the HEMS setting. However, some drawbacks exist and their possible solutions are discussed. Future studies will have to demonstrate how NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection will improve prehospital decision making in (H)EMS and ultimately patient outcome.

  18. A multichannel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-triggered robotic hand rehabilitation system for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongseung; Mukae, Nobutaka; Arata, Jumpei; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Iramina, Keiji; Iihara, Koji; Hashizume, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    There is a demand for a new neurorehabilitation modality with a brain-computer interface for stroke patients with insufficient or no remaining hand motor function. We previously developed a robotic hand rehabilitation system triggered by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to address this demand. In a preliminary prototype system, a robotic hand orthosis, providing one degree-of-freedom motion for a hand's closing and opening, is triggered by a wireless command from a NIRS system, capturing a subject's motor cortex activation. To examine the feasibility of the prototype, we conducted a preliminary test involving six neurologically intact participants. The test comprised a series of evaluations for two aspects of neurorehabilitation training in a real-time manner: classification accuracy and execution time. The effects of classification-related factors, namely the algorithm, signal type, and number of NIRS channels, were investigated. In the comparison of algorithms, linear discrimination analysis performed better than the support vector machine in terms of both accuracy and training time. The oxyhemoglobin versus deoxyhemoglobin comparison revealed that the two concentrations almost equally contribute to the hand motion estimation. The relationship between the number of NIRS channels and accuracy indicated that a certain number of channels are needed and suggested a need for a method of selecting informative channels. The computation time of 5.84 ms was acceptable for our purpose. Overall, the preliminary prototype showed sufficient feasibility for further development and clinical testing with stroke patients.

  19. What we can and cannot (yet do with functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eStrait

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a relatively new technique complimentary to EEG for the development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. NIRS-based systems for detecting various cognitive and affective states such as mental and emotional stress have already been demonstrated in a range of adaptive human-computer interaction (HCI applications. However, before NIRS-BCIs can be used reliably in realistic HCI settings, substantial challenges concerning signal processing and modeling must be addressed. Although many of those challenges have been identified previously, the solutions to overcome them remain scant. In this paper, we first review what can be currently done with NIRS, specifically, NIRS-based approaches to measuring cognitive and affective user states as well as demonstrations of passive NIRS-BCIs. We then discuss some of the primary challenges these systems would face if deployed in more realistic settings, including detection latencies and motion artifacts. Lastly, we investigate the effects of some of these challenges on signal reliability via a quantitative comparison of three NIRS models. The hope is that this paper will actively engage researchers to facilitate the advancement of NIRS as a more robust and useful tool to the BCI community.

  20. Analysis of multiple soybean phytonutrients by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyang; Li, Penghui; Zhang, Wenfei; Zhao, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Improvement of the nutritional quality of soybean is usually facilitated by a vast range of soybean germplasm with enough information about their multiple phytonutrients. In order to acquire this essential information from a huge number of soybean samples, a rapid analytic method is urgently required. Here, a nondestructive near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed for rapid and accurate measurement of 25 nutritional components in soybean simultaneously, including fatty acids palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, vitamin E (VE), α-VE, γ-VE, δ-VE, saponins, isoflavonoids, and flavonoids. Modified partial least squares regression and first, second, third, and fourth derivative transformation was applied for the model development. The 1 minus variance ratio (1-VR) value of the optimal model can reach between the highest 0.95 and lowest 0.64. The predicted values of phytonutrients in soybean using NIRS technology are comparable to those obtained from using the traditional spectrum or chemical methods. A robust NIRS can be adopted as a reliable method to evaluate complex plant constituents for screening large-scale samples of soybean germplasm resources or genetic populations for improvement of nutritional qualities. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Irradiation dose detection of irradiated milk powder using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, W W; Zhang, C; Liu, F; Gong, A P; He, Y

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of applying visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to the quantitative detection of irradiation dose of irradiated milk powder. A total of 150 samples were used: 100 for the calibration set and 50 for the validation set. The samples were irradiated at 5 different dose levels in the dose range 0 to 6.0 kGy. Six different pretreatment methods were compared. The prediction results of full spectra given by linear and nonlinear calibration methods suggested that Savitzky-Golay smoothing and first derivative were suitable pretreatment methods in this study. Regression coefficient analysis was applied to select effective wavelengths (EW). Less than 10 EW were selected and they were useful for portable detection instrument or sensor development. Partial least squares, extreme learning machine, and least squares support vector machine were used. The best prediction performance was achieved by the EW-extreme learning machine model with first-derivative spectra, and correlation coefficients=0.97 and root mean square error of prediction=0.844. This study provided a new approach for the fast detection of irradiation dose of milk powder. The results could be helpful for quality detection and safety monitoring of milk powder. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-face recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Gunji, Atsuko; Inoue, Yuki; Goto, Takaaki; Sakihara, Kotoe; Kaga, Makiko; Inagaki, Masumi; Hosokawa, Toru

    2011-06-01

    It is assumed that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have specificities for self-face recognition, which is known to be a basic cognitive ability for social development. In the present study, we investigated neurological substrates and potentially influential factors for self-face recognition of ASD patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The subjects were 11 healthy adult men, 13 normally developing boys, and 10 boys with ASD. Their hemodynamic activities in the frontal area and their scanning strategies (eye-movement) were examined during self-face recognition. Other factors such as ASD severities and self-consciousness were also evaluated by parents and patients, respectively. Oxygenated hemoglobin levels were higher in the regions corresponding to the right inferior frontal gyrus than in those corresponding to the left inferior frontal gyrus. In two groups of children these activities reflected ASD severities, such that the more serious ASD characteristics corresponded with lower activity levels. Moreover, higher levels of public self-consciousness intensified the activities, which were not influenced by the scanning strategies. These findings suggest that dysfunction in the right inferior frontal gyrus areas responsible for self-face recognition is one of the crucial neural substrates underlying ASD characteristics, which could potentially be used to evaluate psychological aspects such as public self-consciousness. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive locomotor network activation during randomized walking speeds using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; You, Joshua Sung H

    2017-07-20

    An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying locomotor networks has the potential to benefit the neurorehabilitation of patients with neurological locomotor deficits. However, the specific locomotor networks that mediate adaptive locomotor performance and changes in gait speed remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine patterns of cortical activation associated with the walking speeds of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 km/h on a treadmill. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was performed on a 30-year-old right-handed healthy female subject, and cerebral hemodynamic changes were observed in cortical locomotor network areas including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and sensory association cortex (SAC). The software package NIRS-statistical parametric mapping (NIRS-SPM) was utilized to analyze fNIRS data in the MATLAB environment. SPM t-statistic maps were computed at an uncorrected threshold of pglobalized locomotor network activation of the SMC, PMC, SMA, and PMC; additionally, the site with the highest cortical activation ratio shifted from the SMC to the SMA. Global locomotor network recruitment, in particular PFC activation indicated by OxyHb in our study, may indicate a response to increased cognitive-locomotor demand due to simultaneous postural maintenance and leg movement coordination.

  4. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a process analytical technology tool in Ginkgo biloba extract qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sílvia S; Barata, Pedro A; Martins, José M; Menezes, José C

    2008-06-09

    Here, we describe the use of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for qualification of Ginkgo biloba extract as raw material for use in pharmaceutical products. G. biloba extract shows unpredicted and uncontrolled variability in some of its quality specifications, intrinsic to its natural origin, which have influence on the manufacturing process of solid dosage forms (viz. granulation and compression). Some of these properties could not be determined by conventional quality control tests, so we investigated the use of NIR to qualify the batches of Ginkgo extract accordingly to its different features and establish a relationship with some of the manufacturing steps behaviour based on their qualification. Several approaches were evaluated, and the NIR method developed demonstrated to be sensitive to changes in important quality specifications and therefore adequate to qualify incoming batches of G. biloba extract. This could be considered a process analytical technology (PAT) application since it: (1) establishes the source of variability in a qualitative way, (2) explains its propagation to the final product quality attributes and (3) lays the basis for a control strategy to be applied in the manufacturing process.

  5. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, M Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M; Coello, M Carmen; Riocerezo, Carlos Palacios; Moncada, Guillermo Wells

    2015-11-03

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  6. Accurate optical parameter extraction procedure for broadband near-infrared spectroscopy of brain matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ebraheem; Najafizadeh, Laleh; Gandjbakhche, Amir H; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Daryoush, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling behavior of broadband (30 to 1000 MHz) frequency modulated near-infrared (NIR) photons through a phantom is the basis for accurate extraction of optical absorption and scattering parameters of biological turbid media. Photon dynamics in a phantom are predicted using both analytical and numerical simulation and are related to the measured insertion loss (IL) and insertion phase (IP) for a given geometry based on phantom optical parameters. Accuracy of the extracted optical parameters using finite element method (FEM) simulation is compared to baseline analytical calculations from the diffusion equation (DE) for homogenous brain phantoms. NIR spectroscopy is performed using custom-designed, broadband, free-space optical transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules that are developed for photon migration at wavelengths of 680, 780, and 820 nm. Differential detection between two optical Rx locations separated by 0.3 cm is employed to eliminate systemic artifacts associated with interfaces of the optical Tx and Rx with the phantoms. Optical parameter extraction is achieved for four solid phantom samples using the least-square-error method in MATLAB (for DE) and COMSOL (for FEM) simulation by fitting data to measured results over broadband and narrowband frequency modulation. Confidence in numerical modeling of the photonic behavior using FEM has been established here by comparing the transmission mode's experimental results with the predictions made by DE and FEM for known commercial solid brain phantoms.

  7. Quantification of active ingredients in semi-solid pharmaceutical formulations by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Lisa B; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-08-05

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is increasingly gaining significance in the pharmaceutical industry for quality and in-process control. However, the potential of this method for quantitative quality control in pharmacies has long been neglected and little data is available on its application in analysis of creams and ointments. This study evaluated the applicability of NIR spectrometer with limited wavelength range (1000-1900nm) for quantitative quality control of six different dermatological semi-solid pharmaceutical preparations. Each contained a frequently used active ingredient in a common concentration either in a water-free lipid base or in an aqueous cream matrix. Based on direct NIR transflectance measurements through standardized glass beakers and partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration, quantitative models were generated comparing several data pre-processing methods Whereas difficulties were observed for mixtures containing 2% (w/w) metronidazole or 4% (w/w) erythromycin, content determination was possible with sufficient accuracy for salicylic acid (5 % (w/w)) and urea (10% (w/w)) in hydrophilic as well as in lipophilic formulations meeting the limit of a maximum deviation of±5% (relative) from the reference values. Exemplarily, one of the methods was successfully validated according to the EMA Guideline, determining several figures of merit such as specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing process effects on pharmaceutical solid forms using near-infrared spectroscopy and infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggo, Y; Jent, N; Edmond, A; Chalus, P; Ulmschneider, M

    2005-09-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a widely used analytical technique in the pharmaceutical industry, serving for example to determine the active substance or water content of tablets. Its great advantage lies in the minimal sample preparation required and speed of measurement. In a study designed to detect the effects of process on tablet dissolution, we describe the application of NIRS to the detection and identification of changes in uncoated and coated tablets in response to pilot-scale changes in process parameters during melt granulation, compression, and coating. Beginning with a qualitative comparison between pharmaceutical batches, we show that NIRS and principal component analysis can separate batches produced with different melt granulation parameters and differentiate between cores compressed with different compaction forces. Complementary infrared imaging can also explain the difference in dissolution properties between samples produced with different melt granulation parameters. NIRS is sensitive to changes in coating formulation, the quality of a coating excipient (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose), and coating time. In a concluding quantitative analysis, we demonstrate the feasibility of NIRS in a manufacturing context for predicting coating time and detecting production cores failing to meet dissolution test specifications.

  9. Functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during ultrarapid object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Borisov, Sergey V.; Vanmeter, John

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing technology for low-cost noninvasive functional brain imaging. With multichannel optical instruments, it becomes possible to measure not only local changes in hemoglobin concentrations but also temporal correlations of those changes in different brain regions which gives an optical analog of functional connectivity traditionally measured by fMRI. We recorded hemodynamic activity during the Go-NoGo task from 11 right-handed subjects with probes placed bilaterally over prefrontal areas. Subjects were detecting animals as targets in natural scenes pressing a mouse button. Data were low-pass filtered <1 Hz and cardiac/respiration/superficial layers artifacts were removed using Independent Component Analysis. Fisher's transformed correlations of poststimulus responses (30 s) were averaged over groups of channels unilaterally in each hemisphere (intrahemispheric connectivity) and the corresponding channels between hemispheres (interhemispheric connectivity). The hemodynamic response showed task-related activation (an increase/decrease in oxygenated/deoxygenated hemoglobin, respectively) greater in the right versus left hemisphere. Intra- and interhemispheric functional connectivity was also significantly stronger during the task compared to baseline. Functional connectivity between the inferior and the middle frontal regions was significantly stronger in the right hemisphere. Our results demonstrate that optical methods can be used to detect transient changes in functional connectivity during rapid cognitive processes.

  10. Anatomical guidance for functional near-infrared spectroscopy: AtlasViewer tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasted, Christopher M; Yücel, Meryem A; Cooper, Robert J; Dubb, Jay; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Becerra, Lino; Petkov, Mike P; Borsook, David; Dan, Ippeita; Boas, David A

    2015-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical imaging method that is used to noninvasively measure cerebral hemoglobin concentration changes induced by brain activation. Using structural guidance in fNIRS research enhances interpretation of results and facilitates making comparisons between studies. AtlasViewer is an open-source software package we have developed that incorporates multiple spatial registration tools to enable structural guidance in the interpretation of fNIRS studies. We introduce the reader to the layout of the AtlasViewer graphical user interface, the folder structure, and user files required in the creation of fNIRS probes containing sources and detectors registered to desired locations on the head, evaluating probe fabrication error and intersubject probe placement variability, and different procedures for estimating measurement sensitivity to different brain regions as well as image reconstruction performance. Further, we detail how AtlasViewer provides a generic head atlas for guiding interpretation of fNIRS results, but also permits users to provide subject-specific head anatomies to interpret their results. We anticipate that AtlasViewer will be a valuable tool in improving the anatomical interpretation of fNIRS studies.

  11. PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RORAIMA SOILS BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson E. Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils testing are time consuming and costly to operate, and can generate as high toxicity residues for the people or environment. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is one good alternative to replace conventional techniques, because it is fast – 60 seconds by sample, without producing residues and applicable to all soil properties, like physics and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the NIR technique in quantifying various Roraima soil properties. Eighty-four soil samples collected in XI RCC soil profiles were analyzed for K and Na available, organic carbon, total nitrogen, Si, Fe and Al oxides and sand and clay contents by conventional and NIR techniques. NIR spectra were obtained in the range of 10000 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1, with spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. With the all bands were adjusted by calibration and validation models submitted to pre-treatments with the purpose of reducing the noise effect and the absence of linearity. Except in relation to the available K, calibration models had R2 values for calibration and validation above 80% for all other soil properties tested. It is concluded that the NIR technique had good predictive capacity of the soil properties tested, and can be used for any variable whose interpretation is obtained based on continuous value intervals. Keywords: soil testing; green chemistry; Amazon.

  12. Effect of Sampling Frequency for Real-Time Tablet Coating Monitoring Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igne, Benoît; Arai, Hiroaki; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2016-09-01

    While the sampling of pharmaceutical products typically follows well-defined protocols, the parameterization of spectroscopic methods and their associated sampling frequency is not standard. Whereas, for blending, the sampling frequency is limited by the nature of the process, in other processes, such as tablet film coating, practitioners must determine the best approach to collecting spectral data. The present article studied how sampling practices affected the interpretation of the results provided by a near-infrared spectroscopy method for the monitoring of tablet moisture and coating weight gain during a pan-coating experiment. Several coating runs were monitored with different sampling frequencies (with or without co-adds (also known as sub-samples)) and with spectral averaging corresponding to processing cycles (1 to 15 pan rotations). Beyond integrating the sensor into the equipment, the present work demonstrated that it is necessary to have a good sense of the underlying phenomena that have the potential to affect the quality of the signal. The effects of co-adds and averaging was significant with respect to the quality of the spectral data. However, the type of output obtained from a sampling method dictated the type of information that one can gain on the dynamics of a process. Thus, different sampling frequencies may be needed at different stages of process development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Analysis of fiber content in flax stems by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, F E; Akin, D E; Morrison, W H; Ulrich, A; Archibald, D D

    2002-12-18

    The conventional means of measuring the fiber content of flax is time-consuming and laborious, and the results obtained vary with the analysis technique used. The plant tissues must first be "retted", a process by which the fibers are separated from the rest of the stem, either by indigenous organisms in the soil when the stems are left in the field or by water (anerobic bacteria) or enzymatic retting. The fiber content is then determined by mechanical or manual separation. In this study, fiber content of flax stems was measured rapidly and objectively by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using whole pieces of stem in a large cell, in reflectance mode. Compared to the conventional method, the standard error of performance of the NIRS method was between 0.96 and 1.45% (dry matter basis), depending on the model and data processing used. NIRS calibrations were generated by hand separation of fiber from water-retted specimens. The water retting procedure takes several days to complete and requires considerable trained labor to complete the hand separation step. The NIRS procedure was conducted on pieces of stem to simulate measurement in the field.

  14. Caffeine differentially alters cortical hemodynamic activity during working memory: a near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Urs; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2015-10-01

    Caffeine is a widely used stimulant with potentially beneficial effects on cognition as well as vasoconstrictive properties. In functional magnetic imaging research, caffeine has gained attention as a potential enhancer of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. In order to clarify changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO and HbR) induced by caffeine during a cognitive task, we investigated a working memory (WM) paradigm (visual 2-back) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Behaviorally, caffeine had no effect on the WM performance but influenced reaction times in the 0-back condition. NIRS data demonstrate caffeine-dependent alterations of the course of the hemodynamic response. The intake of 200 mg caffeine caused a significant decrease of the HbO response between 20 and 40 s after the onset of a 2-back task in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC). In parallel, the HbR response of the left IFC was significantly increased due to caffeine intake. In line with previous results, we did not detect an effect of caffeine on most aspects of behavior. Effects of caffeine on brain vasculature were detected as general reduction of HbO. Neuronal effects of caffeine are reflected in an increased concentration of HbR in the left hemisphere when performing a verbal memory task and suggest influences on metabolism.

  15. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitamo, T; Triolo, J M; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C

    2017-08-01

    The anaerobic digestibility of various biomass feedstocks in biogas plants is determined with biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. However, experimental BMP analysis is time-consuming, costly and challenging to optimise stock management and feeding to achieve improved biogas production. The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting BMP. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and root mean square error in prediction (RMSE P ) of the UOW model were 0.88 and 44 mL CH 4 /g VS, while the combined model was 0.89 and 50 mL CH 4 /g VS. Improved model performance was obtained for the two individual models compared to the combined version. The BMP prediction with NIRS was satisfactory and moderately successful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimate of the density of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden using near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Rosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to estimate wood density of Eucalyptus grandis. For that, 66 27-year-old trees were logged and central planks were removed from each log. Test pieces 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size were removed from the base of each plank, in the pith-bark direction, and subjected to determination of bulk and basic density at 12% moisture (dry basis, followed by spectral readings in the radial, tangential and transverse directions using a Bruker Tensor 37 infrared spectrophotometer. The calibration to estimate wood density was developed based on the matrix of spectra obtained from the radial face, containing 216 samples. The partial least squares regression to estimate bulk wood density of Eucalyptus grandis provided a coefficient of determination of validation of 0.74 and a ratio performance deviation of 2.29. Statistics relating to the predictive models had adequate magnitudes for estimating wood density from unknown samples, indicating that the above technique has potential for use in replacement of conventional testing.

  17. Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arri, Sandra Jasminder; Muehlemann, Thomas; Biallas, Martin; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Background and aim: One source of error with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is the assumption that the measured tissue is optically homogeneous. This is not always the case. Our aim is to assess the impact of tissue homogeneity (TH) on the precision of NIRS measurements in neonates. Methods: On 36 term and 27 preterm neonates at least five 1-min measurements are performed on each subject using the OxiplexTS. The sensor position is slightly changed before each measurement while assessing TH. The precision for cerebral tissue oxygenation saturation (StO2) and total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) are calculated by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The mean StO2 is not significantly different between term and preterm infants. The mean tHb is significantly lower in preterm infants (p preterm and from 11.0 to 2.0% for term infants; the precision of tHb increases from 10.1 to 7.5μM for preterm and from 16.4 to 3.5μM for term infants. The precision for StO2 is higher in term than in preterm infants. The precision for tHb shows no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: The precision of NIRS measurements correlates with tissue homogeneity.

  18. Automatic and Rapid Discrimination of Cotton Genotypes by Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy and pattern recognition methods to rapid and automatic discrimination of the genotypes (parent, transgenic, and parent-transgenic hybrid of cotton plants. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra of representative cotton seeds (n=120 and leaves (n=123 were measured in the range of 4000–12000 cm−1. A practical problem when developing classification models is the degradation and even breakdown of models caused by outliers. Considering the high-dimensional nature and uncertainty of potential spectral outliers, robust principal component analysis (rPCA was applied to each separate sample group to detect and exclude outliers. The influence of different data preprocessing methods on model prediction performance was also investigated. The results demonstrate that rPCA can effectively detect outliers and maintain the efficiency of discriminant analysis. Moreover, the classification accuracy can be significantly improved by second-order derivative and standard normal variate (SNV. The best partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA models obtained total classification accuracy of 100% and 97.6% for seeds and leaves, respectively.

  19. Identification and Quantitation of Melamine in Milk by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a nitrogen-rich substance and has been illegally used to increase the apparent protein content in food products such as milk. Therefore, it is imperative to develop sensitive and reliable analytical methods to determine melamine in human foods. Current analytical methods for melamine are mainly chromatography-based methods, which are time-consuming and expensive and require complex pretreatment and well-trained technicians. The present paper investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics for identifying and quantifying melamine in liquor milk. A total of 75 samples were prepared. Uninformative variable elimination-partial least square (UVE-PLS and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA were used to construct quantitative and qualitative models, respectively. Based on the ratio of performance to standard deviate (RPD, UVE-PLS model with 3 components resulted in a better solution. The PLS-DA model achieved an accuracy of 100% and outperformed the optimal reference model of soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA. Such a method can serve as a potential tool for rapid screening of melamine in milk products.

  20. [Progress in application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the study of ruminant nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xu-Sheng; Shang, Zhan-Huan; Fang, Xiang-Wen; Long, Rui-Jun

    2009-03-01

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has been widely used in the study of ruminant nutrition with many of its operational merits such as facility, shortcut and accuracy, etc. Study suggested that the standard error of cross-validation (SECV) ranges from 1.6% to 2.8% in predicting organic matter digestion of ruminant diet by using the NIRS technique; the chemical and biological compositions and the microbial protein proportion in the duodenal digesta can be predicted accurately using the NIRS. However, the kinetic parameters of degradation are not well predicted; The prediction of intake of stall feeding animals by using NIRS is similar to the determination of in vivo method, but the standard error of prediction is about 14% when using the NIRS to predict intake of grazing animals. All of the studies suggest that big progress has been made in using NIRS technique to predict feed digestion and evaluate the diet quality and intake of ruminant animals, which also suggest that the NIRS technique has a wide prospect in the study of ruminant nutrition.

  1. Neonatal hemodynamic response to visual cortex activity: high-density near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Steve M.; Gregg, Nick M.; White, Brian R.; Zeff, Benjamin W.; Bjerkaas, Katelin A.; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2010-03-01

    The neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants is a major clinical concern with many infants displaying neurobehavioral deficits in childhood. Functional neuroimaging may provide early recognition of neural deficits in high-risk infants. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the advantage of providing functional neuroimaging in infants at the bedside. However, limitations in traditional NIRS have included contamination from superficial vascular dynamics in the scalp. Furthermore, controversy exists over the nature of normal vascular, responses in infants. To address these issues, we extend the use of novel high-density NIRS arrays with multiple source-detector distances and a superficial signal regression technique to infants. Evaluations of healthy term-born infants within the first three days of life are performed without sedation using a visual stimulus. We find that the regression technique significantly improves brain activation signal quality. Furthermore, in six out of eight infants, both oxy- and total hemoglobin increases while deoxyhemoglobin decreases, suggesting that, at term, the neurovascular coupling in the visual cortex is similar to that found in healthy adults. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using high-density NIRS arrays in infants to improve signal quality through superficial signal regression, and provide a foundation for further development of high-density NIRS as a clinical tool.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  3. Detection of canine skin and subcutaneous tumors by visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugmas, Blaž; Plavec, Tanja; Bregar, Maksimilijan; Naglič, Peter; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is the main cause of canine morbidity and mortality. The existing evaluation of tumors requires an experienced veterinarian and usually includes invasive procedures (e.g., fine-needle aspiration) that can be unpleasant for the dog and the owner. We investigate visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) as a noninvasive optical technique for evaluation and detection of canine skin and subcutaneous tumors ex vivo and in vivo. The optical properties of tumors and skin were calculated in a spectrally constrained manner, using a lookup table-based inverse model. The obtained optical properties were analyzed and compared among different tumor groups. The calculated parameters of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were subsequently used for detection of malignant skin and subcutaneous tumors. The detection sensitivity and specificity of malignant tumors ex vivo were 90.0% and 73.5%, respectively, while corresponding detection sensitivity and specificity of malignant tumors in vivo were 88.4% and 54.6%, respectively. The obtained results show that the DRS is a promising noninvasive optical technique for detection and classification of malignant and benign canine skin and subcutaneous tumors. The method should be further investigated on tumors with common origin.

  4. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Shoulder muscle fatigue during repetitive tasks as measured by electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sue A; Allread, W Gary; Le, Peter; Rose, Joseph; Marras, William S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify shoulder muscle fatigue during repetitive exertions similar to motions found in automobile assembly tasks. Shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a common and costly problem in automotive manufacturing. Ten subjects participated in the study. There were three independent variables: shoulder angle, frequency, and force. There were two types of dependent measures: percentage change in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures and change in electromyography (EMG) median frequency. The anterior deltoid and trapezius muscles were measured for both NIRS and EMG. Also, EMG was collected on the middle deltoid and biceps muscles. The results showed that oxygenated hemoglobin decreased significantly due to the main effects (shoulder angle, frequency, and force). The percentage change in oxygenated hemoglobin had a significant interaction attributable to force and repetition for the anterior deltoid muscle, indicating that as repetition increased, the magnitude of the differences between the forces increased. The interaction of repetition and shoulder angle was also significant for the percentage change in oxygenated hemoglobin. The median frequency decreased significantly for the main effects; however, no interactions were statistically significant. There was significant shoulder muscle fatigue as a function of shoulder angle, task frequency, and force level. Furthermore, percentage change in oxygenated hemoglobin had two statistically significant interactions, enhancing our understanding of these risk factors. Ergonomists should examine interactions of force and repetition as well as shoulder angle and repetition when evaluating the risk of shoulder MSDs.

  6. Imaging Brain Function with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Unconstrained Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B. Balardin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the neural correlates of motor and cognitive processes under naturalistic experimentation is challenging due to the movement constraints of traditional brain imaging technologies. The recent advent of portable technologies that are less sensitive to motion artifacts such as Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS have been made possible the study of brain function in freely-moving participants. In this paper, we describe a series of proof-of-concept experiments examining the potential of fNIRS in assessing the neural correlates of cognitive and motor processes in unconstrained environments. We show illustrative applications for practicing a sport (i.e., table tennis, playing a musical instrument (i.e., piano and violin alone or in duo and performing daily activities for many hours (i.e., continuous monitoring. Our results expand upon previous research on the feasibility and robustness of fNIRS to monitor brain hemodynamic changes in different real life settings. We believe that these preliminary results showing the flexibility and robustness of fNIRS measurements may contribute by inspiring future work in the field of applied neuroscience.

  7. Estimation of the critical quality attributes for hydroxypropyl methylcellulose with near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingli; Nie, Lei; Li, Lian; Zang, Hengchang

    2017-04-01

    With the implementation of quality by design (QbD), critical attributes of raw material (drug substance and excipients) are of significantly importance in pharmaceutical manufacturing process. It is desirable for the quality control of critical material attributes (CMAs) of excipients to ensure the quality of end product. This paper explored the feasibility of an at-line method for the quantitative analysis of hydroxypropoxy group in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hydroxypropoxy group content can be seen as a CMA of HPMC for quality control. The partial least squares (PLS) model was built with 61 samples including 47 samples as calibration set, 14 samples as validation set by sample set partitioning based on joint x-y distances (SPXY) method. Multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) combined with Savitzkye-Golay (SG) smoothing with first derivative was used as the appropriate pretreatment method. Three variable selection methods including interval partial least-squares (iPLS), competitive adaptive reweighted Sampling (CARS), and the combination of the two methods (iPLS-CARS) were performed for optimizing the model. The results indicated that NIRS could predict rapidly and effectively the content of hydroxypropoxy group in HPMC. NIRS could be a potential method for the quality control of CMAs.

  8. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p<0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p<0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method.

  9. Fecal near infrared spectroscopy to discriminate physiological status in giant pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Wiedower

    Full Text Available Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca monitoring and research often require accurate estimates of population size and density. However, obtaining these estimates has been challenging. Innovative technologies, such as fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS, may be used to differentiate between sex, age class, and reproductive status as has been shown for several other species. The objective of this study was to determine if FNIRS could be similarly used for giant panda physiological discriminations. Based on samples from captive animals in four U.S. zoos, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 78% of samples from adult males, 81% from adult females, 85% from adults, 89% from juveniles, 75% from pregnant and 70% from non-pregnant females. However, diet had an impact on the success of the calibrations. When diet was controlled for plant part such that "leaf only" feces were evaluated, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 93% of samples from adult males and 95% from adult females. These data show that FNIRS has the potential to differentiate between the sex, age class, and reproductive status in the giant panda and may be applicable for surveying wild populations.

  10. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  11. Development of an oxygen saturation measuring system by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K.; Nakamachi, E.; Morita, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the hypoxia imaging has been recognized as the advanced technique to detect cancers because of a strong relationship with the biological characterization of cancer. In previous studies, hypoxia imaging systems for endoscopic diagnosis have been developed. However, these imaging technologies using the visible light can observe only blood vessels in gastric mucous membrane. Therefore, they could not detect scirrhous gastric cancer which accounts for 10% of all gastric cancers and spreads rapidly into submucous membrane. To overcome this problem, we developed a measuring system of blood oxygen saturation in submucous membrane by using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR, which has high permeability for bio-tissues and high absorbency for hemoglobin, can image and observe blood vessels in submucous membrane. NIR system with LED lights and a CCD camera module was developed to image blood vessels. We measured blood oxygen saturation using the optical density ratio (ODR) of two wavelengths, based on Lambert-Beer law. To image blood vessel clearly and measure blood oxygen saturation accurately, we searched two optimum wavelengths by using a multilayer human gastric-like phantom which has same optical properties as human gastric one. By using Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation, we derived the relationship between the ODR and blood oxygen saturation and elucidated the influence of blood vessel depth on measuring blood oxygen saturation. The oxygen saturation measuring methodology was validated with experiments using our NIR system. Finally, it was confirmed that our system can detect oxygen saturation in various depth blood vessels accurately.

  12. Identification of organic components and commercial grade dedication using Fourier Transform near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizian, H.

    2000-01-01

    The over all quality assurance programs for the design, fabrication, and construction of nuclear power plants, both in Canada and USA have long been established. A need for an acceptance process to allow the use of commercial grade items to be utilized in safety related applications has been recognized. A guideline in the EPRI NP-5652 report and in the Appendix D of the CAN3-N286.2-86 standard is outlined for testing of commercial grade components. A new nondestructive and cost effective NIR identification technology is now available to meet the above requirements. The Fourier Transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR), in the past, has shown to have the capabilities to identify cable insulation non-destructively and in-situ. This paper presents data to show the diversity of the NIR technology in the identification of three different non-metallic materials (wire insulation, 0-rings, and greases, all part of the operation of the safety related equipment) for the purposes of quality assurance, quality control, and the commercial grade dedication of components. The enhanced quality control and quality assurance will result in significant savings not only in testing but also in the continuous and reliable operations of power plants. (author)

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique to evaluate the effects of drugs in treating traumatic brain edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J; Qian, Z; Li, W; Hu, G; Yang, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several drugs in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) technology. Rats with TBE models were given hypertonic saline (HS), mannitol and mannitol+HS respectively for different groups. Light scattering properties of rat's local cortex was measured by NIRs within the wavelength range from 700 to 850 nm. TBE models were built in rats' left brains. The scattering properties of the right and left target corresponding to the position of normal and TBE tissue were measured and recorded in vivo and real-time by a bifurcated needle probe. The brain water contents (BWC) were measured by the wet and dry weight method after injury and treatment hours 1, 6, 24, 72 and 120. A marked linear relationship was observed between reduced scattering coefficient (μ s ') and BWC. By recording μ s ' of rats' brains, the entire progressions of effects of several drugs were observed. The result may suggest that the NIRs techniques have a potential for assessing effects in vivo and real-time on treatment of the brain injury.

  14. Field-scale predictions of soil contaminant sorption using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Hermansen, Cecilie; Knadel, Maria

    2016-01-01

    -near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy is an inexpensive and fast method, it has been used for predicting soil properties related to soil sorption capacity. In this study, we aimed to predict the spatial variation of Kd from vis-NIR spectra for two contaminants: phenanthrene (sorbed on organic fractions...... experiment. Soil samples were measured with a bench-top spectrometer covering the vis-NIR range between 400 nm and 2500 nm. Partial least squares regression with full cross-validation was used to correlate the soil spectra with Kd values and soil properties. The sorption coefficients ranged from 345 L kg-1....... By means of the vis-NIR spectra we were able to predict phenanthrene (R2 = 0.95, RMSECV = 31 L kg-1) and glyphosate (R2 = 0.79, RMSECV = 45 L kg-1) sorption capacities. A model using vis-NIR spectra plus pH values improved the prediction of glyphosate sorption capacity (R2 = 0.88, RMSECV = 34 L kg-1...

  15. Quality evaluation of regional forage resources by means of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of grassland and pasture samples collected during a three-year period at two environmentally andgeographically different areas were analysed by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS. Chemical analysis forcrude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADLand crude ash (ASH carried out on two-thirds of the samples were used in calibration processes. The remaining onethirdof the data was used to validate the best calibrations obtained. Samples selection is discussed. Different math pretreatments(derivative, gap, primary smoothing and secondary smoothing, light scattering correction methods and calibrationalgorithms were tested to achieve the better predictive performances. We obtained the best results using differentregression algorithms to correlate spectral information to chemical data. For CP (R2 = 0.94, SEP=1.3, NDF (R2 =0.95, SEP = 2.14 and ADF (R2 = 0.92, SEP=2.06 Multiple Linear Regression (MLR models fit chemical data better thanMean Partial Least Square (MPLS regression. A molecular basis explanation of wavelengths selected was carried out.MPLS models worked well for CF (R2 = 0.93, SEP=1.57, and ASH (R2 = 0.95, SEP=1.17 while poor calibrations wereobtained for ADL using both algorithms. To confirm the reliability of the models developed, uncertainties of predictionswere compared with findings on nutritional variations and animal performances.

  16. Investigation of rat breast tumour oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yulin; Kim, Jae G; Mason, Ralph P; Liu, Hanli

    2005-01-01

    This study develops a mathematical model for calculating the tumour oxygen consumption rate and investigates the correlation with tumour volume. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to measure changes of oxygenated haemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO 2 ]) before and after potassium chloride (KCl) induced cardiac arrest. Measurements were made in five 13762NF mammary adenocarcinomas implanted in female adult Fisher 344 rats, while the anaesthetized rats breathed air. After 5-10 min of baseline NIRS measurement, KCl overdose was administered intravenously in the tail. NIRS showed a significant drop in tumour vascular oxygenation immediately following KCl induced cardiac arrest. The tumour oxygen consumption rate was calculated by fitting the model to the measured Δ[HbO 2 ] data, and a relationship between the tumour oxygen consumption rate and tumour volume was analysed using linear regression. A strong negative linear relationship was found between the mean tumour oxygen consumption rate and tumour volume. This study demonstrates that the NIRS can provide an efficient and real-time approach to quantify tumour oxygen consumption rate, while further development is required to make it non-invasive

  17. Dynamic time warping-based averaging framework for functional near-infrared spectroscopy brain imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the problem related to the averaging procedure in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging studies. Typically, to reduce noise and to empower the signal strength associated with task-induced activities, recorded signals (e.g., in response to repeated stimuli or from a group of individuals) are averaged through a point-by-point conventional averaging technique. However, due to the existence of variable latencies in recorded activities, the use of the conventional averaging technique can lead to inaccuracies and loss of information in the averaged signal, which may result in inaccurate conclusions about the functionality of the brain. To improve the averaging accuracy in the presence of variable latencies, we present an averaging framework that employs dynamic time warping (DTW) to account for the temporal variation in the alignment of fNIRS signals to be averaged. As a proof of concept, we focus on the problem of localizing task-induced active brain regions. The framework is extensively tested on experimental data (obtained from both block design and event-related design experiments) as well as on simulated data. In all cases, it is shown that the DTW-based averaging technique outperforms the conventional-based averaging technique in estimating the location of task-induced active regions in the brain, suggesting that such advanced averaging methods should be employed in fNIRS brain imaging studies.

  18. Rapid determination of hyaluronic acid concentration in fermentation broth with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Dong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA concentration is an important parameter in fermentation process. Currently, carbazole assay is widely used for HA content determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, environment polluting and has the risk of microbial contamination, as well as the results lag behind fermentation process. This paper attempted the feasibility to predict the concentration of HA in fermentation broth by using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy in transmission mode. In this work, a total of 56 samples of fermentation broth from 7 batches were analyzed, which contained HA in the range of 2.35–9.69 g/L. Different data preprocessing methods were applied to construct calibration models. The final optimal model was obtained with first derivative using Savitzky–Golay smoothing (9 points window, second-order polynomial and partial least squares (PLS regression with leave-one-block-out cross validation. The correlation coefficient and Root Mean Square Error of prediction set is 0.98 and 0.43 g/L, respectively, which show the possibility of NIR as a rapid method for microanalysis and to be a promising tool for a rapid assay in HA fermentation.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback of prefrontal cortex activity: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Barth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a promising tool for treatment and rehabilitation of several patient groups. In this proof of principle study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS based neurofeedback of frontal cortical areas was investigated in healthy adults. Main aims were the assessment of learning, the effects on performance in a working memory (n-back task and the impact of applied strategies on regulation.13 healthy participants underwent 8 sessions of NIRS based neurofeedback within two weeks to learn to voluntarily up-regulate hemodynamic activity in prefrontal areas. An n-back task in pre-/post measurements was used to monitor neurocognitive changes. Mean oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb amplitudes over the course of the sessions as well as during the n-back task were evaluated. 12 out of 13 participants were able to regulate their frontal hemodynamic response via NIRS neurofeedback. However, no systematic learning effects were observed in frontal O2Hb amplitudes over the training course in our healthy sample. We found an impact of applied strategies in only 5 out of 13 subjects. Regarding the n-back task, neurofeedback appeared to induce more focused and specific brain activation compared to pre-training measurement. NIRS based neurofeedback is a feasible and potentially effective method, with an impact on activation patterns in a working memory task. Ceiling effects might explain the lack of a systematic learning pattern in healthy subjects. Clinical studies are needed to show effects in patients exhibiting pathological deviations in prefrontal function.

  20. Neurofeedback using real-time near-infrared spectroscopy enhances motor imagery related cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Mihara

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that motor imagery and motor execution share common neural networks. Accordingly, mental practices in the form of motor imagery have been implemented in rehabilitation regimes of stroke patients with favorable results. Because direct monitoring of motor imagery is difficult, feedback of cortical activities related to motor imagery (neurofeedback could help to enhance efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a real-time neurofeedback system mediated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, two separate experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was used in five subjects to evaluate whether real-time cortical oxygenated hemoglobin signal feedback during a motor execution task correlated with reference hemoglobin signals computed off-line. Results demonstrated that the NIRS-mediated neurofeedback system reliably detected oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes in real-time. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects performed motor imagery of finger movements with feedback from relevant cortical signals and irrelevant sham signals. Real neurofeedback induced significantly greater activation of the contralateral premotor cortex and greater self-assessment scores for kinesthetic motor imagery compared with sham feedback. These findings suggested the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a NIRS-mediated real-time neurofeedback system on performance of kinesthetic motor imagery. However, these results warrant further clinical trials to determine whether this system could enhance the effects of mental practice in stroke patients.

  1. Measurement of oxyhemoglobin concentration changes in interstitial cystitis female patients: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shinya; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Homma, Yukio

    2015-07-01

    To investigate brain activity related to bladder sensation in interstitial cystitis patients. A total of 10 interstitial cystitis patients (all women; mean age 68 years) and 10 healthy controls (all women; mean age 64 years) participated in the present study. Frontal lobe blood flow was measured non-invasively by using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy with large and small bladder volumes (created by infusing water) up to the first desire to void. The frontal cortex of the right and left hemisphere was activated, and the activation was detected as an increase in oxyhemoglobin concentration. The increase during the first desire to void in the interstitial cystitis group was greater than that in the control group. In addition, this difference was particularly observed in Brodmann's areas 9, 44, 45 and 46, reportedly associated with micturition and sensory modulation. The present study shows that the frontal area is largely activated during bladder filling in interstitial cystitis patients. Our findings suggest that the major change in cerebral blood flow is related to the characteristic urinary symptoms of interstitial cystitis patients. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Characterization of herbal powder blends homogeneity using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of powder blend is essential to obtain uniform contents for the tablets and capsules. Near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy with fiber-optic probe was used as an on-line technique for monitoring the homogeneity of pharmaceutical blend during the blending process instead of the traditional techniques, such as high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC method. In this paper NIRS with a SabIR diffuse reflectance fiber-optic probe was used to monitor the blending process of coptis powder and lactose (excipient with different contents, and further qualitative methods, like similarity, moving block of standard deviation and mean square were used for calculation purposes with the collected spectra after the pretreatment of multiplicative signal correction (MSC and second derivative. Correlation spectrum was used for the wavelength selection. Four different coptis were blended with lactose separately to validate the proposed method, and the blending process of "liu wei di huang" pill was also simulated in bottles to verify this method on multiple herbal blends. The overall results suggest that NIRS is a simple, effective and noninvasive technique can be successfully applied to the determination of homogeneity in the herbal blend.

  3. Comparison of gas chromotography, spectrophotometry and near infrared spectroscopy to quantify prussic acid potential in forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Ben M; Moore, Kenneth J; Fales, Steven L; Pedersen, Jeffery F

    2011-06-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been shown to contain the cyanogenic glycoside dhurrin, which is responsible for the disorder known as prussic acid poisoning in livestock. The current standard method for estimating hydrogen cyanide (HCN) uses spectrophotometry to measure the aglycone, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (p-HB), after hydrolysis. Errors may occur due to the inability of this method to solely estimate the absorbance of p-HB at a given wavelength. The objective of this study was to compare the use of gas chromatography (GC) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods, along with a spectrophotometry method to estimate the potential for prussic acid (HCNp) of sorghum and sudangrasses over three stages maturities. It was shown that the GC produced higher HCNp estimates than the spectrophotometer for the grain sorghums, but lower concentrations for the sudangrass. Based on what is known about the analytical process of each method, the GC data is likely closer to the true HCNp concentrations of the forages. Both the GC and spectrophotometry methods yielded robust equations with the NIRS method; however, using GC as the calibration method resulted in more accurate and repeatable estimates. The HCNp values obtained from using the GC quantification method are believed to be closer to the actual values of the forage, and that use of this method will provide a more accurate and easily automated means of quantifying prussic acid. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of green coffee beans quality using near infrared spectroscopy: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Rodrigo; Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Rangel, António O S S; Lopes, João A

    2012-12-01

    Characterisation of coffee quality based on bean quality assessment is associated with the relative amount of defective beans among non-defective beans. It is therefore important to develop a methodology capable of identifying the presence of defective beans that enables a fast assessment of coffee grade and that can become an analytical tool to standardise coffee quality. In this work, a methodology for quality assessment of green coffee based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is proposed. NIRS is a green chemistry, low cost, fast response technique without the need of sample processing. The applicability of NIRS was evaluated for Arabica and Robusta varieties from different geographical locations. Partial least squares regression was used to relate the NIR spectrum to the mass fraction of defective and non-defective beans. Relative errors around 5% show that NIRS can be a valuable analytical tool to be used by coffee roasters, enabling a simple and quantitative evaluation of green coffee quality in a fast way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Cell Wall Chemical Variation in Zea Mays Mutants Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyck, N.; Thomas, S.

    2001-01-01

    Corn stover is regarded as the prime candidate feedstock material for commercial biomass conversion in the United States. Variations in chemical composition of Zea mays cell walls can affect biomass conversion process yields and economics. Mutant lines were constructed by activating a Mu transposon system. The cell wall chemical composition of 48 mutant families was characterized using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR data were analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA of the NIR data from 349 maize leaf samples reveals 57 individuals as outliers on one or more of six Principal Components (PCs) at the 95% confidence interval. Of these, 19 individuals from 16 families are outliers on either PC3 (9% of the variation) or PC6 (1% of the variation), the two PCs that contain information about cell wall polymers. Those individuals for which altered cell wall chemistry is confirmed with wet chemical analysis will then be subjected to fermentation analysis to determine whether or not biomass conversion process kinetics, yields and/or economics are significantly affected. Those mutants that provide indications for a decrease in process cost will be pursued further to identify the gene(s) responsible for the observed changes in cell wall composition and associated changes in process economics. These genes will eventually be incorporated into maize breeding programs directed at the development of a truly dual use crop.

  6. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, M. Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M.; Coello, M. Carmen; Palacios Riocerezo, Carlos; Wells Moncada, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. PMID:26540058

  7. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inmaculada González-Martín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions. The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53, calcium (0.83, 94, iron (0.69, 134 potassium (0.95, 117, magnesium (0.70, 99, phosphorus (0.94, 24 zinc (0.87, 10 chromium (0.48, 0.6 nickel (0.52, 0.7 copper (0.64, 0.9 and lead (0.70, 2 in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  8. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy with CT cerebral blood flow measurements in newborn piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek W.; Picot, Paul A.; Springett, Roger; Delpy, David T.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    Severely premature infants are often at high risk of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemic injury due to their inability to properly regulate blood flow to the brain. If blood flow is too high, the infant is at risk of cerebral hemorrhage, while too little blood flow can result in ischemic injury. The purpose of this research is to design and develop a means of non-invasively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Such a device would greatly aid the diagnosis and monitoring of afflicted infants. Previous attempts to measure CBF with NIRS have achieved limited success. In this study we acquired high signal-to-noise NIR spectrum from 600 to 980 nm with a cooled CCD spectrometer. This spectrometer enables the differential path length factor (DPF) to be estimated with accuracy using a second derivative technique described by Matcher et al. The validity of our new approach is determined via direct comparison with a previously validated computed tomography (CT) method. Three newborn piglets were studied. CBF measurements were performed at various partial arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) using both the NIRS and CT methods. The results of the two methods correlate well with a relationship of CBFCT equals -4.30 + 1.05 CBFNIRS (r2 equals 0.96).

  9. Monitoring brain temperature by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsheshi, Mohammad Fazel; Diop, Mamadou; St. Lawrence, Keith; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2014-05-01

    Mild hypothermia (HT) is an effective neuroprotective strategy for a variety of acute brain injuries. However, the wide clinical adaptation of HT has been hampered by the lack of a reliable noninvasive method for measuring brain temperature, since core measurements have been shown to not always reflect brain temperature. The goal of this work was to develop a noninvasive optical technique for measuring brain temperature that exploits both the temperature dependency of water absorption and the high concentration of water in brain (80%-90%). Specifically, we demonstrate the potential of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS) to measure temperature in tissue-mimicking phantoms (in vitro) and deep brain tissue (in vivo) during heating and cooling, respectively. For deep brain tissue temperature monitoring, experiments were conducted on newborn piglets wherein hypothermia was induced by gradual whole body cooling. Brain temperature was concomitantly measured by TR-NIRS and a thermocouple probe implanted in the brain. Our proposed TR-NIRS method was able to measure the temperature of tissue-mimicking phantoms and brain tissues with a correlation of 0.82 and 0.66 to temperature measured with a thermometer, respectively. The mean difference between the TR-NIRS and thermometer measurements was 0.15°C±1.1°C for the in vitro experiments and 0.5°C±1.6°C for the in vivo measurements.

  10. Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Carmen; Biallas, Martin; Trajkovic, Ivo; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Early detection of cerebral hypoxemia is an important aim in neonatology. A relevant parameter to assess brain oxygenation may be the cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). So far the reproducibility of StO2 measurements was too low for clinical application, probably due to inhomogeneities. The aim of this study was to test a novel sensor geometry which reduces the influence of inhomogeneities. Thirty clinically stable newborn infants, with a gestational age of median 33.9 (range 26.9 to 41.9) weeks, birth weight of 2220 (820 to 4230) g, postnatal age of 5 (1 to 71) days were studied. At least four StO2 measurements of 1 min duration were carried out using NIRS on the lateral head. The sensor was repositioned between measurements. Reproducibility was calculated by a linear mixed effects model. The mean StO2 was 79.99 +/- 4.47% with a reproducibility of 2.76% and a between-infant variability of 4.20%. Thus, the error of measurement only accounts for 30.1% of the variability. The novel sensor geometry leads to considerably more precise measurements compared to previous studies with, e.g., ~5% reproducibility for the NIRO 300. The novel StO2 values hence have a higher clinical relevance.

  11. A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study of the effects of configural properties on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Joux, Neil R; Wilson, Kyle M; Russell, Paul N; Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Helton, William S

    2017-01-08

    Forty-five participants performed a vigilance task during which they were required to respond to a critical signal at a local feature level, while the global display was altered between groups (either a circle, a circle broken apart and reversed, or a reconnected figure). The shape in two of the groups formed a configurative whole (the circle and reconnected conditions), while the remaining shape had no complete global element (broken circle). Performance matched the results found in the previous experiments using this stimulus set, where a configural superiority effect was found to influence accuracy over time. Physiological data, measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, revealed elevated activation in the right pre-frontal cortex compared to the left pre-frontal cortex during the task. Additionally, bilateral activation was found in the conditions that formed configurative wholes, while hemispheric differences over time were found in the condition that did not. These findings suggest that configural aspects of stimuli may explain why non-typical laterality effects have been found in similar research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coregistering functional near-infrared spectroscopy with underlying cortical areas in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Richards, John E.; Blasi, Anna; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Elwell, Clare E.; Johnson, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is becoming a popular tool in developmental neuroscience for mapping functional localized brain responses. However, as it cannot provide information about underlying anatomy, researchers have begun to conduct spatial registration of fNIRS channels to cortical anatomy in adults. The current work investigated this issue with infants by coregistering fNIRS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 55 individuals. Our findings suggest that fNIRS channels can be reliably registered with regions in the frontal and temporal cortex of infants from 4 to 7 months of age. Although some macro-anatomical regions are difficult to consistently define, others are more stable and fNIRS channels on an age-appropriate MRI template are often consistent with individual infant MRIs. We have generated a standardized scalp surface map of fNIRS channel locators to reliably locate cortical regions for fNIRS developmental researchers. This new map can be used to identify the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal sulcus (STS) region [which includes the superior and middle temporal gyri (MTG) nearest to the STS], and MTG and temporal-parietal regions in 4- to 7-month-old infants. Future work will model data for the whole head, taking into account the properties of light transport in tissue, and expanding to different ages across development. PMID:25558463

  13. Sex differences in prefrontal hemodynamic response to mental arithmetic as assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhenyu; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Wang, Yiwen; Lu, Zuhong

    2009-12-01

    Sex differences in cognitive tasks have been widely investigated. With brain-imaging techniques, the functions of the brain during the performance of tasks can be examined. Mental arithmetic and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to assess sex differences in prefrontal area activation in a functional brain study. Healthy college students were recruited to perform 2 mental arithmetic tasks. In the first (easy) task, students had to subtract a 1-digit number from a 3-digit number. In the second (difficult) task, they had to subtract a 2-digit number from a 3-digit number. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hgb) in the prefrontal area during the tasks were measured with NIRS. Thirty students (15 men, 15 women; mean [SD] age: 24.9 [2.2] and 24.3 [2.6] years, respectively) were recruited from Southeast University, Nanjing, China, to participate in the study. The concentration of oxy-Hgb increased during both mental arithmetic tasks (difficult task vs easy task, mean [SD] % arbitrary units: 4.36 [4.38] vs 2.26 [2.82]; F(1,28) = 222.80; P mental arithmetic were associated with the intensity of the task. Compared with men, women had greater efficiency in task performance (ie, less activation or oxygen consumption for equal performance). Copyright 2009 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Near infrared spectroscopy for controlling the quality of distal leg perfusion in remote access cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Bonatti, Johannes; Kolbitsch, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The prevention of leg ischemia is necessary in all patients undergoing femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal circulation. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygen saturation. Ten patients underwent robotically assisted endoscopic coronary surgery or ASD repair on the arrested heart using aortic endo-occlusion catheters. They were monitored by transcutaneous NIRS (placed on both lower legs) for quality control of distal leg perfusion during femoral access cardiopulmonary bypass. The baseline NIRS values were 61 (52-80) on the cannulated side versus 70 (53-80) on the contralateral leg (p=n.s.). During clamping of the femoral artery for installation of the remote access perfusion system the tissue oxygen saturation dropped to 38 (18-58) (p=0.001 vs baseline) while it remained stable on the contralateral leg. After successful implantation of the distal leg perfusion the NIRS values normalized to similar amounts on both legs. We conclude that transcutaneous NIRS of the lower legs might be a useful non-invasive tool for monitoring leg perfusion in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation via the femoral vessels.

  15. Quantitative analysis and detection of adulteration in pork using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuxia; Cheng, Fang; Xie, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Authenticity is an important food quality criterion. Rapid methods for confirming authenticity or detecting adulteration are increasingly demanded by food processors and consumers. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to detect economic adulteration in pork . Pork samples were adulterated with liver and chicken in 10% increments. Prediction and quantitative analysis were done using raw data and pretreatment spectra. The optimal prediction result was achieved by partial least aquares(PLS) regression with standard normal variate(SNV) pretreatment for pork adulterated with liver samples, and the correlation coefficient(R value), the root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.97706, 0.0673 and 0.0732, respectively. The best model for pork meat adulterated with chicken samples was obtained by PLS with the raw spectra, and the correlation coefficient(R value), RMSEP and RMSEC were 0.98614, 0.0525, and 0.122, respectively. The result shows that NIR technology can be successfully used to detect adulteration in pork meat adulterated with liver and chicken.

  16. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives, providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability.

  17. Direct determination of moisture in powder milk using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R; Singh, Parul; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2006-01-01

    Moisture content in commercially available milk powder was investigated using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with an Indian low-cost dispersive NIR spectrophotometer. Different packets of milk powder of the same batch were procured from the market. Forty-five samples with moisture range 4-10% were prepared in the laboratory. Spectra of the samples were collected in the wavelength region 800-2500 nm. Moisture values of all the samples were simultaneously determined by Karl Fischer (KF) titration. These KF values were used as reference for developing calibration model using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The calibration and validation statistics are R cal2:0.9942, RMSEC:0.1040, and R val2:0.9822, RMSEV:0.1730. Five samples of unknown moisture contents were taken for NIR prediction using developed calibration model. The agreement between NIR predicted results and those of Karl Fischer values is appreciable. The result shows that the instrument can be successfully used for the determination of moisture content in milk powder.

  18. Moisture assay of an antifungal by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunko, Adam; Dovletoglou, Angelos

    2002-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was employed in the method development and validation of a moisture assay for the novel antifungal caspofungin acetate. Spectra were obtained over the entire spectral region available (950-1650 nm) using an InGaAs photodiode array detector equipped with a diffuse reflectance probe. No sample pre-treatment was required and the analysis time was less than 1 min. Primary reference data were obtained using a Karl Fischer (KF) titration (coulometric, volumetric or both). The investigated range of water content was 2.6-9.9% (w/w) with a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.2%. The predictive capabilities of the partial least-squares (PLS) regression calibration model used in the moisture assay were verified using independent test sets. The NIR predicted values of the developed method were equivalent to the reference method sets and the prediction error was equivalent to the reference method error. These results reveal that the predictive model constructed by means of a PLS regression is valid, rugged and could be used to determine moisture levels on-line in caspofungin acetate drug substance.

  19. Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

    We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

  20. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  1. Cortical activation pattern during shoulder simple versus vibration exercises: a functional near infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex. During shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise, cortical activation was observed in SM1 (total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex. Higher oxygenated hemoglobin values were also observed in the areas of arm somatotopy of SM1 compared with those of other regions of interest. However, no significant difference in the arm somatotopy of SM1 was observed between the two exercises. By contrast, in the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1, shoulder vibration exercise led to a significantly higher oxy-hemoglobin value than shoulder simple exercise. These two exercises may result in cortical activation effects for the motor areas relevant to the shoulder exercise, especially in the arm somatotopy of SM1. However, shoulder vibration exercise has an additional cortical activation effect for the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1.

  2. Chemical characteristics and mineral composition of quinoa by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Martín, M Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; Fischer, Susana; Escuredo, Olga

    2014-03-30

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been traditionally used as a foodstuff in the Andes and it has gained increasing interest in recent years owing to its high nutritional value. The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for estimating chemical compounds in quinoa was studied because of the possibility of conducting direct measurement without prior sample treatment. The use of NIRS technology with a remote reflectance fiber-optic probe for the analysis of major compounds and mineral composition of 48 quinoa samples was studied. The calibration of the NIRS instrument was conducted using modified partial least squares (MPLS) analysis. This allowed the determination of protein (16.0-20.2 g 100g⁻¹), crude fiber (1.8-3.1 g 100g⁻¹), fat (4.4-7.5 g 100g⁻¹), calcium (298.8-1164.5 mg kg⁻¹), iron (0-948.5 mg kg⁻¹) and phosphorus (2735.0-4543.3 mg kg⁻¹). The correlation coefficients (RSQ) were 0.83 for protein, 0.73 for crude fiber, 0.93 for fat; 0.60 for calcium; 0.76 for iron and 0.75 for phosphorus. The robustness of the equations obtained was verified by external validation on unknown quinoa samples. NIRS with fiber-optic probe provides an alternative for the determination of chemical compounds of quinoa, faster and at lower cost, with results comparable with chemical methods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for adaptive human-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Beste F.; Peck, Evan M.; Afergan, Daniel; Hincks, Samuel W.; Shibata, Tomoki; Kainerstorfer, Jana; Tgavalekos, Kristen; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Jacob, Robert J. K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a brain-computer interface (BCI) that detects, analyzes and responds to user cognitive state in real-time using machine learning classifications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. Our work is aimed at increasing the narrow communication bandwidth between the human and computer by implicitly measuring users' cognitive state without any additional effort on the part of the user. Traditionally, BCIs have been designed to explicitly send signals as the primary input. However, such systems are usually designed for people with severe motor disabilities and are too slow and inaccurate for the general population. In this paper, we demonstrate with previous work1 that a BCI that implicitly measures cognitive workload can improve user performance and awareness compared to a control condition by adapting to user cognitive state in real-time. We also discuss some of the other applications we have used in this field to measure and respond to cognitive states such as cognitive workload, multitasking, and user preference.

  4. Prefrontal activation during two Japanese Stroop tasks revealed with multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yukina; Sumitani, Satsuki; Hosokawa, Mai; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is sometimes used in psychiatric research to elicit prefrontal activity, which presumably reflects cognitive functioning. Although there are two Stroop tasks (Kana script and Kanji script) in Japan, it is unclear whether these tasks elicit the same hemoglobin changes. Moreover, it is unclear whether psychological conditions or characteristics influence hemoglobin changes in the Japanese Stroop task. The aim of this study was to clarify whether hemoglobin changes elicited by the two Japanese Stroop tasks accurately reflected cognitive functioning. Hemoglobin changes were measured with multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 100 healthy Japanese participants performing two Japanese Stroop tasks. The Beck-Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) were administered to participants to identify psychological conditions or personality characteristics. Compared with the Kanji task, the Kana task produced a greater Stroop effect and a larger increase in oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration. Moreover there were no significant correlations between oxy-Hb concentration and BDI, STAI-trait, STAI-state, or MOCI scores. Therefore we found that a participant's psychological conditions or characteristics did not influence the hemodynamic changes during either task. These data suggest the Kana Stroop task is more useful than the Kanji Stroop task for NIRS studies in psychiatric research.

  5. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task through near-infrared spectroscopy-based connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing and promising functional brain imaging technology. Developing data analysis methods to effectively extract meaningful information from collected data is the major bottleneck in popularizing this technology. In this study, we measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a color-word matching Stroop task using NIRS. Hemispheric lateralization was examined by employing traditional activation and novel NIRS-based connectivity analyses simultaneously. Wavelet transform coherence was used to assess intrahemispheric functional connectivity. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between behavioral performance and activation/functional connectivity, respectively. In agreement with activation analysis, functional connectivity analysis revealed leftward lateralization for the Stroop effect and correlation with behavioral performance. However, functional connectivity was more sensitive than activation for identifying hemispheric lateralization. Granger causality was used to evaluate the effective connectivity between hemispheres. The results showed increased information flow from the left to the right hemispheres for the incongruent versus the neutral task, indicating a leading role of the left PFC. This study demonstrates that the NIRS-based connectivity can reveal the functional architecture of the brain more comprehensively than traditional activation, helping to better utilize the advantages of NIRS.

  6. Similarity analysis of functional connectivity with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmis, Mehmet Ufuk; Akin, Ata

    2015-08-01

    One of the remaining challenges in functional connectivity (FC) studies is investigation of the temporal variability of FC networks. Recent studies focusing on the dynamic FC mostly use functional magnetic resonance imaging as an imaging tool to investigate the temporal variability of FC. We attempted to quantify this variability via analyzing the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals, which were recorded from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 12 healthy subjects during a Stroop test. Mutual information was used as a metric to determine functional connectivity between PFC regions. Two-dimensional correlation based similarity measure was used as a method to analyze within-subject and intersubject consistency of FC maps and how they change in time. We found that within-subject consistency (0.61±0.09 ) is higher than intersubject consistency (0.28±0.13 ). Within-subject consistency was not found to be task-specific. Results also revealed that there is a gradual change in FC patterns during a Stroop session for congruent and neutral conditions, where there is no such trend in the presence of an interference effect. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the between-subject, within-subject, and temporal variability of FC and the feasibility of using fNIRS for studying dynamic FC.

  7. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Bladder: New Parameters for Evaluating Voiding Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Macnab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe innovative methodology for monitoring alterations in bladder oxygenation and haemodynamics in humans using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Concentrations of the chromophores oxygenated (O2Hb and deoxygenated (HHb haemoglobin and their sum (total haemoglobin differ during bladder contraction in health and disease. A wireless device that incorporates three paired light emitting diodes (wavelengths 760 and 850 nanometers and silicon photodiode detector collects data transcutaneously (10 Hz with the emitter/detector over the bladder during spontaneous bladder emptying. Data analysis indicates comparable patterns of change in chromophore concentration in healthy children and adults (positive trend during voiding, predominantly due to elevated O2Hb, but different changes in symptomatic subjects with characteristic chromophore patterns identified for voiding dysfunction due to specific pathophysiologies: bladder outlet obstruction (males, overactive bladder (females, and nonneurogenic dysfunction (children. Comparison with NIRS muscle data suggests altered bladder haemodynamics and/or oxygenation may underlie voiding dysfunction offering new insight into the causal physiology.

  8. Slow spontaneous hemodynamic oscillations during sleep measured with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Näsi, Tiina; Noponen, Tommi; Toppila, Jussi; Salmi, Tapani; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2011-07-01

    Spontaneous cerebral hemodynamic oscillations below 100 mHz reflect the level of cerebral activity, modulate hemodynamic responses to tasks and stimuli, and may aid in detecting various pathologies of the brain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is ideally suited for both measuring spontaneous hemodynamic oscillations and monitoring sleep, but little research has been performed to combine these two applications. We analyzed 30 all-night NIRS-electroencephalography (EEG) sleep recordings to investigate spontaneous hemodynamic activity relative to sleep stages determined by polysomnography. Signal power of hemodynamic oscillations in the low-frequency (LF, 40-150 mHz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-40 mHz) bands decreased in slow-wave sleep (SWS) compared to light sleep (LS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. No statistically significant (p sleep in line with earlier studies with other modalities. These results increase our knowledge of the physiology of sleep, complement EEG data, and demonstrate the applicability of NIRS to studying spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations during sleep.

  9. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Heavy Fuel Oils Using a New Diffusing Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Nathalie; Brahem, Zeineb; Amat, Sandrine; Kister, Jacky

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of heavy fuel oils (HFOs), used as fuel for boats, requires the analysis of various properties that are essential for engine optimization and pollution control. For some time, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric treatment of the spectra was used for on-line analysis. This preliminary study included 61 heavy fuels from Europe, America, and Asia with different specifications according to their geographical origin; their refining process; and their physicochemical properties, including density, flash point, viscosity, and sulfur content. We have developed a new method for sampling heavy fuels on a fiberglass cell support. This support offers the advantages of speed, easy implementation, repeatable results, and freedom from problems associated with tank cleaning. Two sample presentations, an integrating sphere and an optical fiber, were used to collect the NIR spectra. A theoretical study of the choice of the value of resolution, scan number, and spectral region was conducted. The best conditions were chosen as a function of the quality of quantitative analysis results on viscosity, sulfur content, flash point, and density. The two collecting methods were compared on the same criteria.

  10. Metabolic inflexibility in individuals with obesity assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan M

    2017-11-01

    To non-invasively evaluate differences in oxidative metabolism in individuals with obesity compared to normal weight using the near-infrared spectroscopy and vascular occlusion technique during hyperglycaemia. In all, 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index: 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index: 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) had five vascular occlusion tests (pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose ingestion). Oxygen utilization was estimated from the area under the curve of the deoxyhemoglobin [HHb] signal during occlusion. Muscle reperfusion was derived from the area above the curve after cuff release. The deoxyhemoglobin area under the curve during occlusion of the normal-weight individuals increased from 15,732 ± 2344 (% . s) at pre to 18,930 ± 3226 (% . s) ( p obesity. This study confirmed in vivo and non-invasively the metabolic inflexibility of skeletal muscle in individuals with obesity during hyperglycaemia.

  11. Characterizing emotional response to music in the prefrontal cortex using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Saba; Kushki, Azadeh; Guerguerian, Anne Marie; Chau, Tom

    2012-09-06

    Known to be involved in emotional processing the human prefrontal cortex (PFC), can be non-invasively monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). As such, PFC NIRS can serve as a means for studying emotional processing by the PFC. Identifying patterns associated with emotions in PFC using NIRS may provide a means of bedside emotion identification for nonverbal children and youth with severe physical disabilities. In this study, NIRS was used to characterize the PFC hemodynamic response to emotional arousal and valence in a music-based emotion induction paradigm in 9 individuals without disabilities or known health conditions. In particular, a novel technique based on wavelet-based peak detection was used to characterize chromophore concentration patterns. The maximum wavelet coefficients extracted from oxygenated hemoglobin concentration waveforms from all nine recording locations on the PFC were significantly associated with emotional valence and arousal. Specifically, high arousal and negative emotions were associated with larger maximum wavelet coefficients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies and electroencephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Yu; Cheng Ran; Dong Lixin; Yu Guoqiang [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, KY (United States); Ryan, Stephen J [Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, KY (United States); Saha, Sibu P, E-mail: guoqiang.yu@uky.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Kentucky, KY (United States)

    2011-05-21

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) provides essential information for detecting cerebral hypoperfusion induced by temporary internal carotid artery (ICA) clamping and post-CEA hyperperfusion syndrome. This study tests the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel dual-wavelength near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy technique in detecting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing CEA. Two fiber-optic probes were taped on both sides of the forehead for cerebral hemodynamic measurements, and the instantaneous decreases in CBF and electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha-band power during ICA clamping were compared to test the measurement sensitivities of the two techniques. The ICA clamps resulted in significant CBF decreases (-24.7 {+-} 7.3%) accompanied with cerebral deoxygenation at the surgical sides (n = 12). The post-CEA CBF were significantly higher (+43.2 {+-} 16.9%) than the pre-CEA CBF. The CBF responses to ICA clamping were significantly faster, larger and more sensitive than EEG responses. Simultaneous monitoring of CBF, cerebral oxygenation and EEG power provides a comprehensive evaluation of cerebral physiological status, thus showing potential for the adoption of acute interventions (e.g., shunting, medications) during CEA to reduce the risks of severe cerebral ischemia and cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome.

  13. Variable selection based near infrared spectroscopy quantitative and qualitative analysis on wheat wet gluten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Jiang, Xunpeng; Zhou, Xingfan; Zhang, Yinqiao; Zhang, Naiqian; Wei, Chongfeng; Mao, Wenhua

    2017-10-01

    Wet gluten is a useful quality indicator for wheat, and short wave near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a high performance technique with the advantage of economic rapid and nondestructive test. To study the feasibility of short wave NIRS analyzing wet gluten directly from wheat seed, 54 representative wheat seed samples were collected and scanned by spectrometer. 8 spectral pretreatment method and genetic algorithm (GA) variable selection method were used to optimize analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative model of wet gluten were built by partial least squares regression and discriminate analysis. For quantitative analysis, normalization is the optimized pretreatment method, 17 wet gluten sensitive variables are selected by GA, and GA model performs a better result than that of all variable model, with R2V=0.88, and RMSEV=1.47. For qualitative analysis, automatic weighted least squares baseline is the optimized pretreatment method, all variable models perform better results than those of GA models. The correct classification rates of 3 class of 30% wet gluten content are 95.45, 84.52, and 90.00%, respectively. The short wave NIRS technique shows potential for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of wet gluten for wheat seed.

  14. Gender difference in spontaneous deception: A hyperscanning study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew; Yu, Dongchuan

    2017-08-08

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the neural basis of deception involves a network of regions including the medial frontal cortex (MFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), etc. However, to test the actual activity of the brain in the act of deceptive practice itself, existing studies have mainly adopted paradigms of passive deception, where participants are told to lie in certain conditions, and have focused on intra-brain mechanisms in single participants. In order to examine the neural substrates underlying more natural, spontaneous deception in real social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a two-person gambling card-game. We demonstrated higher TPJ activation in deceptive compared to honest acts. Analysis of participants' inter-brain correlation further revealed that the STS is uniquely involved in deception but not in honesty, especially in females. These results suggest that the STS may play a critical role in spontaneous deception due to mentalizing requirements relating to modulating opponents' thoughts. To our knowledge, this study was the first to investigate such inter-brain correlates of deception in real face-to-face interactions, and thus is hoped to provide a new path for future complex social behavior research.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in perennial ryegrass using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Barajas, Milton C; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo; González-Martin, Inmaculada; Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R

    2017-11-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in forage quality control because it is faster, cleaner and less expensive than conventional chemical procedures. In Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), one of the most important forage grasses, the infection by asymptomatic Epichloë fungal endophytes alters the plant nutritional quality due to the production of alkaloids. In this research, we developed a rapid method based on NIRS to detect and quantify endophyte alkaloids (peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline) using a heterogeneous set of L. perenne plants obtained from wild grasslands and cultivars. NIR spectra from dried grass samples were recorded and classified according to the absence or presence of alkaloids, based on reference methods. The best discriminant equations for detection of alkaloids classified correctly 94.4%, 87.5% and 92.9% of plants containing peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline, respectively. The quantitative NIR equations obtained by modified partial least squares (MPLS) algorithm had coefficients of correlation of 0.93, 0.41, and 0.76 for peramine, lolitrem B and ergovaline respectively. NIRS is a suitable tool for qualitative analysis of endophyte alkaloids in grasses and for the accurate quantification of peramine and ergovaline. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  17. Estimation of the mechanical properties of wood from Eucalyptus urophylla using near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério Andrade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties studies of wood usually involve destructive wood assessments, with time-consuming teststhat use large amounts of resource (wood. Although this is not a limiting factor, it could be attenuated by the use of a nondestructivetechnique known as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. This technique has been applied to evaluate compounds containing C-H,N-H, S-H or O-H bonds, and involves quick analyses and can be applied to process control tasks. The objective of this work isto use the NIRS technique to obtain calibrations for mechanical properties of Eucalyptus sp. wood. A natural E. urophylla hybridat age 7 was used as obtained from V&M Florestal crops. Spectra were measured directly in solid wood (radial, tangential andtransverse faces and in ground wood, in diffuse reflectance mode, using a Bruker spectrometer in the 800 to 1,500 nm range. TheNIRS technique proved suitable to estimate modulus of elasticity in solid wood, with values r=0.91 and RPD=2.6, and in groundwood, with values r=0.87 and RPD=2.0. Modulus of rupture and compressive strength presented r values below 0.9. First andsecond derivative pretreatments provided a slight increase in correlation values for the properties in question. Calibrations fordifferent plank faces did not present a defined variation pattern. Solid wood and ground wood presented similar correlation valuesfor all properties.

  18. Functional neuroimaging of breastfeeding analgesia by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembich, Stefano; Davanzo, Riccardo; Brovedani, Pierpaolo; Clarici, Andrea; Massaccesi, Stefano; Demarini, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Newborns perceive pain, and several non-pharmacologic analgesic methods have been used during painful procedures. Activation of the neonatal somatosensory cortex, in association with a painful procedure without analgesia, has been demonstrated by two-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). To evaluate both cortical and behavioural responses of healthy term newborns to a painful procedure during two non-pharmacologic analgesic interventions, i.e. glucose solution and breastfeeding. The effects of glucose and breastfeeding on pain-associated neonatal cortical activity were studied in two groups (n = 30) by multichannel NIRS during a heel prick. Cortical activation was identified by variations in oxygenated haemoglobin. Neonatal pain expression was assessed by a validated scale. No significant variations in cortical activity emerged using glucose solution, whereas breastfed newborns showed widespread cortical activation. Breastfed neonates showed significantly less behavioural pain expression. Glucose is associated with no significant cortical activation and may interfere with pain-associated response at the cortical level. Conversely, breastfeeding analgesia is associated with generalized cortical activation and may act by multisensory stimulation, possibly overwhelming pain perception. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a process signature in uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaue, J.W.; Klunder, G.L.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was examined as a potential tool for the determination of forensic signatures indicative of the chemical process history of uranium oxides. The ability to determine the process history of nuclear materials is a desired, but underdeveloped, area of technical nuclear forensics. Application of the NIR technique potentially offers a quick and non-destructive tool to serve this need; however, few data have been published on the compounds of interest. The viability of NIR was investigated through the analysis of a combination of laboratory-derived and real-world uranium precipitates and oxides. A set of reference uranium materials was synthesized in the laboratory using the commonly encountered aqueous precipitation reactions for uranium ore concentration and chemical separation processes (ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate, and magnesia). NIR spectra were taken on a range of samples heat treated in air between 85 and 750 deg C. X-ray diffraction patterns were also obtained to complement the NIR analysis with crystal phase information. Similar analyses were performed using a set of real-world samples, with process information obtained from the literature, to provide a comparison between materials synthesized in the laboratory and samples representative of industrial processes. (author)

  20. A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Kleiser, Stefan; Metz, Andreas Jaakko; Zimmermann, Raphael; Mata Pavia, Juan; Wolf, Ursula; Wolf, Martin

    2014-01-15

    This year marks the 20th anniversary of functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging (fNIRS/fNIRI). As the vast majority of commercial instruments developed until now are based on continuous wave technology, the aim of this publication is to review the current state of instrumentation and methodology of continuous wave fNIRI. For this purpose we provide an overview of the commercially available instruments and address instrumental aspects such as light sources, detectors and sensor arrangements. Methodological aspects, algorithms to calculate the concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and approaches for data analysis are also reviewed. From the single-location measurements of the early years, instrumentation has progressed to imaging initially in two dimensions (topography) and then three (tomography). The methods of analysis have also changed tremendously, from the simple modified Beer-Lambert law to sophisticated image reconstruction and data analysis methods used today. Due to these advances, fNIRI has become a modality that is widely used in neuroscience research and several manufacturers provide commercial instrumentation. It seems likely that fNIRI will become a clinical tool in the foreseeable future, which will enable diagnosis in single subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intracranial Hematoma Detection by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service: Practical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schober

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In (helicopter emergency medical services, (HEMS, the prehospital detection of intracranial hematomas should improve patient care and the triage to specialized neurosurgical hospitals. Recently, noninvasive detection of intracranial hematomas became possible by applying transcranial near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Herein, second-generation devices are currently available, for example, the Infrascanner 2000 (Infrascan, that appear suited also for prehospital (HEMS applications. Since (HEMS operations are time-critical, we studied the Infrascanner 2000 as a “first-time-right” monitor in healthy volunteers (n=17, hospital employees, no neurologic history. Further, we studied the implementation of the Infrascanner 2000 in a European HEMS organization (Lifeliner 1, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The principal results of our study were as follows: The screening for intracranial hematomas in healthy volunteers with first-time-right intention resulted in a marked rate of virtual hematomas (false positive results, i.e., 12/17, rendering more time consuming repeat measurements advisable. The results of the implementation of the Infrascanner in HEMS suggest that NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection is feasible in the HEMS setting. However, some drawbacks exist and their possible solutions are discussed. Future studies will have to demonstrate how NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection will improve prehospital decision making in (HEMS and ultimately patient outcome.

  2. Study on evaluation of gamma oryzanol of germinated brown rice by near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannapot Kaewsorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germinated brown rice (GBR is rich in gamma oryzanol which increase its consumption popularity, particularly in the health food market. The objective of this research was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS for evaluation of gamma oryzanol of the germinated brown rice. The germinated brown rice samples were prepared from germinated rough rice (soaked for 24 and 48 h, incubated for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h and purchased from local supermarkets. The germinated brown rice samples were subjected to NIR scanning before the evaluation of gamma oryzanol by using partial extraction methodology. The prediction model was established by partial least square regression (PLSR and validated by full cross validation method. The NIRS model established from various varieties of germinated brown rice bought from different markets by first derivatives+vector normalization pretreated spectra showed the optimal prediction with the correlation of determination (R2, root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV and bias of 0.934, 8.84 × 10-5 mg/100 g dry matter and 1.06 × 10-5 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. This is the first report on the application of NIRS in the evaluation of gamma oryzanol of the germinated brown rice. This information is very useful to the germinated brown rice production factory and consumers.

  3. Measurement of oxygen consumption during muscle flaccidity exercise by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K.; Fukawa, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative measurement oxygen consumption in the muscles is important to evaluate the effect of the exercise. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for measuring muscle oxygenation. However, measurement results are affected by blood volume change due to changes in the blood pressure. In order to evaluate changes in blood volume and to improve measurement accuracy, we proposed a calculation method of three-wavelength measurement with considering the scattering factor and the measurement with monitoring blood flow for measuring the temporal change of the oxygen concentration more precisely. We applied three-wavelength light source (680nm, 808nm and 830nm) for the continued wave measurement. Two detectors (targeted detector and the reference detector) were placed near the target muscle and apart from it. We measured the blood flow by controlling the intravascular pressure and the oxygen consumption with the handgrip exercise in the forearm. The measured results show that the scattering factor contains the artifact at the surface and the blood flow in the artery and the vein in the same phase. The artifact and the blood flow in the same phase are reduced from the oxygenated and the deoxygenated hemoglobin densities. Thus our proposed method is effective for reducing the influence of the artifact and the blood flow in the same phase from the oxygen consumption measurement. Further, it is shown that the oxygen consumption is measured more accurately by subtracting the blood flow measured by the reference detector.

  4. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Obata, Akiko N; Moda, Ichiro; Ozaki, Kazutaka; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamamoto, Yukari; Kiguchi, Masashi; Maki, Atsushi; Kubota, Kisou; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-04-01

    We aim to test the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for indirect measurement of human saliva secretion in response to taste stimuli for potential application to organoleptic testing. We use an NIRS system to measure extracranial hemodynamics (Hb-signals around the temples) of healthy participants when taste stimuli are taken in their mouths. First, the Hb-signals and volume of expelled saliva (stimulated by distilled-water or sucrose-solution intake) are simultaneously measured and large Hb-signal changes in response to the taste stimuli (Hb-responses) are found. Statistical analysis show that both the Hb response and saliva volume are larger for the sucrose solution than for the distilled water with a significant correlation between them (r = 0.81). The effects of swallowing on the Hb-signals are investigated. Similar Hb responses, differing from the sucrose solution and distilled water, are obtained even though the participants swallow the mouth contents. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to identify possible sources of the Hb signals corresponding to salivation. Statistical analysis indicates similar responses in the extracranial regions, mainly around the middle meningeal artery. In conclusion, the identified correlation between extracranial hemodynamics and the saliva volume suggests that NIRS is applicable to the measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

  5. Rapid monitoring of grape withering using visible near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Roberto; Giovenzana, Valentina; Marai, Simone; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    Wineries need new practical and quick instruments, non-destructive and able to quantitatively evaluate during withering the parameters that impact product quality. The aim of the work was to test an optical portable system (visible near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer) in a wavelength range of 400-1000 nm for the prediction of quality parameters of grape berries during withering. A total of 300 red grape samples (Vitis vinifera L., Corvina cultivar) harvested in vintage year 2012 from the Valpolicella area (Verona, Italy) were analyzed. Qualitative (principal component analysis, PCA) and quantitative (partial least squares regression algorithm, PLS) evaluations were performed on grape spectra. PCA showed a clear sample grouping for the different withering stages. PLS models gave encouraging predictive capabilities for soluble solids content (R(2) val  = 0.62 and ratio performance deviation, RPD = 1.87) and firmness (R(2) val  = 0.56 and RPD = 1.79). The work demonstrated the applicability of visible NIR spectroscopy as a rapid technique for the analysis of grape quality directly in barns, during withering. The sector could be provided with simple and inexpensive optical systems that could be used to monitor the withering degree of grape for better management of the wine production process. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Fecal near infrared spectroscopy to discriminate physiological status in giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedower, Erin E; Kouba, Andrew J; Vance, Carrie K; Hansen, Rachel L; Stuth, Jerry W; Tolleson, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) monitoring and research often require accurate estimates of population size and density. However, obtaining these estimates has been challenging. Innovative technologies, such as fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS), may be used to differentiate between sex, age class, and reproductive status as has been shown for several other species. The objective of this study was to determine if FNIRS could be similarly used for giant panda physiological discriminations. Based on samples from captive animals in four U.S. zoos, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 78% of samples from adult males, 81% from adult females, 85% from adults, 89% from juveniles, 75% from pregnant and 70% from non-pregnant females. However, diet had an impact on the success of the calibrations. When diet was controlled for plant part such that "leaf only" feces were evaluated, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 93% of samples from adult males and 95% from adult females. These data show that FNIRS has the potential to differentiate between the sex, age class, and reproductive status in the giant panda and may be applicable for surveying wild populations.

  7. AO–MW–PLS method applied to rapid quantification of teicoplanin with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teicoplanin (TCP is an important lipoglycopeptide antibiotic produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The change in TCP concentration is important to measure in the fermentation process. In this study, a reagent-free and rapid quantification method for TCP in the TCP–Tris–HCl mixture samples was developed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy by focusing our attention on the fermentation process for TCP. The absorbance optimization (AO partial least squares (PLS was proposed and integrated with the moving window (MW PLS, which is called AO–MW–PLS method, to select appropriate wavebands. A model set that includes various wavebands that were equivalent to the optimal AO–MW–PLS waveband was proposed based on statistical considerations. The public region of all equivalent wavebands was just one of the equivalent wavebands. The obtained public regions were 1540–1868nm for TCP and 1114–1310nm for Tris. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient for leave-one-out cross validation were 0.046mg mL−1 and 0.9998mg mL−1 for TCP, and 0.235mg mL−1 and 0.9986mg mL−1 for Tris, respectively. All the models achieved highly accurate prediction effects, and the selected wavebands provided valuable references for designing specialized spectrometers. This study provided a valuable reference for further application of the proposed methods to TCP fermentation broth and to other spectroscopic analysis fields.

  8. Rapid near infrared spectroscopy for prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran after various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Andreas; Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S; Egebo, Max; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2012-02-15

    Efficient generation of a fermentable hydrolysate is a primary requirement in the utilization of fibrous plant biomass as feedstocks in bioethanol processes. The first biomass conversion step usually involves a hydrothermal pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis. The purpose of the pretreatment step is to increase the responsivity of the substrate to enzymatic attack and the type of pretreatment affects the enzymatic conversion efficiency. Destarched corn bran is a fibrous, heteroxylan-rich side-stream from the starch industry which may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production or as a source of xylose for other purposes. In the present study we demonstrate the use of diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive analytical tool for evaluation of pretreatment effects on destarched corn bran. NIR was used to achieve classification between 43 differently pretreated corn bran samples using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchal clustering algorithms. Quantification of the enzymatically released monosaccharides by HPLC was used to design multivariate calibration models (biPLS) on the NIR spectra. The models could predict the enzymatic release of different levels of arabinose, xylose and glucose from all the differently pretreated destarched corn bran samples. The present study also demonstrates a generic, non-destructive solution to determine the enzymatic monosaccharide release from polymers in biomass side-streams, thereby potentially replacing the cumbersome HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics analysis of complex traits in animal physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) applications have been expanding from the traditional framework of small molecule chemical purity and composition (as defined by spectral libraries) to complex system analysis and holistic exploratory approaches to questions in biochemistry, biophysics and environment...

  10. The application of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative analysis of hydrocortisone in primary materials

    OpenAIRE

    A. PITTAS; C. SERGIDES; K. NIKOLICH

    2001-01-01

    Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with fiber optic probes, has been shown to be a quick and reliable analytical tool for quality assurance and quality control in the pharmaceutical industry, both for verifications of raw materials and quantification of the active ingredients in final products. In this paper, a typical pharmaceutical product, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, is used as an example for the application of NIR spectroscopy for quality control. In order to deve...

  11. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and control of cell culture and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Albert E; Petersen, Nanna; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Larsen, Anders; Gernaey, Krist V

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can potentially provide on-line information on substrate, biomass, product, and metabolite concentrations in fermentation processes, which could be useful for improved monitoring or control. However, several factors can negatively influence the quality of chemometric models built for interpretation of the spectra, thus impairing the analyte concentration predictions. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of necessary conditions and challenges that one has to face when developing a NIR application for monitoring of cell culture or fermentation processes. Important practical aspects are introduced, such as sampling, modeling of biomass concentration, influence of microorganism morphology on the spectra, effects of the hydrodynamic conditions in the fermenter, temperature influence, instrument settings, and signal optimization. Several examples from the literature are provided, which will hopefully guide the reader interested in the topic. Furthermore, the general procedure used for the development of calibration models is presented, and the influence of microorganism metabolism-potential source of correlation between analytes-is commented. Other important issues such as wavelength selection and evaluation of robustness are shortly introduced. Finally, some examples of potential applications of NIR monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies, the combination with other monitoring tools (the so-called sensor fusion), and the description of process trajectories. On the basis of the review, we conclude that acceptance of NIR spectroscopy as a standard monitoring tool by the fermentation industry will necessitate considerably more on-line studies using industrially relevant-and highly challenging-fermentation conditions (high aeration intensity, high biomass concentration and viscosity, and filamentous production strain). (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  12. Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, D; Roatta, S; Bosone, D; Micieli, G

    2011-06-01

    The attractive possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to noninvasively assess cerebral blood volume and oxygenation is challenged by the possible interference from extracranial tissues. However, to what extent this may affect cerebral NIRS monitoring during standard clinical tests is ignored. To address this issue, 29 healthy subjects underwent a randomized sequence of three maneuvers that differently affect intra- and extracranial circulation: Valsalva maneuver (VM), hyperventilation (HV), and head-up tilt (HUT). Putative intracranial ("i") and extracranial ("e") NIRS signals were collected from the forehead and from the cheek, respectively, and acquired together with cutaneous plethysmography at the forehead (PPG), cerebral blood velocity from the middle cerebral artery, and arterial blood pressure. Extracranial contribution to cerebral NIRS monitoring was investigated by comparing Beer-Lambert (BL) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) blood volume indicators [the total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and the total hemoglobin index, (THI)] and by correlating their changes with changes in extracranial circulation. While THIe and tHbe generally provided concordant indications, tHbi and THIi exhibited opposite-sign changes in a high percentage of cases (VM: 46%; HV: 31%; HUT: 40%). Moreover, tHbi was correlated with THIi only during HV (P < 0.05), not during VM and HUT, while it correlated with PPG in all three maneuvers (P < 0.01). These results evidence that extracranial circulation may markedly affect BL parameters in a high percentage of cases, even during standard clinical tests. Surface plethysmography at the forehead is suggested as complementary monitoring helpful in the interpretation of cerebral NIRS parameters.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskote, Aparna U; Tume, Lyvonne N; Trieschmann, Uwe; Menzel, Christoph; Cogo, Paola; Brown, Katherine L; Broadhead, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of near-infrared spectroscopy across pediatric cardiac ICUs, there is significant variability and equipoise with no universally accepted management algorithms. We aimed to explore the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany. A cross-sectional multicenter, multinational electronic survey of one consultant in each pediatric cardiac ICU. Pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n = 13), Italy (n = 12), and Germany (n = 33). Questionnaire targeted to establish use, targets, protocols/thresholds for intervention, and perceived usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Overall, 42 of 58 pediatric cardiac ICUs (72%) responded: United Kingdom and Ireland, 11 of 13 (84.6%); Italy, 12 of 12 (100%); and Germany, 19 of 33 (57%, included all major centers). Near-infrared spectroscopy usage varied with 35% (15/42) reporting that near-infrared spectroscopy was not used at all (7/42) or occasionally (8/42); near-infrared spectroscopy use was much less common in the United Kingdom (46%) when compared with 78% in Germany and all (100%) in Italy. Only four units had a near-infrared spectroscopy protocol, and 18 specifically used near-infrared spectroscopy in high-risk patients; 37 respondents believed that near-infrared spectroscopy added value to standard monitoring and 23 believed that it gave an earlier indication of deterioration, but only 19 would respond based on near-infrared spectroscopy data alone. Targets for absolute values and critical thresholds for intervention varied widely between units. The reasons cited for not or occasionally using near-infrared spectroscopy were expense (n = 6), limited evidence and uncertainty on how it guides management (n = 4), difficulty in interpretation, and unreliability of data (n = 3). Amongst the regular or occasional near-infrared spectroscopy users (n = 35), 28 (66%) agreed that a multicenter study is warranted

  14. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon Jnl; Petersen, Esben T

    2017-03-01

    Although near-infrared spectroscopy is increasingly being used to monitor cerebral oxygenation in neonates, it has a limited penetration depth. The T 2 -prepared Blood Imaging of Oxygen Saturation (T 2 -BIOS) magnetic resonance sequence provides an oxygen saturation estimate on a voxel-by-voxel basis, without needing a respiratory calibration experiment. In 15 neonates, oxygen saturation measured by T 2 -prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy were compared. In addition, these measures were compared to cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy ( R 2  = 0.64, p infrared spectroscopy oxygen saturation, and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus ( R 2  = 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p infrared spectroscopy and T 2 -prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation, confirming the validity of using of these techniques for determining cerebral oxygenation.

  15. Best Practices for the Application of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Operator State Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Hylton, Alan G.; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuronal measurement technique with many advantages for application in operational and training contexts. Instrumentation and protocol improvements, however, are required to obtain useful signals and produce expeditiously self-applicable, comfortable and unobtrusive headgear. Approaches for improving the validity and reliability of fNIRS data for the purpose of sensing the mental state of commercial aircraft operators are identified, and an exemplary system design for attentional state monitoring is outlined. Intelligent flight decks of the future can be responsive to state changes to optimally support human performance. Thus, the identification of cognitive performance decrement, such as lapses in operator attention, may be used to predict and avoid error-prone states. We propose that attentional performance may be monitored with fNIRS through the quantification of hemodynamic activations in cortical regions which are part of functionally-connected attention and resting state networks. Activations in these regions have been shown to correlate with behavioral performance and task engagement. These regions lie beneath superficial tissue in head regions beyond the forehead. Headgear development is key to reliably and robustly accessing locations beyond the hair line to measure functionally-connected networks across the whole head. Human subject trials using both fNIRS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) will be used to test this system. Data processing employs Support Vector Machines for state classification based on the fNIRS signals. If accurate state classification is achieved based on sensed activation patterns, fNIRS will be shown to be useful for monitoring attentional performance.

  16. Effects of ventilation modalities on near-infrared spectroscopy in surgically corrected CDH infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Andrea; Giliberti, Paola; Landolfo, Francesca; Valfrè, Laura; Columbo, Claudia; Mondi, Vito; Capolupo, Irma; Dotta, Andrea; Bagolan, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique for monitoring tissue oxygenation and perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate cerebral and splanchnic NIRS changes in CDH operated infants enrolled into the VICI trial and therefore randomized for ventilatory modalities. CDH newborns enrolled into the VICI trial (Netherlands Trial Register, NTR 1310) were randomized at birth for high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) or conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) according to the trial. Cerebral oxygenation (rSO2C) and splanchnic oxygenation (rSO2S) were obtained by NIRS (INVOS 5100; Somanetics, Troy, MI) before and after surgery. Variations in rSO2C and rSO2S were evaluated. Mann-Whitney test and one-way ANOVA were used as appropriate. p<0.05 was considered significant. Thirteen VICI trial patients underwent surgical repair between March 2011 and December 2012, and were enrolled in the study. Seven patients were assigned to HFOV and six to CMV group respectively. During surgery, a significant reduction in rSO2C (p=0.0001) and rSO2S (p=0.005) were observed. HFOV patients experienced prolonged reduction in rSO2C value (p=0.003) while rSO2S did not vary between HFOV and CMV (p=0.94). Surgical CDH repair was associated with decrease of cerebral and splanchnic oxygenation, regardless of ventilation. Patients ventilated by HFOV need a longer time interval to recovery normal rSO2C values, than those ventilated by CMV. This may be owing to a different impact of HFOV on patients' hemodynamic status with a higher impairment on total venous return and its negative consequences on cardiac output. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Task-related component analysis for functional neuroimaging and application to near-infrared spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Katura, Takusige; Sato, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Reproducibility of experimental results lies at the heart of scientific disciplines. Here we propose a signal processing method that extracts task-related components by maximizing the reproducibility during task periods from neuroimaging data. Unlike hypothesis-driven methods such as general linear models, no specific time courses are presumed, and unlike data-driven approaches such as independent component analysis, no arbitrary interpretation of components is needed. Task-related components are constructed by a linear, weighted sum of multiple time courses, and its weights are optimized so as to maximize inter-block correlations (CorrMax) or covariances (CovMax). Our analysis method is referred to as task-related component analysis (TRCA). The covariance maximization is formulated as a Rayleigh-Ritz eigenvalue problem, and corresponding eigenvectors give candidates of task-related components. In addition, a systematic statistical test based on eigenvalues is proposed, so task-related and -unrelated components are classified objectively and automatically. The proposed test of statistical significance is found to be independent of the degree of autocorrelation in data if the task duration is sufficiently longer than the temporal scale of autocorrelation, so TRCA can be applied to data with autocorrelation without any modification. We demonstrate that simple extensions of TRCA can provide most distinctive signals for two tasks and can integrate multiple modalities of information to remove task-unrelated artifacts. TRCA was successfully applied to synthetic data as well as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data of finger tapping. There were two statistically significant task-related components; one was a hemodynamic response, and another was a piece-wise linear time course. In summary, we conclude that TRCA has a wide range of applications in multi-channel biophysical and behavioral measurements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, D A; Strangman, G; Culver, J P; Hoge, R D; Jasdzewski, G; Poldrack, R A; Rosen, B R; Mandeville, J B

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the changes in oxy-haemoglobin and deoxy-haemoglobin in the adult human brain during a brief finger tapping exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) can be estimated from these NIRS data provided certain model assumptions. The change in CMRO 2 is related to changes in the total haemoglobin concentration, deoxy-haemoglobin concentration and blood flow. As NIRS does not provide a measure of dynamic changes in blood flow during brain activation, we relied on a Windkessel model that relates dynamic blood volume and flow changes, which has been used previously for estimating CMRO 2 from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Because of the partial volume effect we are unable to quantify the absolute changes in the local brain haemoglobin concentrations with NIRS and thus are unable to obtain an estimate of the absolute CMRO 2 change. An absolute estimate is also confounded by uncertainty in the flow-volume relationship. However, the ratio of the flow change to the CMRO 2 change is relatively insensitive to these uncertainties. For the finger tapping task, we estimate a most probable flow-consumption ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 in agreement with previous findings presented in the literature, although we cannot exclude the possibility that there is no CMRO 2 change. The large range in the ratio arises from the large number of model parameters that must be estimated from the data. A more precise estimate of the flow-consumption ratio will require better estimates of the model parameters or flow information, as can be provided by combining NIRS with fMRI

  19. Determining the mineral composition in Cucurbita pepo fruit using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael; Gómez, Pedro; Blanco-Díaz, Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2014-12-01

    Efforts through conventional breeding to improve the mineral content in horticultural crops have not always been successful mainly due to the fact that standard analytical methods are both costly and time-consuming. We investigated the feasibility of applying near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to the estimation of essential mineral composition in the skin and flesh of summer squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) using a 200-sample set from diverse morphotypes. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (R(2) VAL) obtained for the skin and flesh of the fruit were: total mineral content, 0.84 and 0.70; P, 0.74 and 0.62; K, 0.83 and 0.67; Ca, 0.57 and 0.60; Mg, 0.78 and 0.45; Fe, 0.78 and 0.65; Cu, 0.67 and 0.66; Mn, 0.67 and 0.64; Zn, 0.80 and 0.79 and Na, 0.33 and 0.33; respectively. NIRS combined with different spectral transformations by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression has shown to be useful in determining the mineral composition of summer squash fruit, being a fast and low-cost analytical technique. Components such as chlorophyll, starch and lipids were used by MPLS for modelling the predicting equations. The promotion of micronutrient-rich summer squash varieties could have a significant long-term beneficial impact on the health of mineral deficient human populations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on prefrontal cortex

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    Evgeniya eKirilina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS is a promising method to study functional organization of the prefrontal cortex. However, in order to realize the high potential of fNIRS, effective discrimination between physiological noise originating from forehead skin haemodynamic and cerebral signals is required. Main sources of physiological noise are global and local blood flow regulation processes on multiple time scales. The goal of the present study was to identify the main physiological noise contributions in fNIRS forehead signals and to develop a method for physiological de-noising of fNIRS data. To achieve this goal we combined concurrent time-domain fNIRS and peripheral physiology recordings with wavelet coherence analysis. Depth selectivity was achieved by analyzing moments of photon time-of-flight distributions provided by time-domain fNIRS. Simultaneously, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, and skin blood flow (SBF on the forehead were recorded. Wavelet coherence analysis was employed to quantify the impact of physiological processes on fNIRS signals separately for different time scales. We identified three main processes contributing to physiological noise in fNIRS signals on the forehead. The first process with the period of about 3 s is induced by respiration. The second process is highly correlated with time lagged MAP and HR fluctuations with a period of about 10 s often referred as Mayer waves. The third process is local regulation of the facial skin blood flow time locked to the task-evoked fNIRS signals. All processes affect oxygenated haemoglobin concentration more strongly than that of deoxygenated haemoglobin. Based on these results we developed a set of physiological regressors, which were used for physiological de-noising of fNIRS signals. Our results demonstrate that proposed de-noising method can significantly improve the sensitivity of fNIRS to cerebral signals.

  1. Fiber-Content Measurement of Wool-Cashmere Blends Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinfeng; Wang, Rongwu; Wu, Xiongying; Xu, Bugao

    2017-10-01

    Cashmere and wool are two protein fibers with analogous geometrical attributes, but distinct physical properties. Due to its scarcity and unique features, cashmere is a much more expensive fiber than wool. In the textile production, cashmere is often intentionally blended with fine wool in order to reduce the material cost. To identify the fiber contents of a wool-cashmere blend is important to quality control and product classification. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable method for estimating fiber contents in wool-cashmere blends based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In this study, we prepared two sets of cashmere-wool blends by using either whole fibers or fiber snippets in 11 different blend ratios of the two fibers and collected the NIR spectra of all the 22 samples. Of the 11 samples in each set, six were used as a subset for calibration and five as a subset for validation. By referencing the NIR band assignment to chemical bonds in protein, we identified six characteristic wavelength bands where the NIR absorbance powers of the two fibers were significantly different. We then performed the chemometric analysis with two multilinear regression (MLR) equations to predict the cashmere content (CC) in a blended sample. The experiment with these samples demonstrated that the predicted CCs from the MLR models were consistent with the CCs given in the preparations of the two sample sets (whole fiber or snippet), and the errors of the predicted CCs could be limited to 0.5% if the testing was performed over at least 25 locations. The MLR models seem to be reliable and accurate enough for estimating the cashmere content in a wool-cashmere blend and have potential to be used for tackling the cashmere adulteration problem.

  2. Frontal activation and connectivity using near-infrared spectroscopy: verbal fluency language study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; DeCerce, Joe; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-02-28

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical technique with high temporal resolution and reasonably good spatial resolution, which allows non invasive measurement of the blood oxygenation of tissue. The current work is focused in assessing and correlating brain activation, connectivity and cortical lateralization of the frontal cortex in response to language-based stimuli, using NIRS. Experimental studies were performed on 15 normal right-handed adults, wherein the participants were presented with a verbal fluency task. The hemodynamic responses in the pre- and anterior frontal cortex were assessed in response to a Word generation task in comparison to the baseline random Jaw movement and Rest conditions. The functional connectivity analysis was performed using zero-order correlations and the cortical lateralization was evaluated as well. An increase in oxy- and a decrease in deoxy-hemoglobin were observed during verbal fluency task in the frontal cortex. Unlike in the pre-frontal cortex, the hemodynamic response in the anterior frontal during verbal fluency task was not significantly different from that during random Jaw movement. Bilateral activation and symmetrical connectivity were observed in the pre-frontal cortex, independent of the stimuli presented. A left cortical dominance and asymmetry connectivity was observed in the anterior frontal during the verbal fluency task. The work is focused to target the pediatric epileptic populations in the future, where understanding the brain functionality (activation, connectivity, and dominance) in response to language is essential as a part of the pre-surgical evaluation in a clinical environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Noninvasive absolute cerebral oximetry with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of absolute concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin in the human brain can provide critical information about cerebral physiology in terms of cerebral blood volume, blood flow, oxygen delivery, and metabolic rate of oxygen. We developed several frequency domain NIRS data acquisition and analysis methods aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral tissue of adult human subjects. Extensive experimental investigations were carried out in various homogenous and two-layered tissue-mimicking phantoms, and biological tissues. The advantages and limitations of commonly used homogenous models and inversion strategies were thoroughly investigated. Prior to human subjects, extensive studies were carried out in in vivo animal models. In rabbits, absolute hemoglobin oxygen desaturation was shown to depend strongly on surgically induced testicular torsion. Methods developed in this study were then adapted for measurements in the rat brain. Absolute values were demonstrated to discern cerebrovascular impairment in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. These results facilitated the development of clinically useful optical measures of cerebrovascular health. In a large group of human subjects, employing a homogeneous model for absolute measurements was shown to be reliable and robust. However, it was also shown to be limited due to the relatively thick extracerebral tissue. The procedure we develop in this work and the thesis thereof performs a nonlinear inversion procedure with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  4. Toward a functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based monitoring of pain assessment for nonverbal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Rojas, Raul; Huang, Xu; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Pain diagnosis for nonverbal patients represents a challenge in clinical settings. Neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have shown promising results to assess neuronal function in response to nociception and pain. Recent studies suggest that neuroimaging in conjunction with machine learning models can be used to predict different cognitive tasks. The aim of this study is to expand previous studies by exploring the classification of fNIRS signals (oxyhaemoglobin) according to temperature level (cold and hot) and corresponding pain intensity (low and high) using machine learning models. Toward this aim, we used the quantitative sensory testing to determine pain threshold and pain tolerance to cold and heat in 18 healthy subjects (three females), mean age±standard deviation (31.9±5.5). The classification model is based on the bag-of-words approach, a histogram representation used in document classification based on the frequencies of extracted words and adapted for time series; two learning algorithms were used separately, K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). A comparison between two sets of fNIRS channels was also made in the classification task, all 24 channels and 8 channels from the somatosensory region defined as our region of interest (RoI). The results showed that K-NN obtained slightly better results (92.08%) than SVM (91.25%) using the 24 channels; however, the performance slightly dropped using only channels from the RoI with K-NN (91.53%) and SVM (90.83%). These results indicate potential applications of fNIRS in the development of a physiologically based diagnosis of human pain that would benefit vulnerable patients who cannot self-report pain.

  5. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  6. Assessment of brain oxygenation in term and preterm neonates using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokiniec, R; Zbiec, A; Seliga, J; Sawosz, P; Liebert, A; Klosinska, I; Bargiel, A; Maniewski, R; Kornacka, M K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine brain oxygenation in full-term and preterm neonates using near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 88 full-term and preterm newborn infants without hypoxic-ischaemic disorders admitted to the NICU were examined using NIRS on the first day of life and on day 28 of life. Additional measurements were taken at the end of the first week of life in the premature neonates group. Measurements of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb), total haemoglobin (HbT) concentration and tissue oxygen saturation (Ox) were performed in 5 brain regions. Right and left frontal areas, the occipital area and right and left temporal areas were measured. In full-term healthy neonates a marked decrease in HbO, Hb and HbT values was observed on day 28 of life in all brain regions except the occipital area. In the neonatal period the greatest changes in brain oxygenation occurred in the right and left frontal regions of the brain. In preterm neonates constant values of HbO2 and Ox were observed in the first 28 days of life. In preterm newborn infants, as well as in full term newborn infants, similar Ox and HbO2 values were obtained on day 28 of life. NIRS is a safe method and can be used to evaluate brain oxygenation in newborn infants. The results of these measurements are in accordance with changes in brain oxygenation in the first month of life, which are predicated on the basis of the neonate's physiology.

  7. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Facilitates Rapid Identification of Both Young and Mature Amazonian Tree Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lang

    Full Text Available Precise identification of plant species requires a high level of knowledge by taxonomists and presence of reproductive material. This represents a major limitation for those working with seedlings and juveniles, which differ morphologically from adults and do not bear reproductive structures. Near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR has previously been shown to be effective in species discrimination of adult plants, so if young and adults have a similar spectral signature, discriminant functions based on FT-NIR spectra of adults can be used to identify leaves from young plants. We tested this with a sample of 419 plants in 13 Amazonian species from the genera Protium and Crepidospermum (Burseraceae. We obtained 12 spectral readings per plant, from adaxial and abaxial surfaces of dried leaves, and compared the rate of correct predictions of species with discriminant functions for different combinations of readings. We showed that the best models for predicting species in early developmental stages are those containing spectral data from both young and adult plants (98% correct predictions of external samples, but even using only adult spectra it is still possible to attain good levels of identification of young. We obtained an average of 75% correct identifications of young plants by discriminant equations based only on adults, when the most informative wavelengths were selected. Most species were accurately predicted (75-100% correct identifications, and only three had poor predictions (27-60%. These results were obtained despite the fact that spectra of young individuals were distinct from those of adults when species were analyzed individually. We concluded that FT-NIR has a high potential in the identification of species even at different ontogenetic stages, and that young plants can be identified based on spectra of adults with reasonable confidence.

  8. Thrombolytic therapeutic effect monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Yaoxian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is of serious mortality and morbidity, which often happens in inpatients and especially with the postoperative population [1]. The golden standard to diagnose DVT is venography, which relies on complicated imaging modalities requiring to be injected in a vein below the clot invasively and ionizing procedures that employing xray imaging to show where and how the DVT blocks. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is recently found to be an intriguing and potential method detecting DVT in clinics. It has been reported recently that employing NIRS to diagnose DVT. Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO), local extremities manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis, usually cause thrombosis and the reduction of distal blood flow. Thrombolytic therapy is to use exogenous activator to activate the dissolution system, which can dissolve intracoronary thrombus. Here we attempt to monitor the DVT and ASO patients during the whole procedure of thrombolytic treatment, then compare the data with those DVT and ASO patients did not take treatments and normal population. 8 DVT and 9 ASO patients and 12 normal subjects were recruited to take the measurements of concentration variation of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) by NIRS-based thrombosis monitor. Thereinto, 5 DVT and 6 ASO patients has taken the thrombolytic treatment, and the data for the periods before treatment, during treatment, and after treatment were extracted for analysis. We found that Δ[HbO2] fluctuates and even decreases in DVT and ASO patients. After the thrombolytic therapy, Δ[HbO2] increases about 45% and converge to the curves of normal subjects. And the Δ[Hb] emerges the similar trends, except for the rising trend in the beginning and the downtrend after thrombolytic therapy. The findings indicated NIRS has big potential in clinical monitoring of DVT and ASO patients and offering reliable and quantitative evaluation of thrombolytic therapy outcomes.

  9. Combining Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Rapid Recognition of an Hg-Contaminated Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Cheng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of rapid recognition of an Hg-contaminated plant as a soil pollution indicator was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and chemometrics. The stem and leave of a native plant, Miscanthus floridulus (Labill. Warb. (MFLW, were collected from Hg-contaminated areas (n1=125 as well as from regular areas (n2=116. The samples were dried and crushed and the powders were sieved through an 80-mesh sieve. Reference analysis of Hg levels was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. The actual Hg contents of contaminated and normal samples were 16.2–30.5 and 0.0–0.1 mg/Kg, respectively. The NIRS measurements of impacted sample powders were collected in the mode of reflectance. The DUPLEX algorithm was utilized to split the NIRS data into representative training and test sets. Different spectral preprocessing methods were performed to remove the unwanted and noncomposition-correlated spectral variations. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA based on the raw, smoothed, second-order derivative (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV data, respectively. The prediction accuracy obtained by PLSDA with each data preprocessing option was 100%, indicating pattern recognition of Hg-contaminated MFLW samples using NIRS data was in perfect consistence with the ICP-AES results. NIRS combined with chemometrics will provide a tool to screen the Hg-contaminated MFLW, which can be potentially used as an indicator of soil pollution.

  10. Noninvasive determination of language dominance using functional MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Takahiro; Kamada, Kyousuke; Saito, Nobuhito

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the language dominant hemisphere is important in cases necessary for partial encephalotomy due to epilepsy and tumor. Functional MRI (fMRI) essentially detects oxy-Hb/deoxy-Hb ratio in the brain region resulted from blood flow change and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), the Hb level change in the tissue, in which the image can be detected by light-receiving proves of NIR-light (780-1500 nm wavelength) irradiated and passed through the tissues. This paper describes the comparison of the two methods for determination of language dominance with reference to that identified by Wada test, a gold standard but inconvenient for both operators and patients. Subjects are 11 brain tumor and 11 epilepsy patients (M 10/F 12, av. age of 36.7 y, 19 right-handed), whose dominances are successfully determined previously by Wada test. fMRI is conducted with 3T machine (General Electric, USA) with phased-array coil in patients receiving various language tasks, and data are processed by Dr. View (Asahi Kasei) to calculate the laterality index for the dominance. NIRS is conducted with Hitachi-Medico ETG-4000 with 695 and 830 nm IR in patients receiving other different language tasks, on whose frontotemporal region of head surface 12-channel probes are equipped. Data are processed by the equipped software to calculate the difference of oxy-Hb change rates between the two hemispheres for the dominance determination. Consistency of fMRI in determining the dominance with Wada test is found 86.3% and of NIRS, 72.7%, which suggests the latter can be only supplementary to the former. However, NIRS is noted to be useful in atypical cases like those with right or bilateral dominance. (K.T.)

  11. Interhemispheric connectivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A near-infrared spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitzki, Klaus; Oldag, Andreas; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Machts, Judith; Veit, Maria; Kaufmann, Jörn; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Mohammadi, Bahram; Dengler, Reinhard; Kupsch, Andreas R; Vielhaber, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate potential impairment of non-motor areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In particular, we evaluated whether homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of non-motor associated cortical areas correlates with clinical parameters and disease-specific degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) in ALS. Interhemispheric homotopic rs-FC was assessed in 31 patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) for 8 cortical sites, from prefrontal to occipital cortex, using NIRS. DTI was performed in a subgroup of 21 patients. All patients were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction in the executive, memory, and visuospatial domains. ALS patients displayed an altered spatial pattern of correlation between homotopic rs-FC values when compared to HCs ( p  = 0.000013). In patients without executive dysfunction a strong correlation existed between the rate of motor decline and homotopic rs-FC of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) (ρ = - 0.85, p  = 0.0004). Furthermore, antero-temporal homotopic rs-FC correlated with fractional anisotropy in the central corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tracts (CSTs), and forceps minor as determined by DTI ( p  < 0.05). The present study further supports involvement of non-motor areas in ALS. Our results render homotopic rs-FC as assessed by NIRS a potential clinical marker for disease progression rate in ALS patients without executive dysfunction and a potential anatomical marker for ALS-specific degeneration of the CC and CSTs.

  12. Stability test for amorphous materials in humidity controlled 96-well plates by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tanabe, Hideaki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to apply near infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of crystalline properties of indomethacin (IMC) amorphous under various levels of relative humidity storage conditions. Stability test for amorphous and meta-stable polymorphic forms was performed in humidity controlled the modified 96-well quartz plates containing various kinds of saturated salt solutions (0-100% of relative humidity (RH)) by NIR spectroscopy. Amorphous form was obtained melt product to pour into liquid nitrogen and after then ground. Samples were stored at 25°C in the 6-well plates at various levels of RH. The spectra of the powder samples were measured by the reflectance FT-NIR spectrometer. The second derivative spectra of form α showed specific absorption peaks at 4980, 6036, 7296 and 8616 cm-1 and that of form γ showed those at 5020, 5028, 7344, 7428 and 8436 cm-1. After storage at less than 50% RH, the peak intensities at 5020, 5028, 7344, 7428 and 8436 cm-1 of the amorphous solid increased with increasing of storage time. However, the peak intensity at 4980, 6036 and 7296 cm-1 increased at more than 50% RH Please check and confirm the edit. The results suggested that at lower humidity, the IMC amorphous solid transformed into form γ, but it transformed into form α at more than high humidity. It is possible that crystalline stability of the pharmaceutical preparations could be predicted by using humidity controlled 96-well plates and reflectance NIR-chemoinformetric methods.

  13. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy to identify traumatic intracranial hemotomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Claudia S.; Gopinath, Shankar; Chance, Britton

    1997-01-01

    Delayed intracranial hematomas are an important treatable cause of secondary brain injury in patients with head trauma. Early identification and treatment of these mass lesions, which appear or enlarge after the initial CT scan, may improve neurological outcome. Serial examinations using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the development of delayed hematomas were performed in 305 patients. The difference in optical density ((Delta) OD) at 760 nm between the normal and the hematoma side was measured on admission and then serially during the first three to five days after injury. On admission, the (Delta) OD was highly predictive of the initial findings on CT scan. Patients with an epidural, subdural, or intracerebral hematoma had significantly greater (Delta) OD in the involved brain region than patients with diffuse brain injury. For the extracerebral hematomas, the (Delta) OD was significantly related to the size of the hematoma (r2 equals 0.55 and 0.77 for subdural and epidural hematomas, respectively). Fifty-nine (19%) of the patients developed some type of late hematoma: there was an intracerebral hematoma in 29 patients, an extracerebral hematoma in 7 patients, and a postoperative hematoma in 23 patients. Thirty-three of the late hematomas were large enough to require surgical evacuation. The hematomas appeared between 2 and 72 h after admission. In 55 of the 59 patients, an increase in the (Delta) OD to greater than 0.10 occurred prior to an increase in intracranial pressure or a change in the neurological examination. Early diagnosis using NIRS may allow early treatment and reduce secondary injury caused by delayed hematomas.

  14. Assessment of Cerebral Autoregulation Patterns with Near-infrared Spectroscopy during Pharmacological-induced Pressure Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Annelies T; Vanbiervliet, Valerie M; Van Wesemael, Astrid; Bouchez, Stefaan M; Wouters, Patrick F; De Hert, Stefan G

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has demonstrated paradoxical increases in cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2) as blood pressure decreases and paradoxical decreases in ScO2 as blood pressure increases. It has been suggested that these paradoxical responses indicate a functional cerebral autoregulation mechanism. Accordingly, the authors hypothesized that if this suggestion is correct, paradoxical responses will occur exclusively in patients with intact cerebral autoregulation. Thirty-four patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were included. Cerebral autoregulation was assessed with the near-infrared spectroscopy-derived cerebral oximetry index (COx), computed by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient between mean arterial pressure and ScO2. COx less than 0.30 was previously defined as functional autoregulation. During cardiopulmonary bypass, 20% change in blood pressure was accomplished with the use of nitroprusside for decreasing pressure and phenylephrine for increasing pressure. Effects on COx were assessed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test. Sixty-five percent of patients had a baseline COx less than 0.30, indicating functional baseline autoregulation. In 50% of these patients (n = 10), COx became highly negative after vasoactive drug administration (from -0.04 [-0.25 to 0.16] to -0.63 [-0.83 to -0.26] after administration of phenylephrine, and from -0.05 [-0.19 to 0.17] to -0.55 [-0.94 to -0.35] after administration of nitroprusside). A negative COx implies a decrease in ScO2 with increase in pressure and, conversely, an increase in ScO2 with decrease in pressure. In this study, paradoxical changes in ScO2 after pharmacological-induced pressure changes occurred exclusively in patients with intact cerebral autoregulation, corroborating the hypothesis that these paradoxical responses might be attributable to a functional cerebral autoregulation.

  15. Application of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to classification of Miscanthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaoling; Xiao, Liang; Shi, Chunhai; Chen, Liang; Yu, Bin; Yi, Zili; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J; Peng, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of visible and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as tool to classify Miscanthus samples was explored in this study. Three types of Miscanthus plants, namely, M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and M. fIoridulus, were analyzed using a NIR spectrophotometer. Several classification models based on the NIR spectra data were developed using line discriminated analysis (LDA), partial least squares (PLS), least squares support vector machine regression (LSSVR), radial basis function (RBF) and neural network (NN). The principal component analysis (PCA) presented rough classification with overlapping samples, while the models of Line_LSSVR, RBF_LSSVR and RBF_NN presented almost same calibration and validation results. Due to the higher speed of Line_LSSVR than RBF_LSSVR and RBF_NN, we selected the line_LSSVR model as a representative. In our study, the model based on line_LSSVR showed higher accuracy than LDA and PLS models. The total correct classification rates of 87.79 and 96.51% were observed based on LDA and PLS model in the testing set, respectively, while the line_LSSVR showed 99.42% of total correct classification rate. Meanwhile, the lin_LSSVR model in the testing set showed correct classification rate of 100, 100 and 96.77% for M. sinensis, M. sacchariflorus and M. fIoridulus, respectively. The lin_LSSVR model assigned 99.42% of samples to the right groups, except one M. fIoridulus sample. The results demonstrated that NIR spectra combined with a preliminary morphological classification could be an effective and reliable procedure for the classification of Miscanthus species.

  16. Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, S K; Zheng, W; Ho, K Y; Teh, M; Yeoh, K G; Huang, Z

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a molecular vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for identifying dysplasia from normal gastric mucosa tissue. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was utilised for tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785 nm laser excitation. A total of 76 gastric tissue samples obtained from 44 patients who underwent endoscopy investigation or gastrectomy operation were used in this study. The histopathological examinations showed that 55 tissue specimens were normal and 21 were dysplasia. Both the empirical approach and multivariate statistical techniques, including principal components analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), together with the leave-one-sample-out cross-validation method, were employed to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra between normal and dysplastic gastric tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800–1800 cm−1 can be acquired from gastric tissue within 5 s. There are specific spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and dysplasia tissue, particularly in the spectral ranges of 1200–1500 cm−1 and 1600–1800 cm−1, which contained signals related to amide III and amide I of proteins, CH3CH2 twisting of proteins/nucleic acids, and the C=C stretching mode of phospholipids, respectively. The empirical diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the Raman peak intensity at 875 cm−1 to the peak intensity at 1450 cm−1 gave the diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 80.0%, whereas the diagnostic algorithms based on PCA-LDA yielded the diagnostic sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity 90.9% for separating dysplasia from normal gastric tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed that the most effective

  17. Near infrared spectroscopic imaging assessment of cartilage composition: Validation with mid infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukuru, Uday P; Hanifi, Arash; McGoverin, Cushla M; Devlin, Sean; Lelkes, Peter I; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-07-05

    Disease or injury to articular cartilage results in loss of extracellular matrix components which can lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). To better understand the process of disease development, there is a need for evaluation of changes in cartilage composition without the requirement of extensive sample preparation. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a chemical investigative technique based on molecular vibrations that is increasingly used as an assessment tool for studying cartilage composition. However, the assignment of specific molecular vibrations to absorbance bands in the NIR spectrum of cartilage, which arise from overtones and combinations of primary absorbances in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region, has been challenging. In contrast, MIR spectroscopic assessment of cartilage is well-established, with many studies validating the assignment of specific bands present in MIR spectra to specific molecular vibrations. In the current study, NIR imaging spectroscopic data were obtained for compositional analysis of tissues that served as an in vitro model of OA. MIR spectroscopic data obtained from the identical tissue regions were used as the gold-standard for collagen and proteoglycan (PG) content. MIR spectroscopy in transmittance mode typically requires a much shorter pathlength through the sample (≤10 microns thick) compared to NIR spectroscopy (millimeters). Thus, this study first addressed the linearity of small absorbance bands in the MIR region with increasing tissue thickness, suitable for obtaining a signal in both the MIR and NIR regions. It was found that the linearity of specific, small MIR absorbance bands attributable to the collagen and PG components of cartilage (at 1336 and 856 cm(-1), respectively) are maintained through a thickness of 60 μm, which was also suitable for NIR data collection. MIR and NIR spectral data were then collected from 60 μm thick samples of cartilage degraded with chondroitinase ABC as a model

  18. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering of the wa......Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...

  19. [Research and application progress of near infrared spectroscopy analytical technology in China in the past five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiao-Li; Lu, Wan-Zhen

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has expanded rapidly and been applied widely in many fields in China. The recent progress of the research and application of NIR analytical technology in China especially in the past five years has been reviewed. It includes hardware and software R&D, Chemometric algorithms and experimental methods research, and quantitative and qualitative applications in the typical fields such as food, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, forestry, and medical diagnosis. 209 references are cited, which are mainly published in national journals, professional magazines, and book chapters. The developing trend of near infrared spectroscopy and the strategies to further promote its innovation and development in China in the near future are put forward and discussed.

  20. Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Alessandra; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Mello, Cesar; Maretto, Danilo Althmann; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2006-10-02

    This paper proposes the use of the least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) as an alternative multivariate calibration method for the simultaneous quantification of some common adulterants (starch, whey or sucrose) found in powdered milk samples, using near-infrared spectroscopy with direct measurements by diffuse reflectance. Due to the spectral differences of the three adulterants a nonlinear behavior is present when all groups of adulterants are in the same data set, making the use of linear methods such as partial least squares regression (PLSR) difficult. Excellent models were built using LS-SVM, with low prediction errors and superior performance in relation to PLSR. These results show it possible to built robust models to quantify some common adulterants in powdered milk using near-infrared spectroscopy and LS-SVM as a nonlinear multivariate calibration procedure.

  1. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  2. Long open path Fourier transform spectroscopy measurements of greenhouse gases in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, David; Pöhler, Denis; Schmidt, Stefan; Hammer, Samuel; Vardag, Sanam; Levin, Ingeborg; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric composition measurements are an important tool to quantify local and regional emissions and sinks of greenhouse gases. But how representative are in situ measurements at one point in an inhomogeneous environment? Open path Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) measurements potentially offer spatial averaging and continuous measurements of several trace gases (including CO2, CH4, CO and N2O) simultaneously in the same airmass. Spatial averaging over kilometre scales is a better fit to the finest scale atmospheric models becoming available, and helps bridge the gap between models and in situ measurements. With what precision, accuracy and reliability can such measurements be made? Building on our pooled experience in ground-level open path Fourier transform spectroscopy and TCCON solar FTS in the infrared (Wollongong) and long path DOAS techniques in the UV-visible (Heidelberg), we set up a new type of open path measurement system across a 1.5 km one-way path in urban Heidelberg, Germany, using FTS in the near infrared. Direct open-atmosphere measurements of trace gases CO2, CH4, CO and N2O as well as O2 were retrieved from several absorption bands between 4000 and 8000 cm-1 (2.5 - 1.25 micron). At one end of the path an in situ FTIR analyser simultaneously collected well calibrated measurements of the same species for comparison with the open path-integrated measurements. The measurements ran continuously from June - November 2014. We introduce the open path FTS measurement system and present an analysis of the results, including assessment of precision, accuracy relative to co-incident in situ measurements, reliability, and avenues for further improvements and extensions. Short term precision of the open path measurement of CO2 was better than 1 ppm for 5 minute averages and thus sufficient for studies in urban and other non-background environments. Measurement bias relative to calibrated in situ measurements was stable across the measurement period. The

  3. In situ measurement of some soil properties in paddy soil using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjun, Ji; Zhou, Shi; Jingyi, Huang; Shuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    In situ measurements with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) provide an efficient way for acquiring soil information of paddy soils in the short time gap between the harvest and following rotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility to predict a series of soil properties including organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK) and pH of paddy soils in Zhejiang province, China. Firstly, the linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed on the in situ spectra and the predictions were compared to those with laboratory-based recorded spectra. Then, the non-linear least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm was carried out aiming to extract more useful information from the in situ spectra and improve predictions. Results show that in terms of OC, OM, TN, AN and pH, (i) the predictions were worse using in situ spectra compared to laboratory-based spectra with PLSR algorithm (ii) the prediction accuracy using LS-SVM (R2>0.75, RPD>1.90) was obviously improved with in situ vis-NIR spectra compared to PLSR algorithm, and comparable or even better than results generated using laboratory-based spectra with PLSR; (iii) in terms of AP and AK, poor predictions were obtained with in situ spectra (R2estimation of soil properties of paddy soils.

  4. In Situ Measurement of Some Soil Properties in Paddy Soil Using Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjun, Ji; Zhou, Shi; Jingyi, Huang; Shuo, Li

    2014-01-01

    In situ measurements with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) provide an efficient way for acquiring soil information of paddy soils in the short time gap between the harvest and following rotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility to predict a series of soil properties including organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK) and pH of paddy soils in Zhejiang province, China. Firstly, the linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed on the in situ spectra and the predictions were compared to those with laboratory-based recorded spectra. Then, the non-linear least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm was carried out aiming to extract more useful information from the in situ spectra and improve predictions. Results show that in terms of OC, OM, TN, AN and pH, (i) the predictions were worse using in situ spectra compared to laboratory-based spectra with PLSR algorithm (ii) the prediction accuracy using LS-SVM (R2>0.75, RPD>1.90) was obviously improved with in situ vis-NIR spectra compared to PLSR algorithm, and comparable or even better than results generated using laboratory-based spectra with PLSR; (iii) in terms of AP and AK, poor predictions were obtained with in situ spectra (R2soil properties of paddy soils. PMID:25153132

  5. Cerebral oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in neonatal intensive care: correlation with arterial oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Carol Lu; Oei, Ju Lee; Lui, Kei; Schindler, Timothy

    2017-07-01

    To assess correlation between cerebral oxygenation (rScO 2 ), as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and arterial oxygenation (PaO 2 ), as measured by arterial blood gases, in preterm neonates. Preterm neonates interpretation of NIRS values in neonatal intensive care, and further evaluation is needed to determine the applicability of NIRS to management of preterm infants. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Functional near infrared spectroscopy of the sensory and motor brain regions with simultaneous kinematic and EMG monitoring during motor tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Stanley, Christopher J; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    There are several advantages that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) presents in the study of the neural control of human movement. It is relatively flexible with respect to participant positioning and allows for some head movements during tasks. Additionally, it is inexpensive, light weight, and portable, with very few contraindications to its use. This presents a unique opportunity to study functional brain activity during motor tasks in individuals who are typically developing, ...

  7. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jongguk Lim; Giyoung Kim; Changyeun Mo; Kyoungmin Oh; Hyeonchae Yoo; Hyeonheui Ham; Moon S. Kim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium-infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium-infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discri...

  8. Correlation analysis between surface electromyography and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy parameters during isometric exercise to volitional fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAYLİ, Ömer; AKIN, Ata; ÇOTUK, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the process of muscular fatigue was examined using surface electromyography (sEMG) and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (cw-NIRS) simultaneously during an isometric hand grip exercise at 50% and 75% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), sustained until volitional fatigue. The mean frequency of the sEMG decreased during the whole exercise, whereas the root mean square had a tendency to increase. Oxyhemoglobin/deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes computed ...

  9. Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Héloïse; Bherer, Louis; Boucher, Étienne; Hoge, Richard; Lesage, Frédéric; Dehaes, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation (SO2) in young adults...

  10. Assessment of cortical hemodynamics by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy in steno-occlusive disease of the middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldag, Andreas; Goertler, Michael; Bertz, Anne-Katrin; Schreiber, Stefanie; Stoppel, Christian; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kopitzki, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    In a pilot study we evaluated near-infrared spectroscopy as to its potential benefit in monitoring patients with steno-occlusive disease of a major cerebral artery for alterations in cortical hemodynamics. Cortical maps of time-to-peak (TTP) in 10 patients unilaterally affected by severe stenosis or occlusion of the middle cerebral artery were acquired by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy after bolus application of indocyanine green. Hemodynamic manifestations were assessed by comparison between affected and unaffected hemisphere and evaluated for common constituents by principal component analysis. In one patient, TTP values were compared with those obtained by dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging. TTP was increased on the affected hemisphere in 9 patients. Mean difference in TTP between hemispheres was 0.44 second (P<0.05) as compared with a mean lateral difference of 0.12 second found in a control group of 10 individuals. In group analysis a significant rise in TTP was found in the distribution of the affected middle cerebral artery, whereas principal component analysis suggests augmentation of hemodynamic effects toward the border zones as a dominant pattern. A linear correlation of 0.61 between TTP values determined by dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001). Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy might facilitate detection of disease-related hemodynamic changes as yet only accessible by tomographic imaging modalities. Being indicative for hypoperfusion and collateral flow increased values of TTP, as found to a varying extent in the present patient group, might be of clinical relevance.

  11. Indocyanine green fluorescence in second near-infrared (NIR-II) window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Bhavane, Rohan; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Kaay, Alexander; Annapragada, Ananth

    2017-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG), a FDA approved near infrared (NIR) fluorescent agent, is used in the clinic for a variety of applications including lymphangiography, intra-operative lymph node identification, tumor imaging, superficial vascular imaging, and marking ischemic tissues. These applications operate in the so-called "NIR-I" window (700-900 nm). Recently, imaging in the "NIR-II" window (1000-1700 nm) has attracted attention since, at longer wavelengths, photon absorption, and scattering effects by tissue components are reduced, making it possible to image deeper into the underlying tissue. Agents for NIR-II imaging are, however, still in pre-clinical development. In this study, we investigated ICG as a NIR-II dye. The absorbance and NIR-II fluorescence emission of ICG were measured in different media (PBS, plasma and ethanol) for a range of ICG concentrations. In vitro and in vivo testing were performed using a custom-built spectral NIR assembly to facilitate simultaneous imaging in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vitro studies using ICG were performed using capillary tubes (as a simulation of blood vessels) embedded in Intralipid solution and tissue phantoms to evaluate depth of tissue penetration in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vivo imaging using ICG was performed in nude mice to evaluate vascular visualization in the hind limb in the NIR-I and II windows. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for comparison of image quality in NIR-I and NIR-II window. ICG exhibited significant fluorescence emission in the NIR-II window and this emission (similar to the absorption profile) is substantially affected by the environment of the ICG molecules. In vivo imaging further confirmed the utility of ICG as a fluorescent dye in the NIR-II domain, with the CNR values being ~2 times those in the NIR-I window. The availability of an FDA approved imaging agent could accelerate the clinical translation of NIR-II imaging technology.

  12. Indocyanine green fluorescence in second near-infrared (NIR-II window.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Starosolski

    Full Text Available Indocyanine green (ICG, a FDA approved near infrared (NIR fluorescent agent, is used in the clinic for a variety of applications including lymphangiography, intra-operative lymph node identification, tumor imaging, superficial vascular imaging, and marking ischemic tissues. These applications operate in the so-called "NIR-I" window (700-900 nm. Recently, imaging in the "NIR-II" window (1000-1700 nm has attracted attention since, at longer wavelengths, photon absorption, and scattering effects by tissue components are reduced, making it possible to image deeper into the underlying tissue. Agents for NIR-II imaging are, however, still in pre-clinical development. In this study, we investigated ICG as a NIR-II dye. The absorbance and NIR-II fluorescence emission of ICG were measured in different media (PBS, plasma and ethanol for a range of ICG concentrations. In vitro and in vivo testing were performed using a custom-built spectral NIR assembly to facilitate simultaneous imaging in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vitro studies using ICG were performed using capillary tubes (as a simulation of blood vessels embedded in Intralipid solution and tissue phantoms to evaluate depth of tissue penetration in NIR-I and NIR-II window. In vivo imaging using ICG was performed in nude mice to evaluate vascular visualization in the hind limb in the NIR-I and II windows. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR were calculated for comparison of image quality in NIR-I and NIR-II window. ICG exhibited significant fluorescence emission in the NIR-II window and this emission (similar to the absorption profile is substantially affected by the environment of the ICG molecules. In vivo imaging further confirmed the utility of ICG as a fluorescent dye in the NIR-II domain, with the CNR values being ~2 times those in the NIR-I window. The availability of an FDA approved imaging agent could accelerate the clinical translation of NIR-II imaging technology.

  13. Probing Conditions at Ionized/Molecular Gas Interfaces With High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kyle Franklin

    2017-08-01

    Regions of star formation and star death in our Galaxy trace the cycle of gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). Gas in dense molecular clouds collapses to form stars, and stars at the end of their lives return the gas that made up their outer layers back out into the Galaxy. Hot stars generate copious amounts of ultraviolet photons which interact with the surrounding medium and dominate the energetics, ionization state, and chemistry of the gas. The interface where molecular gas is being dissociated into neutral atomic gas by far-UV photons from a nearby hot source is called a photodissociation or photon-dominated region (PDR). PDRs are found primarily in star forming regions where O and B stars serve as the source of UV photons, and in planetary nebulae where the hot core of the dying star acts as the UV source. The main target of this dissertation is molecular hydrogen (H2), the most abundant molecule in the Universe, made from hydrogen formed during the Big Bang. H2 makes up the overwhelming majority of molecules found in the ISM and in PDRs. Far-UV radiation absorbed by H2 will excite an electron in the molecule. The molecule then either dissociates ( 10% of the time; Field et al. 1966) or decays into excited rotational and vibrational ("rovibrational") levels of the electronic ground state. These excited rovibrational levels then decay via a radiative cascade to the ground rovibrational state (v = 0, J = 0), giving rise to a large number of transitions observable in emission from the mid-IR to the optical (Black & van Dishoeck, 1987). These transitions provide an excellent probe of the excitation and conditions within the gas. These transitions are also observed in warm H2, such as in shocks, where collisions excite H2 to higher rovibrational levels. High resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, with its ability to see through dust, and avoid telluric absorption and emission, serves as an effective tool to detect emission from ions, atoms, and molecules

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  15. Sorting in-shell walnuts using near infrared spectroscopy for improved drying efficiency and product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the current walnut drying practice, dryers comingle nuts with varying moisture contents (MC) which results in over drying of nuts with low MC and thereby decrease product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate correlations among near infrared (NIR) spectral data and MC of fr...

  16. A Near-Infrared Photon Counting Camera for High Sensitivity Astronomical Observation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Near Infrared Photon-Counting Sensor (NIRPCS), an imaging device with sufficient sensitivity to capture the spectral signatures, in the...

  17. Capturing Pain in the Cortex during General Anesthesia: Near Infrared Spectroscopy Measures in Patients Undergoing Catheter Ablation of Arrhythmias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry D Kussman

    Full Text Available The predictability of pain makes surgery an ideal model for the study of pain and the development of strategies for analgesia and reduction of perioperative pain. As functional near-infrared spectroscopy reproduces the known functional magnetic resonance imaging activations in response to a painful stimulus, we evaluated the feasibility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure cortical responses to noxious stimulation during general anesthesia. A multichannel continuous wave near-infrared imager was used to measure somatosensory and frontal cortical activation in patients undergoing catheter ablation of arrhythmias under general anesthesia. Anesthetic technique was standardized and intraoperative NIRS signals recorded continuously with markers placed in the data set for the timing and duration of each cardiac ablation event. Frontal cortical signals only were suitable for analysis in five of eight patients studied (mean age 14 ± 1 years, weight 66.7 ± 17.6 kg, 2 males. Thirty ablative lesions were recorded for the five patients. Radiofrequency or cryoablation was temporally associated with a hemodynamic response function in the frontal cortex characterized by a significant decrease in oxyhemoglobin concentration (paired t-test, p<0.05 with the nadir occurring in the period 4 to 6 seconds after application of the ablative lesion. Cortical signals produced by catheter ablation of arrhythmias in patients under general anesthesia mirrored those seen with noxious stimulation in awake, healthy volunteers, during sedation for colonoscopy, and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging activations in response to pain. This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy as an objective measure of cortical activation under general anesthesia.

  18. [Study on discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; Song, Wen-qi; Li, Shu-chao

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid identification of fire resistive coating for steel structure of different brands in circulating, a new method for the fast discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure by means of near infrared spectroscopy was proposed. The raster scanning near infrared spectroscopy instrument and near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were applied to collect the spectral curve of different brands of fire resistive coating for steel structure and the spectral data were preprocessed with standard normal variate transformation(standard normal variate transformation, SNV) and Norris second derivative. The principal component analysis (principal component analysis, PCA)was used to near infrared spectra for cluster analysis. The analysis results showed that the cumulate reliabilities of PC1 to PC5 were 99. 791%. The 3-dimentional plot was drawn with the scores of PC1, PC2 and PC3 X 10, which appeared to provide the best clustering of the varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure. A total of 150 fire resistive coating samples were divided into calibration set and validation set randomly, the calibration set had 125 samples with 25 samples of each variety, and the validation set had 25 samples with 5 samples of each variety. According to the principal component scores of unknown samples, Mahalanobis distance values between each variety and unknown samples were calculated to realize the discrimination of different varieties. The qualitative analysis model for external verification of unknown samples is a 10% recognition ration. The results demonstrated that this identification method can be used as a rapid, accurate method to identify the classification of fire resistive coating for steel structure and provide technical reference for market regulation.

  19. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Measure Neuronal Activity in the Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging optical neuroimaging technology that indirectly measures neuronal activity in the cortex via neurovascular coupling. It quantifies hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and thus measures the same hemodynamic response as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but is portable, non-confining, relatively inexpensive, and is appropriate for long-duration monitoring and use at the bedside. Like fMRI, it is noninvasive and safe for repeated measurements. Patterns of [Hb] changes are used to classify cognitive state. Thus, fNIRS technology offers much potential for application in operational contexts. For instance, the use of fNIRS to detect the mental state of commercial aircraft operators in near real time could allow intelligent flight decks of the future to optimally support human performance in the interest of safety by responding to hazardous mental states of the operator. However, many opportunities remain for improving robustness and reliability. It is desirable to reduce the impact of motion and poor optical coupling of probes to the skin. Such artifacts degrade signal quality and thus cognitive state classification accuracy. Field application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for the automation of bad channel detection and dynamic artifact removal. This work introduces a novel adaptive filter method for automated real-time fNIRS signal quality detection and improvement. The output signal (after filtering) will have had contributions from motion and poor coupling reduced or removed, thus leaving a signal more indicative of changes due to hemodynamic brain activations of interest. Cognitive state classifications based on these signals reflect brain activity more reliably. The filter has been tested successfully with both synthetic and real human subject data, and requires no auxiliary measurement. This method could be implemented as a real-time filtering option or bad channel

  20. Estimating soil organic carbon content with visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yin; Cui, Lijuan; Lei, Bing; Zhai, Yanfang; Shi, Tiezhu; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Yiyun; He, Hui; Wu, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    The selection of a calibration method is one of the main factors influencing measurement accuracy with visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR, 350-2500 nm) spectroscopy. This study, based on both air-dried unground (DU) and air-dried ground (DG) soil samples, used nine spectral preprocessing methods and their combinations, with the aim to compare the commonly used partial least squares regression (PLSR) method with the new machine learning method of support vector machine regression (SVMR) to find a robust method for soil organic carbon (SOC) content estimation, and to further explore an effective Vis-NIR spectral preprocessing strategy. In total, 100 heterogeneous soil samples collected from Southeast China were used as the dataset for the model calibration and independent validation. The determination coefficient (R(2)), root mean square error (RMSE), residual prediction deviation (RPD), and ratio of performance to interquartile range were used for the model evaluation. The results of this study show that both the PLSR and SVMR models were significantly improved by the absorbance transformation (LOG), standard normal variate with wavelet detrending (SW), first derivative (FD), and mean centering (MC) spectral preprocessing methods and their combinations. SVMR obtained optimal models for both the DU and DG soil, with R(2), RMSE, and RPD values of 0.72, 2.48 g/kg, and 1.83 for DU soil and 0.86, 1.84 g/kg, and 2.60 for DG soil, respectively. Among all the PLSR and SVMR models, SVMR showed a more stable performance than PLSR, and it also outperformed PLSR, with a smaller mean RMSE of 0.69 g/kg for DU soil and 0.50 g/kg for DG soil. This study concludes that PLSR is an effective linear algorithm, but it might not be sufficient when dealing with a nonlinear relationship, and SVMR turned out to be a more suitable nonlinear regression method for SOC estimation. Effective SOC estimation was obtained based on the DG soil samples, but the accurate estimation of SOC with DU soil

  1. Decomposition of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Using Oblique Subspace Projections: Applications in Brain Hemodynamic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Caicedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical data is comprised by a large number of synchronously collected biomedical signals that are measured at different locations. Deciphering the interrelationships of these signals can yield important information about their dependence providing some useful clinical diagnostic data. For instance, by computing the coupling between Near-Infrared Spectroscopy signals (NIRS and systemic variables the status of the hemodynamic regulation mechanisms can be assessed. In this paper we introduce an algorithm for the decomposition of NIRS signals into additive components. The algorithm, SIgnal DEcomposition base on Obliques Subspace Projections (SIDE-ObSP, assumes that the measured NIRS signal is a linear combination of the systemic measurements, following the linear regression model y = Ax + _. SIDE-ObSP decomposes the output such that, each component in the decomposition represents the sole linear influence of one corresponding regressor variable. This decomposition scheme aims at providing a better understanding of the relation between NIRS and systemic variables, and to provide a framework for the clinical interpretation of regression algorithms, thereby, facilitating their introduction into clinical practice. SIDE-ObSP combines oblique subspace projections (ObSP with the structure of a mean average system in order to define adequate signal subspaces. To guarantee smoothness in the estimated regression parameters, as observed in normal physiological processes, we impose a Tikhonov regularization using a matrix differential operator. We evaluate the performance of SIDE-ObSP by using a synthetic dataset, and present two case studies in the field of cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using NIRS. In addition, we compare the performance of this method with other system identification techniques. In the first case study data from 20 neonates during the first three days of life was used, here SIDE-ObSP decoupled the influence of changes in arterial oxygen

  2. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to quality detection of milk and its products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jia-qi; Bu, Deng-pan; Guo, Wei-jie; Shen, Jun-shi; Wei, Hong-yang; Zhou, Ling-yun; Liu, Kai-lang

    2009-05-01

    Milk and its products as a kind of ideal comprehensive nutritional food, has becoming an indispensable part of people's daily, life. But at the same time, the quality of dairy products has been also increasingly concerned by consumers. Real-time, rapid and accurate detection of milk and its products in terms of component, adulterants, residues and preservatives is the primary condition for improving the dairy products quality and controlling the production process. Quality predication of milk and its products was often completed by laboratory analysis in the past, which was complicated and time-consuming and could not satisfy the needs for evaluating the milk products quality and monitoring the production proceeding effectively. How to predict the quality of milk and its products quickly and accurately is a practical problem that needs to be resolved. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a rapid, convenient, highly efficient, non-destructive and low-cost analytical technique, which has been widely used in various fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. As a new analysis technique, NIRS has great potential of application to milk and its products detection, owning to its quick, concise and non--destructive characteristics. The main nutrient components were the major index of milk and its products quality evaluation. Determining the main nutrient components of milk and its products rapidly can provide sound basis for evaluating the products quality. At the same time, adulterants, residues and preservatives were also distinct fingerprint characteristics in the NIR spectra just like the main nutrient components. So this new approaches could also be used in quality distinguishing and on-line detection of milk and its products. Many researches have also concluded that NIRS technology has good stability and high prediction ability on dairy products analysis, exhibites well correlation with the result by labor analysis method. In the present paper, the principles

  3. Cerebral and lower limb near-infrared spectroscopy in adults on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua K; Smith, Thomas N; Pitcher, Harrison T; Hirose, Hitoshi; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2012-08-01

    Percutaneous femoral venoarterial (VA) or jugular venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can result in delivery of hypoxic blood to the brain, coronaries, and upper extremities. Additionally, VA-ECMO by percutaneous femoral artery cannulation may compromise perfusion to the lower limbs. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) detects regional ischemia and warns of impending hypoxic damage. We report the first known series with standardized monitoring of this parameter in adults on ECMO. This is an institutional review board-approved single institution retrospective review of patients with NIRS monitoring on ECMO from July 2010 until June 2011. Patients were analyzed for drops in NIRS tracings below 40 or >25% from baseline. VA-ECMO and VV-ECMO were initiated by percutaneous cannulation of the femoral vessels and the internal jugular vein, respectively. Sensors were placed on the patients' foreheads and on the lower limbs. NIRS tracings were recorded, analyzed, and correlated with clinical events. Twenty patients were analyzed (median age: 47.5 years): 17 patients were placed on VA-ECMO, and three patients on VV-ECMO. The median duration on ECMO was 7 days (range 2-26). One hundred percent of patients had a significant drop in bilateral cerebral oximetry tracings resulting in hemodynamic interventions, which involved increasing pressure, oxygenation, and/or ECMO flow. In 16 patients (80%), these interventions corrected the underlying ischemia. Four patients (20%) required further diagnostic intervention for persistent decreased bilateral and/or unilateral cerebral oximetry tracings, and were found to have a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Six (30%) patients had persistent unilateral lower limb oximetry events, which resolved upon placement or replacement of a distal perfusion cannula. No patient was found to have either lower limb ischemia or a CVA with normal NIRS tracings. Use of NIRS with ECMO is important in detecting ischemic cerebral and

  4. Monitoring Cerebral and Renal Oxygenation Status during Neonatal Digestive Surgeries Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Beck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepending on the initial pathology, hypovolemia, intra-abdominal hypertension, and sepsis are often encountered in neonatal digestive surgery. Accurate newborn monitoring during and after surgery is essential to adapt resuscitation protocols. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is non-invasive and can detect hypoperfusion which indicates a low circulatory blood flow, regardless of the cause.ObjectiveEvaluating changes in cerebral and renal regional oxygen saturation during neonatal digestive surgeries, conducted according to normal practices, with commonly used monitoring parameters. Analyzing retrospectively the inter-relationships between NIRS values and mean arterial pressure (MAP values as well as pre-ductal SpO2.MethodsProspective, descriptive, monocentric study. All neonates referred for surgery were included. NIRS allows the measurement of cerebral and renal oxygenation fluctuations, as well as calculating difference in intraoperative and postoperative values.ResultsNineteen patients were included. Cerebral regional oxygen saturation (C rSO2 values were stable while renal regional oxygen saturation (R rSO2 values tended to decrease with time during surgery. Indeed, 72% of rSO2 decline episodes occurred after the first 30 min of surgery, without any significant statistical differences for the next 90 min of surgery. After surgery, the lowest average C and R rSO2 values were evidenced during the first 6 h, with 60% of C rSO2 and R rSO2 anomalies occurring in that time frame. There was no significant statistical difference observed in the following 18 h. There was a significant correlation between R rSO2 and SpO2 values (p < 0.01, but not with C rSO2 values. There was no correlation with the MAP either for the C rSO2 values or R rSO2 ones.ConclusionNIRS is a promising non-invasive bedside tool to monitor cerebral and tissue perfusion, analyzing tissue microcirculation. NIRS has its interest to guide neonatal digestive

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy for identifying the earthworm's participation to soil macroaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerlé, Anne; Hissler, Christophe; Lavelle, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    As ecosystem engineers, earthworms are major actors of soil aggregation, a process that drives the delivery of ecosystem services by soils. However, our inability to identify the origins of different types of macroaggregates found in soils, the macroaggregates persistence in the soil matrix, their degradation rates, and their role in the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients remain poorly known. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was tested as a tool to discriminate between origins of macroaggregates, collected in the field at the soil surface and in the 25 first cm of the soil. In parallel, NIR spectral signatures of earthworm casts were measured, during the ageing processes of the aggregates. During the first experiment, earthworm casts of unknown origins, collected in the field, were identified by comparing their NIR spectral signatures to the signatures of macroaggregates produced by the same ecosystem engineers in laboratory conditions, living in the same soil. Principal component analysis of NIR spectra permitted us to characterize macroaggregates of each species by a specific spectral signature (pThe organic matters included in the soil macroaggregates present quantitative and qualitative differences according to the earthworm species that produced them. During the second experiment, realized in laboratory conditions, NIR spectral signatures were measured in subterranean and surface casts of different earthworm species, incubated in controlled laboratory conditions for different periods of time. In parallel, dynamics of total amounts of C and N were assessed in ageing macroaggregates. As casts aged, NIR spectral signatures went through three main stages in the maturation process: (1) rapid changes in the NIR signal during the first 48 h, (2) a maturation period from days 3-30 with much slower change in NIR spectral signatures and (3) a further stage of maturation (days 45-90), where cast spectral signature and C and N contents converged towards

  6. Intraoperative assessment of human spinal cord perfusion using near infrared spectroscopy with indocyanine green tracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Amir Reza; Lee, Cheong Hung; Leung, Terence S; Hetreed, Michael; Craggs, Michael D; Casey, Adrian T H

    2013-12-01

    Despite the significant interest in the assessment of human cerebral perfusion, investigations into human spinal cord perfusion (SCP) are scarce. Current intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord relies on the assessment of neural conduction as a surrogate for SCP. However, there are various inherent limitations associated with the use of these techniques. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used for monitoring and assessment of human cerebral perfusion and has shown promising results in intraoperative assessment of SCP in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to monitor physiological changes in human SCP intraoperatively using NIRS with indocyanine green (ICG) tracer technique. We used this technique to calculate the human spinal cord carbon dioxide (CO₂) reactivity index. In addition, we investigated whether the lamina causes significant attenuation of NIRS signals. Intraoperative human experimental study. Eighteen patients undergoing elective posterior cervical spine surgery. Carbon dioxide reactivity of human SCP. Nine patients underwent transdural assessment of SCP, with an additional nine patients undergoing translaminar measurements. Patients' SCP was continuously monitored using an NIRO-500 NIRS monitor via a set of purpose built optodes. Their arterial ICG concentration was simultaneously assessed using a pulse dye densitometer. Patients' end-tidal CO₂ was gradually increased by 7.5 mm Hg and then returned back to baseline. Three sets of measurements were taken: baseline, hypercapnic, and return to baseline. After hypercapnia, SCP increased by a mean of 57.2 ± 23.3% in the transdural group and 46.6 ± 36.3% in the translaminar group. Carbon dioxide reactivity index was 7.6 ± 3.2%ΔSCP/mm Hg in the transdural group and 6.4 ± 5.3 %ΔSCP/mm Hg in the translaminar group. There was no significant difference in the increase in SCP (p=.475) or the CO₂ reactivity index (p=.581) observed between

  7. A sampling approach for predicting the eating quality of apples using visible-near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V; Sharifzadeh, Sara; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Skov, Thomas; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Toldam-Andersen, Torben B

    2013-12-01

    Visible-near infrared spectroscopy remains a method of increasing interest as a fast alternative for the evaluation of fruit quality. The success of the method is assumed to be achieved by using large sets of samples to produce robust calibration models. In this study we used representative samples of an early and a late season apple cultivar to evaluate model robustness (in terms of prediction ability and error) on the soluble solids content (SSC) and acidity prediction, in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm. A total of 196 middle-early season and 219 late season apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) cvs 'Aroma' and 'Holsteiner Cox' samples were used to construct spectral models for SSC and acidity. Partial least squares (PLS), ridge regression (RR) and elastic net (EN) models were used to build prediction models. Furthermore, we compared three sub-sample arrangements for forming training and test sets ('smooth fractionator', by date of measurement after harvest and random). Using the 'smooth fractionator' sampling method, fewer spectral bands (26) and elastic net resulted in improved performance for SSC models of 'Aroma' apples, with a coefficient of variation CVSSC = 13%. The model showed consistently low errors and bias (PLS/EN: R(2) cal = 0.60/0.60; SEC = 0.88/0.88°Brix; Biascal = 0.00/0.00; R(2) val = 0.33/0.44; SEP = 1.14/1.03; Biasval = 0.04/0.03). However, the prediction acidity and for SSC (CV = 5%) of the late cultivar 'Holsteiner Cox' produced inferior results as compared with 'Aroma'. It was possible to construct local SSC and acidity calibration models for early season apple cultivars with CVs of SSC and acidity around 10%. The overall model performance of these data sets also depend on the proper selection of training and test sets. The 'smooth fractionator' protocol provided an objective method for obtaining training and test sets that capture the existing variability of the fruit samples for construction of visible-NIR prediction models. The implication

  8. TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II on the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghosh, Arpan; Ninan, J. P.; Naik, M. B.; D’Costa, S. L. A.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Shah, H.; Krishna Reddy, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Chand, H.

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) is a closed-cycle Helium cryo-cooled imaging camera equipped with a Raytheon 512×512 pixels InSb Aladdin III Quadrant focal plane array (FPA) having sensitivity to photons in the 1-5μm wavelength band. In this paper, we present the performance of the camera on the newly installed 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) based on the calibration observations carried out during 2017 May 11-14 and 2017 October 7-31. After the preliminary characterization, the camera has been released to the Indian and Belgian astronomical community for science observations since 2017 May. The camera offers a field-of-view (FoV) of ˜86.5‧‧×86.5‧‧ on the DOT with a pixel scale of 0.169‧‧. The seeing at the telescope site in the near-infrared (NIR) bands is typically sub-arcsecond with the best seeing of ˜0.45‧‧ realized in the NIR K-band on 2017 October 16. The camera is found to be capable of deep observations in the J, H and K bands comparable to other 4m class telescopes available world-wide. Another highlight of this camera is the observational capability for sources up to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1-band (3.4μm) magnitudes of 9.2 in the narrow L-band (nbL; λcen˜ 3.59μm). Hence, the camera could be a good complementary instrument to observe the bright nbL-band sources that are saturated in the Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) ([3.6] ≲ 7.92 mag) and the WISE W1-band ([3.4] ≲ 8.1 mag). Sources with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3μm are also detected. Details of the observations and estimated parameters are presented in this paper.

  9. Identification of Medicinal Mugua Origin by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-squares Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bangxing; Peng, Huasheng; Yan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mugua is a common Chinese herbal medicine. There are three main medicinal origin places in China, Xuancheng City Anhui Province, Qijiang District Chongqing City, Yichang City, Hubei Province, and suitable for food origin places Linyi City Shandong Province. To construct a qualitative analytical method to identify the origin of medicinal Mugua by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was established after the Mugua derived from five different origins were preprocessed by the original spectrum. Moreover, the hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. The result showed that PLSDA model was established. According to the relationship of the origins-related important score and wavenumber, and K-mean cluster analysis, the Muguas derived from different origins were effectively identified. NIRS technology can quickly and accurately identify the origin of Mugua, provide a new method and technology for the identification of Chinese medicinal materials. After preprocessed by D1+autoscale, more peaks were increased in the preprocessed Mugua in the near infrared spectrumFive latent variable scores could reflect the information related to the origin place of MuguaOrigins of Mugua were well-distinguished according to K. mean value clustering analysis. Abbreviations used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, NIRS: Near infrared spectroscopy, SG: Savitzky-Golay smoothness, D1: First derivative, D2: Second derivative, SNV: Standard normal variable transformation, MSC: Multiplicative scatter correction, PLSDA: Partial least squares discriminant analysis, LV: Latent variable, VIP scores: Important score.

  10. Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Yoshimura, Norio; Takayanagi, Masao; Che, Jingai; Horiuchi, Naomi; Ogiwara, Isao

    2016-06-28

    Nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents of farm products is useful to ship and sell the products with guaranteed qualities. Here, near-infrared spectroscopy is used to predict nondestructively total sugar, total organic acid, and total anthocyanin content in each blueberry. The technique is expected to enable the selection of only delicious blueberries from all harvested ones. The near-infrared absorption spectra of blueberries are measured with the diffuse reflectance mode at the positions not on the calyx. The ingredient contents of a blueberry determined by high-performance liquid chromatography are used to construct models to predict the ingredient contents from observed spectra. Partial least squares regression is used for the construction of the models. It is necessary to properly select the pretreatments for the observed spectra and the wavelength regions of the spectra used for analyses. Validations are necessary for the constructed models to confirm that the ingredient contents are predicted with practical accuracies. Here we present a protocol to construct and validate the models for nondestructive prediction of ingredient contents in blueberries by near-infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Optimal waveband and mathematical model for analysis of human whole blood glucose by near infrared transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Furong; Yu, Jianhui; Li, Shiping; Wang, Dongming; Luo, Yunhan; Zheng, Shifu

    2010-10-01

    The optimal waveband for quantitative analysis of the human whole blood glucose by near infrared transmission spectroscopy is discussed in this paper. First, whole blood samples of different thickness (0.5mm, 1mm, 2mm, 4mm ) of the near-infrared transmittance spectra were analyzed respectively. It shows that the sample thickness of 0.5mm is more suitable for spectral analysis. And then near infrared spectroscopy of 111 samples of 0.5mm thickness were collected. Finally, different pretreatment methods of scattering correction methods, derivatives and different modeling spectral regions were compared to find out their impact on mathematical prediction model. The result shows that the best prediction accuracy was obtained in the waveband of 1500~1900nm by using Standard Normal Variate(SNV),the second derivative spectra and Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. And the correlation coefficient(RP), the Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP) and the Relative Root Mean square Error of Prediction(RRMSEP) for the corresponding model are 0.836, 0.271, 5.519%, respectively.

  12. Potential of Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition for Rapid Quantification of Notoginseng Powder with Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Bao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value. Notoginseng powder (NP could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder (SFP or corn flour (CF, because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR spectroscopy method. Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra (SNIR and long-wave near infrared spectra (LNIR were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM, respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the adulterant quantification throughout the whole wavelength range. The CARS-PLSR models based on LNIR were determined as the best models for the quantification of NP adulterated with SFP, CF, and their mixtures, in which the rP values were 0.940, 0.939, and 0.867 for the three models respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants.

  13. Use of in-line near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for improved understanding of pharmaceutical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantanen, Jukka; Wikström, Håkan; Turner, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    was extracted. Principal component loadings were fully interpreted to validate the conclusions drawn from scores and predictions. Thus NIR spectroscopy could be used to determine the end points of the three subphases of high shear wet granulation and, as such, provide a fast in-line quality control tool....... solid dosage form. In this study, the use of in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a process analytical tool for high shear granulation was investigated. In combination with principal component-based methods, process analysis of three separate phases of high shear wet granulation (mixing, spraying...

  14. Transmission Near-Infrared (NIR) and Photon Time-of-Flight (PTOF) Spectroscopy in a Comparative Analysis of Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamran, Faisal; Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Sparén, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the application of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy (PTOFS) in the wavelength range 1050– 1350 nm as a spectroscopic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition and structural properties of pharmaceutical tablets. PTOFS is compared to transmission...... near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In contrast to transmission NIRS, PTOFS is capable of directly and independently determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the medium. Chemometric models were built on the evaluated absorption spectra for predicting tablet drug concentration...

  15. [Influence of improved Kennard/Stone algorithm on the calibration transfer in near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Ju-Xiang; Xing, Zhi-Na; Shen, Gang

    2011-02-01

    The Kennard/Stone(K/S) algorithm is adopted to select the transfer set samples in the near infrared analysis calibration transfer by calculating the Euclidean distance of the spectrum of the samples. In order to get a best expression of the comparability of the samples and select the best samples for calibration transfer, piecewise direct standardization (PDS) algorithm was investigated for resolving calibration transfer of near-infrared spectra of mixed amine, then the Euclidean distance and the Mahalanobis distance were applied to calculate the comparability of the spectra of the samples and the standard error of prediction (SEP) was used to evaluate them. The combination of spectral difference and property difference was introduced to estimate the effect of individual spectral difference and property difference. The experimental results showed that the Mahalanobis distance was better than the Euclidean distance in PDS and the combination of spectral difference and property difference was more effective in expressing the comparability of the samples.

  16. Nondestructive measurement soluble solids content of apple by portable and online near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Zhang, Hailiang; Pan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yande

    2009-08-01

    Two different near infrared spectrometric systems were used to determine soluble solids content (SSC) of intact apple, including a portable near infrared (NIR) spectrometer and an online NIR system. The pretreatment methods were applied to improve the predictive results. The moving average smoothing was significant. The effective wavelength regions were chosen by interval partial least squares (iPLS) and backward iPLS (Bipls). Then the models were developed by partial least square regression (PLSR) and least square support machine (LS-SVM). Performance comparisons were made in the context of 30 unknown samples prediction. The LS-SVM models were better than others with correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of (0.88, 0.80ºBrix) and (0.82, 1.01ºBrix) for portable and online measurement mode, respectively. The results demonstrated that the online measurement mode was not as well as the portable.

  17. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Calibration for Wood Chemistry: Which Chemometric Technique Is Best for Prediction and Interpretation?

    OpenAIRE

    Via, Brian K.; Zhou, Chengfeng; Acquah, Gifty; Jiang, Wei; Eckhardt, Lori

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the precision in factor loadings during partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) of wood chemistry content from near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra. The precision of the loadings is considered important because these estimates are often utilized to interpret chemometric models or selection of meaningful wavenumbers. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set. PLS and PCR, before and af...

  18. Caffeine differentially alters cortical hemodynamic activity during working memory: a near infrared spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Heilbronner, Urs; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2015-01-01

    Background Caffeine is a widely used stimulant with potentially beneficial effects on cognition as well as vasoconstrictive properties. In functional magnetic imaging research, caffeine has gained attention as a potential enhancer of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. In order to clarify changes of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO and HbR) induced by caffeine during a cognitive task, we investigated a working memory (WM) paradigm (visual 2-back) using near-infrared spectrosco...

  19. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...... of the water droplets are shown to be strong. Despite the strong influence of the water phase, the NIR technique is still capable of predicting the composition of the investigated oil phase....

  20. Non-destructive assessment of olive fruit ripening by portable near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia, A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of portable near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technology for the determination of oil and moisture contents in intact olive fruits was studied. A total of 144 and 112 samples were collected throughout the ripening period in two different olive cultivar trials. Spectral data were recorded in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2300 nm at 1 nm intervals under two different experimental conditions: on-tree in the field in Trial 1 and under laboratory room conditions in Trial 2. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS regression separately for each trial set and for the combined group of samples. Although slightly better results were obtained under laboratory room conditions, the results obtained on-tree in the field were also accurate enough to determine the optimal harvest date of each cultivar. The combined model showed predictive statistics within the range of the individual models (r=0.89 and RMSECV= 1.99 for oil content and r=0.88 and RMSECV=2.06 for moisture content, which could be considered acceptable as an increase in the model robustness could be expected. These results encourage the use of portable NIR spectroscopy to monitor olive fruit ripening and to decide the optimal harvesting date on the basis of oil and moisture content.

    En este trabajo se estudia la posible aplicación de la tecnología en el infrarrojo cercano (NIR portátil para la determinación de la humedad y el rendimiento graso en aceitunas intactas. Se han utilizado un total de 144 y 112 muestras recolectadas a lo largo del periodo de maduración en dos ensayos de variedades. Los datos espectroscópicos en la región de 1100 a 2300 nm a intervalos de 1 nm se recogieron bajo dos condiciones experimentales: directamente en el árbol en el ensayo 1 y en condiciones de laboratorio en el ensayo 2. Los modelos de calibración se desarrollaron y evaluaron mediante regresión por mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS por

  1. Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Preterm infants are highly susceptible to ischemic brain injury; consequently, continuous bedside monitoring to detect ischemia before irreversible damage occurs would improve patient outcome. In addition to monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF), assessing the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) would be beneficial considering that metabolic thresholds can be used to evaluate tissue viability. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that changes in absolute CMRO2 could be measured by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) with time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS). Absolute CBF was determined using bolus-tracking TR-NIRS to calibrate the DCS measurements. Cerebral venous blood oxygenation (SvO2) was determined by multiwavelength TR-NIRS measurements, the accuracy of which was assessed by directly measuring the oxygenation of sagittal sinus blood. In eight newborn piglets, CMRO2 was manipulated by varying the anesthetics and by injecting sodium cyanide. No significant differences were found between the two sets of SvO2 measurements obtained by TR-NIRS or sagittal sinus blood samples and the corresponding CMRO2 measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean CMRO2 difference of 0.0268 ± 0.8340 mLO2/100 g/min between the two techniques over a range from 0.3 to 4 mL O2/100 g/min.

  2. Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Juliette; Boas, David A; Chan, Suk-Tak; Evans, Karleyton C; Buckley, Erin M; Carp, Stefan A

    2014-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) are two diffuse optical technologies for brain imaging that are sensitive to changes in hemoglobin concentrations and blood flow, respectively. Measurements for both modalities are acquired on the scalp, and therefore hemodynamic processes in the extracerebral vasculature confound the interpretation of cortical hemodynamic signals. The sensitivity of NIRS to the brain versus the extracerebral tissue and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of NIRS to cerebral hemodynamic responses have been well characterized, but the same has not been evaluated for DCS. This is important to assess in order to understand their relative capabilities in measuring cerebral physiological changes. We present Monte Carlo simulations on a head model that demonstrate that the relative brain-to-scalp sensitivity is about three times higher for DCS (0.3 at 3 cm) than for NIRS (0.1 at 3 cm). However, because DCS has higher levels of noise due to photon-counting detection, the CNR is similar for both modalities in response to a physiologically realistic simulation of brain activation. Even so, we also observed higher CNR of the hemodynamic response during graded hypercapnia in adult subjects with DCS than with NIRS.

  3. Study of atmospheric air AC glow discharge using optical emission spectroscopy and near infrared diode laser cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Wang, Chuji; Dibble, Theodore S.

    2008-11-01

    AC glow discharges were generated in atmospheric pressure by applying high voltage AC in the range of 3500-15000 V to a pair of stainless steel electrodes separated by an air gap. The discharges were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). The electronic (Tex), vibrational (Tv), and rotational (Tr) temperatures were measured. Spectral stimulations of the emission spectra of several vibronic bands of the 2^nd positive system of N2, the 1^st negative system of N2^+, the (0,1,2,3-0) bands of NO (A-X), and the (0-0) band of OH (A-X), which were obtained under various plasma operating conditions, show that Tr, Tv, and Tex are in the ranges of 2000 - 3800, 3500 - 5000, and 6000 - 10500^ K, respectively. Emission spectra show that OH concentration increases while NO concentration decreases with an increase of electrode spacing. The absorption spectra of H2O and OH overtone in the near infrared (NIR) were measured by the cw-CRDS with a telecommunications diode laser at wavelength near 1515 nm.

  4. Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Preterm infants are highly susceptible to ischemic brain injury; consequently, continuous bedside monitoring to detect ischemia before irreversible damage occurs would improve patient outcome. In addition to monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF), assessing the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) would be beneficial considering that metabolic thresholds can be used to evaluate tissue viability. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that changes in absolute CMRO2 could be measured by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) with time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS). Absolute CBF was determined using bolus-tracking TR-NIRS to calibrate the DCS measurements. Cerebral venous blood oxygenation (SvO2) was determined by multiwavelength TR-NIRS measurements, the accuracy of which was assessed by directly measuring the oxygenation of sagittal sinus blood. In eight newborn piglets, CMRO2 was manipulated by varying the anesthetics and by injecting sodium cyanide. No significant differences were found between the two sets of SvO2 measurements obtained by TR-NIRS or sagittal sinus blood samples and the corresponding CMRO2 measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean CMRO2 difference of 0.0268±0.8340 mL O2/100 g/min between the two techniques over a range from 0.3 to 4 mL O2/100 g/min.

  5. Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging With Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound in Asymptomatic Individuals With High Calcium Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Klungle, David; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Decker, Jeffrey M; Langholz, David; Boyden, Thomas F; Parker, Jessica; Muller, James E

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to determine the frequency of large lipid-rich plaques (LRP) in the coronary arteries of individuals with high coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) and to determine whether the CACS correlates with coronary lipid burden. Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound was performed in 57 vessels in 20 asymptomatic individuals (90% on statins) with no prior history of coronary artery disease who had a screening CACS ≥300 Agatston units. Among 268 10-mm coronary segments, near-infrared spectroscopy images were analyzed for LRP, defined as a bright yellow block on the near-infrared spectroscopy block chemogram. Lipid burden was assessed as the lipid core burden index (LCBI), and large LRP were defined as a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400. Vessel plaque volume was measured by quantitative intravascular ultrasound. Vessel-level CACS significantly correlated with plaque volume by intravascular ultrasound ( r =0.69; P infrared spectroscopy ( r =0.24; P =0.07). Despite a high CACS, no LRP was detected in 8 (40.0%) subjects. Large LRP having a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400 were infrequent, found in only 5 (25.0%) of 20 subjects and in only 5 (1.9%) of 268 10-mm coronary segments analyzed. Among individuals with a CACS ≥300 Agatston units mostly on statins, CACS correlated with total plaque volume but not LCBI. This observation may have implications on coronary risk among individuals with a high CACS considering that it is coronary LRP, rather than calcification, that underlies the majority of acute coronary events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Evidence for Infall toward Z Canis Majoris from Radio and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Tarja; Olofsson, Göran

    1997-03-01

    We report radio line observations of CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), CS(5-4), CS(2-1), C34S(2-1), H13CO+(1-0), HCS+(2-1), and N2H+(1-0) and near-infrared spectroscopy (in the K, L, and M bands) of Z CMa and its surroundings. Our results show that the CS(2-1) cloud around Z CMa is in approximate virial equilibrium and has a mass of some 42 M⊙. The CS(5-4), C34S(2-1), and H13CO+(1-0) data reveal a centrally condensed and flattened inner cloud core structure perpendicular to the CO(1-0) outflow, which has a dynamical timescale of some (2 × 103)-(1 × 104) yr. The mass of the CS(5-4) core is 8.0-15 M⊙, which is close to the magnetic critical mass. Along the major axis of the CS(5-4) core there is a velocity gradient, which can be interpreted as a superposition of initial cloud rotation and infall. Evidence for an infalling inner cloud core with a temperature gradient, an r-1.5 density law, and an r-0.5 velocity law is provided by the redshifted self-absorption feature in the H13CO+ profile, present in a very compact region oriented perpendicularly to the CO(1-0) outflow of Z CMa. Motivated by these signs of infall in the inner cloud core, we probe with our observational data the inside-out collapse model of Shu and the predictions of Galli & Shu for the collapse of a magnetized cloud core. Our medium-resolution K-band spectrum shows besides the redshifted, very marginal Brγ line four vibrationally excited first-overtone CO band heads in absorption. The slopes seen in the K-band spectrum are intrinsic to the FU Orionis-type disk of Z CMa and suggest the presence of the vibration-rotation bands of water vapor, implying a temperature around 2000 K and a hydrogen nuclei density on the order of 1012 cm-3 at 2.2 μm. The likely cause of these water-band wings is the strong heating produced by the mass accretion through the inner disk onto the star. Our L band does not show the 3.08 μm water ice feature. Instead, our spectrum suggests the presence of a 2.9 μm feature, probably

  7. [The Identification of Lettuce Varieties by Using Unsupervised Possibilistic Fuzzy Learning Vector Quantization and Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-hong; Cai, Pei-qiang; Wu, Bin; Sun, Jun; Ji, Gang

    2016-03-01

    To solve the noisy sensitivity problem of fuzzy learning vector quantization (FLVQ), unsupervised possibilistic fuzzy learning vector quantization (UPFLVQ) was proposed based on unsupervised possibilistic fuzzy clustering (UPFC). UPFLVQ aimed to use fuzzy membership values and typicality values of UPFC to update the learning rate of learning vector quantization network and cluster centers. UPFLVQ is an unsupervised machine learning algorithm and it can be applied to classify without learning samples. UPFLVQ was used in the identification of lettuce varieties by near infrared spectroscopy (NIS). Short wave and long wave near infrared spectra of three types of lettuces were collected by FieldSpec@3 portable spectrometer in the wave-length range of 350-2 500 nm. When the near infrared spectra were compressed by principal component analysis (PCA), the first three principal components explained 97.50% of the total variance in near infrared spectra. After fuzzy c-means (FCM). clustering was performed for its cluster centers as the initial cluster centers of UPFLVQ, UPFLVQ could classify lettuce varieties with the terminal fuzzy membership values and typicality values. The experimental results showed that UPFLVQ together with NIS provided an effective method of identification of lettuce varieties with advantages such as fast testing, high accuracy rate and non-destructive characteristics. UPFLVQ is a clustering algorithm by combining UPFC and FLVQ, and it need not prepare any learning samples for the identification of lettuce varieties by NIS. UPFLVQ is suitable for linear separable data clustering and it provides a novel method for fast and nondestructive identification of lettuce varieties.

  8. Non-neuronal evoked and spontaneous hemodynamic changes in the anterior temporal region of the human head may lead to misinterpretations of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimeo Morais, Guilherne Augusto; Scholkmann, Felix; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Furucho, Rogério Akira; de Paula, Renan Costa Vieira; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Several functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies report their findings based on changes of a single chromophore, usually concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin ([[Formula: see text

  9. Optical polarimetric and near-infrared photometric study of the RCW95 Galactic H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, J.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Santos, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.; Santos, J. F. C.; Maia, F. F. S.; Sanmartim, D.

    2018-02-01

    We carried out an optical polarimetric study in the direction of the RCW 95 star-forming region in order to probe the sky-projected magnetic field structure by using the distribution of linear polarization segments which seem to be well aligned with the more extended cloud component. A mean polarization angle of θ = 49.8° ± 7.7°7 was derived. Through the spectral dependence analysis of polarization it was possible to obtain the total-to-selective extinction ratio (RV) by fitting the Serkowski function, resulting in a mean value of RV = 2.93 ± 0.47. The foreground polarization component was estimated and is in agreement with previous studies in this direction of the Galaxy. Further, near-infrared (NIR) images from Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV) survey were collected to improve the study of the stellar population associated with the H II region. The Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis algorithm was employed to derive structural parameters for two clusters in the region, and a set of PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) isochrones was superimposed on the decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams to estimate an age of about 3 Myr for both clusters. Finally, from the NIR photometry study combined with spectra obtained with the Ohio State Infrared Imager and Spectrometer mounted at the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope we derived the spectral classification of the main ionizing sources in the clusters associated with IRAS 15408-5356 and IRAS 15412-5359, both objects classified as O4V stars.

  10. Exploring the vascular smooth muscle receptor landscape in vivo: ultrasound Doppler versus near-infrared spectroscopy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Fadel, Paul J; Brothers, R Matthew; Sander, Mikael; Wray, D Walter

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound Doppler and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are routinely used for noninvasive monitoring of peripheral hemodynamics in both clinical and experimental settings. However, the comparative ability of these methodologies to detect changes in microvascular and whole limb hemodynamics during pharmacological manipulation of vascular smooth muscle receptors located at varied locations within the arterial tree is unknown. Thus, in 10 healthy subjects (25 ± 2 yr), changes in resting leg blood flow (ultrasound Doppler; femoral artery) and muscle oxygenation (oxyhemoglobin + oxymyoglobin; vastus lateralis) were simultaneously evaluated in response to intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (PE, 0.025-0.8 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), BHT-933 (2.5-40 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and angiotensin II (ANG II, 0.5-8 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)). All drugs elicited significant dose-dependent reductions in leg blood flow and oxyhemoglobin + oxymyoglobin. Significant relationships were found between ultrasound Doppler and NIRS changes across doses of PE (r(2) = 0.37 ± 0.08), BHT-933 (r(2) = 0.74 ± 0.06), and ANG II (r(2) = 0.68 ± 0.13), with the strongest relationships evident with agonists for receptors located preferentially "downstream" in the leg microcirculation (BHT-933 and ANG II). Analyses of drug potency revealed similar EC50 between ultrasound Doppler and NIRS measurements for PE (0.06 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.01), BHT-933 (5.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 1.3), and ANG II (1.4 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3). These data provide evidence that both ultrasound Doppler and NIRS track pharmacologically induced changes in peripheral hemodynamics and are equally capable of determining drug potency. However, considerable disparity was observed between agonist infusions targeting different levels of the arterial tree, suggesting that receptor landscape is an important consideration for proper interpretation of hemodynamic monitoring with these methodologies.

  11. Transscrotal Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Test for Testis Torsion in Pediatric Acute Scrotum: A Prospective Comparison to Gold Standard Diagnostic Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce J; Keays, Melise A; Grimsby, Gwen M; Granberg, Candace F; DaJusta, Daniel G; Menon, Vani S; Ostrov, Lauren; Sheth, Kunj R; Hill, Martinez; Sanchez, Emma J; Harrison, Clanton B; Jacobs, Micah A; Huang, Rong; Burgu, Berk; Hennes, Halim; Baker, Linda A

    2017-09-01

    A rapid test for testicular torsion in children may obviate the delay for testicular ultrasound. In this study we assessed testicular tissue percent oxygen saturation (%StO2) measured by transscrotal near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test for pediatric testicular torsion. This was a prospective comparison to a gold standard diagnostic test study that evaluated near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings to diagnose testicular torsion. The gold standard for torsion diagnosis was standard clinical care. From 2013 to 2015 males with acute scrotum for more than 1 month and who were less than 18 years old were recruited. Near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings were obtained for affected and unaffected testes. Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 was calculated as unaffected minus affected reading. The utility of near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 to diagnose testis torsion was described with ROC curves. Of 154 eligible patients 121 had near infrared spectroscopy readings. Median near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 in the 36 patients with torsion was 2.0 (IQR -4.2 to 9.8) vs -1.7 (IQR -8.7 to 2.0) in the 85 without torsion (p=0.004). AUC for near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test was 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.78). Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 of 20 or greater had a positive predictive value of 100% and a sensitivity of 22.2%. Tanner stage 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain for 12 hours or less had an AUC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-1.0) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.62-0.99), respectively. In all children near infrared spectroscopy readings had limited utility in diagnosing torsion. However, in Tanner 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain 12 hours or less, near infrared spectroscopy discriminated well between torsion and nontorsion. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Discrimination of wild Paris based on near infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography combined with multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    Full Text Available Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times, resolution (4 cm(-1, scanning range (10,000 cm(-1∼4000 cm(-1 and parallel collection (3 times. NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm(-1 and 5973∼4007 cm(-1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R(2X and Q(2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence.

  13. An efficient near infrared spectroscopy based on aquaphotomics technique for rapid determining the level of Cadmium in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Alfian; Vassileva, Maria; Santo, Ryoko; Tsenkova, Roumina

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common industrial pollutant with long biological half-life, which makes it as a cumulative toxicant. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been successfully used for quick and accurate assessment of Cd content in agricultural materials, but the development of a quick detection method for ground and drinking water samples is equal importance for pollution monitoring. Metals have no absorbance in the NIR spectral range, thus the methods developed so far have focused on detection of metal-organic complexes (move to intro). This study focuses on the use of Aquaphotomics technique to measure Cd in aqueous solutions by analyzing the changes in water spectra that occur due to water-metal interaction. Measurements were performed with Cd (II) in 0.1 M HNO3, in the 680-1090 nm (water second and third overtones) and 1110-1800 nm (water first overtone) spectral regions, and were subjected to partial least-square regression analysis. It was found/determined that A concentration of Cd from 1 mg L-1 to 10 mg L-1 could be predicted by this model with average prediction correlation coefficient of 0.897. The model was tested by perturbations with temperature and other metal presence in the solution. The regression coefficient showed consistent peaks at 728, 752, 770, 780, 1362, 1430,1444, 1472/1474 and 1484 nm under various perturbations, indicating that metal to influence the water spectra. The residual predictive deviation values (RPD) were greater than 2, indicating that the model is appropriate for practical use. The result suggested that this newly proposed approach is capable of detecting metal ion in a much simpler, rapid and reliable way.

  14. Determining particle size and water content by near-infrared spectroscopy in the granulation of naproxen sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, David; Debus, Heiko; Brzenczek, Sina; Fischer, Wolfgang; Imming, Peter

    2018-03-20

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is frequently used by the pharmaceutical industry to monitor and optimize several production processes. In combination with chemometrics, a mathematical-statistical technique, the following advantages of near-infrared spectroscopy can be applied: It is a fast, non-destructive, non-invasive, and economical analytical method. One of the most advanced and popular chemometric technique is the partial least square algorithm with its best applicability in routine and its results. The required reference analytic enables the analysis of various parameters of interest, for example, moisture content, particle size, and many others. Parameters like the correlation coefficient, root mean square error of prediction, root mean square error of calibration, and root mean square error of validation have been used for evaluating the applicability and robustness of these analytical methods developed. This study deals with investigating a Naproxen Sodium granulation process using near-infrared spectroscopy and the development of water content and particle-size methods. For the water content method, one should consider a maximum water content of about 21% in the granulation process, which must be confirmed by the loss on drying. Further influences to be considered are the constantly changing product temperature, rising to about 54 °C, the creation of hydrated states of Naproxen Sodium when using a maximum of about 21% water content, and the large quantity of about 87% Naproxen Sodium in the formulation. It was considered to use a combination of these influences in developing the near-infrared spectroscopy method for the water content of Naproxen Sodium granules. The "Root Mean Square Error" was 0.25% for calibration dataset and 0.30% for the validation dataset, which was obtained after different stages of optimization by multiplicative scatter correction and the first derivative. Using laser diffraction, the granules have been analyzed for particle sizes

  15. Embedded clusters in NGC1808 central starburst - Near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Galliano, E.; Alloin, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the course of a mid-infrared imaging campaign of close-by active galaxies, we discovered the mid-infrared counterparts of bright compact radio sources in the central star-forming region of NGC1808. We aim at confirming that these sources are deeply embedded, young star clusters and at deriving some of their intrinsic properties. To complement the mid-infrared data, we have collected a set of near-infrared data with ISAAC at the VLT: J, Ks, and L' images, as well as low-resolution, long-sli...

  16. Classification of different tomato seed cultivars by multispectral visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of rapid and non-destructive classification of five different tomato seed cultivars was investigated by using visible and short-wave near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra combined with chemometric approaches. Vis-NIR spectra containing 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375 nm to 970...... that Vis-NIR spectra have the potential to be used for non-destructive discrimination of tomato seed cultivars with an opportunity to integrate them into plant genetic resource management, plant variety protection or registration programmes....

  17. Assessment of Polysaccharides from Mycelia of genus Ganoderma by Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhan; He, Huaqi; Wu, Jingzhu; Wang, Chunyang; Chao, Kuanglin; Huang, Qing

    2018-01-08

    Ganoderma lingzhi (G. lingzhi), G. sinense, G. applanatum, etc. belongs to the Ganoderma genus of polypore mushrooms which contain rich polysaccharides valuable for nutrition and positive medicinal effects. In order to evaluate polysaccharide content in Ganoderma mycelia obtained in the fermentation process quickly and accurately, in this work we employed infrared spectroscopy to examine different Ganoderma stains of samples from diversified sources. Through mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy, we could identify the most relevant spectral bands required for polysaccharide evaluation, and through near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, we could establish the quantification model for making satisfactory prediction of polysaccharide ingredient content. As such, we have achieved an effective and convenient approach to quantitative assessment of the total polysaccharides in Ganoderma mycelia but also demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for quality control of Ganoderma polysaccharides obtained from industrial production.

  18. Near-infrared photoluminescence enhancement in Ge/CdS and Ge/ZnS Core/shell nanocrystals: utilizing IV/II-VI semiconductor epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yijun; Rowland, Clare E; Schaller, Richard D; Vela, Javier

    2014-08-26

    Ge nanocrystals have a large Bohr radius and a small, size-tunable band gap that may engender direct character via strain or doping. Colloidal Ge nanocrystals are particularly interesting in the development of near-infrared materials for applications in bioimaging, telecommunications and energy conversion. Epitaxial growth of a passivating shell is a common strategy employed in the synthesis of highly luminescent II-VI, III-V and IV-VI semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we use relatively unexplored IV/II-VI epitaxy as a way to enhance the photoluminescence and improve the optical stability of colloidal Ge nanocrystals. Selected on the basis of their relatively small lattice mismatch compared with crystalline Ge, we explore the growth of epitaxial CdS and ZnS shells using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, clearly show the controllable growth of as many as 20 epitaxial monolayers of CdS atop Ge cores. In contrast, Ge etching and/or replacement by ZnS result in relatively small Ge/ZnS nanocrystals. The presence of an epitaxial II-VI shell greatly enhances the near-infrared photoluminescence and improves the photoluminescence stability of Ge. Ge/II-VI nanocrystals are reproducibly 1-3 orders of magnitude brighter than the brightest Ge cores. Ge/4.9CdS core/shells show the highest photoluminescence quantum yield and longest radiative recombination lifetime. Thiol ligand exchange easily results in near-infrared active, water-soluble Ge/II-VI nanocrystals. We expect this synthetic IV/II-VI epitaxial approach will lead to further studies into the optoelectronic behavior and practical applications of Si and Ge-based nanomaterials.

  19. Optical measurement for the concentrations of the pickling acid with near infrared spectroscopy in steel making industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gumin; Lee, Kwangchil; Park, Haesung; Lee, Jinho; Jung, Youngjean; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2010-08-01

    In the manufacturing process of stainless steel, it is essential to pickle the oxide layer of steel surface for high corrosion resistance and fine surface quality. Pickling liquor of stainless steel is commonly composed of mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acid. Real time monitoring of concentrations of each acid is crucial to optimize pickling process. It also reduces cost of production and decreases the generation of waste acid. We used non-contact near infrared spectroscopy technique and rapid analysis method, for the quantification of each acid in an on-line manner. Multivariate calibration such as partial least square regression method is employed for the better prediction results.

  20. Acute effects of vascular modifying agents in solid tumors assessed by noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry and near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Michael; Quistorff, Bjørn; Horsman, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    The potential of noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect acute effects of different vascular-modifying agents on perfusion and blood volume in tumors was evaluated. C3H mouse mammary carcinomas (approximately 200 mm(3)) in the rear foot of CDF1 mice...... that the mechanism of action of CA4DP was vascular shut down with the blood pool trapped in the tumor. NTA caused no change in either tumor perfusion or tumor blood volume. We conclude that noninvasive LDF and NIRS can determine acute effects of vascular modifying agents on tumor perfusion and blood volume....